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Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering

Morshed Khandaker, Shahram Riahinezhad, Fariha Sultana, Tracy Morris, Roman Wolf, Melville Vaughan
The objective of this study was to improve the biomechanical performance of titanium (Ti) using a biocompatible electrospun nanofiber matrix. The study is based on the hypothesis that coating a Ti surface with a nanofiber matrix (NFM) made of collagen (CG) and polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun nanofibers could increase the mechanical fixation of Ti/bone by improving the surface and cytocompatibility properties of Ti. This study prepared Ti samples with and without CG-PCL NFM coatings. This study determined the in vitro effects of each group of Ti samples on the surface topography and cytocompatibility (osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation, mineralization and protein adsorption) properties...
April 2018: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Angkoon Phinyomark, Giovanni Petri, Esther Ibáñez-Marcelo, Sean T Osis, Reed Ferber
The increasing amount of data in biomechanics research has greatly increased the importance of developing advanced multivariate analysis and machine learning techniques, which are better able to handle "big data". Consequently, advances in data science methods will expand the knowledge for testing new hypotheses about biomechanical risk factors associated with walking and running gait-related musculoskeletal injury. This paper begins with a brief introduction to an automated three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical gait data collection system: 3D GAIT, followed by how the studies in the field of gait biomechanics fit the quantities in the 5 V's definition of big data: volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value...
2018: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Hsiang-Chun Lee, Yoram Rudy, Hongwu Liang, Chih-Chieh Chen, Ching-Hsing Luo, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Jianmin Cui
Gain-of-function mutations in the pore-forming subunit of IKs channels, KCNQ1, lead to short QT syndrome (SQTS) and lethal arrhythmias. However, how mutant IKs channels cause SQTS and the possibility of IKs -specific pharmacological treatment remain unclear. V141M KCNQ1 is a SQTS associated mutation. We studied its effect on IKs gating properties and changes in the action potentials (AP) of human ventricular myocytes. Xenopus oocytes were used to study the gating mechanisms of expressed V141M KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels...
October 2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Szu-Ching Lu, Kaihua Xiu, Ke Li, Tamara L Marquardt, Peter J Evans, Zong-Ming Li
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), caused by entrapment of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, impairs hand function including dexterous manipulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CTS on force coordination and muscle coherence during low-intensity sustained precision pinch while the wrist assumed different postures. Twenty subjects (10 CTS patients and 10 asymptomatic controls) participated in this study. An instrumented pinch device was used to measure the thumb and index finger forces while simultaneously collecting surface electromyographic activities of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles...
June 2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Yuh-Feng Tsai, Li-Ho Hsu, Chang-Chin Wu, Wei-Hua Cai, Kai-Chiang Yang, Fang-Yu Fan
Sintered dicalcium pyrophosphate (SDCP), a synthetic pyrophosphate analog, has shown potential for the management of osteoporosis. The long-term oral toxicity and anti-osteoporotic effect of SDCP in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model were evaluated in this study. SDCP was orally administered to bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats at a dose of 0.75 mg/kg daily for 24 weeks following by 2 weeks of observation. There were no abnormal findings in clinical signs of toxicity, food consumption, body weight, blood examination, necropsy, and histological inspection attributable to the ingestion of SDCP...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Peng Geng, Xiuming Sun, Jianhua Liu
Medical image fusion plays an important role in clinical applications such as image-guided surgery, image-guided radiotherapy, noninvasive diagnosis, and treatment planning. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-modal medical image fusion method based on simplified pulse-coupled neural network and quaternion wavelet transform. The proposed fusion algorithm is capable of combining not only pairs of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images, but also pairs of CT and proton-density-weighted MR images, and multi-spectral MR images such as T1 and T2...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Luz G Cornejo-Aragón, Clara L Santos-Cuevas, Blanca E Ocampo-García, Isaac Chairez-Oria, Lorenza Diaz-Nieto, Janice García-Quiroz
The aim of this study was to develop a semi automatic image processing algorithm (AIPA) based on the simultaneous information provided by X-ray and radioisotopic images to determine the biokinetic models of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals from quantification of image radiation activity in murine models. These radioisotopic images were obtained by a CCD (charge couple device) camera coupled to an ultrathin phosphorous screen in a preclinical multimodal imaging system (Xtreme, Bruker). The AIPA consisted of different image processing methods for background, scattering and attenuation correction on the activity quantification...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Enas Abdulhay, Maha Alafeef, Arwa Abdelhay, Areen Al-Bashir
This paper presents an accurate nonlinear classification method that can help physicians diagnose seizure in electroencephalographic (EEG) signal characterized by a disturbance in temporal and spectral content. This is accomplished by applying four steps. First, different EEG signals containing healthy, ictal and seizure-free (inter-ictal) activities are decomposed by empirical mode decomposition method. The instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies of resulted bands (intrinsic mode functions, IMF) are then tracked by the direct quadrature method (DQ)...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Jacob Melgaard, Johannes J Struijk, Nico J M Rijkhoff
In this simulation study, a wireless passive LC-tank sensor system was characterized. Given the application of continuous bladder monitoring, a specific system was proposed in terms of coil geometries and electronic circuitry. Coupling coefficients were spatially mapped by simulation, as a function of both coil distance, and longitudinal and transverse translation of the sensor relative to the antenna. Further, two interrogation schemes were outlined. One was an auto-balancing bridge for computing the sensor-system impedance...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Azadeh Ghouchani, Gholamreza Rouhi
There are many unanswered questions about giant cell tumor (GCT) treatment and not enough attention is paid to the biomechanics of the current treatment methods. Treatment methods have not changed much, and the best method remains controversial to some degree, due to the lack of adequate clinical and biomechanical investigations. Biomechanical tests, including in vitro mechanical experiments combined with finite element analysis, are very helpful in assessing the efficiency of the surgical methods employed and in determining the optimal method of surgery...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Maria Filomena Santarelli, Vincenzo Positano, Luigi Landini
Accurate statistical model of PET measurements is a prerequisite for a correct image reconstruction when using statistical image reconstruction algorithms, or when pre-filtering operations must be performed. Although radioactive decay follows a Poisson distribution, deviation from Poisson statistics occurs on projection data prior to reconstruction due to physical effects, measurement errors, correction of scatter and random coincidences. Modelling projection data can aid in understanding the statistical nature of the data in order to develop efficient processing methods and to reduce noise...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Rajesh Patel, K Gireesan, S Sengottuvel, M P Janawadkar, T S Radhakrishnan
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive way of recording brain activities, making it useful for diagnosing various neurological disorders. However, artifact signals associated with eye blinks or the heart spread across the scalp, contaminating EEG recordings and making EEG data analysis difficult. To solve this problem, we implement a common methodology to suppress both cardiac and ocular artifact signal, by correlating the measured contaminated EEG signals with the clean reference electro-oculography (EOG) and electrocardiography (EKG) data and subtracting the scaled EOG and EKG from the contaminated EEG recording...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Radek Čada, Karel Frydrýšek, František Sejda, Jiří Demel, Leopold Pleva
Paper focuses on biomechanics, specifically on locking cortical bone screws in angularly stable plates used for the treatment of bone fractures in the medical fields of traumatology and orthopaedics. During extraction of titanium-alloy implants, problems are encountered in an effort to loosen some locking bone screws from the locking holes of an angularly stable plate and the subsequent stripping of the internal hexagon of the screw head. The self-locking of the screw-plate threaded joint was verified by calculation and the effect of the angle of the thread on the head of the locking cortical bone screw on self-locking was evaluated...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Rayan Alkashgari, Hisham A Mosli, Nazeeh Alothmany, Jacob M Levin, John G Webster
We introduce a novel diagnostic Visual Voiding Device (VVD), which has the ability to visually document urinary voiding events and calculate key voiding parameters such as instantaneous flow rate. The observation of the urinary voiding process along with the instantaneous flow rate can be used to diagnose symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction (LUTD) and improve evaluation of LUTD treatments by providing subsequent follow-up documentations of voiding events after treatments. The VVD enables a patient to have a urinary voiding event in privacy while a urologist monitors, processes, and documents the event from a distance...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Satria Mandala, Tham Cai Di
Many studies showed electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters are useful for predicting fatal ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). However, the studies have several shortcomings. Firstly, all studies lack of effective way to present behavior of various ECG parameters prior to the occurrence of the VAs. Secondly, they also lack of discussion on how to consider the parameters as abnormal. Thirdly, the reports do not include approaches to increase the detection accuracy for the abnormal patterns. The purpose of this study is to address the aforementioned issues...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Yeong-Jang Chen, Jwo-Luen Pao, Chiang Sang Chen, Yu-Chun Chen, Chun-Chien Chang, Fang-Ming Hung, Chih-Hung Chang
Autogenous bone grafting, used to repair bone defects, is limited and the donor site can experience complications. Compared to autogenous bone graft, artificial bones have different porosity, which might make them suitable alternatives to bone grafts. Here, two porous biphasic calcium phosphate bone substitutes, namely Bicera™ and Triosite™, are used in an animal study and clinical practice to find a suitable porosity for implantation. Bicera™ and Triosite™ consist of 60 wt% hydroxyapatite and 40 wt% β-tricalcium phosphate, with the porosity of Bicera™ (82%) being higher than that of Triosite™ (70%)...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Zibo Cai, MirHojjat Seyedi, Weiwei Zhang, Francois Rivet, Daniel T H Lai
Intrabody communication (IBC) is a promising data communication technique for body area networks. This short-distance communication approach uses human body tissue as the medium of signal propagation. IBC is defined as one of the physical layers for the new IEEE 802.15.6 or wireless body area network (WBAN) standard, which can provide a suitable data rate for real-time physiological data communication while consuming lower power compared to that of radio-frequency protocols such as Bluetooth. In this paper, impulse radio (IR) IBC (IR-IBC) is examined using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of an IBC system...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Laura Ezquerra, María Paz Quilez, María Ángeles Pérez, Jorge Albareda, Belén Seral
Dislocation is a serious complication in total hip replacement (THR). An inadequate range of movement (ROM) can lead to impingement of the prosthesis neck on the acetabular cup; furthermore, the initiation of subluxation and dislocation may occur. The objective of this study was to generate a parametric three-dimensional finite element (FE) model capable of predicting the dislocation stability for various positions of the prosthetic head, neck, and cup under various activities. Three femoral head sizes (28, 32, and 36 mm) were simulated...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Philip Davenport, Siamak Noroozi, Philip Sewell, Saeed Zahedi
Suitable lower-limb prosthetic sockets must provide an adequate distribution of the pressures created from standing and ambulation. A systematic search for articles reporting socket pressure changes in response to device alignment perturbation was carried out, identifying 11 studies. These were then evaluated using the American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists guidelines for a state-of-the-science review. Each study used a design where participants acted as their own controls. Results were available for 52 individuals and five forms of alignment perturbation...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Stefanie T L Pöhlmann, Elaine F Harkness, Christopher J Taylor, Susan M Astley
Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
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