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Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering

Robert Kromer, Rahman Shafin, Sebastian Boelefahr, Maren Klemm
In this work, we present a rules-based method for localizing retinal blood vessels in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) images and evaluate its feasibility. A total of 31 healthy participants (17 female; mean age: 64.0 ± 8.2 years) were studied using manual and automatic segmentation. High-resolution peripapillary scan acquisition cSLO images were acquired. The automated segmentation method consisted of image pre-processing for gray-level homogenization and blood vessel enhancement (morphological opening operation, Gaussian filter, morphological Top-Hat transformation), binary thresholding (entropy-based thresholding operation), and removal of falsely detected isolated vessel pixels...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Jen-Jui Hsueh, Jia-Jin Jason Chen, Fu-Zen Shaw
Discrimination is an important function in pain processing of the somatic cortex. The involvement of the somatic cortex has been studied using equivalent dipole analysis and neuroimaging, but the results are inconsistent. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) can reflect functional changes of particular brain regions underneath a lead. However, the responses of EEG leads close to the somatic cortex in response to pain have not been systematically evaluated. The present study applied CO2 laser stimulation to the dorsum of the left hand...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Roberta Fusco, Mario Sansone, Salvatore Filice, Guglielmo Carone, Daniela Maria Amato, Carlo Sansone, Antonella Petrillo
We performed a systematic review of several pattern analysis approaches for classifying breast lesions using dynamic, morphological, and textural features in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Several machine learning approaches, namely artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), tree-based classifiers (TC), and Bayesian classifiers (BC), and features used for classification are described. The findings of a systematic review of 26 studies are presented...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Tien-Hsiang Wang, Hsu Ma, Ching-Shiow Tseng, Yi-Hong Chou, Kun-Lin Cai
Surgical navigation systems have been an important tool in maxillofacial surgery, helping surgeons create a presurgical plan, locate lesions, and provide guidance. For secondary facial bone reductions, a good presurgical plan and proper execution are the key to success. Previous studies used predetermined markers and screw holes as navigation references; however, unexpected situations may occur, making the predetermined surgical plan unreliable. Instead of determining positions preoperatively, this study proposes a method that surgeons can use intraoperatively to choose surface markers in a more flexible manner...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Selim Bozkurt, Frans N van de Vosse, Marcel C M Rutten
Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) generally operate at a constant speed, which reduces pulsatility in the arteries and may lead to complications such as functional changes in the vascular system, gastrointestinal bleeding, or both. The purpose of this study is to increase the arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility by controlling the CF-LVAD flow rate. A MicroMed DeBakey pump was used as the CF-LVAD. A model simulating the flow rate through the aortic valve was used as a reference model to drive the pump...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Wenguang Li
Damage to soft tissues in the human body has been investigated for applications in healthcare, sports, and biomedical engineering. This paper reviews and classifies damage models for soft tissues to summarize achievements, identify new directions, and facilitate finite element analysis. The main ideas of damage modeling methods are illustrated and interpreted. A few key issues related to damage models, such as experimental data curve-fitting, computational effort, connection between damage and fractures/cracks, damage model applications, and fracture/crack extension simulation, are discussed...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Chung-Chih Lin, Chun-Chang Chen, Pay-Shin Lin, Ren-Guey Lee, Jing-Siang Huang, Tsai-Hsuan Tsai, Yu-Chuan Chang
This study develops a home-based frailty detection device that uses embedded systems and wireless sensing technology. This system helps monitor the impact of aging among the elderly through wireless automatic detection. The detection system consists of four devices. The first device, called eScale, simulates the traditional falling ruler test to measure reaction time. Another device, called eChair, measures the pressure exerted by a test subject through a pressure sensor. It is used to test three symptoms of frailty, namely slowness of movement, physical weakness, and body weight...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Eva Schmelzer, Patrick Over, Bruno Gridelli, Jörg C Gerlach
Advancement in thermal three-dimensional printing techniques has greatly increased the possible applications of various materials in medical applications and tissue engineering. Yet, potential toxic effects on primary human cells have been rarely investigated. Therefore, we compared four materials commonly used in thermal printing for bioengineering, namely thermally printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, MED610, polycarbonate, and polylactic acid, and investigated their effects on primary human adult skin epidermal keratinocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in vitro...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Liyun Chang, Sheng-Yow Ho, Tsair-Fwu Lee, Hueisch-Jy Ding, Pang-Yu Chen
A comprehensive review for the in-air calibration of an Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy source in terms of air kerma strength (AKS) and reference air kerma rate (RAKR) using the Farmer chamber was conducted. The reviewed calibration methods include the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) calibration standard in the UK, the 7-distance technique with the standard calibration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory in the US, the calibration conducted in Australia following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency with the chamber primarily calibrated by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, the calibration conducted in India following the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Medizinische Physik recommendation, and the convenient empirical method used in Taiwan...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Zhiping Mu, Lawrence W Dobrucki, Yi-Hwa Liu
The imaging of distributed sources with near-field coded aperture (CA) remains extremely challenging and is broadly considered unsuitable for single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This study proposes a novel CA SPECT reconstruction approach and evaluates the feasibilities of imaging and reconstructing distributed hot sources and cold lesions using near-field CA collimation and iterative image reconstruction. Computer simulations were designed to compare CA and pinhole collimations in two-dimensional radionuclide imaging...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Mojgan Tavakolan, Xinyi Yong, Xin Zhang, Carlo Menon
Facilitating independent living of individuals with upper extremity impairment is a compelling goal for our society. The degree of disability of these individuals could potentially be reduced by using robotic devices that assist their movements in activities of daily living. One approach to control such robotic systems is the use of a brain-computer interface, which detects the user's intention. This study proposes a method for estimating the user's intention using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. The proposed method is capable of discriminating rest from various imagined arm movements, including grasping and elbow flexion...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Marco Iosa, Giovanni Morone, Andrea Cherubini, Stefano Paolucci
Most studies and reviews on robots for neurorehabilitation focus on their effectiveness. These studies often report inconsistent results. This and many other reasons limit the credit given to these robots by therapists and patients. Further, neurorehabilitation is often still based on therapists' expertise, with competition among different schools of thought, generating substantial uncertainty about what exactly a neurorehabilitation robot should do. Little attention has been given to ethics. This review adopts a new approach, inspired by Asimov's three laws of robotics and based on the most recent studies in neurorobotics, for proposing new guidelines for designing and using robots for neurorehabilitation...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Roberto Vega, Ana G Hernandez-Reynoso, Emily Kellison Linn, Rita Q Fuentes-Aguilar, Gildardo Sanchez-Ante, Arturo Santos-Garcia, Alejandro Garcia-Gonzalez
Deception is considered a psychological process by which one individual deliberately attempts to convince another person to accept as true what the liar knows to be false. This paper presents the use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy for deception detection. This technique measures hemodynamic variations in the cortical regions induced by neural activations. The experimental setup involved a mock theft paradigm with ten subjects, where the subjects responded to a set of questions, with each of their answers belonging to one of three categories: Induced Lies, Induced Truths, and Non-Induced responses...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Hojong Choi, Hayong Jung, K Kirk Shung
Power amplifiers (PAs) are used to produce high-voltage excitation signals to drive ultrasonic transducers. A larger dynamic range of linear PAs allows higher contrast resolution, a highly desirable characteristic in ultrasonic imaging. The linearity of PAs can be improved by reducing the nonlinear harmonic distortion components of high-voltage output signals. In this paper, a linearizer circuit is proposed to reduce output signal harmonics when working in conjunction with a PA. The PA performance with and without the linearizer was measured by comparing the output power 1-dB compression point (OP1dB), and the second- and third-order harmonic distortions (HD2 and HD3, respectively)...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Chiao-Min Chen, Chih-Cheng Chen, Ming-Chi Wu, Gwoboa Horng, Hsien-Chu Wu, Shih-Hua Hsueh, His-Yun Ho
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has a higher probability of occurrence in middle-aged and older adults than in the young. With the use of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, abnormal cell regions can be identified, and this identification can help medical personnel to evaluate the chance of disease. This study proposes a hierarchical correlation histogram analysis based on the grayscale distribution degree of pixel intensity by constructing a correlation histogram, that can improves the adaptive contrast enhancement for specific objects...
2015: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Felix Fischer, M Alper Selver, Sinem Gezer, Oğuz Dicle, Walter Hillen
Tomographic medical imaging systems produce hundreds to thousands of slices, enabling three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Radiologists process these images through various tools and techniques in order to generate 3D renderings for various applications, such as surgical planning, medical education, and volumetric measurements. To save and store these visualizations, current systems use snapshots or video exporting, which prevents further optimizations and requires the storage of significant additional data. The Grayscale Softcopy Presentation State extension of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard resolves this issue for two-dimensional (2D) data by introducing an extensive set of parameters, namely 2D Presentation States (2DPR), that describe how an image should be displayed...
2015: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Jui-Chi Chen, Cheng-Hung Chuang, Jing-Doo Wang, Chi-Wei Wang
There is no clear international consensus regarding the optimal medication therapy for treating Wilson's disease (WD). This study systematically reviews the effectiveness of various medication therapies in common use, specifically focusing on preliminary findings concerning the combination of a chelating agent and zinc. A systematic PubMed search was executed to locate original studies on the effectiveness of commonly used medications for WD published between January 1989 and August 2014. The results were used to conduct a systematic review of studies on combination therapies...
2015: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Shabnam Samsami, Sadegh Saberi, Sanambar Sadighi, Gholamreza Rouhi
Femoral neck fractures in young patients are usually caused by a high-energy trauma, which results in a perpendicular fracture. Although efforts are focused on preserving the femoral head in young patients, vertical femoral neck fracture is a problematic orthopedic injury due to the domination of shear forces. Due to controversy regarding which fixation method is the best choice, the purpose of this study was to find the most stable fixation method for this kind of fracture. This study includes experimental testing on cadaveric bone samples and finite element analysis (FEA) for three fracture fixation techniques, namely cannulated screws (CSs), dynamic hip screw with derotational screw (DHS + DS), and proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP)...
2015: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Tânia Pereira, Carlos Correia, João Cardoso
The great incidence of cardiovascular (CV) diseases in the world spurs the search for new solutions to enable an early detection of pathological processes and provides more precise diagnosis based in multi-parameters assessment. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered one of the most important clinical parameters for evaluate the CV risk, vascular adaptation, and therapeutic efficacy. Several studies were dedicated to find the relationship between PWV measurement and pathological status in different diseases, and proved the relevance of this parameter...
2015: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Gioia Lucarini, Marco Mura, Gastone Ciuti, Rocco Rizzo, Arianna Menciassi
The gastrointestinal tract is home of some of the most deadly human diseases. The main problems are related to the difficulty of accessing it for diagnosis or intervention and concomitant patient discomfort. The flexible endoscopy technique has established itself in medical practice due to its high diagnostic accuracy and reliability; however, several technical limitations still remain and the procedure is poorly tolerated by patients. The use of magnetic fields to control and steer endoscopic capsules is increasing in minimally invasive procedures...
2015: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
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