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Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering

Yeong-Jang Chen, Jwo-Luen Pao, Chiang Sang Chen, Yu-Chun Chen, Chun-Chien Chang, Fang-Ming Hung, Chih-Hung Chang
Autogenous bone grafting, used to repair bone defects, is limited and the donor site can experience complications. Compared to autogenous bone graft, artificial bones have different porosity, which might make them suitable alternatives to bone grafts. Here, two porous biphasic calcium phosphate bone substitutes, namely Bicera™ and Triosite™, are used in an animal study and clinical practice to find a suitable porosity for implantation. Bicera™ and Triosite™ consist of 60 wt% hydroxyapatite and 40 wt% β-tricalcium phosphate, with the porosity of Bicera™ (82%) being higher than that of Triosite™ (70%)...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Zibo Cai, MirHojjat Seyedi, Weiwei Zhang, Francois Rivet, Daniel T H Lai
Intrabody communication (IBC) is a promising data communication technique for body area networks. This short-distance communication approach uses human body tissue as the medium of signal propagation. IBC is defined as one of the physical layers for the new IEEE 802.15.6 or wireless body area network (WBAN) standard, which can provide a suitable data rate for real-time physiological data communication while consuming lower power compared to that of radio-frequency protocols such as Bluetooth. In this paper, impulse radio (IR) IBC (IR-IBC) is examined using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of an IBC system...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Laura Ezquerra, María Paz Quilez, María Ángeles Pérez, Jorge Albareda, Belén Seral
Dislocation is a serious complication in total hip replacement (THR). An inadequate range of movement (ROM) can lead to impingement of the prosthesis neck on the acetabular cup; furthermore, the initiation of subluxation and dislocation may occur. The objective of this study was to generate a parametric three-dimensional finite element (FE) model capable of predicting the dislocation stability for various positions of the prosthetic head, neck, and cup under various activities. Three femoral head sizes (28, 32, and 36 mm) were simulated...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Philip Davenport, Siamak Noroozi, Philip Sewell, Saeed Zahedi
Suitable lower-limb prosthetic sockets must provide an adequate distribution of the pressures created from standing and ambulation. A systematic search for articles reporting socket pressure changes in response to device alignment perturbation was carried out, identifying 11 studies. These were then evaluated using the American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists guidelines for a state-of-the-science review. Each study used a design where participants acted as their own controls. Results were available for 52 individuals and five forms of alignment perturbation...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Stefanie T L Pöhlmann, Elaine F Harkness, Christopher J Taylor, Susan M Astley
Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Bo Dong, Subir Biswas
Self-reported questionnaires are widely used by researchers for analyzing the dietary behavior of overweight and obese individuals. It has been established that questionnaire-based data collection often suffers from high errors due to its reporting subjectivity. Automatic swallow detection, as an alternative to questionnaires, is proposed in this paper to avoid such subjectivity. Existing approaches for swallow detection include the use of surface electromyography and sound to detect individual swallowing events...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Di-Xiu Xue, Rong Zhang, Hui Feng, Ya-Lei Wang
This paper focuses on the problem of feature extraction and the classification of microvascular morphological types to aid esophageal cancer detection. We present a patch-based system with a hybrid SVM model with data augmentation for intraepithelial papillary capillary loop recognition. A greedy patch-generating algorithm and a specialized CNN named NBI-Net are designed to extract hierarchical features from patches. We investigate a series of data augmentation techniques to progressively improve the prediction invariance of image scaling and rotation...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Shao-Hung Chan, Shuenn-Yuh Lee, Qiang Fang, Huimin Ma
This special issue of the Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering highlights the field of advanced bioelectronics and bioinformatics. Several papers were considered for this special issue, including those on bioelectronics in wearable and implantable medical devices, such as sensors, and bioinformatics in healthcare, brain cognition, and various neural pathologies. Many investigators contributed original research articles to this issue, demonstrating emerging research fields. More than 20 papers were accepted for publication after a high-quality critical review was conducted, and 14 papers were selected for this special issue...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Bassam A Masri, Brian Day, Alastair S E Younger, Jeswin Jeyasurya
We developed a technique for measuring patient limb occlusion pressure (LOP) through a tourniquet cuff that overcomes many limitations of existing LOP measurement techniques. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the LOP measured by the proposed technique is statistically or clinically different from that measured by the gold standard Doppler ultrasound technique. The study used randomized crossover multicenter trials. 143 pre- and post-surgical patients with a mean age of 54 years (range 17-86 years) were enrolled in the study...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Marco Iosa, Fabiano Bini, Franco Marinozzi, Augusto Fusco, Giovanni Morone, Giacomo Koch, Alex Martino Cinnera, Sonia Bonnì, Stefano Paolucci
Stroke affects many gait features, such as gait stability, symmetry, and harmony. However, it is still unclear which of these features are directly altered by primary damage, and which are affected by the reduced walking speed. The aim of this study was to analyze the above gait features in patients with subacute stroke with respect to the values observed in age- and speed-matched healthy subjects. A wearable triaxial accelerometer and an optoelectronic device were used for assessing the upright gait stability, symmetry of trunk movements, and harmonic structure of gait phases by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration of the trunk, harmonic ratio (HR), and gait ratios (GRs), respectively...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Yatao Zhang, Shoushui Wei, Costanzo Di Maria, Chengyu Liu
The poor quality of wireless electrocardiography (ECG) recordings can lead to misdiagnosis and waste of medical resources. This study presents an interpretation of Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity in terms of ECG quality assessment, and verifies its performance on real ECG signals. Firstly, LZ complexities for typical signals, namely high-frequency (HF) noise, low-frequency (LF) noise, power-line (PL) noise, impulse (IM) noise, clean artificial ECG signals, and ECG signals with various types of noise added (ECG plus HF, LF, PL, and IM noise, respectively) were analyzed...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Souvik Das, Saurabh Pal, Madhuchhanda Mitra
Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human exhaled breath can provide deep insight into the status of various biochemical processes in the human body. VOCs can serve as potential biomarkers of physiological and pathophysiological conditions related to several diseases. Breath VOC analysis, a noninvasive and quick biomonitoring approach, also has potential for the early detection and progress monitoring of several diseases. This paper gives an overview of the major VOCs present in human exhaled breath, possible biochemical pathways of breath VOC generation, diagnostic importance of their analysis, and analytical techniques used in the breath test...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Robert Kromer, Rahman Shafin, Sebastian Boelefahr, Maren Klemm
In this work, we present a rules-based method for localizing retinal blood vessels in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) images and evaluate its feasibility. A total of 31 healthy participants (17 female; mean age: 64.0 ± 8.2 years) were studied using manual and automatic segmentation. High-resolution peripapillary scan acquisition cSLO images were acquired. The automated segmentation method consisted of image pre-processing for gray-level homogenization and blood vessel enhancement (morphological opening operation, Gaussian filter, morphological Top-Hat transformation), binary thresholding (entropy-based thresholding operation), and removal of falsely detected isolated vessel pixels...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Jen-Jui Hsueh, Jia-Jin Jason Chen, Fu-Zen Shaw
Discrimination is an important function in pain processing of the somatic cortex. The involvement of the somatic cortex has been studied using equivalent dipole analysis and neuroimaging, but the results are inconsistent. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) can reflect functional changes of particular brain regions underneath a lead. However, the responses of EEG leads close to the somatic cortex in response to pain have not been systematically evaluated. The present study applied CO2 laser stimulation to the dorsum of the left hand...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Roberta Fusco, Mario Sansone, Salvatore Filice, Guglielmo Carone, Daniela Maria Amato, Carlo Sansone, Antonella Petrillo
We performed a systematic review of several pattern analysis approaches for classifying breast lesions using dynamic, morphological, and textural features in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Several machine learning approaches, namely artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), tree-based classifiers (TC), and Bayesian classifiers (BC), and features used for classification are described. The findings of a systematic review of 26 studies are presented...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Tien-Hsiang Wang, Hsu Ma, Ching-Shiow Tseng, Yi-Hong Chou, Kun-Lin Cai
Surgical navigation systems have been an important tool in maxillofacial surgery, helping surgeons create a presurgical plan, locate lesions, and provide guidance. For secondary facial bone reductions, a good presurgical plan and proper execution are the key to success. Previous studies used predetermined markers and screw holes as navigation references; however, unexpected situations may occur, making the predetermined surgical plan unreliable. Instead of determining positions preoperatively, this study proposes a method that surgeons can use intraoperatively to choose surface markers in a more flexible manner...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Selim Bozkurt, Frans N van de Vosse, Marcel C M Rutten
Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) generally operate at a constant speed, which reduces pulsatility in the arteries and may lead to complications such as functional changes in the vascular system, gastrointestinal bleeding, or both. The purpose of this study is to increase the arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility by controlling the CF-LVAD flow rate. A MicroMed DeBakey pump was used as the CF-LVAD. A model simulating the flow rate through the aortic valve was used as a reference model to drive the pump...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Wenguang Li
Damage to soft tissues in the human body has been investigated for applications in healthcare, sports, and biomedical engineering. This paper reviews and classifies damage models for soft tissues to summarize achievements, identify new directions, and facilitate finite element analysis. The main ideas of damage modeling methods are illustrated and interpreted. A few key issues related to damage models, such as experimental data curve-fitting, computational effort, connection between damage and fractures/cracks, damage model applications, and fracture/crack extension simulation, are discussed...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Chung-Chih Lin, Chun-Chang Chen, Pay-Shin Lin, Ren-Guey Lee, Jing-Siang Huang, Tsai-Hsuan Tsai, Yu-Chuan Chang
This study develops a home-based frailty detection device that uses embedded systems and wireless sensing technology. This system helps monitor the impact of aging among the elderly through wireless automatic detection. The detection system consists of four devices. The first device, called eScale, simulates the traditional falling ruler test to measure reaction time. Another device, called eChair, measures the pressure exerted by a test subject through a pressure sensor. It is used to test three symptoms of frailty, namely slowness of movement, physical weakness, and body weight...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Eva Schmelzer, Patrick Over, Bruno Gridelli, Jörg C Gerlach
Advancement in thermal three-dimensional printing techniques has greatly increased the possible applications of various materials in medical applications and tissue engineering. Yet, potential toxic effects on primary human cells have been rarely investigated. Therefore, we compared four materials commonly used in thermal printing for bioengineering, namely thermally printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, MED610, polycarbonate, and polylactic acid, and investigated their effects on primary human adult skin epidermal keratinocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in vitro...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
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