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Addiction Research & Theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392755/confounding-in-longitudinal-studies-in-addiction-treatment-research
#1
Matthias Pierce, Graham Dunn, Tim Millar
Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques...
May 4, 2017: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620272/short-term-effects-of-a-brief-intervention-to-reduce-alcohol-use-and-sexual-risk-among-homeless-young-adults-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Ronald G Thompson, Jennifer C Elliott, Mei-Chen Hu, Christina Aivadyan, Efrat Aharonovich, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Homeless young adults are more likely than their never-homeless counterparts to abuse alcohol and engage in risky sexual behaviors, yet no interventions to simultaneously reduce both these behaviors among this vulnerable population have been systematically designed and evaluated. We therefore developed a brief intervention (BI) to reduce both alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among homeless young adults. The results of a randomized trial testing the BI against an education comparison (EC) are presented...
2017: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428737/reducing-sexual-risk-behaviors-secondary-analyses-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-web-based-alcohol-intervention-for-underage-heavy-episodic-drinking-college-women
#3
Kaitlin E Bountress, Isha W Metzger, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Amanda K Gilmore
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) are significant problems on college campuses. College women are at particularly high risk for negative consequences associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy. METHODS: The current study (n = 160) examined the effect of a brief, web-based alcohol intervention (n = 53) for college women on reducing SRBs compared to an assessment only control (n = 107) with a randomized controlled trial...
2017: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503120/a-two-week-pilot-study-of-intranasal-oxytocin-for-cocaine-dependent-individuals-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder
#4
Christopher S Stauffer, Vivek Musinipally, Angela Suen, Kara L Lynch, Brad Shapiro, Joshua D Woolley
30-60% of patients receiving methadone for opioid use disorder (OUD) actively use cocaine. Cocaine use disorder (CUD) has no FDA-approved pharmacological treatment; existing psychosocial treatments are inadequate. Oxytocin, a social neuropeptide, has preclinical promise as an adjunctive treatment for both OUD and CUD. Twenty-two individuals receiving methadone for OUD with co-occurring CUD were randomized to receive oxytocin or placebo intranasally 40 IU twice daily for two weeks. A priori aims were feasibility and safety...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163666/identifying-patterns-of-situational-antecedents-to-heavy-drinking-among-college-students
#5
Cathy Lau-Barraco, Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Abby L Braitman, Amy L Stamates
BACKGROUND: Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138317/alcohol-related-facebook-activity-predicts-alcohol-use-patterns-in-college-students
#6
Cecile A Marczinski, Heather Hertzenberg, Perilou Goddard, Sarah F Maloney, Amy L Stamates, Kathleen O'Connor
The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS)...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090200/nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-in-emerging-adulthood-differentiating-sex-from-gender
#7
Robert L Peralta, Breanna C Stewart, Jennifer L Steele, Fernando A Wagner
Male-female variations in health-behavior continue to be of national and international significance with men generally being more likely to be engaged in behaviors that enhance risk across an array of preventable diseases and injuries as well as premature deaths. The literature has identified non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) as a developing and particularly dangerous substance use behavior among college students. The literature has reported sex differences (male; female) in NMUPD but has yet to explain how gender-orientation (e...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077938/syndemic-factors-associated-with-drinking-patterns-among-latino-men-and-latina-transgender-women-who-have-sex-with-men-in-new-york-city
#8
Omar Martinez, Elwin Wu, Ethan C Levine, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Joseph Spadafino, Brian Dodge, Scott D Rhodes, Javier López Rios, Hugo Ovejero, Eva M Moya, Silvia Chavez Baray, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, M Isabel Fernandez
Alcohol consumption is a significant public health concern among Latino men and Latina transgender women who have sex with men. However, characteristics and behaviors associated with alcohol consumption in this population, particularly in regard to the complex influence of syndemic factors, remain understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption (i.e. binge or heavy drinking). Between January and March of 2014, 176 Latino men and Latina transgender women in New York City completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833474/relationship-of-autonomy-social-support-to-quitting-motivation-in-diverse-smokers
#9
Christi A Patten, Mayo Clinic, Kathy Goggin, Kari Jo Harris, Kimber Richter, Karen Williams, Paul A Decker, Mayo Clinic, Andrea Bradley-Ewing, Delwyn Catley
BACKGROUND: Research examining relationships between social support and smoking cessation has paid little attention to non-treatment seeking smokers and not considered the role of autonomy support for fostering quitting motivation. This study examined if autonomy support received from family and friends was associated with quitting motivation and making a quit attempt among diverse smokers with varying levels of quitting motivation. Demographic characteristics associated with autonomy support were explored...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725794/e-cigarette-use-in-adults-a-qualitative-study-of-users-perceptions-and-future-use-intentions
#10
Vani Nath Simmons, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Paul T Harrell, Lauren R Meltzer, John B Correa, Marina Unrod, Thomas H Brandon
BACKGROUND: There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, particularly among youth. However, adult use is also rising, and there have been relatively few qualitative studies with adult users to understand their reasons for use and future use intentions. Such information is needed to inform both prevention and cessation approaches. METHOD: Thirty-one e-cigarette users participated in one of several focus groups assessing the appeal of e-cigarettes as well as comparisons to combustible cigarettes and approved smoking cessation aids...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695393/the-reliability-of-naturalistic-observations-of-social-physical-and-economic-environments-of-bars
#11
Christopher Morrison, Juliet P Lee, Paul J Gruenewald, Christina Mair
Drinking in bars contributes to numerous public health problems, including violence and motor vehicle crashes. In order to formulate effective preventive interventions it is essential to identify which specific features of bar environments are related to increased risks. Unobtrusive ethnographic observations are one approach that has been used to characterize these features; however no studies have assessed reliability in a representative sample of bars. We performed brief scouting assessments in all 165 bars in six purposively selected California cities, followed by unobtrusive observations from a subsequent representative sample of 97 bars which were located in low and high bar density areas of the cities...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547173/depressive-symptoms-affect-changes-in-nicotine-withdrawal-and-smoking-urges-throughout-smoking-cessation-treatment-preliminary-results
#12
Holly H Reid, David M Ledgerwood
BACKGROUND: Individuals who report more depressive symptoms consistently demonstrate higher rates of nicotine dependence and less successful smoking cessation than do individuals who report fewer depressive symptoms. Nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges are two potential factors that may account for the differences observed between these two groups. This study assessed whether elevated depression symptoms among nicotine dependent smokers are associated with changes in withdrawal and urges to smoke when undergoing smoking cessation treatment...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499724/barriers-to-practicing-risk-reduction-strategies-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#13
Kristina T Phillips
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: People who inject drugs (PWID) engage in practices that put them at risk for various infections and overdose. The primary aim of this study was to examine common barriers to engaging in two risk reduction practices - cleaning one's skin at the injection site and always using new needles to inject - among heroin injectors in Denver, CO. METHOD: In 2010, 48 PWIDs were recruited through street outreach and completed a structured interview that included questions on the frequency of specific risk reduction practices (skin cleaning and using new needles) and barriers associated with these practices...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429607/searching-for-mr-hyde-a-five-factor-approach-to-characterizing-types-of-drunks
#14
Rachel Pearl Winograd, Douglas Steinley, Kenneth Sher
Some individuals "change" more dramatically than others when intoxicated, and the nature and magnitude of these changes can result in harmful outcomes. This study utilized reports (N¼374) of participants' "typical" five-factor model (FFM) characteristics across sober and intoxicated states and assessed the degree to which these reports could be grouped into meaningful clusters, as well as the association of cluster membership with negative alcoholrelated consequences. Results from finite mixture model clustering revealed a four cluster solution...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034628/brands-matter-major-findings-from-the-alcohol-brand-research-among-underage-drinkers-abrand-project
#15
Sarah P Roberts, Michael B Siegel, William DeJong, Craig S Ross, Timothy Naimi, Alison Albers, Margie Skeer, David L Rosenbloom, David H Jernigan
BACKGROUND: Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. METHODS: We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819573/acculturation-hazardous-drinking-and-depressive-symptomatology-among-hispanics-enrolled-in-a-clinical-trial
#16
Christina S Lee, Joanna Almeida, Suzanne M Colby, Tonya Tavares, Damaris J Rohsenow
BACKGROUND: Among Hispanics in the U.S., lower acculturation level has been found to be protective against alcohol abuse and depression. However, this relationship may not hold within at-risk samples. The prevalence and co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and depressive symptoms and their relationship to acculturation were examined among Hispanics enrolled in a study to reduce heavy drinking. At enrollment, all participants reported past-month heavy drinking (one or more occasions of >4/5 drinks for females/males, and average weekly consumption >7/14 drinks per week)...
January 1, 2016: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366142/trait-mindfulness-and-early-maladaptive-schemas-in-women-seeking-residential-substance-use-treatment-a-preliminary-investigation
#17
Ryan C Shorey, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
Mindfulness has received an abundance of research attention in recent years, largely due to mindfulness-based interventions demonstrating positive mental and physical health outcomes. However, less research has examined individual's trait levels of mindfulness and how it is related to mental health, particularly among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas (EMS), which are dysfunctional cognitive and behavioural patterns that theoretically underlie the development of mental health problems, among women seeking residential substance use treatment...
July 1, 2015: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25904837/a-behavioral-smoking-treatment-based-on-perceived-risks-of-quitting-a-preliminary-feasibility-and-acceptability-study-with-female-smokers
#18
Andrea H Weinberger, Brian Pittman, Carolyn M Mazure, Sherry A McKee
INTRODUCTION: Even treatments showing proven efficacy leave the majority of female smokers unable to quit. In response, there has been a special call for novel behavioral treatments, particularly those that target barriers to quitting faced by women. Significant barriers for women who smoke include perceived "risks" associated with cessation (e.g., managing stress and cravings). The purpose of this treatment development study is to test a novel, individualized smoking intervention for female smokers targeting risk perceptions...
April 2015: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529471/a-review-of-the-literature-concerning-hiv-and-cigarette-smoking-morbidity-and-mortality-associations-with-individual-and-social-level-characteristics-and-smoking-cessation-efforts
#19
Lauren R Pacek, Rosa M Crum
Cigarette smoking is endemic among many populations, but is especially prevalent among people living with HIV, and is consequently associated with a variety of types of morbidity as well as mortality. Despite this knowledge, relatively little research has been conducted among smokers living with HIV. Extant research has focused on examining individual-level characteristics associated with smoking behaviors, to the neglect of examining social-level factors. This manuscript represents a critical literature review of the intersecting research fields of HIV and cigarette smoking...
February 2015: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603471/fitting-in-and-feeling-fine-conformity-and-coping-motives-differentially-mediate-the-relationship-between-social-anxiety-and-drinking-problems-for-men-and-women
#20
Julia D Buckner, Sonia M Shah
Social anxiety nearly quintuples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Although accumulating data suggest that socially anxious persons drink to manage negative effect, socially anxious persons suffer from elevations in both anxiety and depression. Thus, the present study sought to determine whether social anxiety was related to drinking to cope with anxiety or depression and whether drinking motives accounted for the relation of social anxiety to drinking problems among 461 (74% female, 48% with clinically elevated social anxiety) undergraduate drinkers...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
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