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Addiction Research & Theory

Vani Nath Simmons, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Paul T Harrell, Lauren R Meltzer, John B Correa, Marina Unrod, Thomas H Brandon
BACKGROUND: There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, particularly among youth. However, adult use is also rising, and there have been relatively few qualitative studies with adult users to understand their reasons for use and future use intentions. Such information is needed to inform both prevention and cessation approaches. METHOD: Thirty-one e-cigarette users participated in one of several focus groups assessing the appeal of e-cigarettes as well as comparisons to combustible cigarettes and approved smoking cessation aids...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Christopher Morrison, Juliet P Lee, Paul J Gruenewald, Christina Mair
Drinking in bars contributes to numerous public health problems, including violence and motor vehicle crashes. In order to formulate effective preventive interventions it is essential to identify which specific features of bar environments are related to increased risks. Unobtrusive ethnographic observations are one approach that has been used to characterize these features; however no studies have assessed reliability in a representative sample of bars. We performed brief scouting assessments in all 165 bars in six purposively selected California cities, followed by unobtrusive observations from a subsequent representative sample of 97 bars which were located in low and high bar density areas of the cities...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Holly H Reid, David M Ledgerwood
BACKGROUND: Individuals who report more depressive symptoms consistently demonstrate higher rates of nicotine dependence and less successful smoking cessation than do individuals who report fewer depressive symptoms. Nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges are two potential factors that may account for the differences observed between these two groups. This study assessed whether elevated depression symptoms among nicotine dependent smokers are associated with changes in withdrawal and urges to smoke when undergoing smoking cessation treatment...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Kristina T Phillips
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: People who inject drugs (PWID) engage in practices that put them at risk for various infections and overdose. The primary aim of this study was to examine common barriers to engaging in two risk reduction practices - cleaning one's skin at the injection site and always using new needles to inject - among heroin injectors in Denver, CO. METHOD: In 2010, 48 PWIDs were recruited through street outreach and completed a structured interview that included questions on the frequency of specific risk reduction practices (skin cleaning and using new needles) and barriers associated with these practices...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Rachel Pearl Winograd, Douglas Steinley, Kenneth Sher
Some individuals "change" more dramatically than others when intoxicated, and the nature and magnitude of these changes can result in harmful outcomes. This study utilized reports (N¼374) of participants' "typical" five-factor model (FFM) characteristics across sober and intoxicated states and assessed the degree to which these reports could be grouped into meaningful clusters, as well as the association of cluster membership with negative alcoholrelated consequences. Results from finite mixture model clustering revealed a four cluster solution...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Sarah P Roberts, Michael B Siegel, William DeJong, Craig S Ross, Timothy Naimi, Alison Albers, Margie Skeer, David L Rosenbloom, David H Jernigan
BACKGROUND: Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. METHODS: We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing...
2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Christina S Lee, Joanna Almeida, Suzanne M Colby, Tonya Tavares, Damaris J Rohsenow
BACKGROUND: Among Hispanics in the U.S., lower acculturation level has been found to be protective against alcohol abuse and depression. However, this relationship may not hold within at-risk samples. The prevalence and co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and depressive symptoms and their relationship to acculturation were examined among Hispanics enrolled in a study to reduce heavy drinking. At enrollment, all participants reported past-month heavy drinking (one or more occasions of >4/5 drinks for females/males, and average weekly consumption >7/14 drinks per week)...
January 1, 2016: Addiction Research & Theory
Ryan C Shorey, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
Mindfulness has received an abundance of research attention in recent years, largely due to mindfulness-based interventions demonstrating positive mental and physical health outcomes. However, less research has examined individual's trait levels of mindfulness and how it is related to mental health, particularly among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas (EMS), which are dysfunctional cognitive and behavioural patterns that theoretically underlie the development of mental health problems, among women seeking residential substance use treatment...
July 1, 2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Andrea H Weinberger, Brian Pittman, Carolyn M Mazure, Sherry A McKee
INTRODUCTION: Even treatments showing proven efficacy leave the majority of female smokers unable to quit. In response, there has been a special call for novel behavioral treatments, particularly those that target barriers to quitting faced by women. Significant barriers for women who smoke include perceived "risks" associated with cessation (e.g., managing stress and cravings). The purpose of this treatment development study is to test a novel, individualized smoking intervention for female smokers targeting risk perceptions...
April 2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Deborah H A Van Horn, Michelle Drapkin, Kevin G Lynch, Lior Rennert, Jessica D Goodman, Tyrone Thomas, Megan Ivey, James R McKay
In an effort to increase engagement in effective treatment, we offered a choice of alternate evidence-based treatments to 137 alcohol- or cocaine-dependent adults (110 males, 27 females) who entered an intensive outpatient program (IOP) but disengaged within the first 8 weeks. We hypothesized that disengaged patients would choose and subsequently attend alternatives to IOP when given the chance, that their choices would be consistent with their previously-stated preferences, and that demographic and clinical characteristics would be predictive of alternatives chosen...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Azure B Thompson, Jacob K Tebes, Sherry A McKee
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. METHODS: The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
JoAnna Elmquist, Ryan C Shorey, Scott E Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
Numerous studies have examined early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and their relationship to psychological disorders, including eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs). However, to date, there are no empirical investigations that have examined the relationship between EMS and EDs among individuals seeking treatment for substance use. In an attempt to further elucidate this relationship, the purpose of the current, exploratory study was to examine the relationship between EMS, ED symptomatology (i...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
HyunSoo Kim, Elizabeth Tracy, Suzanne Brown, MinKyoung Jun, Hyunyong Park, Meeyoung Min, Chris McCarty
This study compared compositional, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks among women in residential (RT) and intensive outpatient (IOP) substance abuse treatment. The study sample included 377 women from inner-city substance use disorder treatment facilities. Respondents were asked about 25 personal network members known within the past 6 months, characteristics of each (relationship, substance use, types of support), and relationships between each network member. Differences between RT women and IOP women in personal network characteristics were identified using Chi-square and t-tests...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Lucia Cavanagh, Ezemenari M Obasi
The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous)...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Christina S Lee, Richard Longabaugh, Janette Baird, Val Streszak, Ted Nirenberg, Michael Mello
OBJECTIVE: Given the widespread potential for disseminating Motivational Interviewing (MI) through technology, the question of whether MI active ingredients are present when not delivered in person is critical to assure high treatment quality. The Participant Rating Form (PRF) was developed and used to evaluate therapist-delivered active ingredients in phone-delivered MI with hazardous drinking Emergency Department patients. METHOD: A factor analysis of all PRFs completed after receiving one call (n=256) was conducted...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Lacey N Wallace
Sibling substance use is a known correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet, not all siblings are equally influential. Sibling influence has been found to vary by age gap, sex, and birth order. Little research, however, has investigated whether siblings' peer context is also a source of variation. The present study tested whether more popular siblings were more influential for adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Data were obtained from sibling pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Stephen Tsaur, Andrew A Strasser, Valentina Souprountchouk, Gretchen C Evans, Rebecca L Ashare
BACKGROUND: Nicotine withdrawal produces increased craving for cigarettes and deficits in response inhibition, and these withdrawal symptoms are predictive of relapse. Although it is well-established that these symptoms emerge early during abstinence, there is mixed evidence regarding whether they occur simultaneously. Given the importance of the early withdrawal period, this study examined craving and response inhibition at 24h and 72h abstinence. METHODS: Twenty-one non-treatment seeking adult smokers were evaluated at baseline, 24h, and 72h abstinence for craving (Questionnaire on Smoking Urges - Brief) and response inhibition (Stop Signal Task, Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task)...
2015: Addiction Research & Theory
Adeline Nyamathi, Benissa E Salem, David Farabee, Elizabeth Hall, Sheldon Zhang, Mary Marfisee, Farinaz Khalilifard, Stefanie Musto, Barbara Leake
Homeless men exiting California State jails and prisons are a heterogeneous community with varied childhood, incarceration and drug use histories. This cross-sectional study assessed whether homeless men who were discharged from either jail or prison into a residential substance abuse treatment program, differed in terms of methamphetamine and heroin use. This study utilized baseline data collected on 540 recently paroled men randomized to one of three programs that assessed the impact of a peer coaching intervention on subsequent drug use and re-incarceration...
December 2014: Addiction Research & Theory
Moira Haller, Frances L Wang, Kaitlin Bountress, Laurie Chassin
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined how effort to regulate alcohol use may interact with anxiety and affective disorders to influence long-term remission from alcohol dependence. METHOD: Using participants (n= 96; 73% male; 66% children of alcoholics; 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian; 26% Hispanic) from a high-risk community study who showed evidence of recovered alcohol dependence at baseline, the present study examined whether effort to regulate alcohol use at the baseline assessment significantly influenced the likelihood of maintaining remission from alcohol dependence at the 10 year follow-up...
October 2014: Addiction Research & Theory
Erin E Bonar, Harold Rosenberg
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Increasing the frequency with which injecting drug users (IDUs) engage in self-initiated harm reduction strategies could improve their health, but few investigations have examined IDUs' perceived barriers to engaging in these behaviors. METHOD: We interviewed 90 IDUs recruited from needle exchanges to assess: a) perceived obstacles to their use of two specific harm reduction strategies (i.e., test shots and pre-injection skin cleaning) designed to reduce two unhealthy outcomes (i...
August 1, 2014: Addiction Research & Theory
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