Read by QxMD icon Read

Ecology Letters

Sergio Osorio-Canadas, Xavier Arnan, Anselm Rodrigo, Anna Torné-Noguera, Roberto Molowny, Jordi Bosch
Bergmann's rule originally described a positive relationship between body size and latitude in warm-blooded animals. Larger animals, with a smaller surface/volume ratio, are better enabled to conserve heat in cooler climates (thermoregulatory hypothesis). Studies on endothermic vertebrates have provided support for Bergmann's rule, whereas studies on ectotherms have yielded conflicting results. If the thermoregulatory hypothesis is correct, negative relationships between body size and temperature should occur in temporal in addition to geographical gradients...
October 19, 2016: Ecology Letters
Allison L Gill, Adrien C Finzi
Nutrient limitation is pervasive in the terrestrial biosphere, although the relationship between global carbon (C) nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles remains uncertain. Using meta-analysis we show that gross primary production (GPP) partitioning belowground is inversely related to soil-available N : P, increasing with latitude from tropical to boreal forests. N-use efficiency is highest in boreal forests, and P-use efficiency in tropical forests. High C partitioning belowground in boreal forests reflects a 13-fold greater C cost of N acquisition compared to the tropics...
October 19, 2016: Ecology Letters
John A Downing, Christine T Cherrier, Robinson W Fulweiler
Coastal marine systems are greatly altered by toxic marine algae, eutrophication and hypoxia. These problems have been linked to decreased ratios of dissolved silica to inorganic nitrogen (Si : DIN) delivered from land. Two mechanisms for this decline under consideration are enhanced nitrogen (N) fertiliser losses from agricultural lands or Si sequestration in reservoirs. Here we examine these mechanisms via nutrient concentrations in impoundments receiving water from 130 watersheds in a landscape representative of the agriculture that often dominates coastal nutrient inputs...
October 13, 2016: Ecology Letters
Philipp Brun, Mark R Payne, Thomas Kiørboe
Functional traits, rather than taxonomic identity, determine the fitness of individuals in their environment: traits of marine organisms are therefore expected to vary across the global ocean as a function of the environment. Here, we quantify such spatial and seasonal variations based on extensive empirical data and present the first global biogeography of key traits (body size, feeding mode, relative offspring size and myelination) for pelagic copepods, the major group of marine zooplankton. We identify strong patterns with latitude, season and between ocean basins that are partially (c...
October 11, 2016: Ecology Letters
Stephen P Ellner, Robin E Snyder, Peter B Adler
The storage effect has become a core concept in community ecology, explaining how environmental fluctuations can promote coexistence and maintain biodiversity. However, limitations of existing theory have hindered empirical applications: the need for detailed mathematical analysis whenever the study system requires a new model, and restricted theory for structured populations. We present a new approach that overcomes both these limitations. We show how temporal storage effect can be quantified by Monte Carlo simulations in a wide range of models for competing species...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Trevor J Hefley, Mevin B Hooten, John M Drake, Robin E Russell, Daniel P Walsh
Inferring the factors responsible for declines in abundance is a prerequisite to preventing the extinction of wild populations. Many of the policies and programmes intended to prevent extinctions operate on the assumption that the factors driving the decline of a population can be determined. Exogenous factors that cause declines in abundance can be statistically confounded with endogenous factors such as density dependence. To demonstrate the potential for confounding, we used an experiment where replicated populations were driven to extinction by gradually manipulating habitat quality...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Brent J Sinclair, Katie E Marshall, Mary A Sewell, Danielle L Levesque, Christopher S Willett, Stine Slotsbo, Yunwei Dong, Christopher D G Harley, David J Marshall, Brian S Helmuth, Raymond B Huey
Thermal performance curves (TPCs), which quantify how an ectotherm's body temperature (Tb ) affects its performance or fitness, are often used in an attempt to predict organismal responses to climate change. Here, we examine the key - but often biologically unreasonable - assumptions underlying this approach; for example, that physiology and thermal regimes are invariant over ontogeny, space and time, and also that TPCs are independent of previously experienced Tb. We show how a critical consideration of these assumptions can lead to biologically useful hypotheses and experimental designs...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Mathieu Buoro, Julian D Olden, Julien Cucherousset
The introduction of organisms within the native range of wild conspecifics is a widespread phenomenon and locally modifies patterns in intraspecific diversity. However, our knowledge of the resulting ecological effects, as opposed to those caused by invasion-induced changes in interspecific diversity, is still limited. Here, we investigated the ecological effects of native and non-native invaders across levels of biological organisations and recipient organisms using the global and long history introductions of salmonids...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Monika Winder, Alfred Burian, Michael R Landry, David Js Montagnes, Jens M Nielsen
A recent study concluded that omnivorous plankton will shift from predatory to herbivorous feeding with climate warming, as consumers require increased carbon:phosphorous in their food. Although this is an appealing hypothesis, we suggest the conclusion is unfounded, based on the data presented, which seem in places questionable and poorly interpreted.
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Frederic Bartumeus, Daniel Campos, William S Ryu, Roger Lloret-Cabot, Vicenç Méndez, Jordi Catalan
Understanding the structural complexity and the main drivers of animal search behaviour is pivotal to foraging ecology. Yet, the role of uncertainty as a generative mechanism of movement patterns is poorly understood. Novel insights from search theory suggest that organisms should collect and assess new information from the environment by producing complex exploratory strategies. Based on an extension of the first passage time theory, and using simple equations and simulations, we unveil the elementary heuristics behind search behaviour...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Josh A Firth, Ben C Sheldon
Spatial structure underpins numerous population processes by determining the environment individuals' experience and which other individuals they encounter. Yet, how the social landscape influences individuals' spatial decisions remains largely unexplored. Wild great tits (Parus major) form freely moving winter flocks, but choose a single location to establish a breeding territory over the spring. We demonstrate that individuals' winter social associations carry-over into their subsequent spatial decisions, as individuals breed nearer to those they were most associated with during winter...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Maarten Boersma, K Avarachen Mathew, Barbara Niehoff, Katherina L Schoo, Rita M Franco-Santos, Cédric L Meunier
The study of environmental impact on feeding preferences of omnivores is a rapidly growing field. Here, we show that the criticism put forward in a comment on our original study is largely unfounded.
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Frederick C Meinzer, David R Woodruff, Danielle E Marias, Duncan D Smith, Katherine A McCulloh, Ava R Howard, Alicia L Magedman
The concept of iso- vs. anisohydry has been used to describe the stringency of stomatal regulation of plant water potential (ψ). However, metrics that accurately and consistently quantify species' operating ranges along a continuum of iso- to anisohydry have been elusive. Additionally, most approaches to quantifying iso/anisohydry require labour-intensive measurements during prolonged drought. We evaluated new and previously developed metrics of stringency of stomatal regulation of ψ during soil drying in eight woody species and determined whether easily-determined leaf pressure-volume traits could serve as proxies for their degree of iso- vs...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Marjorie G Weber, Lukasz Mitko, Thomas Eltz, Santiago R Ramírez
Theory predicts that both stabilising selection and diversifying selection jointly contribute to the evolution of sexual signalling traits by (1) maintaining the integrity of communication signals within species and (2) promoting the diversification of traits among lineages. However, for many important signalling traits, little is known about whether these dynamics translate into predictable macroevolutionary signatures. Here, we test for macroevolutionary patterns consistent with sexual signalling theory in the perfume signals of neotropical orchid bees, a group well studied for their chemical sexual communication...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Fernanda S Valdovinos, Berry J Brosi, Heather M Briggs, Pablo Moisset de Espanés, Rodrigo Ramos-Jiliberto, Neo D Martinez
Much research debates whether properties of ecological networks such as nestedness and connectance stabilise biological communities while ignoring key behavioural aspects of organisms within these networks. Here, we computationally assess how adaptive foraging (AF) behaviour interacts with network architecture to determine the stability of plant-pollinator networks. We find that AF reverses negative effects of nestedness and positive effects of connectance on the stability of the networks by partitioning the niches among species within guilds...
October 2016: Ecology Letters
John M McNamara, Sasha R X Dall, Peter Hammerstein, Olof Leimar
There are many inputs during development that influence an organism's fit to current or upcoming environments. These include genetic effects, transgenerational epigenetic influences, environmental cues and developmental noise, which are rarely investigated in the same formal framework. We study an analytically tractable evolutionary model, in which cues are integrated to determine mature phenotypes in fluctuating environments. Environmental cues received during development and by the mother as an adult act as detection-based (individually observed) cues...
October 2016: Ecology Letters
Claire Fortunel, C E Timothy Paine, Paul V A Fine, Italo Mesones, Jean-Yves Goret, Benoit Burban, Jocelyn Cazal, Christopher Baraloto
Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia...
October 2016: Ecology Letters
Diane M Thomson
Time series of abundances are critical for understanding how abiotic factors and species interactions affect population dynamics, but are rarely linked with experiments and also scarce for bee pollinators. This gap is important given concerns about declines in some bee species. I monitored honey bee (Apis mellifera) and bumble bee (Bombus spp.) foragers in coastal California from 1999, when feral A. mellifera populations were low due to Varroa destructor, until 2014. Apis mellifera increased substantially, except between 2006 and 2011, coinciding with declines in managed populations...
October 2016: Ecology Letters
Emily C Farrer, Katharine N Suding
Although ecologists have documented the effects of nitrogen enrichment on productivity, diversity and species composition, we know little about the relative importance of the mechanisms driving these effects. We propose that distinct aspects of environmental change associated with N enrichment (resource limitation, asymmetric competition, and interactions with soil microbes) drive different aspects of plant response. We test this in greenhouse mesocosms, experimentally manipulating each factor across three ecosystems: tallgrass prairie, alpine tundra and desert grassland...
October 2016: Ecology Letters
Corlett W Wood, Edmund D Brodie
Although models of evolution usually assume that the strength of selection on a trait and the expression of genetic variation in that trait are independent, whenever the same ecological factor impacts both parameters, a correlation between the two may arise that accelerates trait evolution in some environments and slows it in others. Here, we address the evolutionary consequences and ecological causes of a correlation between selection and expressed genetic variation. Using a simple analytical model, we show that the correlation has a modest effect on the mean evolutionary response and a large effect on its variance, increasing among-population or among-generation variation in the response when positive, and diminishing variation when negative...
October 2016: Ecology Letters
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"