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Ecology Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905195/an-alternative-explanation-for-global-trends-in-thermal-tolerance
#1
LETTER
Nicholas L Payne, James A Smith
Ectotherms from higher latitudes can generally perform over broader temperature ranges than tropical ectotherms. This pattern is thought to reflect trends in temperature variability: tropical ectotherms evolve to be 'thermal specialists' because their environment is thermally stable. However, the tropics are also hotter, and most physiological rates increase exponentially with temperature. Using a dataset spanning diverse ectotherms, we show that the temperature ranges ectotherms tolerate (the difference between lower and upper critical temperatures, and between optimum and upper critical temperatures) generally represents the same range of equivalent biological rates (e...
December 1, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905176/shifts-in-outcrossing-rates-and-changes-to-floral-traits-are-associated-with-the-evolution-of-herbicide-resistance-in-the-common-morning-glory
#2
LETTER
Adam Kuester, Eva Fall, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Human-mediated selection can strongly influence the evolutionary response of natural organisms within ecological timescales. But what traits allow for, or even facilitate, adaptation to the strong selection humans impose on natural systems? Using a combination of laboratory and greenhouse studies of 32 natural populations of the common agricultural weed, Ipomoea purpurea, we show that herbicide-resistant populations self-fertilise more than susceptible populations. We likewise show that anther-stigma distance, a floral trait associated with self-fertilisation in this species, exhibits a nonlinear relationship with resistance such that the most and least resistant populations exhibit lower anther-stigma separation compared to populations with moderate levels of resistance...
November 30, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891770/phenomenological-vs-biophysical-models-of-thermal-stress-in-aquatic-eggs
#3
LETTER
Benjamin T Martin, Andrew Pike, Sara N John, Natnael Hamda, Jason Roberts, Steven T Lindley, Eric M Danner
Predicting species responses to climate change is a central challenge in ecology. These predictions are often based on lab-derived phenomenological relationships between temperature and fitness metrics. We tested one of these relationships using the embryonic stage of a Chinook salmon population. We parameterised the model with laboratory data, applied it to predict survival in the field, and found that it significantly underestimated field-derived estimates of thermal mortality. We used a biophysical model based on mass transfer theory to show that the discrepancy was due to the differences in water flow velocities between the lab and the field...
November 28, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889953/ecology-under-lake-ice
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie E Hampton, Aaron W E Galloway, Stephen M Powers, Ted Ozersky, Kara H Woo, Ryan D Batt, Stephanie G Labou, Catherine M O'Reilly, Sapna Sharma, Noah R Lottig, Emily H Stanley, Rebecca L North, Jason D Stockwell, Rita Adrian, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer, Lauri Arvola, Helen M Baulch, Isabella Bertani, Larry L Bowman, Cayelan C Carey, Jordi Catalan, William Colom-Montero, Leah M Domine, Marisol Felip, Ignacio Granados, Corinna Gries, Hans-Peter Grossart, Juta Haberman, Marina Haldna, Brian Hayden, Scott N Higgins, Jeff C Jolley, Kimmo K Kahilainen, Enn Kaup, Michael J Kehoe, Sally MacIntyre, Anson W Mackay, Heather L Mariash, Robert M McKay, Brigitte Nixdorf, Peeter Nõges, Tiina Nõges, Michelle Palmer, Don C Pierson, David M Post, Matthew J Pruett, Milla Rautio, Jordan S Read, Sarah L Roberts, Jacqueline Rücker, Steven Sadro, Eugene A Silow, Derek E Smith, Robert W Sterner, George E A Swann, Maxim A Timofeyev, Manuel Toro, Michael R Twiss, Richard J Vogt, Susan B Watson, Erika J Whiteford, Marguerite A Xenopoulos
Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors...
November 27, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873482/incorporating-evolutionary-adaptation-in-species-distribution-modelling-reduces-projected-vulnerability-to-climate-change
#5
LETTER
Alex Bush, Karel Mokany, Renee Catullo, Ary Hoffmann, Vanessa Kellermann, Carla Sgrò, Shane McEvey, Simon Ferrier
Based on the sensitivity of species to ongoing climate change, and numerous challenges they face tracking suitable conditions, there is growing interest in species' capacity to adapt to climatic stress. Here, we develop and apply a new generic modelling approach (AdaptR) that incorporates adaptive capacity through physiological limits, phenotypic plasticity, evolutionary adaptation and dispersal into a species distribution modelling framework. Using AdaptR to predict change in the distribution of 17 species of Australian fruit flies (Drosophilidae), we show that accounting for adaptive capacity reduces projected range losses by up to 33% by 2105...
November 22, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873470/migration-highways-and-migration-barriers-created-by-host-parasite-interactions
#6
LETTER
Quan-Guo Zhang, Angus Buckling
Co-evolving parasites may play a key role in host migration and population structure. Using co-evolving bacteria and viruses, we test general hypotheses as to how co-evolving parasites affect the success of passive host migration between habitats that can support different intensities of host-parasite interactions. First, we show that parasites aid migration from areas of intense to weak co-evolutionary interactions and impede migration in the opposite direction, as a result of intraspecific apparent competition mediated via parasites...
November 22, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873440/collective-decision-making-promotes-fitness-loss-in-a-fusion-fission-society
#7
LETTER
Marie Sigaud, Jerod A Merkle, Seth G Cherry, John M Fryxell, Andrew Berdahl, Daniel Fortin
While collective decision-making is recognised as a significant contributor to fitness in social species, the opposite outcome is also logically possible. We show that collective movement decisions guided by individual bison sharing faulty information about habitat quality promoted the use of ecological traps. The frequent, but short-lived, associations of bison with different spatial knowledge led to a population-wide shift from avoidance to selection of agricultural patches over 9 years in and around Prince Albert National Park, Canada...
November 22, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790825/adult-trees-cause-density-dependent-mortality-in-conspecific-seedlings-by-regulating-the-frequency-of-pathogenic-soil-fungi
#8
LETTER
Minxia Liang, Xubing Liu, Gregory S Gilbert, Yi Zheng, Shan Luo, Fengmin Huang, Shixiao Yu
Negative density-dependent seedling mortality has been widely detected in tropical, subtropical and temperate forests, with soil pathogens as a major driver. Here we investigated how host density affects the composition of soil pathogen communities and consequently influences the strength of plant-soil feedbacks. In field censuses of six 1-ha permanent plots, we found that survival was much lower for newly germinated seedlings that were surrounded by more conspecific adults. The relative abundance of pathogenic fungi in soil increased with increasing conspecific tree density for five of nine tree species; more soil pathogens accumulated around roots where adult tree density was higher, and this greater pathogen frequency was associated with lower seedling survival...
October 28, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790817/extrapolating-demography-with-climate-proximity-and-phylogeny-approach-with-caution
#9
LETTER
Shaun R Coutts, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Anna M Csergő, Yvonne M Buckley
Plant population responses are key to understanding the effects of threats such as climate change and invasions. However, we lack demographic data for most species, and the data we have are often geographically aggregated. We determined to what extent existing data can be extrapolated to predict population performance across larger sets of species and spatial areas. We used 550 matrix models, across 210 species, sourced from the COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database, to model how climate, geographic proximity and phylogeny predicted population performance...
October 28, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781365/asynchronous-demographic-responses-to-pleistocene-climate-change-in-eastern-nearctic-vertebrates
#10
LETTER
Frank T Burbrink, Yvonne L Chan, Edward A Myers, Sara Ruane, Brian Tilston Smith, Michael J Hickerson
Pleistocene climatic cycles altered species distributions in the Eastern Nearctic of North America, yet the degree of congruent demographic response to the Pleistocene among codistributed taxa remains unknown. We use a hierarchical approximate Bayesian computational approach to test if population sizes across lineages of snakes, lizards, turtles, mammals, birds, salamanders and frogs in this region expanded synchronously to Late Pleistocene climate changes. Expansion occurred in 75% of 74 lineages, and of these, population size trajectories across the community were partially synchronous, with coexpansion found in at least 50% of lineages in each taxonomic group...
October 25, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758035/body-size-phenology-in-a-regional-bee-fauna-a-temporal-extension-of-bergmann-s-rule
#11
Sergio Osorio-Canadas, Xavier Arnan, Anselm Rodrigo, Anna Torné-Noguera, Roberto Molowny, Jordi Bosch
Bergmann's rule originally described a positive relationship between body size and latitude in warm-blooded animals. Larger animals, with a smaller surface/volume ratio, are better enabled to conserve heat in cooler climates (thermoregulatory hypothesis). Studies on endothermic vertebrates have provided support for Bergmann's rule, whereas studies on ectotherms have yielded conflicting results. If the thermoregulatory hypothesis is correct, negative relationships between body size and temperature should occur in temporal in addition to geographical gradients...
October 19, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758027/belowground-carbon-flux-links-biogeochemical-cycles-and-resource-use-efficiency-at-the-global-scale
#12
Allison L Gill, Adrien C Finzi
Nutrient limitation is pervasive in the terrestrial biosphere, although the relationship between global carbon (C) nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles remains uncertain. Using meta-analysis we show that gross primary production (GPP) partitioning belowground is inversely related to soil-available N : P, increasing with latitude from tropical to boreal forests. N-use efficiency is highest in boreal forests, and P-use efficiency in tropical forests. High C partitioning belowground in boreal forests reflects a 13-fold greater C cost of N acquisition compared to the tropics...
October 19, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737496/low-ratios-of-silica-to-dissolved-nitrogen-supplied-to-rivers-arise-from-agriculture-not-reservoirs
#13
John A Downing, Christine T Cherrier, Robinson W Fulweiler
Coastal marine systems are greatly altered by toxic marine algae, eutrophication and hypoxia. These problems have been linked to decreased ratios of dissolved silica to inorganic nitrogen (Si : DIN) delivered from land. Two mechanisms for this decline under consideration are enhanced nitrogen (N) fertiliser losses from agricultural lands or Si sequestration in reservoirs. Here we examine these mechanisms via nutrient concentrations in impoundments receiving water from 130 watersheds in a landscape representative of the agriculture that often dominates coastal nutrient inputs...
October 13, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726281/trait-biogeography-of-marine-copepods-an-analysis-across-scales
#14
Philipp Brun, Mark R Payne, Thomas Kiørboe
Functional traits, rather than taxonomic identity, determine the fitness of individuals in their environment: traits of marine organisms are therefore expected to vary across the global ocean as a function of the environment. Here, we quantify such spatial and seasonal variations based on extensive empirical data and present the first global biogeography of key traits (body size, feeding mode, relative offspring size and myelination) for pelagic copepods, the major group of marine zooplankton. We identify strong patterns with latitude, season and between ocean basins that are partially (c...
October 11, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882705/erratum-for-arg%C3%A3-ello-et%C3%A2-al-2016
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882704/evolutionary-consequences-of-ecological-factors-pollinator-reliability-predicts-mating-system-traits-of-a-perennial-plant
#16
LETTER
Øystein H Opedal, Elena Albertsen, W Scott Armbruster, Rocío Pérez-Barrales, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Christophe Pélabon
The reproductive-assurance hypothesis predicts that mating-system traits will evolve towards increased autonomous self-pollination in plant populations experiencing unreliable pollinator service. We tested this long-standing hypothesis by assessing geographic covariation among pollinator reliability, outcrossing rates, heterozygosity and relevant floral traits across populations of Dalechampia scandens in Costa Rica. Mean outcrossing rates ranged from 0.16 to 0.49 across four populations, and covaried with the average rates of pollen arrival on stigmas, a measure of pollinator reliability...
December 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882703/species-pools-community-completeness-and-invasion-disentangling-diversity-effects-on-the-establishment-of-native-and-alien-species
#17
LETTER
Jonathan A Bennett, Kersti Riibak, Ene Kook, Ülle Reier, Riin Tamme, C Guillermo Bueno, Meelis Pärtel
Invasion should decline with species richness, yet the relationship is inconsistent. Species richness, however, is a product of species pool size and biotic filtering. Invasion may increase with richness if large species pools represent weaker environmental filters. Measuring species pool size and the proportion realised locally (completeness) may clarify diversity-invasion relationships by separating environmental and biotic effects, especially if species' life-history stage and origin are accounted for. To test these relationships, we added seeds and transplants of 15 native and alien species into 29 grasslands...
December 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882702/frequency-dependent-selection-for-rare-genotypes-promotes-genetic-diversity-of-a-tropical-palm
#18
LETTER
Luke Browne, Jordan Karubian
Negative frequency-dependent selection among species is a key driver of community diversity in natural systems, but the degree to which negative frequency-dependent selection shapes patterns of survival and genetic diversity within species is poorly understood. In a 5-year field experiment, we show that seedlings of a tropical palm with rare genotypes had a pronounced survival advantage over seedlings with common genotypes, with effect sizes comparable to that of light availability. This 'rare genotype advantage' led to an increase in population-wide genetic diversity among seedlings compared to null expectations, as predicted by negative frequency-dependent selection, and increased reproductive success in adult trees with rare genotypes...
December 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882701/landscape-scale-spatial-abundance-distributions-discriminate-core-from-random-components-of-boreal-lake-bacterioplankton
#19
LETTER
Juan Pablo Niño-García, Clara Ruiz-González, Paul A Del Giorgio
Aquatic bacterial communities harbour thousands of coexisting taxa. To meet the challenge of discriminating between a 'core' and a sporadically occurring 'random' component of these communities, we explored the spatial abundance distribution of individual bacterioplankton taxa across 198 boreal lakes and their associated fluvial networks (188 rivers). We found that all taxa could be grouped into four distinct categories based on model statistical distributions (normal like, bimodal, logistic and lognormal)...
December 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678218/how-to-quantify-the-temporal-storage-effect-using-simulations-instead-of-math
#20
Stephen P Ellner, Robin E Snyder, Peter B Adler
The storage effect has become a core concept in community ecology, explaining how environmental fluctuations can promote coexistence and maintain biodiversity. However, limitations of existing theory have hindered empirical applications: the need for detailed mathematical analysis whenever the study system requires a new model, and restricted theory for structured populations. We present a new approach that overcomes both these limitations. We show how temporal storage effect can be quantified by Monte Carlo simulations in a wide range of models for competing species...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
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