journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890718/thalassaemia-screening-and-confirmation-of-carriers-in-parents
#1
REVIEW
Angela N Barrett, Ramasamy Saminathan, Mahesh Choolani
Haemoglobinopathies are among the most common inherited monogenic disorders worldwide. Thalassaemia screening for carrier status is recommended for adults of reproductive age if suspected of being at risk. Conventional laboratory methods for screening include the assessment of haematological indices, and high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing to measure the levels of HbA2 and HbF, and to identify haemoglobin variants. Each screening method has its advantages and disadvantages, the main disadvantage being that none can fully resolve all variants...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889305/invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-fetal-thalassemia
#2
REVIEW
Dong-Zhi Li, Yan-Dong Yang
Thalassemia is the most common monogenic inherited disease worldwide, affecting individuals originating from many countries to various extents. As the disease requires long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state presents a substantial global disease burden. The comprehensively preventive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Invasive prenatal diagnosis refers to obtaining fetal material by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at the first trimester, and by amniocentesis or cordocentesis at the second trimester...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887921/non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-thalassemias-using-maternal-plasma-cell-free-dna
#3
REVIEW
Irena Hudecova, Rossa W K Chiu
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using maternal plasma cell free DNA has already reshaped the existing prenatal care system for pregnancies screened for common chromosomal aneuploidies. On the other hand, much progress has been made in developing NIPT for monogenic diseases. Thalassemia served as a disease model to develop strategies for NIPT of monogenic traits. One approach focuses on the detection or exclusion of paternally inherited fetal mutations that are absent from the mother's genome. The assessment of maternally inherited mutations in maternal plasma requires the use of highly sensitive DNA quantification techniques...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876354/update-in-the-genetics-of-thalassemia-what-clinicians-need-to-know
#4
REVIEW
Xuan Shang, Xiangmin Xu
Thalassemia is a significant health problem worldwide. Prenatal diagnosis is the only effective way to prevent the birth of a fetus with severe thalassemias, which include hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis and thalassemia major. However, accurate prenatal diagnosis depends on the comprehensive consideration of the molecular basis of thalassemias. To make a correct decision, the obstetrician should have a certain understanding of the genetics of thalassemias. Here we present a brief introduction of some fundamental genetic knowledge of thalassemias, including the production of hemoglobin, structure and location of globin genes, hemoglobin switch, epidemiology, clinical classification, molecular and cellular pathology, genotype-phenotype correlation, and genetic modifiers...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863915/prenatal-ultrasound-monitoring-of-homozygous-%C3%AE-0-thalassemia-induced-fetal-anemia
#5
REVIEW
Helena H L Lee, Annisa S L Mak, C F Poon, K Y Leung
A noninvasive approach by serial ultrasound examination at 12-15, 18, and 30 weeks of gestation can be used to exclude homozygous α(0)-thalassemia-induced fetal anemia. At 12-15 weeks of gestation, the predictive values for the fetal cardio-thoracic ratio were better than that for the placental thickness. At 16-20 weeks of gestation, measuring middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity is associated with a low false-positive rate. However, the false-positive rate of this noninvasive approach can be about 3%, requiring an invasive test to confirm the diagnosis...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863914/cultural-aspects-and-mythologies-surrounding-menstruation-and-abnormal-uterine-bleeding
#6
REVIEW
Delfin A Tan, Rohana Haththotuwa, Ian S Fraser
The objective of this chapter is to present an overview of how menstruation, a normal bodily function, was and is perceived in various ethnic groups and cultures in the world, from ancient mythology, historical, or traditional practices to contemporary belief systems. Mythical tales about menstruation abound in the legends and prehistory of ancient cultures. These tales characterize menstrual blood variously as sacred, a gift from the gods, or a punishment for sin, but it is almost always magical and powerful...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856159/pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis
#7
REVIEW
Joanne Traeger-Synodinos
The aim of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is to characterize the genetic status of the cells (usually single cells) that have been biopsied from oocytes/zygotes or embryos created in vitro during assisted reproductive treatment. PGD is a multi-step procedure that requires close collaboration between gynaecologists who are experts in assisted reproduction, embryologists who are experts in micromanipulation of germ cells and in embryo biopsy and geneticists who are experts in genetic analysis at the single-cell level...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856158/abnormal-vaginal-bleeding-in-women-with-gynaecological-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Tracey Adams, Lynette Denny
Abnormal vaginal bleeding is a common gynaecological symptom, and most causes are benign. International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics proposed a PALM-COEIN classification in 2011 to decrease heterogeneity in studies. The gynaecological malignancies that present with abnormal bleeding vary according to the age of the patient and the origin (upper versus lower genital tract). It is important that a thorough history and examination is performed to make this distinction. The common malignancies presenting symptoms and treatment are discussed in this article according to the age of the patient...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847257/new-trend-in-the-epidemiology-of-thalassaemia
#9
REVIEW
Chi-Kong Li
Thalassaemia is the most common monogenic disorder worldwide. It is common in areas with prevalent malaria as thalassaemic red cells provide immunity against the parasite. The incidence of thalassaemia carriers is high in regions such as Mediterranean, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and South China. In the past few decades, migrants from the thalassaemia prevalent countries to non-prevalent countries, mainly North America and Central and North Europe, are rapidly increasing in number. The non-prevalent countries may not have established pre-natal screening system for thalassaemia...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866937/antenatal-foetal-heart-monitoring
#10
REVIEW
Henry Murray
Antenatal foetal heart rate assessment was introduced into clinical medicine before clear evidence of any benefits had been reported. Ad hoc definitions were used to define normal and abnormal recordings resulting in a high false-positive rate for foetal compromise. The understanding of the foetal states resulted in an improved physiologically based assessment of the antenatal tracings and allowed their classification as (i) reactive - 2 accelerations in 10 min within a recording period of 120 min, (ii) unreactive - no accelerations seen in 120 min of tracing and (iii) decelerative - the presence of repetitive decelerations on an otherwise unreactive trace...
October 21, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865654/surgery-for-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-options-and-limits
#11
REVIEW
J Sehouli, J P Grabowski
Cytoreductive surgery is the backbone of the multimodal therapy in primary ovarian cancer patients. Despite the effect of various tumor biological factors such as grading and histological subtype, the surgical outcome is the most important prognostic factor for both progression free- and overall survival. In contrast, the management of recurrent situation has long remained a subject of an emotional international discussion. To date, only few prospective studies have focused on the effect of surgery in relapsed ovarian cancer...
October 21, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884789/surgery-for-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Neville F Hacker, Archana Rao
Cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer has been practised since the pioneering work of Tom Griffiths in 1975. Further research has demonstrated the prognostic significance of the extent of metastatic disease pre-operatively, and of complete cytoreduction post-operatively. Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer should be referred to high volume cancer units, and managed by multidisciplinary teams. The role of thoracoscopy and resection of intrathoracic disease is presently investigational...
October 20, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838189/preface
#13
EDITORIAL
Asma Khalil, Basky Thilaganathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894705/surgical-treatment-of-early-stage-ovarian-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jason B Trimbos
The treatment of early-stage (stages I-IIA) ovarian carcinoma is predominantly surgical, and the surgical staging is the most relevant step in the treatment of this disease. The significance of surgical staging is twofold. First, proper staging distinguishes between 'real' early-stage ovarian carcinoma and 'perhaps' early-stage disease. The latter carries an appreciable likelihood of unappreciated residual disease in 16-42% of cases. Second, there is solid proof that proper surgical staging is an independent prognostic factor for improved disease-free and overall survival in early-stage ovarian carcinoma...
October 8, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780698/management-of-borderline-ovarian-tumours
#15
REVIEW
David M Gershenson
Approximately 3000 American women are diagnosed with borderline ovarian tumours annually. Borderline tumours are similar to other types of adnexal masses. Prognostic factors include the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, presence of peritoneal implants, micropapillary pattern (for serous histology), microinvasion and intra-epithelial carcinoma (for mucinous histology). Approximately 65-70% of serous tumours and 90% of mucinous tumours are stage I, and 30% and 10%, respectively, are associated with extra-ovarian spread...
October 3, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743768/epidemiology-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#16
Penelope M Webb, Susan J Jordan
Globally, ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women and the eighth most common cause of cancer death, with five-year survival rates below 45%. Although age-standardised rates are stable or falling in most high-income countries, they are rising in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, with increasing life-expectancy, the number of cases diagnosed each year is increasing. To control ovarian cancer we need to understand the causes. This will allow better prediction of those at greatest risk for whom screening might be appropriate, while identification of potentially modifable causes provides an opportunity for intervention to reduce rates...
October 3, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914969/endometrial-polyps-and-abnormal-uterine-bleeding-aub-p-what-is-the-relationship-how-are-they-diagnosed-and-how-are-they-treated
#17
REVIEW
T Justin Clark, Helen Stevenson
The diagnosis and treatment of endometrial polyps will be familiar to most gynaecologists. However, the aetiology and natural history of these focal intrauterine lesions are yet to be elucidated. This lack of clarity is also true with regard to their clinical significance; whilst endometrial polyps are highly prevalent in all types of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), they are also commonly found in women without AUB. These controversies will be discussed along with current thoughts on the diagnosis and treatment of endometrial polyps...
October 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836285/practical-aspects-of-the-two-figo-systems-for-management-of-abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-the-reproductive-years
#18
REVIEW
Malcolm G Munro
The FIGO systems defining the nomenclature and symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in the reproductive years (System 1) and the PALM-COEIN classification of causes of AUB (System 2) are designed to facilitate research, education, and the provision of optimum clinical care for affected women. Development of these systems has been the result of a collaborative effort of experts in bench and translational and clinical research from six continents aided by a spectrum of representatives from relevant medical societies, journals, and regulatory bodies...
October 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818130/structured-imaging-technique-in-the-gynecologic-office-for-the-diagnosis-of-abnormal-uterine-bleeding
#19
REVIEW
Margit Dueholm, Ina Marie D Hjorth
: The aim in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is to identify the bleeding cause, which can be classified by the PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system. In a gynecologic setting, the first step is most often to identify structural abnormalities (PALM causes). Common diagnostic options for the identification of the PALM include ultrasonography, endometrial sampling, and hysteroscopy...
October 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806912/quality-control-in-ovarian-cancer-surgery
#20
REVIEW
Giovanni D Aletti, Michele Peiretti
The optimal surgical management of patients with ovarian cancer includes a thorough staging with peritoneal and retroperitoneal assessment for early disease stages and a complete debulking with the removal of all macroscopic tumor for advanced disease stages. Disparities across different institutions in terms of optimal surgical management have been described. Surgical quality control programs constitute a real possibility to ensure and improve the quality of the surgery performed. Guidelines for surgery in early and advanced disease stages have been recently reviewed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), and several quality indicators (QIs) have been proposed...
October 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
journal
journal
39765
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"