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Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics

E Upchurch, M Isabelle, Gavin Rhys Lloyd, C Kendall, H Barr
Introduction Cancer is responsible for an extraordinary burden of disease, affecting 90.5 million people worldwide in 2015. Outcomes for these patients are improved when the disease is diagnosed at an early, or even precancerous, stage. Raman spectroscopy is demonstrating results that show its ability to detect the molecular changes that are diagnostic of precancerous and cancerous tissue. This review highlights the new advances occurring in this domain. Areas Covered PubMed searches were undertaken to identify new research in the utilisation of Raman spectroscopy in cancer diagnostics...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Chiara C Volpi, Ambra V Gualeni, Filippo Pietrantonio, Emanuela Vaccher, Antonino Carbone, Annunziata Gloghini
Bright-field in situ hybridization (ISH) methods detect gene alterations that may improve diagnostic precision and personalized management of cancer patients. Areas covered. This review focuses on some bright-field ISH techniques for detection of gene amplification or viral infection that have already been introduced in tumor pathology, research and diagnostic practice. Other emerging ISH methods, for the detection of translocation, mRNA and microRNA have recently been developed and need both an optimization and analytical validation...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Andrea Csáki, Ondrej Stranik, Wolfgang Fritzsche
Bioanalytical sensing based on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance experiences is currently an extremely rapid development. Novel sensors with new kinds of plasmonic transducers and innovative concepts for the signal development as well as read-out principles were identified. This review will give an overview of the development of this field. Areas covered: The focus is primarily on types of transducers by preparation or dimension, factors for optimal sensing concepts and the critical view of the usability of these devices as innovative sensors for bioanalytical applications...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Molly E Fleece, Suporn Pholwat, Amy J Mathers, Eric R Houpt
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global public health threat. The complexities of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Molecular diagnostics are emerging in this field. Areas covered: The authors review the clinical importance of pathogenic E. coli and discuss the mechanisms of resistance to common antibiotics used to treat these infections. We review the literature on antimicrobial susceptibility testing and discuss the current state of phenotypic as well as molecular methodologies...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Anna Okula Basile, Marylyn DeRiggi Ritchie
For the past decade, the focus of complex disease research has been the genotype. From technological advancements to the development of analysis methods, great progress has been made. However, advances in our definition of the phenotype have remained stagnant. Phenotype characterization has recently emerged as an exciting area of informatics and machine learning. The copious amounts of diverse biomedical data that have been collected may be leveraged with data-driven approaches to elucidate trait-related features and patterns...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Pradnya D Patil, Mauricio Burotto, Vamsidhar Velcheti
Immune checkpoint pathways are key immune regulatory pathways that play a physiologic role in maintaining immune-homeostasis and are often co-opted by cancer cells to evade the host immune system. Recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, mainly drugs blocking the immune checkpoint pathways, have revolutionized the treatment paradigm for many solid tumors. A wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been described with the use of these agents which necessitate treatment with immunosuppression, leading to disruption of therapy and can on occasion be life-threatening...
February 10, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Suruchi Mittal, Nicola J Brown, Ingunn Holen
Numerous clinical and pre-clinical studies have provided ample evidence supporting that the tumor microenvironment plays a significant role during breast cancer development, progression and in determining the therapeutic response. Areas covered: This review focuses on the evolving concept of the microenvironment as the critical participant in each step of the multi-stage process of malignant progression. Currently, only a small number of molecules form part of routine molecular diagnostics in breast caner, but microenvironment-derived biomarkers are potential additions to existing predictive and prognostic marker panels...
February 9, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Wangxiao Bao, Fangping He, Jian Gao, Fanxia Meng, Hai Zou, Benyan Luo
BACKGROUND: The aim of this manuscript was to explore the molecular basis and identify novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with chronic disorder of consciousness. METHODS: A coupled isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation-based approach was used to screen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between patients with chronic disorder of consciousness and healthy individuals. Candidate proteins were identified and measured. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score was used to quantify the severity, and long-term recovery was assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Naomi W Lucchi, Daouda Ndiaye, Sumudu Britton, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique holds substantial promise as an alternative easy-to-use molecular test for malaria parasite detection. Several modifications to the initial malaria LAMP assay have been made in an effort to make the LAMP platform more field-friendly. Areas covered: A PubMed literature search was performed using the following search terms: "malaria," "loop mediated isothermal amplification", "LAMP", "molecular tests" and "diagnostics". The authors review the currently reported malaria LAMP assays and discuss what requirements would be needed to make malaria LAMP assays field-usable, especially in the context of malaria elimination...
January 22, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Jan Trøst Jørgensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Diogo A Bastos, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Prostate cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, with remarkably different prognosis across all stages. Increased circulating tumor cell (CTC) count (≥ 5) using the CellSearch assay has been identified as one of the markers that can be used to predict survival, with added value beyond currently available prognostic factors. Recently, androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) detection has been associated with worse outcomes for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with novel androgen receptor-signaling (ARS) inhibitors such as abiraterone and enzalutamide but not taxane chemotherapies...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Justin J Choi, Matthew W McCarthy
Acute dyspnea is a common chief complaint among patients who visit an emergency room and presents diagnostic challenges for clinicians in both identifying the etiology and determining the clinical severity. The study of biomarkers in the prognostication and risk stratification of these patients has been increasing, including the investigation of the prognostic value for mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). Areas Covered: In this review, the authors cover what is known about MR-proADM testing in patients presenting with acute dyspnea and the supporting evidence of its prognostic value in common conditions in medical patients with acute dyspnea, including acute heart failure, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute pulmonary embolism...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Ivan A Zaporozhchenko, Anastasia A Ponomaryova, Elena Yu Rykova, Pavel P Laktionov
Introduction Cancer statistics show that recent improvements in cancer management are only mildly effective in the absence of reliable biomarkers for the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of malignant disease. Recently circulating nucleic acids have been suggested as potential biomarker candidates to fill this role. Areas covered This review focuses on the different types of circulating RNA biomarkers under investigation, describing the latest advances in their development and application to clinical settings, as well as challenges that researchers face in the process...
January 8, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Danièle Maubon, Céline Dard, Cécile Garnaud, Muriel Cornet
Fungemia presents high morbi-mortality and thus rapid microbiological diagnosis may contribute to appropriate patient management. In the last decade, kits based on molecular technologies have become available and health care institutes are increasingly facing critical investment choices. Although all these tools aim to achieve rapid fungal detection and species identification, they display different inherent characteristics. Areas covered: Considering technologies allowing detection and identification of fungal species in a sepsis context, the market proposes either tests on positive blood culture or tests on patient's whole blood...
December 28, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Benjamin M Tang, Maryam Shojaei, James Branley, Anthony McLean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Lawrence S Howell, Lucy Ireland, B Kevin Park, Christopher E Goldring
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a severe adverse drug reaction which is of major concern to patients, clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. Accurate and rapid detection of DILI is important for patient stratification and treatment in the clinic and benefits preclinical drug design and risk assessment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) offer a potential new and improved class of circulating biomarkers of DILI over the current gold standard biomarkers. Areas covered: This review highlights the shortcomings of the currently used panel of biomarkers and how miRNAs, primarily miR-122, show an improved level of specificity and sensitivity in the prediction of DILI...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Emma Budd, Giovanna Nalesso, Ali Mobasheri
Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic, debilitating and degenerative disease of the joints, is the most common form of arthritis. The seriousness of this prevalent and chronic disease is often overlooked. Disease modifying OA drug development is hindered by the lack of soluble biomarkers to detect OA early. The objective of OA biomarker research is to identify early OA prior to the appearance of radiographic signs and the development of pain. Areas covered This review has focused on extracellular genomic material that could serve as biomarkers of OA...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Samantha A Byrnes, Bernhard H Weigl
Biomarkers are objective indications of a medical state that can be measured accurately and reproducibly. Traditional biomarkers enable diagnosis of disease through detection of disease-specific molecules, disease-mediated molecular changes, or distinct physiological or anatomical signatures. Areas covered: This work provides a framework for selecting biomarkers that are most likely to provide useful information about a patient's disease state. Though the authors emphasize markers related to disease, this work is also applicable to biomarkers for monitoring physiological changes such as ovulation or pregnancy...
December 4, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Clara Mayo-de-Las-Casas, Mónica Garzón Ibáñez, Núria Jordana-Ariza, Beatriz García-Peláez, Ariadna Balada-Bel, Sergio Villatoro, Umberto Malapelle, Niki Karachaliou, Giancarlo Troncone, Rafael Rosell, Miguel Angel Molina-Vila
Collection of tumor samples is not always feasible in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and circulating free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from blood represents a viable alternative. Different sensitive platforms have been developed for genetic cfDNA testing, some of which are already in clinical use. However, several difficulties remain, particularly the lack of standardization of these methodologies. Areas covered: Here, the authors present a review of the literature to update the applicability of cfDNA for diagnosis and monitoring of NSCLC patients...
November 26, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Li-Qun Gu, Kent S Gates, Michael X Wang, Guangfu Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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