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Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103450/paper-based-analytical-devices-for-clinical-diagnosis-recent-advances-in-the-fabrication-techniques-and-sensing-mechanisms
#1
Mazhar Sher, Rachel Zhuang, Utkan Demirci, Waseem Asghar
There is a significant interest in developing inexpensive portable biosensing platforms for various applications including disease diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food safety, and water testing at the point-of-care (POC) settings. Current diagnostic assays available in the developed world require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure and expensive reagents. Hence, they are not suitable for resource-constrained settings with limited financial resources, basic health infrastructure, and few trained technicians...
January 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093921/microbial-genomics-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#2
W Michael Dunne, Magali Jaillard, Olivier Rochas, Alex van Belkum
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is key in modern clinical microbiology. With pandemic emergence of (multi-)antibiotic resistance, methods to detect and quantify resistance of clinically important bacterial species are imperative. Historically, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was mostly performed using methods relying on bacterial growth. Such methods may be time-consuming and more rapid alternatives have been actively sought for. Areas covered: Among the new AST methods there are many that focus on detection of causal resistance genes and/or gene mutations...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092481/the-effect-of-main-urine-inhibitors-on-the-activity-of-different-dna-polymerases-in-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#3
Jekaterina Jevtuševskaja, Katrin Krõlov, Indrek Tulp, Ülo Langel
BACKGROUND: The use of rapid amplification methods to detect pathogens in biological samples is mainly limited by the amount of pathogens present in the sample and the presence of inhibiting substances. Inhibitors can affect the amplification efficiency by either binding to the polymerase, interacting with the DNA, or interacting with the polymerase during primer extension. Amplification is performed using DNA polymerase enzymes and even small changes in their activity can influence the sensitivity and robustness of molecular assays Methods: The main purpose of this research was to examine which compounds present in urine inhibit polymerases with strand displacement activity...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092472/using-biomarkers-to-predict-and-to-prevent-cardiotoxicity-of-cancer-therapy
#4
Daniela Cardinale, Gina Biasillo, Michela Salvatici, Maria Teresa Sandri, Carlo Maria Cipolla
Cardiotoxicity is a common complication that may compromise the clinical effectiveness of anticancer therapy. The current standard for monitoring cardiac function detects cardiotoxicity only when a functional impairment has already occurred, not allowing for any early preventive strategy. Areas covered: A novel approach, based on the use of biomarkers has recently emerged, resulting in a very effective tool for early, real-time identification, and monitoring of cardiotoxicity. In particular, cardiac troponin elevation during chemotherapy allows to identify patients more prone to develop myocardial dysfunction and cardiac events...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092471/genomics-pipelines-and-data-integration-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-research-setting
#5
Jeremy Davis-Turak, Sean M Courtney, E Starr Hazard, W Bailey Glen, Willian da Silveira, Timothy Wesselman, Larry P Harbin, Bethany J Wolf, Dongjun Chung, Gary Hardiman
The emergence and mass utilization of high-throughput (HT) technologies, including sequencing technologies (genomics) and mass spectrometry (proteomics, metabolomics, lipids), has allowed geneticists, biologists, and biostatisticians to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype on a massive scale. These new technologies have brought rapid advances in our understanding of cell biology, evolutionary history, microbial environments, and are increasingly providing new insights and applications towards clinical care and personalized medicine...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092466/clinical-performance-of-the-solana%C3%A2-point-of-care-trichomonas-assay-from-clinician-collected-vaginal-swabs-and-urine-specimens-from-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-women
#6
C A Gaydos, J Schwebke, J Dombrowski, J Marrazzo, J Coleman, B Silver, M Barnes, L Crane, P Fine
BACKGROUND: Solana® (Quidel) is a new rapid (<40 min.) point-of-care (POC) test for qualitative detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) DNA. The assay has two steps: 1) specimen preparation, and 2) amplification and detection using isothermal Helicase-Dependent Amplification (HDA). The objective was to demonstrate the performance of Solana for vaginal swabs and female urines based on comparison to wet mount and TV culture. Performance was also compared to the Aptima-TV assay. METHODS: Urine and four clinician-collected vaginal swabs were collected...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092202/is-dna-testing-for-hemochromatosis-diagnosis-reliable
#7
Paul C Adams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058850/molecular-diagnostics-in-the-management-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#8
Michael A Arnold, Fredric G Barr
A classification of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with prognostic relevance has primarily relied on clinical features and histologic classification as either embryonal or alveolar RMS. The PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 gene fusions occur in 80% of cases with the alveolar subtype and are more predictive of outcome than histologic classification. Identifying additional molecular hallmarks that further subclassify RMS is an active area of research. Areas Covered: The authors review the current state of the PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 fusions as prognostic biomarkers...
January 6, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043179/the-cobas%C3%A2-6800-8800-system-a-new-era-of-automation-in-molecular-diagnostics
#9
Bryan Cobb, Christian O Simon, Susan L Stramer, Barbara Body, P Shawn Mitchell, Natasa Reisch, Wendy Stevens, Sergio Carmona, Louis Katz, Stephen Will, Oliver Liesenfeld
Molecular diagnostics is a key component of laboratory medicine. Here, the authors review key triggers of ever-increasing automation in nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) with a focus on specific automated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing and platforms such as the recently launched cobas® 6800 and cobas® 8800 Systems. The benefits of such automation for different stakeholders including patients, clinicians, laboratory personnel, hospital administrators, payers, and manufacturers are described...
January 3, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004592/non-culture-based-diagnostics-for-intravascular-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections
#10
Li Zhang, C M Rickard
intravascular catheter related bloodstream infection (IVC-BSI) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early detection and adequate treatment of causative pathogens is critical for a favourable outcome. However, it takes significant time to receive microbiological results due to the current reference diagnostic method's reliance on microbial growth. Areas covered: This review discusses culture and non-culture based techniques for the diagnosis of non IVC-BSI and IVC-BSI, including molecular methods and biomarkers...
January 2, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034324/p16-overexpression-in-braf-mutated-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#11
Shan-Shan Shi, Xuan Wang, Qiu-Yuan Xia, Qiu Rao, Qin Shen, Sheng-Bin Ye, Rui Li, Qun-Li Shi, Zhen-Feng Lu, Heng-Hui Ma, Xiao-Jun Zhou
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to analyze the histopathology, immunophenotype, molecular features, and prognosis in cases of BRAF-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and to examine the p16 expression in these tumors, and further discuss its effects on tumor formation and progression. METHODS: In all, 283 GIST cases (201 KIT mutants, 12 PDGFRA mutants and 70 wild-type) from the 2010 to 2014 surgical pathology files of the Department of Pathology at Nanjing Jinling Hospital were analyzed for mutations in BRAF exon 15...
December 30, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004604/issues-in-contemporary-and-potential-future-molecular-diagnostics-for-dengue
#12
Shamala Devi Sekaran, Hui Jen Soe
Dengue has been the most common arbovirus infection worldwide with 2.5 billion people living in over 100 endemic tropical and subtropical regions. Due to the high number of asymptomatic cases and the signs and symptoms being rather unspecific, dengue cases are often under-reported and might influence dengue surveillance programs. Therefore, a rapid, easy to use, inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool is essential for early and accurate diagnosis to ease the clinical management of patients as well as for the development of new interventions...
December 30, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032524/classifying-circulating-tumor-cells-to-monitor-cancer-progression
#13
Panagiota Economopoulou, Vassilis Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
The term 'liquid biopsy' refers to molecular analysis of a tumor's genetic features based on circulating genetic material in the peripheral blood derived from circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating miRNAs, and has emerged as a minimally invasive tool in early cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring. CTCs are believed to originate from the primary tumor and obtain genetic heterogeneity during evolution. Areas covered: The presence of CTCs has been associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900885/selecting-heart-failure-patients-for-metabolic-interventions
#14
Harmen G Booij, Anne M Koning, Harry van Goor, Rudolf A de Boer, B Daan Westenbrink
Heart failure (HF) has become the cardiovascular epidemic of the century and now imposes an immense burden on health care systems. While our understanding of the pathophysiology of HF has increased dramatically, the translation of knowledge into clinical practice has been disappointing. Metabolic dysfunction in HF has been studied for eight decades, but these efforts have not resulted in effective therapies. This paucity in clinical translation probably results from the variable contribution of metabolic dysfunction to the underlying heart disease...
December 28, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936985/t-lymphocytes-to-predict-radiation-induced-late-effects-in-normal-tissues
#15
Muriel Brengues, Ariane Lapierre, Céline Bourgier, André Pèlegrin, Mahmut Özsahin, David Azria
Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments for solid tumors. The total dose that can be delivered to the tumor is limited by the radiation amount received by the surrounding normal tissues, which are at risk of developing acute and late radiation-induced effects. Areas covered: Severe late radiation-induced toxicity occurs in 5% to 10% of patients following radiotherapy. However, the current radiotherapy and radiation protection protocols do not take into account the variations in radiosensitivity among individuals...
December 22, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936983/molecular-diagnosis-of-invasive-mycoses-of-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Matthew William McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began investigating an outbreak of fungal meningitis among patients who had received contaminated preservative-free methyl prednisolone acetate injections from the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Massachusetts. Thousands of patients were potentially exposed to tainted corticosteroids, but establishing the diagnosis of fungal meningitis during the nationwide outbreak was difficult because little was known about the natural history of the disease...
December 22, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935358/convergent-lines-of-evidence-support-the-role-of-uric-acid-levels-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Haitham Salem, Benicio N Frey, Izabela G Barbosa, Antonio L Teixeira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797592/improving-the-cellsearch%C3%A2-system
#18
J F Swennenhuis, G van Dalum, L L Zeune, L W M M Terstappen
The CellSearch® CTC test enumerates tumor cells present in 7.5 ml blood of cancer patients. improvements, extensions and different utilities of the cellsearch system are discussed in this paper. Areas covered: This paper describes work performed with the CellSearch system, which go beyond the normal scope of the test. All results from searches with the search term 'CellSearch' from Web of Science and PubMed were categorized and discussed. Expert commentary: The CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell test captures and identifies tumor cells in blood that are associated with poor clinical outcome...
November 17, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813435/towards-diagnostic-application-of-non-coding-rnas-in-neuroblastoma
#19
Kristina Althoff, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm
Neuroblastoma is a solid cancer of childhood, which is devastating upon recurrence. Markers for minimal residual disease and early detection of relapse are eagerly awaited to improve the outcome of affected patients. Several miRNAs have been identified as key regulators of neuroblastoma pathogenesis. Areas covered: Here, we focus on miRNAs that have been linked to MYCN, a prominent oncogenic driver, and we review the hitherto known interactions between miRNAs and other important players in neuroblastoma. Expert commentary: Existing diagnostic miRNA signatures remain to be established in clinical settings...
November 15, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792413/how-the-future-of-clinical-cancer-diagnostics-can-contribute-to-overcoming-race-associated-cancer-disparities
#20
Aliccia Bollig-Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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