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Clinical Colorectal Cancer

Daniel Brungs, Morteza Aghmesheh, Paul de Souza, Martin Carolan, Philip Clingan, June Rose, Marie Ranson
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is common in the elderly, but owing to under representation in clinical trials, the benefit of standard therapies is uncertain in this age group. We aimed to clarify the efficacy and complications of adjuvant oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy for patients 70 years and older with stage III colon cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with stage III colon adenocarcinoma were identified from an Australian cancer registry (2006-2013)...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Fangying Xu, Si Li, Jing Zhang, Lili Wang, Xuesong Wu, Jing Wang, Qiong Huang, Maode Lai
BACKGROUND: Tumor tissues consist of heterogeneous cancer cells and stroma cells, including cancer stem cells and immune cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs closely associate with acquisition of stemness. We investigated for the first time the clinical significance of combining cancer stem cells, immune cells, and EMT traits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 419 colorectal carcinomas, stem-cell markers (Nanog, Lgr5, CD44v6, ALDH1A1), EMT markers (E-cadherin, Snail), and immune-cell markers (CD3+ , CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD20+ B lymphocytes, CD68+ macrophages) were detected in tumor center (TC) and tumor invasive front by an immunohistochemical method...
May 26, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Kentaro Sawada, Yoshiaki Nakamura, Takeharu Yamanaka, Yasutoshi Kuboki, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Satoshi Yuki, Takayuki Yoshino, Yoshito Komatsu, Naoya Sakamoto, Wataru Okamoto, Satoshi Fujii
PURPOSE: To evaluate a prognostic and predictive value of HER2 amplification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with mCRC who underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor and who received best supportive care with or without palliative chemotherapy between 2005 and 2015 were included. HER2 immunohistochemistry was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumor specimens. HER2 amplification was confirmed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Sriram Venigalla, Amit K Chowdhry, Andrzej P Wojcieszynski, John Nicholas Lukens, John P Plastaras, James M Metz, Edgar Ben-Josef, Najjia N Mahmoud, Kim A Reiss, Jacob E Shabason
INTRODUCTION: The optimal management of locally advanced recto-sigmoid cancer is unclear. Although some experts advocate for upfront surgery, others recommend neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery. We used the National Cancer Database to characterize patterns-of-care and overall survival (OS) associated with these treatment strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinical stage II or III recto-sigmoid cancer who underwent surgery with or without adjunctive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy from 2006 to 2014 were identified, and dichotomized into: (1) upfront surgery, and (2) neoadjuvant chemoradiation cohorts...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Jiezhong Chen, Luis Vitetta
The intestinal microbiota plays key roles in human health, and adverse dysbiosis shifts of the microbiota have been associated with chronic diseases, including large bowel cancer. High-fiber diets may reduce the risk for large bowel cancer in association with gut microbiota modulation and butyrate production. Butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases and associated signaling pathways in cultured cancer cells, promoting cancer cell apoptosis. However, butyrate has prevented colon cancer through the regulation of immune homeostasis rather than histone deacetylases inhibition...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Michelle McSkane, Sebastian Stintzing, Volker Heinemann, Alberto Puccini, Madiha Naseem, Shu Cao, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Ivan Jelas
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found significant relationships between height and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Increased growth has been associated with activated pathways such as insulin-like growth factor 1. This study examined the impact of height on outcomes in metastatic CRC patients enrolled onto the FIRE-3 study, a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 695 patients with metastatic CRC were studied and height was measured in centimeters...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Tiffany K Weidner, John T Kidwell, Amy E Glasgow, Christine O Menias, Daniel H Ahn, Rish K Pai, Russell I Heigh, Nitin Mishra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Anuj K Patel, Mei S Duh, Victoria Barghout, Mihran A Yenikomshian, Yongling Xiao, Willy Wynant, Majid Tabesh, Charles S Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) and regorafenib (REG) prolong survival in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and have similar indications with different side-effect profiles. The present study compared real-world treatment patterns with FTD/TPI and REG for mCRC in a large, representative US claims database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data from the US Symphony Health Solutions' Integrated Dataverse database were analyzed for adult mCRC patients receiving FTD/TPI or REG from October 2014 to July 2016...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Praveen Polamraju, Waqar Haque, Vivek Verma, Lee Wiederhold, Sandra Hatch, E Brian Butler, Bin S Teh
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cT1-2N0M0 rectal cancer are often treated with up-front surgical resection, with adjuvant treatment reserved for patients upstaged with pathologic node-positive (pN+) disease at surgery. This study evaluates practice patterns and clinical outcomes when comparing different forms of adjuvant treatment for this patient population. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for cT1-2N0M0 rectal cancer patients between 2004 and 2015 with postoperative pN+ disease treated without neoadjuvant treatment...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Chan Kim, Woo Ram Kim, Ki-Yeol Kim, Hong Jae Chon, Seung Hoon Beom, Hyojoong Kim, Minkyu Jung, Sang Joon Shin, Nam Kyu Kim, Joong Bae Ahn
BACKGROUND: Patients with stage I colorectal cancer (CRC) have excellent prognosis after curative surgery. However, approximately 5% to 10% of patients experience recurrence and have a poor prognosis. Because the incidence of stage I CRC is increasing with active screening programs worldwide, a more accurate and easy-to-use predictive tool for recurrence is becoming more important. This study aimed to develop a predictive nomogram for recurrence in stage I CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1538 patients who underwent curative surgery for stage I CRC were enrolled...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Bartosz Mucha, Dariusz Pytel, Lukasz Markiewicz, Magda Cuchra, Izabela Szymczak, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Adam Dziki, Ireneusz Majsterek, Lukasz Dziki
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is leading malignant tumors to occur mainly in industrialized countries, where it exhibits one of the highest mortality rates. Up to 80% of all CRCs characterize a chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype. The main challenge faced by scientist is to reveal the mechanism of CIN development. An often proposed model is defects in DNA repair in terms of efficiency and genetic variations that modulate the response to stimuli from the environment. The objectives of this research were to determine whether nucleotide excision repair (NER) might affect CRC risk...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Mai-Britt Worm Ørntoft
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide, and late stages (III-IV) in particular have low 5-year survival rates. Stage shifting by CRC screening programs has proven effective by decreasing morbidity and mortality and in many countries national CRC screening programs have been implemented. Currently, European, Asian, and American authorities recommend screening for CRC using fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. Because these approaches all have weaknesses (eg, poor compliance, high costs, test invasiveness), much effort has been put into the development of alternative screening approaches, many of which are blood-based...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Mitsukuni Suenaga, Marta Schirripa, Shu Cao, Wu Zhang, Dongyun Yang, Yan Ning, Chiara Cremolini, Carlotta Antoniotti, Beatrice Borelli, Tetsuo Mashima, Satoshi Okazaki, Martin D Berger, Yuji Miyamoto, Roel Gopez, Afsaneh Barzi, Sara Lonardi, Toshiharu Yamaguchi, Alfredo Falcone, Fotios Loupakis, Heinz-Josef Lenz
BACKGROUND: The C-C motif chemokine ligand 5/C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCL5/CCR5) pathway has been shown to induce endothelial progenitor cell migration, resulting in increased vascular endothelial growth factor A expression. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in the CCL5/CCR5 pathway predict efficacy and toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with regorafenib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed genomic DNA extracted from 229 tumor samples from 2 different cohorts of patients who received regorafenib: an evaluation cohort of 79 Japanese patients and a validation cohort of 150 Italian patients...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Nele Boeckx, Ken Op de Beeck, Matthias Beyens, Vanessa Deschoolmeester, Christophe Hermans, Peggy De Clercq, Sonia Garrigou, Corinne Normand, Els Monsaert, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Patrick Pauwels, Guy Van Camp, Valerie Taly, Marc Peeters
BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies, although contributing to survival improvement in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), are expensive and may cause adverse effects. Therefore, confirming that patients are responding to these therapies is extremely important. Currently, follow-up is performed using radiographic evaluation, which has its limitations. Liquid biopsies, reflecting real-time tumor characteristics, hold great potential in monitoring tumor disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected at different time points during treatment of 24 mCRC patients...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Alexander Semaan, Barbara Uhl, Vittorio Branchi, Philipp Lingohr, Friedrich Bootz, Glen Kristiansen, Jörg C Kalff, Hanno Matthaei, Dimitrios Pantelis, Dimo Dietrich
BACKGROUND: New treatment modalities and a growing understanding of the complex genetic tumor landscape have improved the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Nonetheless, more individualized treatment regimens, taking individual tumor characteristics into account, have been recently postulated and prognostic biomarkers are needed. We therefore evaluated the prognostic potential of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) promoter methylation in CRC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 2 independent cohorts were investigated...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Mario E Lacouture, Milan Anadkat, Aminah Jatoi, Tamer Garawin, Chet Bohac, Edith Mitchell
Monoclonal antibody inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) without RAS gene mutations. However, treatment with anti-EGFR agents can be associated with toxicities of the skin, nails, hair, and eyes. Because these dermatologic toxicities can result in treatment discontinuation and affect patient quality of life, their management is an important focus when administering anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. The present systematic review describes the current data reporting the nature and incidence of, and management and treatment options for, dermatologic toxicities occurring during anti-EGFR treatment of mCRC...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Courtney C Moreno, Todd F Fibus, Elizabeth A Krupinski, David H Kim, Perry J Pickhardt
BACKGROUND: Incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) are higher among African Americans where CRC screening rates lag behind non-Hispanic whites. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate CT colonography (CTC) performance and outcome measures in an African-American cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is an institutional review board-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study. Retrospective evaluation of the African-American cohort from the Atlanta VA Medical Center (Decatur, Georgia) CTC screening program...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Jeeyun Lee, Seung Tae Kim, Sungju Park, Sujin Lee, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Ho Yeong Lim, Hongmo Ahn, Haesook Bok, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Myung Ju Ahn, Won Ki Kang, Young Suk Park
BACKGROUND: Samsung Advance Institute of Technology-301 (SAIT301) is a human immunoglobulin G2 antibody that can specifically target mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (c-MET). This novel antibody has higher priority over hepatocyte growth factors when binding to the Sema domain of c-MET and accelerates the internalization and degradation of c-MET, proving its powerful antitumor activities in intra- as well as extracellular areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAIT301 was administered intravenously once every 3 weeks in c-MET overexpressed solid tumor patients, focusing on metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) according to common clinical phase I criteria...
June 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Tae Won Kim, Anneli Elme, Joon Oh Park, Anghel Adrian Udrea, Sun Young Kim, Joong Bae Ahn, Ricardo Villalobos Valencia, Srinivasan Krishnan, Nebojsa Manojlovic, Xuesong Guan, Catherine Lofton-Day, A Scott Jung, Eduard Vrdoljak
INTRODUCTION: Tumor rat sarcoma gene (RAS) status is a negative predictive biomarker for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We analyzed outcomes according to RAS and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) mutational status, and evaluated early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DpR) for patients with wild type RAS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with confirmed metastatic colon or rectum adenocarcinoma, wild type Kristen rat sarcoma gene tumor exon 2 status, clinical/radiologic disease progression or toxicity during irinotecan or oxaliplatin treatment, and no previous anti-EGFR therapy were randomized 1:1 to receive best supportive care (BSC) with or without panitumumab (6...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Alice M Couwenberg, Johannes P M Burbach, Wilhelmina M U van Grevenstein, Anke B Smits, Esther C J Consten, Anandi H W Schiphorst, Niels A T Wijffels, Joost T Heikens, Martijn P W Intven, Helena M Verkooijen
INTRODUCTION: Rectal cancer surgery with neoadjuvant therapy is associated with substantial morbidity. The present study describes the course of quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients in the first 2 years after the start of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study within a colorectal cancer cohort including rectal cancer patients who were referred for neoadjuvant chemoradiation or short-course radiotherapy and underwent rectal surgery...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
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