journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697214/activation-and-recruitment-of-brown-adipose-tissue-by-cold-exposure-and-food-ingredients-in-humans
#1
REVIEW
Masayuki Saito, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita
Since the recent re-discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, this thermogenic tissue has attracted increasing interest. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. Cold exposure activates and recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The stimulatory effects of cold are mediated through transient receptor potential channels (TRP), most of which are also chemesthetic receptors for various food ingredients...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697213/estradiol-and-brown-fat
#2
Miguel López, Manuel Tena-Sempere
Ovarian steroids, such as estradiol (E2), control a vastness of physiological processes, such as puberty, reproduction, growth, development and metabolic rate. In fact, physiological, pathological, pharmacological or genetically-induced estrogen deficiency causes increased appetite and reduced energy expenditure, promoting weight gain and ultimately leading to obesity. Remarkably, estrogen replacement reverts those effects. Interestingly, although a wealth of evidence has shown that E2 can directly modulate peripheral tissues to exert their metabolic actions, novel data gathered in recent years have shown that those effects are mainly central and occur in the hypothalamus...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697212/hormonal-and-nutritional-signalling-in-the-control-of-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-activation-and-recruitment
#3
Marta Giralt, Montserrat Cairó, Francesc Villarroya
Recent research has revealed that the activity of adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans is higher than previously thought, and that obese patients show abnormally low levels of brown fat activity. Studies in experimental animals have shown that BAT is a site of energy expenditure, and that BAT activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic diseases. The action of the sympathetic nervous activity on BAT depots is considered the main regulator of BAT activity in rodent models and possibly also in humans...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697211/the-role-of-bat-in-cardiometabolic-disorders-and-aging
#4
Denis P Blondin, André C Carpentier
The demonstration of the presence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans using positron emission tomography (PET) over the past decade has lead to the rapid development of our knowledge regarding the role of BAT in energy metabolism in animal models and in humans. Although animal models continue to provide highly valuable information regarding the mechanisms regulating BAT development, mass and metabolic functions, these studies led to many assumptions that have been at best only partially verified in humans so far...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697210/implications-of-thermogenic-adipose-tissues-for-metabolic-health
#5
Christian Schlein, Joerg Heeren
Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697209/browning-and-thermogenic-programing-of-adipose-tissue
#6
Florian W Kiefer
The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697208/the-rediscovery-of-bat-in-adult-humans-using-imaging
#7
Kirsi A Virtanen
Human brown adipose tissue has been acknowledged in newborns and children but in adults the first printed publications are from the beginning of 20th century. Further evidence of the existence of adult brown fat was published throughout the century but only very recently the functionality of active brown adipose tissue in vivo in adulthood was confirmed. This was contributed mainly by advanced imaging technology, namely hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT), being able to combine functional and anatomical imaging data...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697207/brown-adipose-tissue
#8
Pirjo Nuutila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432078/treating-young-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-or-monogenic-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Katharine R Owen
It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It's important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic type 1 diabetes is characterised by positive β-cell antibodies and absence of endogenous insulin secretion...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432077/managing-hypertension-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Samuel Horr, Steven Nissen
Hypertension is a common problem in the diabetic population with estimates suggesting a prevalence exceeding 60%. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with high rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. These two pathologies share overlapping risk factors, importantly central obesity. Treatment of hypertension is unequivocally beneficial and improves all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and microvascular outcomes including nephropathy and retinopathy...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432076/managing-dyslipidaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Auryan Szalat, Ronen Durst, Eran Leitersdorf
Glucose-control has a modest beneficial effect on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, managing other atherogenic risk factors including hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol levels with increased small dense LDL-cholesterol fraction, is crucial. Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiologic factor in this population. Treatment starts with lifestyle modifications, but current best programmes have not translated into positive cardiovascular outcomes...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432075/managing-hypoglycaemia
#12
REVIEW
Ahmed Iqbal, Simon Heller
Intensive glycaemic control reduces the diabetic microvascular disease burden but iatrogenic hypoglycaemia is a major barrier preventing tight glycaemic control because of the limitations of subcutaneous insulin preparations and insulin secretagogues. Severe hypoglycaemia is uncommon early in the disease as robust physiological defences, particularly glucagon and adrenaline release, limit falls in blood glucose whilst associated autonomic symptoms drive patients to take action by ingesting oral carbohydrate...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432074/optimizing-management-of-glycaemia
#13
REVIEW
Sudesna Chatterjee, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies
The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient structured education, self-management and empowerment, and psychological support along with early and proactive use of glucose lowering therapies, which should be delivered in a system of care as shown by the Chronic Care Model...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432073/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
S Lallukka, H Yki-Järvinen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of liver disease from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is commonly associated with features of the metabolic/insulin resistance syndrome ('Metabolic/Obese NAFLD') and may therefore predict type 2 diabetes (T2DM). For this review, we searched for prospective studies examining whether NAFLD predicts T2DM, and if so, whether this occurs independently of factors such as age and obesity. These studies included NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasonography (n = 6) or liver enzymes (n = 14)...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432072/preventing-type-2-diabetes-changing-the-food-industry
#15
REVIEW
Barry M Popkin, W R Kenan
Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432071/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-potential-of-pharmacological-agents
#16
REVIEW
Susan L Samson, Alan J Garber
People with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, or "pre-diabetes", are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes, as are those with metabolic syndrome or a history of gestational diabetes. Both glucose-lowering and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been studied to determine if the onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented. Here we review the available data in the field. The most common theme is the reduction in insulin resistance, such as with weight loss, decreasing demands on the beta cell to improve insulin secretion and prolong its function...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432070/detecting-people-at-high-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-how-do-we-find-them-and-who-should-be-treated
#17
REVIEW
Alice P S Kong, Andrea O Y Luk, Juliana C N Chan
Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by its silent and progressive nature. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increases with age but with a worrying trend of increasingly young age of diagnosis. Compared to their counterparts with late onset of disease, these younger subjects face long disease duration with increased risk of diabetes-related complications. Besides, there is marked phenotypic heterogeneity which can interact with different interventions to give rise to variable clinical outcomes...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432069/type-2-diabetes-a-21st-century-epidemic
#18
REVIEW
Lindsay M Jaacks, Karen R Siegel, Unjali P Gujral, K M Venkat Narayan
Around 415 million people around the world have diabetes (9% of adults), and the vast majority live in low- and middle-income countries. Over the next decade, this number is predicted to increase to 642 million people. Given that diabetes is a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and health care expenditures, addressing this chronic disease represents one of the greatest global health challenges of our time. The objectives of this article are three-fold: (1) to present data on the global burden of type 2 diabetes (which makes up 87-91% of the total diabetes burden), both in terms of prevalence and incidence; (2) to give an overview of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and to describe obesity and the developmental origins of disease risk in detail; and (3) to discuss the implications of the global burden and point out important research gaps...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432068/preface-diabetes-prevention-and-management
#19
EDITORIAL
Rury R Holman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156767/diabetes-insipidus-in-infants-and-children
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth Dabrowski, Rachel Kadakia, Donald Zimmerman
Diabetes insipidus, the inability to concentrate urine resulting in polyuria and polydipsia, can have different manifestations and management considerations in infants and children compared to adults. Central diabetes insipidus, secondary to lack of vasopressin production, is more common in children than is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the inability to respond appropriately to vasopressin. The goal of treatment in both forms of diabetes insipidus is to decrease urine output and thirst while allowing for appropriate fluid balance, normonatremia and ensuring an acceptable quality of life for each patient...
March 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
journal
journal
39740
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"