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Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224669/circadian-aspects-of-adipokine-regulation-in-rodents
#1
REVIEW
Etienne Challet
Most hormones display daily fluctuations of secretion during the 24-h cycle. This is also the case for adipokines, in particular the anorexigenic hormone, leptin. The temporal organization of the endocrine system is principally controlled by a network of circadian clocks. The circadian network comprises a master circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, synchronized to the ambient light, and secondary circadian clocks found in various peripheral organs, such as the adipose tissues...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224668/circadian-clock-gastrointestinal-peptide-interaction-in-peripheral-tissues-and-the-brain
#2
REVIEW
Dominic Landgraf, Anne-Marie Neumann, Henrik Oster
Food intake and sleep are two mutually exclusive behaviors and both are normally confined to opposing phases of the diurnal cycle. The temporal coordination of behavior and physiology along the 24-h day-night cycle is organized by a network of circadian clocks that orchestrate transcriptional programs controlling cellular physiology. Many of the peptide hormones of the gastrointestinal tract are not only secreted in a circadian fashion, they can also affect circadian clock function in peripheral metabolic tissues and the brain, thus providing metabolic feedback to metabolic and neurobehavioral circuits...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224667/the-hormone-melatonin-animal-studies
#3
REVIEW
P Pevet, P Klosen, M P Felder-Schmittbuhl
The Melatonin (MLT), secreted rhythmically by the pineal, is an efferent hormonal signal of the circadian clock. MLT presents overall pleitropic effects but it is the role of MLT as a hormonal circadian signal which is the best documented. MLT-receptors are present in numerous structures/organs and the MLT is now considered as an endogenous synchronizer within the circadian system. The presence of MLT-receptors within the circadian clock, explains that exogenous MLT is a chronobiotic drug. Trials in humans, have confirmed the efficacy of MLT in circadian rhythm disorders...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224666/central-and-peripheral-roles-of-vasopressin-in-the-circadian-defense-of-body-hydration
#4
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Eric Trudel, Charles W Bourque
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide synthesized by specific subsets of neurons within the eye and brain. Studies in rats and mice have shown that vasopressin produced by magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) that project to the neurohypophysis is released into the blood circulation where it serves as an antidiuretic hormone to promote water reabsorption from the kidney. Moreover vasopressin is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that contributes to time-keeping within the master circadian clock (i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and is also used as an output signal by SCN neurons to direct centrally mediated circadian rhythms...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224665/endocrine-rhythms-of-growth-hormone-release-insights-from-animal-studies
#5
REVIEW
Frederik J Steyn, Shyuan T Ngo
Growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns emerge following birth, and changes in patterning occur throughout life. These secretory patterns are coupled to growth, reproduction and metabolism. Comparing human and animal studies, this review will highlight ultradian patterning of GH release and the mechanisms that contribute to this. Discussions will focus on the emergence in variations in the number and frequency of GH secretory events, and the amounts of GH released (peak and basal). Animal studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the processes that regulate GH release...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224664/preface-part-2-circadian-and-endocrine-rhythms
#6
EDITORIAL
Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223284/daily-rhythms-count-for-female-fertility
#7
REVIEW
Valérie Simonneaux, Thibault Bahougne, Eleni Angelopoulou
Female ovulation depends on a surge in circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) which occurs at the end of the resting period and requests high circulating estradiol. This fine tuning involves both an estradiol feedback as an indicator of oocyte maturation, and the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nuclei as an indicator of the time of the day. This review describes the mechanisms through which daily time cues are conveyed to reproductive hypothalamic neurons to time the pre-ovulatory surge. In female rodents, neurotransmitters released by the suprachiasmatic nuclei activate the stimulatory kisspeptin neurons and reduce the inhibitory RFRP neurons precisely at the end of the afternoon of proestrus to allow a full surge in LH secretion...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223283/regulatory-aspects-of-the-human-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#8
REVIEW
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, differentiation and metabolism during prenatal and postnatal life. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis is optimized for these actions. Knowledge of this hormonal axis is derived from decades of experiments in animals and man, and more recently from spontaneous mutations in man and constructed mutations in mice. This review examines the HPT-axis in relation to 24 h TSH profiles in men in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including obesity, age, longevity, and primary as well as central hypothyroidism...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223282/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-and-biological-rhythms-the-discovery-of-tsh-s-unexpected-role-using-animal-models
#9
REVIEW
Keisuke Ikegami, Takashi Yoshimura
Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for development, growth, and metabolism. It is also clear that the synthesis and secretion of TH are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Animal models have helped advance our understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanisms of TH. The animals' bodies develop through coordinated timing of cell division and differentiation. Studies of frog metamorphosis led to the discovery of TH and their role in development. However, to adapt to rhythmic environmental changes, animals also developed various endocrine rhythms...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#10
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223280/circadian-and-ultradian-patterns-of-hpa-axis-activity-in-rodents-significance-for-brain-functionality
#11
REVIEW
Femke S den Boon, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis comprises interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands and its activation results in the release of corticosteroid hormones. Corticosteroids are secreted from the adrenal gland in a distinct 24-h circadian rhythm overarching an ultradian rhythm, which consists of hourly corticosteroid pulses exposing target tissues to rapidly changing steroid levels. On top of these rhythms surges can take place after stress. HPA-axis rhythms promote adaptation to predictable (i...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223279/circadian-and-endocrine-rhythms
#12
EDITORIAL
Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221571/micrornas-milk-s-epigenetic-regulators
#13
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Gerd Schmitz
Our perception of milk has changed from a "simple food" to a highly sophisticated maternal-neonatal nutrient and communication system orchestrating early programming of the infant. Milk miRNAs delivered by exosomes and milk fat globules derived from mammary gland epithelial cells play a key role in this process. Exosomes resist the harsh intestinal environment, are taken up by intestinal cells via endocytosis, and reach the systemic circulation of the milk recipient. The most abundant miRNA found in exosomes and milk fat globules of human and cow's milk, miRNA-148a, attenuates the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, which is critically involved in epigenetic regulation...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221570/neohormones-in-milk
#14
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Neohormone systems evolved specifically to regulate those mammalian traits, such as internal fertilization, pregnancy and lactation, which have proved to be central to the success, environmental independence, and adaptability of mammals as a vertebrate group. Neohormones such as oxytocin or relaxin are not only involved in the regulation of mammary gland development and function, but are also significant components of milk itself. Particularly for the latter hormone, it has been shown for the pig that relaxin in the first milk is taken up by the gastrointestinal tract of the offspring, enters the neonatal circulation and can have specific physiological and epigenetic effects on target organs such as the female reproductive system...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221569/functional-analysis-of-the-igf-system-in-milk
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Hoeflich, Zianka Meyer
The development of milk during evolution is considered a more recent step to provide the neonate with adequate amounts of energy, nutrients, and specific hormonal signals thereby, granting a fast and efficient rate of postnatal growth and development. Since the insulin- or the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems were evolved much earlier, it can be assumed that the functionality of the IGF-system has been integrated into the novel matrix milk containing casein and whey proteins from the beginnings. In fact, IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are abundantly present in milk, which is particularly true for fore-milk or colostrum and the potential effects of milk-borne IGF-compounds on the consuming organisms have in fact been addressed by several studies...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221568/nutritional-programming-by-glucocorticoids-in-breast-milk-targets-mechanisms-and-possible-implications
#16
REVIEW
Jonneke J Hollanders, Annemieke C Heijboer, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Vertical transmission of glucocorticoids via breast milk might pose a mechanism through which lactating women could prepare their infants for the postnatal environment. The primary source of breast-milk glucocorticoids is probably the systemic circulation. Research from our group showed that milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with a higher abundance of cortisone compared to cortisol. Measurement of breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations is challenging due to possible cross-reactivity with progestagens and sex steroids, which are severely elevated during pregnancy and after parturition...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221567/iodine-in-dairy-milk-sources-concentrations-and-importance-to-human-health
#17
REVIEW
Olivia L van der Reijden, Michael B Zimmermann, Valeria Galetti
Milk and dairy products are major iodine sources in industrialized countries. However, consumption of milk and dairy, as well as their iodine concentrations, vary widely, making them an unpredictable iodine source. Milk iodine concentrations in industrialized countries range from 33 to 534 μg/L and are influenced by the iodine intake of dairy cows, goitrogen intake, milk yield, season, teat dipping with iodine-containing disinfectants, type of farming and processing. We estimate milk and dairy contribute ≈13-64% of the recommended daily iodine intake based on country-specific food intake data...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221566/physiology-of-milk-secretion
#18
REVIEW
Sandrine Truchet, Edith Honvo-Houéto
Milk is a unique and complete nutritive source for the mammal neonate, also providing immune protection and developmental signals. Lactation is a complex process, proper to the mother and child dyad, and including numerous variables ranging from psychological aspects to the secretory functioning of the mammary epithelial cells, all contributing to a successful breastfeeding. This review gives an integrated overview of the physiology of lactation with a particular focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in milk product secretion and their regulations...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221565/hormones-in-milk
#19
EDITORIAL
Andreas Hoeflich, Wieland Kiess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911730/management-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-tki-side-effects-in-differentiated-and-medullary-thyroid-cancer-patients
#20
REVIEW
C Resteghini, S Cavalieri, D Galbiati, R Granata, S Alfieri, C Bergamini, P Bossi, L Licitra, L D Locati
Four tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been recently licensed in thyroid cancer (TC), sorafenib and lenvatinib for differentiated TC, vandetanib and cabozantinib for medullary TC. Others TKIs such as axitinib, pazopanib, sunitinib, have been tested within phase II trials. The toxicity burden associated to TKIs is not negligible. Drug reductions and interruptions are common, definitive drug withdrawals have also been reported as well as toxic deaths in more rare cases. In this context, the prevention of toxicities is mandatory to allow patients to stay on treatment as long as possible without dose and schedule modifications...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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