journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566913/intervening-in-disease-through-genetically-modified-bacteria
#1
REVIEW
Adilson K Ferreira, Lisley I Mambelli, Saravanan Y Pillai
The comprehension of the molecular basis of different diseases is rapidly being dissected as a consequence of advancing technology. Consequently, proteins with potential therapeutic usefulness, including cytokines and signaling molecules have been identified in the last decades. However, their clinical use is hampered by disadvantageous functional and economic considerations. One of the most important of these considerations is targeted topical delivery and also the synthesis of such proteins, which for intravenous use requires rigorous purification whereas proteins often do not withstand digestive degradation and thus cannot be applied per os...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566912/microbiome-pattern-recognition-receptor-function-in-health-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
David Fawkner-Corbett, Alison Simmons, Kaushal Parikh
The innate immune system plays an important role in shaping the microbiota into configurations that are tolerated and beneficial to the host, thereby playing a crucial role in human health. Innate immunity is based on the fundamental principle that Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) recognise pathogen associated molecular patterns as non-self-entities and trigger intracellular signalling pathways that lead to the induction of numerous cytokines and chemokines that help maintain host resistance to infections...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566911/diet-microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Sergey R Konstantinov
The scientific interests in the colorectal cancer (CRC) associated microbiome have increased significantly in the past decade. Mechanistically, several members of the human microbiome and products thereof have been implicated as inductors of the pathogenic inflammation related to CRC. Conversely, the activities of the human intestinal microbial community influenced by specific diet might confer a protective effect against the CRC risks and progression. As the microbiome is both a key contributor and one of the tools to prevent CRC, the current review gives a summary of the CRC-associated microbiome and the dietary strategies relevant to CRC...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566910/intestinal-microbiome-and-permeability-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Wangfeng Cai, Ying Ran, Yanni Li, Bangmao Wang, Lu Zhou
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe inflammatory liver disease. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear, but recent studies provided new perspectives on altered intestinal microbiome and permeability in AIH animal models and patients, highlighting gut-liver crosstalk in the pathogenesis of AIH. Transgenic AIH mice carrying HLA-DR3 showed reduced diversity and total load of gut microbiota. Germ-free mice are resistant to concanavalin A-induced liver injury, whereas enterogenouss antigens induce the activation of natural killer T cells participating in concanavalin A-induced liver injury, supporting the close relationship between microbiota and AIH...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566909/nafld-helicobacter-species-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#5
REVIEW
Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is well-accepted that gut dysbiosis is associated with NAFLD, however, there is some conflicting evidence regarding the nature of these alterations. Infection with Helicobacter species, mainly H. pylori, has also been associated with increased NAFLD risk, however, some studies have failed to reproduce this finding. Further studies including large study samples and standardised procedures for microbiota analyses, H...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566908/action-and-function-of-chromobacterium-violaceum-in-health-and-disease-violacein-as-a-promising-metabolite-to-counteract-gastroenterological-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Giselle Zenker Justo, Nelson Durán
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram negative, β-proteobacterium found in the microbiota of tropical and subtropical environments. Although considered an opportunistic pathogen, infection rapidly progress to fatal sepsis, with metastatic abscesses. It is noteworthy the multidrug resistant phenotype of C. violaceum and the possibility of relapse. Recently, an influence of global climate in the incidence of cases beyond the previous areas has been observed. Furthermore, chronic granulomatous disease has been considered a risk factor to infection...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566907/action-and-function-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Alessandra Valéria de Sousa Faria, Sheila Siqueira Andrade
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, anaerobic bacteria, is one of the main components of gut microbiota and the most important butyrate-producing bacteria in the human colon. So far, this commensal bacterium has been considered as a bioindicator of human health, once when its population is altered (decreased), inflammatory processes are favored. Several reports in the literature highlighted that the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii negatively correlates to the activity of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566906/action-and-function-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-in-microbiome-ecology-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Noora Ottman, Sharon Y Geerlings, Steven Aalvink, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
The discovery of Akkermansia muciniphila has opened new avenues for the use of this abundant intestinal symbiont in next generation therapeutic products, as well as targeting microbiota dynamics. A. muciniphila is known to colonize the mucosal layer of the human intestine where it triggers both host metabolic and immune responses. A. muciniphila is particularly effective in increasing mucus thickness and increasing gut barrier function. As a result host metabolic markers ameliorate. The mechanism of host regulation is thought to involve the outer membrane composition, including the type IV pili of A...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566905/lifestyle-alters-gut-bacteria-function-linking-immune-response-and-host
#9
REVIEW
Omid Jazayeri, S Mojtaba Daghighi, Farhad Rezaee
Microbiota in human is a "mixture society" of different species (i.e. bacteria, viruses, funguses) populations with a different way of relationship classification to Human. Human GUT serves as the host of the majority of different bacterial populations (GUT flora, more than 500 species), which are with us ("from the beginning") in an innate manner known as the commensal (no harm to each other) and symbiotic (mutual benefit) relationship. A homeostatic balance of host-bacteria relationship is very important and vital for a normal health process...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566904/microbiome-measurement-possibilities-and-pitfalls
#10
REVIEW
Djawad Radjabzadeh, André G Uitterlinden, Robert Kraaij
Microbiome research is an emerging field in medical sciences. Several studies have made headways in understanding the influence of microbes on our health and disease states. Further progress in mapping microbiome populations across different body sites and understanding the underlying mechanisms of microbiome-host interactions depends critically on study design, collection protocols, analytical genetic techniques, and reference databases. In particular, a shift has appeared going from small sample collections to large-scale population studies (with extensive phenotypic information including disease status) which calls for some adaptions...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566903/the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-its-role-in-oncogenesis
#11
REVIEW
S Y Lam, J Yu, S H Wong, M P Peppelenbosch, G M Fuhler
Advances in research techniques have made it possible to map the microbial communities in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where the majority of bacteria in the human body reside. Disturbances in these communities are referred to as dysbiosis and have been associated with GI cancers. Although dysbiosis is observed in several GI malignancies, the specific role of these changes has not been understood to the extent of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in gastric cancer (GC). This review will address the bacterial communities along the GI tract, from the oral cavity to the anal canal, particularly focusing on bacterial dysbiosis and carcinogenesis...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566902/preface-to-gut-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#12
EDITORIAL
Maikel P Peppelenbosch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195680/communication-of-alcohol-and-smoking-lifestyle-advice-to-the-gastroenterological-patient
#13
REVIEW
Andrew D Spence, Mais Khasawneh, Patrick B Allen, Jennifer Addley
Effective communication between healthcare staff and patients is central to development of the patient-professional relationship. Many barriers influence this communication, often resulting in patients' lack of understanding and retention of information, particularly affecting advice regarding lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Alcohol and smoking misuse are potentially modifiable risk factors known to adversely affect a variety of gastroenterological conditions and improvements in communication with patients regarding this is an important management component...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195679/impact-of-alcohol-smoking-on-the-surgical-management-of-gastrointestinal-patients
#14
REVIEW
Niall D Kennedy, Des C Winter
Alcohol and smoking are repeatedly described as modifiable risk factors in clinical studies across all surgical specialities. These lifestyle choices impart a sub-optimal physiology via multiple processes and play an important role in the surgical management of the gastrointestinal patient. Cessation is imperative to optimise the patient's fitness for surgery with surgery itself being a prime opportunity for sustained cessation. A consistent, planned and integrated management involving surgical, anaesthetic, medical, and primary care facets will aid in successful cessation and perioperative care...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195678/the-interaction-between-smoking-alcohol-and-the-gut-microbiome
#15
REVIEW
Gabriele Capurso, Edith Lahner
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex echosystem that establishes a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relation with the host, being rather stable in health, but affected by age, drugs, diet, alcohol, and smoking. Alcohol and smoking contribute to changes in the stomach and affect H pylori-related disorders including the risk of gastric cancer. In the small intestine and in the colon alcohol causes depletion of bacteria with anti-inflammatory activity, eventually resulting in intestinal damage with "leaky gut"...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195677/do-smoking-and-alcohol-behaviours-influence-gi-cancer-survival
#16
REVIEW
Úna C McMenamin, Stephen McCain, Andrew T Kunzmann
Little is known about the role of alcohol and smoking in GI cancer survival compared to GI cancer development. We systematically reviewed the evidence for a role of smoking and alcohol in prognosis among GI cancer patients and inform whether smoking or alcohol cessation interventions or guidelines for GI cancer patients are likely to improve prognosis. A total of 84 relevant studies were identified. Continued smokers, particularly heavy smokers, had worse prognosis than never smokers in most GI cancers. However, more evidence is needed to establish the likely impact of smoking cessation interventions amongst GI cancer patients...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195676/alcohol-smoking-and-the-risk-of-premalignant-and-malignant-colorectal-neoplasms
#17
REVIEW
Ifewumi O Fagunwa, Maurice B Loughrey, Helen G Coleman
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and has a complex aetiology consisting of environmental and genetic factors. In this review, we evaluate the roles of alcohol and tobacco smoking in colorectal neoplasia. Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking are associated with modest, but significantly, increased risks of CRC, adenomatous and serrated polyps. There is consistent evidence of dose-response relationships for both alcohol and smoking, and risk of these neoplasms. Alcohol and smoking appear to be more strongly associated with colorectal polyp than CRC development, suggesting roles in the initiation of neoplastic growths...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195675/the-role-of-smoking-and-alcohol-behaviour-in-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Mais Khasawneh, Andrew D Spence, Jennifer Addley, Patrick B Allen
In the era of increasing use of immunosuppressive and biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, environmental influences remain important independent risk factors to modify the course of the disease, affect the need for surgery and recurrence rates post-surgical resection. The effect of smoking on inflammatory bowel disease has been established over the decades, however the exact mechanism of how smoking affects remains as area of research. Alcohol is also among the socio-environmental factors which has been recognised to cause a flare of symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease patients...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195674/the-role-of-smoking-and-alcohol-behaviour-in-management-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Bodil Ohlsson
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common disorders in the population. Lifestyle habits have been suspected to influence the presence and degree of symptoms, and many studies have examined the role of food components and physical activity on the disease development. The role of smoking and alcohol intake on FGID has been less thoroughly examined. This systematic literature review, of a large amount of studies from different countries around the world with different design and application of FGID criteria, shows that smoking seems to be associated with a significant 50% increased risk of FD for current compared with never smokers...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195673/alcohol-smoking-and-the-liver-disease-patient
#20
REVIEW
Hannes Hagström
Alcohol is an established risk factor for cirrhosis. Current recommendations for a "safe" limit for alcohol consumption are usually set to around 30 g of alcohol per day for men and 20 g per day for women, but evidence is mounting that these cut-offs might be set too high. Also, inter-individual differences in the hepatic sensitivity for alcohol likely play into the risk of development of cirrhosis. In patients with concomitant liver diseases, a synergistic effect on fibrosis progression and high consumption of alcohol is evident...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
journal
journal
39738
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"