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Developing World Bioethics

Itziar de Lecuona, MarĂ­a Villalobos-Quesada
INTRODUCTION: The paradigm shift to a knowledge-based economy has incremented the use of personal information applied to health-related activities, such as biomedical research, innovation, and commercial initiatives. The convergence of science, technology, communication and data technologies has given rise to the application of big data to health; for example through eHealth, human databases and biobanks. METHODS: In light of these changes, we enquire about the value of personal data and its appropriate use...
August 9, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
John Barugahare
Implementation of existing ethical guidelines for international collaborative medical and health research is still largely controversial in sub-Saharan Africa for two major reasons: One, they are seen as foreign and allegedly inconsistent with what has been described as an 'African worldview', hence, demand for their strict implementations reeks of 'bioethical imperialism'. Two, they have other discernible inadequacies - lack of sufficient detail, apparent as well as real ambiguities, vagueness and contradictions...
August 6, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Florencia Luna
"Vulnerability" is a key concept for research ethics and public health ethics. This term can be discussed from either a conceptual or a practical perspective. I previously proposed the metaphor of layers to understand how this concept functions from the conceptual perspective in human research. In this paper I will clarify how my analysis includes other definitions of vulnerability. Then, I will take the practical-ethical perspective, rejecting the usefulness of taxonomies to analyze vulnerabilities...
July 30, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Angelina Olesen, Latifah Amin, Zurina Mahadi
INTRODUCTION: To explore academia perceptions and experience with unethical authorship practices in their respective institutions. METHOD: 21 in-depth interviews were carried out. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed variability in experiences with various types of unethical authorship practices among the interviewees. Second, we found that unethical authorship practices are not so unusual among academia although the exact numbers of incidents are unknown due to the fact that such practices are seldom reported...
July 26, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Cornelius Ewuoso
This study argues the thesis that a set of guidelines - firmly rooted in a particular interpretation of African moral theory, specifically, Ubuntu - will do a better job than current medical ethics frameworks, in addressing ethical challenges around misattributed parentage within the clinical context. Incidental information such as information with significant personal/health implications raises unique challenges for medical professionals. For example, withholding information of misattributed paternity accidentally discovered in clinical interactions may be seen by a patient as a violation of his/her right-to-know...
July 8, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Joseph Ochieng, Erisa Mwaka, Betty Kwagala, Nelson Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: The globalization of clinical research in the last two decades has led to a significant increase in the volume of clinical research in developing countries. As of 2016, Uganda was the third largest destination for clinical trials in Africa. This requires adequate capacity and systems to facilitate ethical practice. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving review of laws, guidelines, policies and records from 1896 to date. RESULTS: Modern medicine evolved from 1896 and by the time of Uganda's independence in 1962, a 1500 bed national referral hospital was in place and a fully-fledged medical school was established at the Makerere University...
June 29, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Bridget Pratt
Engaging citizens is vital to achieving people-centred health research. This paper aims to put attention to dynamics of power and dynamics of difference back at the centre of citizen engagement in health research priority-setting. Without attention to power and difference, engagement can lead to presence without voice and voice without influence, particularly for disadvantaged and marginalised groups. By analysing six key bodies of literature, the paper first identifies the different components of engagement-who initiates, for what purpose, who participates, and how they participate-and the dynamics of power and dynamics of difference relevant to them...
June 25, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ndukaku Okorie
In this paper, I discuss the question of partiality and impartiality in the application of triage. Triage is a process in medical research which recommends that patients should be sorted for treatment according to the degree or severity of their injury. In employing the triage protocol, however, the question of partiality arises because socially vulnerable groups will be neglected since there is the likelihood that the social determinants of a patient's health may diminish her chance of survival. As a process that is based on the severity of a patient's injury, triage will be unfair, and hence negatively partial, to socially vulnerable people...
June 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Teodora Alexa-Stratulat, Marius Neagu, Anca-Iulia Neagu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Beatrice Gabriela Ioan
The article explores the challenges of ensuring voluntary and informed consent which is obtained from potential research subjects in the north-eastern part of Romania. This study is one of the first empirical papers of this nature in Romania. The study used a quantitative survey design using the adapted Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) questionnaire. The target population consisted of 100 adult persons who voluntarily enrolled in clinical trials. The informed consent form must contain details regarding the potential risks and benefits, the aim of the clinical trial, study design, confidentiality, insurance and contact details in case of additional questions...
June 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Nandi Slabbert, Laura Jane Heathfield
Conventional forensic DNA analysis involves a matching principle, which compares DNA profiles from evidential samples to those from reference samples of known origin. In casework, however, the accessibility to a reference sample is not guaranteed which limits the use of DNA as an investigative tool. This has led to the development of phenotype prediction, which uses SNP analysis to estimate the physical appearance of the sample donor. Physical traits, such as eye, hair and skin colour, have been associated with certain alleles within specific genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Thalia Arawi, Lama Charafeddine
Bioethics is a relatively new addition to bedside medical care in Arab world which is characterized by a special culture that often makes blind adaptation of western ethics codes and principles; a challenge that has to be faced. To date, the American University of Beirut Medical Center is the only hospital that offers bedside ethics consultations in the Arab Region aiming towards better patient-centered care. This article tackles the role of the bedside clinical ethics consultant as an active member of the medical team and the impact of such consultations on decision-making and patient-centered care...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Scaria Kanniyakonil
Euthanasia and assisted dying are illegal in India according to Sections 306 and 309 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), and Article 21 of the Constitution of India. There have been a number of cases where the Indian High Courts and Indian Supreme Court issued differing verdicts concerning the right to life and the right to die. Nevertheless, on 7 March 2011, a paradigm shift happened as a result of the Indian Supreme Court's judgment on involuntary passive euthanasia in the case of Aruna Shanbaug. In its judgment, the Supreme Court requested the government to prepare a law on euthanasia...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Bege Dauda, Steven Joffe
One of the central ethical tenets of research in developing countries is the sponsor's obligation to benefit host participants and communities. Two known models of benefits provision dominate the ethical discourse of research in developing countries. The first model, known as the "reasonable availability," endorses the obligation to provide interventions proven to be effective at the end of a study. This contrasts with the second model, known as "fair benefits," which endorses other forms of benefits that host communities may deem as fair beyond those derived directly from the study's findings...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue that a stronger justification is provided by a principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue: a state may permissibly compel individuals to engage in activities that entail a small cost to them but a large benefit to others, because individuals have a moral duty of easy rescue to engage in those activities...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Harriet Etheredge, Claire Penn, Jennifer Watermeyer
Utilising empirical ethics analysis, we evaluate the merits of systems proposed to increase deceased organ donation in South Africa (SA). We conclude that SA should maintain its soft opt-in policy, and enhance it with 'required transplant referral' in order to maximise donor numbers within an ethically and legally acceptable framework. In SA, as is the case worldwide, the demand for donor organs far exceeds the supply thereof. Currently utilising a soft opt-in system, SA faces the challenge of how to increase donor numbers in a context which is imbued with inequalities in access to healthcare, multiplicitous personal beliefs and practices, distrust of organ transplant and varying levels of education and health literacy...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Nancy S Jecker
How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Kevin G Behrens
I give an account how the principle of 'respect for autonomy' dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, 'respect for persons' and 'respect for free power of choice'. I argue that 'respect for autonomy' is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within the nexus of their communal relationships...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Obiajulu Nnamuchi
The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium is a conglomeration of research and infrastructure projects spread throughout Africa whose aim is to apply genomic methodology to diseases affecting the people in the region. Its operation is innovative in the sense that it is doing something new; that is, filling a hitherto existing void in genomic research capability of African scientists and infusing resources and manpower to institutions and investigators across Africa. But aside from developing and sustaining capacity in genomic research and biorepositories, H3Africa is also invested in developing appropriate ethical regulatory regime to govern research in these areas...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
David B Resnik
Effective community engagement is an important legal, ethical, and practical prerequisite for conducting field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes, because these studies can substantially impact communities and it is usually not possible to obtain informed consent from each community member. Researchers who are planning to conduct field trials should develop a robust community engagement strategy that meets widely recognized standards for seeking approval from the affected population, such as timeliness, consent, information sharing, transparency, understanding, responsiveness, mutual understanding, inclusiveness, and respectfulness...
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
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