journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Developing World Bioethics

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878976/designing-research-funding-schemes-to-promote-global-health-equity-an-exploration-of-current-practice-in-health-systems-research
#1
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
International research is an essential means of reducing health disparities between and within countries and should do so as a matter of global justice. Research funders from high-income countries have an obligation of justice to support health research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) that furthers such objectives. This paper investigates how their current funding schemes are designed to incentivise health systems research in LMICs that promotes health equity. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were performed with 16 grants officers working for 11 funders and organisations that support health systems research: the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, Comic Relief, Doris Duke Foundation, European Commission, International Development Research Centre, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, Research Council of Norway, Rockefeller Foundation, UK Department of International Development, UK Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust...
November 23, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#2
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761986/power-difference-and-risk-perception-mapping-vulnerability-within-the-decision-process-of-pregnant-women-towards-clinical-trial-participation-in-an-urban-middle-income-setting
#3
Geerte C Den Hollander, Joyce L Browne, Daniel Arhinful, Rieke van der Graaf, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
To address the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), research with pregnant women in these settings is increasingly common. Pregnant women in LMIC-context may experience vulnerability related to giving consent to participate in a clinical trial. To recognize possible layers of vulnerability this study aims to identify factors that influence the decision process towards clinical trial participation of pregnant women in an urban middle-income setting. This qualitative research used participant observation, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussion with medical staff and pregnant women eligible for trial participation, at a regional hospital in Accra, Ghana...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699996/evaluating-the-usefulness-of-compulsory-licensing-in-developing-countries-a-comparative-study-of-thai-and-brazilian-experiences-regarding-access-to-aids-treatments
#4
Samira Guennif
While compulsory licensing (CL) is described in the TRIPS agreement as flexibility to protect public health by improving access to medicines in developing countries, a recent literature contends adversely that CL may harm public health. Therefore, this article intends to evaluate the usefulness of CL in the South through the prism of obligations and goals entrusted to patent holders (the effective and non-abusive exploitation of patents in order to achieve industrial and health developments) and in light of experiences in Thailand and Brazil regarding access to antiretroviral drugs...
October 4, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699957/the-vulnerability-of-study-participants-in-the-context-of-transnational-biomedical-research-from-conceptual-considerations-to-practical-implications
#5
Helen Grete Orth, Silke Schicktanz
Outsourcing clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries to low- (middle)-income countries - summarized as transnational biomedical research (TBR) - has lead to many concerns about ethical standards. Whether study participants are particularly vulnerable is one of those concerns. However, the concept of vulnerability is still vague and varies in its definition. Despite the fact that important international ethical guidelines such as the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association or the Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences refer to vulnerability as ethical principle, each of their approaches are different...
October 4, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870249/ethical-issues-in-health-systems-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
EDITORIAL
Paul Ndebele, Adnan A Hyder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870248/thank-you-to-developing-world-bioethics-reviewers
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699954/research-involving-health-providers-and-managers-ethical-issues-faced-by-researchers-conducting-diverse-health-policy-and-systems-research-in-kenya
#8
Sassy Molyneux, Benjamin Tsofa, Edwine Barasa, Mary Muyoka Nyikuri, Evelyn Wanjiku Waweru, Catherine Goodman, Lucy Gilson
There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038160/a-scoping-study-on-the-ethics-of-health-systems-research
#9
Abdulgafoor M Bachani, Abbas Rattani, Adnan A Hyder
Currently, health systems research (HSR) is reviewed by the same ethical standards as clinical research, which has recently been argued in the literature to be an inappropriate standard of evaluation. The issues unique to HSR warrant a different review by research ethics committees (RECs), as it does not impose the same risks to study participants as other types of clinical or public health research. However, there are limited tools and supporting documents that clarify the ethical considerations. Therefore, there is a need for additional reflection around ethical review of HSR and their consideration by RECs...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990669/health-systems-research-consortia-and-the-promotion-of-health-equity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
Bridget Pratt, Katharine A Allen, Adnan A Hyder
Health systems research is widely identified as an indispensable means to achieve the goal of health equity between and within countries. Numerous health systems research consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are currently undertaking programs of research in LMICs. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Recent conceptual work has explored what features might be necessary for health systems research consortia and their research programs to promote health equity...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957047/health-systems-research-in-a-complex-and-rapidly-changing-context-ethical-implications-of-major-health-systems-change-at-scale
#11
Hayley MacGregor, Gerald Bloom
This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871547/what-makes-health-systems-research-in-developing-countries-ethical-application-of-the-emanuel-framework-for-clinical-research-to-health-systems-research
#12
Doug Wassenaar, Abbas Rattani
The growing importance of health systems research has opened debate about appropriate ethical frameworks and guidelines for the ethical review and conduct of health systems research. In this article we consider a detailed proposal from Hyder et al. (2014) and consider it in relation to the conventional criteria for ethics review of clinical research outlined by Emanuel et al. (2004; 2008) and argue that the Emanuel criteria can be usefully applied to the review of health systems research to supplement the Hyder et al...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841370/understanding-health-research-ethics-in-nepal
#13
Jeevan Raj Sharma, Rekha Khatri, Ian Harper
Unlike other countries in South Asia, in Nepal research in the health sector has a relatively recent history. Most health research activities in the country are sponsored by international collaborative assemblages of aid agencies and universities. Data from Nepal Health Research Council shows that, officially, 1,212 health research activities have been carried out between 1991 and 2014. These range from addressing immediate health problems at the country level through operational research, to evaluations and programmatic interventions that are aimed at generating evidence, to more systematic research activities that inform global scientific and policy debates...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527727/the-enemy-as-a-patient-what-can-be-learned-from-the-emotional-experience-of-physicians-and-why-does-it-matter-ethically
#14
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 16, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527640/research-ethics-education-in-post-graduate-medical-curricula-in-i-r-iran
#15
Nazila Nikravanfard, Faezeh Khorasanizadeh, Kazem Zendehdel
Research ethics training during post-graduate education is necessary to improve ethical standards in the design and conduct of biomedical research. We studied quality and quantity of research ethics training in the curricula of post-graduate programs in the medical science in I.R. Iran. We evaluated curricula of 125 post-graduate programs in medical sciences in I.R. Iran. We qualitatively studied the curricula by education level, including the Master and PhD degrees and analyzed the contents and the amount of teaching allocated for ethics training in each curriculum...
August 16, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518590/informed-consent-in-health-research-challenges-and-barriers-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-with-specific-reference-to-nepal
#16
Pramod R Regmi, Nirmal Aryal, Om Kurmi, Puspa Raj Pant, Edwin van Teijlingen, Sharada P Wasti
Obtaining 'informed consent' from every individual participant involved in health research is a mandatory ethical practice. Informed consent is a process whereby potential participants are genuinely informed about their role, risk and rights before they are enrolled in the study. Thus, ethics committees in most countries require 'informed consent form' as part of an ethics application which is reviewed before granting research ethics approval. Despite a significant increase in health research activity in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) in recent years, only limited work has been done to address ethical concerns...
August 12, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378034/attitudes-toward-post-trial-access-to-medical-interventions-a-review-of-academic-literature-legislation-and-international-guidelines
#17
Kori Cook, Jeremy Snyder, John Calvert
There is currently no international consensus around post-trial obligations toward research participants, community members, and host countries. This literature review investigates arguments and attitudes toward post-trial access. The literature review found that academic discussions focused on the rights of research participants, but offered few practical recommendations for addressing or improving current practices. Similarly, there are few regulations or legislation pertaining to post-trial access. If regulatory changes are necessary, we need to understand the current arguments, legislation, and attitudes towards post-trial access and participants and community members...
August 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378033/zika-virus-women-and-ethics
#18
EDITORIAL
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791577/no-ethical-divide-between-china-and-the-west-in-human-embryo-research
#19
Xiaomei Zhai, Vincent Ng, Reidar Lie
This is a discussion of the reaction to the recent research article publication in the journal Protein & Cell by a group of scientists at Sun Yat-sen University using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique on editing non-viable human zygotes. Many commentators condemned the Chinese scientists for overstepping ethical boundaries long accepted in Western countries and accused China of having lax regulations on genomic research in general. We argue that not only did this research follow strict ethical standards and fully comply with current regulations, but China also has a well-developed regulatory framework governing such research comparable to many developed countries...
August 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26481322/post-trial-obligations-in-the-declaration-of-helsinki-2013-classification-reconstruction-and-interpretation
#20
Ignacio Mastroleo
The general aim of this article is to give a critical interpretation of post-trial obligations towards individual research participants in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013. Transitioning research participants to the appropriate health care when a research study ends is a global problem. The publication of a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki is a great opportunity to discuss it. In my view, the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 identifies at least two clearly different types of post-trial obligations, specifically, access to care after research and access to information after research...
August 2016: Developing World Bioethics
journal
journal
39729
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"