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Developing World Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513968/the-views-of-ethics-committee-members-and-medical-researchers-on-the-return-of-individual-research-results-and-incidental-findings-ownership-issues-and-benefit-sharing-in-biobanking-research-in-a-south-indian-city
#1
Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz, Srinivasan K
The return of individual research results and incidental findings from biobanking research is a much debated ethical issue globally but has extensive relevance in India where the burden of out of pocket health care expenses is high for the majority. The views of 21 ethics committee (EC) members and 22 researchers from Bengaluru, India, concerning the ethics of biobanking research were sought through in-depth interviews using an unfolding case vignette with probes. A shared view among most was that individual research results which are 'actionable' or have 'clinical significance' should be returned to the sample contributors through their treating physicians...
May 17, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508541/opt-in-or-opt-out-to-increase-organ-donation-in-south-africa-appraising-proposed-strategies-using-an-empirical-ethics-analysis
#2
Harriet Etheredge, Claire Penn, Jennifer Watermeyer
Utilising empirical ethics analysis, we evaluate the merits of systems proposed to increase deceased organ donation in South Africa (SA). We conclude that SA should maintain its soft opt-in policy, and enhance it with 'required transplant referral' in order to maximise donor numbers within an ethically and legally acceptable framework. In SA, as is the case worldwide, the demand for donor organs far exceeds the supply thereof. Currently utilising a soft opt-in system, SA faces the challenge of how to increase donor numbers in a context which is imbued with inequalities in access to healthcare, multiplicitous personal beliefs and practices, distrust of organ transplant and varying levels of education and health literacy...
May 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508422/age-related-inequalities-in-health-and-healthcare-the-life-stages-approach
#3
Nancy S Jecker
How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies...
May 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493445/informed-consent-community-engagement-and-study-participation-at-a-research-site-in-kigali-rwanda
#4
Jennifer Ilo van Nuil, Evelyne Kestelyn, Grace Umutoni, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Marie M Umulisa, Janneke van de Wijgert, Raffaella Ravinetto
People enroll in medical research for many reasons ranging from decisions regarding their own or family members' health situation to broader considerations including access to health and financial resources. In socially vulnerable communities the choice to participate is often based on a risk-benefit assessment that goes beyond the medical aspects of the research, and considers the benefits received. In this qualitative study, we examined the motivations of Rwandan women to participate in a non-commercial collaborative research study examining the safety, acceptability, and adherence of a contraceptive vaginal ring in Rwanda juxtaposed with the perceptions of the research within the community...
May 11, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470868/mapping-research-ethics-committees-in-africa-evidence-of-the-growth-of-ethics-review-of-health-research-in-africa
#5
Boitumelo Mokgatla, Carel IJsselmuiden, Doug Wassenaar, Mary Kasule
Health research initiatives worldwide are growing in scope and complexity, particularly as they move into the developing world. Expanding health research activity in low- and middle-income countries has resulted in a commensurate rise in the need for sound ethical review structures and functions in the form of Research Ethics Committees (RECs). The urgent need for continued capacity development in Africa has necessitated research initiatives to identify existing capacity. This discussion paper describes the mapping of RECs in Africa through MARC (Mapping African Research Ethics Capacity) project, second phase (2012 to date) and discusses the findings...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470856/defining-health-research-for-development-the-perspective-of-stakeholders-from-an-international-health-research-partnership-in-ghana-and-tanzania
#6
Claire Leonie Ward, David Shaw, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Elger
OBJECTIVES: The study uses a qualitative empirical method to define Health Research for Development. This project explores the perspectives of stakeholders in an international health research partnership operating in Ghana and Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders in an international multicenter partnership between GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Vaccine Developer) and the global health nonprofit organisation PATH and its Malaria Vaccine Initiative program (PATH/MVI, Funder-Development Partner), (RTS, S) (NCT00866619)...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470830/a-critique-of-the-principle-of-respect-for-autonomy-grounded-in-african-thought
#7
Kevin G Behrens
I give an account how the principle of 'respect for autonomy' dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, 'respect for persons' and 'respect for free power of choice'. I argue that 'respect for autonomy' is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within the nexus of their communal relationships...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470782/h3africa-an-africa-exemplar-exploring-its-framework-on-protecting-human-research-participants
#8
Obiajulu Nnamuchi
The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium is a conglomeration of research and infrastructure projects spread throughout Africa whose aim is to apply genomic methodology to diseases affecting the people in the region. Its operation is innovative in the sense that it is doing something new; that is, filling a hitherto existing void in genomic research capability of African scientists and infusing resources and manpower to institutions and investigators across Africa. But aside from developing and sustaining capacity in genomic research and biorepositories, H3Africa is also invested in developing appropriate ethical regulatory regime to govern research in these areas...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470752/ethics-of-community-engagement-in-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-mosquitoes
#9
David B Resnik
Effective community engagement is an important legal, ethical, and practical prerequisite for conducting field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes, because these studies can substantially impact communities and it is usually not possible to obtain informed consent from each community member. Researchers who are planning to conduct field trials should develop a robust community engagement strategy that meets widely recognized standards for seeking approval from the affected population, such as timeliness, consent, information sharing, transparency, understanding, responsiveness, mutual understanding, inclusiveness, and respectfulness...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248457/vulnerability-and-dignity-labeling-problems-away
#10
EDITORIAL
Udo Schuklenk, William Rooney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425853/dilemmas-in-international-research-and-the-value-of-practical-wisdom
#11
Kimberly Jarvis
When conducting research in an international setting, in a country different than that of the researcher, unpredictable circumstances can arise. A study conducted by a novice North American researcher with a vulnerable population in northern Ghana highlights these happenings with an emphasis placed on the ethical challenges encountered. An illustration from the research is used to highlight an ethical dilemma while in the field, and how utilizing a moral decision-making framework can assist in making choices about a participant's right to autonomy, privacy, and confidentiality during the research process...
April 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871880/factors-affecting-women-s-autonomous-decision-making-in-research-participation-amongst-yoruba-women-of-western-nigeria
#12
Chitu Womehoma Princewill, Ayodele S Jegede, Karin Nordström, Bolatito Lanre-Abass, Bernice Simone Elger
Research is a global enterprise requiring participation of both genders for generalizable knowledge; advancement of science and evidence based medical treatment. Participation of women in research is necessary to reduce the current bias that most empirical evidence is obtained from studies with men to inform health care and related policy interventions. Various factors are assumed to limit autonomy amongst the Yoruba women of western Nigeria. This paper seeks to explore the experience and understanding of autonomy by the Yoruba women in relation to research participation...
April 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818105/raising-the-barriers-to-access-to-medicines-in-the-developing-world-the-relentless-push-for-data-exclusivity
#13
Lisa Diependaele, Julian Cockbain, Sigrid Sterckx
Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional 'regulatory' protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to the regulatory authorities before a new drug can enter the market...
April 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085217/the-patient-worker-a-model-for-human-research-subjects-and-gestational-surrogates
#14
Emma Ryman, Katy Fulfer
We propose the 'patient-worker' as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy...
January 13, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#15
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032470/a-look-at-uganda-s-early-hiv-prevention-strategies-through-a-moderate-african-communitarian-lens
#16
Jane Wathuta
This paper seeks to highlight the benefits of prioritizing moderate African communitarian principles as partly demonstrated in the HIV prevention strategies implemented in Uganda in the late 1980s. Pertinent lessons could be drawn so as to achieve the HIV prevention targets envisioned in the post-2015 development era. Communitarianism emphasizes the importance of communities as part of healthy human existence. Its core ethical values include the virtues of generosity, compassion, and solidarity. Persuasion through communication, consensus through dialogue, and the awareness and commitment to responsibilities towards other members of the community, are chief practices relied upon to achieve appropriate social behaviour...
December 28, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008708/application-of-ethical-principles-to-research-using-public-health-data-in-the-global-south-perspectives-from-africa
#17
Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Tenzin Wangmo, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Simone Elger
Existing ethics guidelines, influential literature and policies on ethical research generally focus on real-time data collection from humans. They enforce individual rights and liberties, thereby lowering need for aggregate protections. Although dependable, emerging public health research paradigms like research using public health data (RUPD) raise new challenges to their application. Unlike traditional research, RUPD is population-based, aligned to public health activities, and often reliant on pre-collected longitudinal data...
December 22, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990743/punishment-of-minor-female-genital-ritual-procedures-is-the-perfect-the-enemy-of-the-good
#18
Allan J Jacobs, Kavita Shah Arora
Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes...
December 19, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990738/beneficial-coercion-in-psychiatric-care-insights-from-african-ethico-cultural-system
#19
Cornelius Olukunle Ewuoso
There is a 'catch 22' situation about applying coercion in psychiatric care. Autonomous choices undeniably are rights of patients. However, emphasizing rights for a mentally-ill patient could jeopardize the chances of the patient receiving care or endanger the public. Conversely, the beneficial effects of coercion are difficult to predict. Thus, applying coercion in psychiatric care requires delicate balancing of individual-rights, individual well-being and public safety, which has not been achieved by current frameworks...
December 19, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870249/ethical-issues-in-health-systems-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
EDITORIAL
Paul Ndebele, Adnan A Hyder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
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