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Developing World Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085217/the-patient-worker-a-model-for-human-research-subjects-and-gestational-surrogates
#1
Emma Ryman, Katy Fulfer
We propose the 'patient-worker' as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy...
January 13, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#2
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032470/a-look-at-uganda-s-early-hiv-prevention-strategies-through-a-moderate-african-communitarian-lens
#3
Jane Wathuta
This paper seeks to highlight the benefits of prioritizing moderate African communitarian principles as partly demonstrated in the HIV prevention strategies implemented in Uganda in the late 1980s. Pertinent lessons could be drawn so as to achieve the HIV prevention targets envisioned in the post-2015 development era. Communitarianism emphasizes the importance of communities as part of healthy human existence. Its core ethical values include the virtues of generosity, compassion, and solidarity. Persuasion through communication, consensus through dialogue, and the awareness and commitment to responsibilities towards other members of the community, are chief practices relied upon to achieve appropriate social behaviour...
December 28, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008708/application-of-ethical-principles-to-research-using-public-health-data-in-the-global-south-perspectives-from-africa
#4
Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Tenzin Wangmo, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Simone Elger
Existing ethics guidelines, influential literature and policies on ethical research generally focus on real-time data collection from humans. They enforce individual rights and liberties, thereby lowering need for aggregate protections. Although dependable, emerging public health research paradigms like research using public health data (RUPD) raise new challenges to their application. Unlike traditional research, RUPD is population-based, aligned to public health activities, and often reliant on pre-collected longitudinal data...
December 22, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990743/punishment-of-minor-female-genital-ritual-procedures-is-the-perfect-the-enemy-of-the-good
#5
Allan J Jacobs, Kavita Shah Arora
Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes...
December 19, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990738/beneficial-coercion-in-psychiatric-care-insights-from-african-ethico-cultural-system
#6
Cornelius Olukunle Ewuoso
There is a 'catch 22' situation about applying coercion in psychiatric care. Autonomous choices undeniably are rights of patients. However, emphasizing rights for a mentally-ill patient could jeopardize the chances of the patient receiving care or endanger the public. Conversely, the beneficial effects of coercion are difficult to predict. Thus, applying coercion in psychiatric care requires delicate balancing of individual-rights, individual well-being and public safety, which has not been achieved by current frameworks...
December 19, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870249/ethical-issues-in-health-systems-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
EDITORIAL
Paul Ndebele, Adnan A Hyder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870248/thank-you-to-developing-world-bioethics-reviewers
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699954/research-involving-health-providers-and-managers-ethical-issues-faced-by-researchers-conducting-diverse-health-policy-and-systems-research-in-kenya
#9
Sassy Molyneux, Benjamin Tsofa, Edwine Barasa, Mary Muyoka Nyikuri, Evelyn Wanjiku Waweru, Catherine Goodman, Lucy Gilson
There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038160/a-scoping-study-on-the-ethics-of-health-systems-research
#10
Abdulgafoor M Bachani, Abbas Rattani, Adnan A Hyder
Currently, health systems research (HSR) is reviewed by the same ethical standards as clinical research, which has recently been argued in the literature to be an inappropriate standard of evaluation. The issues unique to HSR warrant a different review by research ethics committees (RECs), as it does not impose the same risks to study participants as other types of clinical or public health research. However, there are limited tools and supporting documents that clarify the ethical considerations. Therefore, there is a need for additional reflection around ethical review of HSR and their consideration by RECs...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990669/health-systems-research-consortia-and-the-promotion-of-health-equity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
Bridget Pratt, Katharine A Allen, Adnan A Hyder
Health systems research is widely identified as an indispensable means to achieve the goal of health equity between and within countries. Numerous health systems research consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are currently undertaking programs of research in LMICs. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Recent conceptual work has explored what features might be necessary for health systems research consortia and their research programs to promote health equity...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957047/health-systems-research-in-a-complex-and-rapidly-changing-context-ethical-implications-of-major-health-systems-change-at-scale
#12
Hayley MacGregor, Gerald Bloom
This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871547/what-makes-health-systems-research-in-developing-countries-ethical-application-of-the-emanuel-framework-for-clinical-research-to-health-systems-research
#13
Doug Wassenaar, Abbas Rattani
The growing importance of health systems research has opened debate about appropriate ethical frameworks and guidelines for the ethical review and conduct of health systems research. In this article we consider a detailed proposal from Hyder et al. (2014) and consider it in relation to the conventional criteria for ethics review of clinical research outlined by Emanuel et al. (2004; 2008) and argue that the Emanuel criteria can be usefully applied to the review of health systems research to supplement the Hyder et al...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841370/understanding-health-research-ethics-in-nepal
#14
Jeevan Raj Sharma, Rekha Khatri, Ian Harper
Unlike other countries in South Asia, in Nepal research in the health sector has a relatively recent history. Most health research activities in the country are sponsored by international collaborative assemblages of aid agencies and universities. Data from Nepal Health Research Council shows that, officially, 1,212 health research activities have been carried out between 1991 and 2014. These range from addressing immediate health problems at the country level through operational research, to evaluations and programmatic interventions that are aimed at generating evidence, to more systematic research activities that inform global scientific and policy debates...
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878976/designing-research-funding-schemes-to-promote-global-health-equity-an-exploration-of-current-practice-in-health-systems-research
#15
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
International research is an essential means of reducing health disparities between and within countries and should do so as a matter of global justice. Research funders from high-income countries have an obligation of justice to support health research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) that furthers such objectives. This paper investigates how their current funding schemes are designed to incentivise health systems research in LMICs that promotes health equity. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were performed with 16 grants officers working for 11 funders and organisations that support health systems research: the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, Comic Relief, Doris Duke Foundation, European Commission, International Development Research Centre, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, Research Council of Norway, Rockefeller Foundation, UK Department of International Development, UK Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust...
November 23, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#16
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761986/power-difference-and-risk-perception-mapping-vulnerability-within-the-decision-process-of-pregnant-women-towards-clinical-trial-participation-in-an-urban-middle-income-setting
#17
Geerte C Den Hollander, Joyce L Browne, Daniel Arhinful, Rieke van der Graaf, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
To address the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), research with pregnant women in these settings is increasingly common. Pregnant women in LMIC-context may experience vulnerability related to giving consent to participate in a clinical trial. To recognize possible layers of vulnerability this study aims to identify factors that influence the decision process towards clinical trial participation of pregnant women in an urban middle-income setting. This qualitative research used participant observation, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussion with medical staff and pregnant women eligible for trial participation, at a regional hospital in Accra, Ghana...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699996/evaluating-the-usefulness-of-compulsory-licensing-in-developing-countries-a-comparative-study-of-thai-and-brazilian-experiences-regarding-access-to-aids-treatments
#18
Samira Guennif
While compulsory licensing (CL) is described in the TRIPS agreement as flexibility to protect public health by improving access to medicines in developing countries, a recent literature contends adversely that CL may harm public health. Therefore, this article intends to evaluate the usefulness of CL in the South through the prism of obligations and goals entrusted to patent holders (the effective and non-abusive exploitation of patents in order to achieve industrial and health developments) and in light of experiences in Thailand and Brazil regarding access to antiretroviral drugs...
October 4, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699957/the-vulnerability-of-study-participants-in-the-context-of-transnational-biomedical-research-from-conceptual-considerations-to-practical-implications
#19
Helen Grete Orth, Silke Schicktanz
Outsourcing clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries to low- (middle)-income countries - summarized as transnational biomedical research (TBR) - has lead to many concerns about ethical standards. Whether study participants are particularly vulnerable is one of those concerns. However, the concept of vulnerability is still vague and varies in its definition. Despite the fact that important international ethical guidelines such as the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association or the Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences refer to vulnerability as ethical principle, each of their approaches are different...
October 4, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527727/the-enemy-as-a-patient-what-can-be-learned-from-the-emotional-experience-of-physicians-and-why-does-it-matter-ethically
#20
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 16, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
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