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Developing World Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714281/the-ethics-and-politics-of-patient-physician-mistrust-in-contemporary-china
#1
Yunxiang Yan
Focusing on the shared sense of victimization and disadvantage-ness by both patients and doctors/medical workers in cases of medical conflicts, this paper aims to examine the current patient-doctor tensions in the larger context of moral transformation in Chinese society since the 1980s. Although the decline of public trust in certain aspects is closely associated with the impact of commodification and commercialization of medical sector during the past two decades, other factors play important role as well...
July 17, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691185/regulating-clinical-trials-in-india-the-economics-of-ethics
#2
Gerard Porter
The relationship between the ethical standards for the governance of clinical trials and market forces can be complex and problematic. This article uses India as a case study to explore this nexus. From the mid-2000s, India became a popular destination for foreign-sponsored clinical trials. The Indian government had sought to both attract clinical trials and ensure these would be run in line with internationally accepted ethical norms. Reports of controversial medical research, however, triggered debate about the robustness and suitability of India's regulatory system...
July 9, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544136/conceptualizations-of-fairness-and-legitimacy-in-the-context-of-ethiopian-health-priority-setting-reflections-on-the-applicability-of-accountability-for-reasonableness
#3
Kadia Petricca, Asfaw Bekele
A critical element in building stronger health systems involves strengthening good governance to build capacity for transparent and fair health planning and priority setting. Over the past 20 years, the ethical framework Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) has been a prominent conceptual guide in strengthening fair and legitimate processes of health decision-making. While many of the principles embedded within the framework are congruent with Western conceptualizations of what constitutes procedural fairness, there is a paucity in the literature that captures the degree of resonance between these principles and the views of decision makers from non-Western settings; particularly in Africa, where many countries have only recently, within the last 20-30 years, become more democratic...
May 22, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544334/corruption-or-professional-dignity-an-ethical-examination-of-the-phenomenon-of-red-envelopes-monetary-gifts-in-medical-practice-in-china
#4
Wei Zhu, Lijie Wang, Chengshang Yang
In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field...
May 21, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513968/the-views-of-ethics-committee-members-and-medical-researchers-on-the-return-of-individual-research-results-and-incidental-findings-ownership-issues-and-benefit-sharing-in-biobanking-research-in-a-south-indian-city
#5
Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz, Srinivasan K
The return of individual research results and incidental findings from biobanking research is a much debated ethical issue globally but has extensive relevance in India where the burden of out of pocket health care expenses is high for the majority. The views of 21 ethics committee (EC) members and 22 researchers from Bengaluru, India, concerning the ethics of biobanking research were sought through in-depth interviews using an unfolding case vignette with probes. A shared view among most was that individual research results which are 'actionable' or have 'clinical significance' should be returned to the sample contributors through their treating physicians...
May 17, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508541/opt-in-or-opt-out-to-increase-organ-donation-in-south-africa-appraising-proposed-strategies-using-an-empirical-ethics-analysis
#6
Harriet Etheredge, Claire Penn, Jennifer Watermeyer
Utilising empirical ethics analysis, we evaluate the merits of systems proposed to increase deceased organ donation in South Africa (SA). We conclude that SA should maintain its soft opt-in policy, and enhance it with 'required transplant referral' in order to maximise donor numbers within an ethically and legally acceptable framework. In SA, as is the case worldwide, the demand for donor organs far exceeds the supply thereof. Currently utilising a soft opt-in system, SA faces the challenge of how to increase donor numbers in a context which is imbued with inequalities in access to healthcare, multiplicitous personal beliefs and practices, distrust of organ transplant and varying levels of education and health literacy...
May 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508422/age-related-inequalities-in-health-and-healthcare-the-life-stages-approach
#7
Nancy S Jecker
How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies...
May 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493445/informed-consent-community-engagement-and-study-participation-at-a-research-site-in-kigali-rwanda
#8
Jennifer Ilo van Nuil, Evelyne Kestelyn, Grace Umutoni, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Marie M Umulisa, Janneke van de Wijgert, Raffaella Ravinetto
People enroll in medical research for many reasons ranging from decisions regarding their own or family members' health situation to broader considerations including access to health and financial resources. In socially vulnerable communities the choice to participate is often based on a risk-benefit assessment that goes beyond the medical aspects of the research, and considers the benefits received. In this qualitative study, we examined the motivations of Rwandan women to participate in a non-commercial collaborative research study examining the safety, acceptability, and adherence of a contraceptive vaginal ring in Rwanda juxtaposed with the perceptions of the research within the community...
May 11, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470868/mapping-research-ethics-committees-in-africa-evidence-of-the-growth-of-ethics-review-of-health-research-in-africa
#9
Boitumelo Mokgatla, Carel IJsselmuiden, Doug Wassenaar, Mary Kasule
Health research initiatives worldwide are growing in scope and complexity, particularly as they move into the developing world. Expanding health research activity in low- and middle-income countries has resulted in a commensurate rise in the need for sound ethical review structures and functions in the form of Research Ethics Committees (RECs). The urgent need for continued capacity development in Africa has necessitated research initiatives to identify existing capacity. This discussion paper describes the mapping of RECs in Africa through MARC (Mapping African Research Ethics Capacity) project, second phase (2012 to date) and discusses the findings...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470856/defining-health-research-for-development-the-perspective-of-stakeholders-from-an-international-health-research-partnership-in-ghana-and-tanzania
#10
Claire Leonie Ward, David Shaw, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Elger
OBJECTIVES: The study uses a qualitative empirical method to define Health Research for Development. This project explores the perspectives of stakeholders in an international health research partnership operating in Ghana and Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders in an international multicenter partnership between GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Vaccine Developer) and the global health nonprofit organisation PATH and its Malaria Vaccine Initiative program (PATH/MVI, Funder-Development Partner), (RTS, S) (NCT00866619)...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470830/a-critique-of-the-principle-of-respect-for-autonomy-grounded-in-african-thought
#11
Kevin G Behrens
I give an account how the principle of 'respect for autonomy' dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, 'respect for persons' and 'respect for free power of choice'. I argue that 'respect for autonomy' is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within the nexus of their communal relationships...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470782/h3africa-an-africa-exemplar-exploring-its-framework-on-protecting-human-research-participants
#12
Obiajulu Nnamuchi
The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium is a conglomeration of research and infrastructure projects spread throughout Africa whose aim is to apply genomic methodology to diseases affecting the people in the region. Its operation is innovative in the sense that it is doing something new; that is, filling a hitherto existing void in genomic research capability of African scientists and infusing resources and manpower to institutions and investigators across Africa. But aside from developing and sustaining capacity in genomic research and biorepositories, H3Africa is also invested in developing appropriate ethical regulatory regime to govern research in these areas...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470752/ethics-of-community-engagement-in-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-mosquitoes
#13
David B Resnik
Effective community engagement is an important legal, ethical, and practical prerequisite for conducting field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes, because these studies can substantially impact communities and it is usually not possible to obtain informed consent from each community member. Researchers who are planning to conduct field trials should develop a robust community engagement strategy that meets widely recognized standards for seeking approval from the affected population, such as timeliness, consent, information sharing, transparency, understanding, responsiveness, mutual understanding, inclusiveness, and respectfulness...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707453/dignity-is-a-useful-concept-for-bioethics
#14
EDITORIAL
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990743/punishment-of-minor-female-genital-ritual-procedures-is-the-perfect-the-enemy-of-the-good
#15
Allan J Jacobs, Kavita Shah Arora
Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#16
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699996/evaluating-the-usefulness-of-compulsory-licensing-in-developing-countries-a-comparative-study-of-thai-and-brazilian-experiences-regarding-access-to-aids-treatments
#17
Samira Guennif
While compulsory licensing (CL) is described in the TRIPS agreement as flexibility to protect public health by improving access to medicines in developing countries, a recent literature contends adversely that CL may harm public health. Therefore, this article intends to evaluate the usefulness of CL in the South through the prism of obligations and goals entrusted to patent holders (the effective and non-abusive exploitation of patents in order to achieve industrial and health developments) and in light of experiences in Thailand and Brazil regarding access to antiretroviral drugs...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699957/the-vulnerability-of-study-participants-in-the-context-of-transnational-biomedical-research-from-conceptual-considerations-to-practical-implications
#18
Helen Grete Orth, Silke Schicktanz
Outsourcing clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries to low- (middle)-income countries - summarized as transnational biomedical research (TBR) - has lead to many concerns about ethical standards. Whether study participants are particularly vulnerable is one of those concerns. However, the concept of vulnerability is still vague and varies in its definition. Despite the fact that important international ethical guidelines such as the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association or the Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences refer to vulnerability as ethical principle, each of their approaches are different...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527727/the-enemy-as-a-patient-what-can-be-learned-from-the-emotional-experience-of-physicians-and-why-does-it-matter-ethically
#19
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527640/research-ethics-education-in-post-graduate-medical-curricula-in-i-r-iran
#20
Nazila Nikravanfard, Faezeh Khorasanizadeh, Kazem Zendehdel
Research ethics training during post-graduate education is necessary to improve ethical standards in the design and conduct of biomedical research. We studied quality and quantity of research ethics training in the curricula of post-graduate programs in the medical science in I.R. Iran. We evaluated curricula of 125 post-graduate programs in medical sciences in I.R. Iran. We qualitatively studied the curricula by education level, including the Master and PhD degrees and analyzed the contents and the amount of teaching allocated for ethics training in each curriculum...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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