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Developing World Bioethics

Jamie Webb
This paper considers the ethics of placebo-controlled trials in developing countries, where a treatment already exists but is not available due to the low local standard of care. Such trials would not be permitted in more developed nations where a higher standard of care is available. I argue that there are moral intuitions against such trials, but a further intuition that if the trials were aimed at producing treatment options for the developing world, that would be more permissible than if the trials were designed with the benefit of rich world people in mind...
September 18, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
John Barugahare
Implementation of existing ethical guidelines for international collaborative medical and health research is still largely controversial in sub-Saharan Africa for two major reasons: One, they are seen as foreign and allegedly inconsistent with what has been described as an 'African worldview', hence, demand for their strict implementations reeks of 'bioethical imperialism'. Two, they have other discernible inadequacies - lack of sufficient detail, apparent as well as real ambiguities, vagueness and contradictions...
August 6, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Florencia Luna
"Vulnerability" is a key concept for research ethics and public health ethics. This term can be discussed from either a conceptual or a practical perspective. I previously proposed the metaphor of layers to understand how this concept functions from the conceptual perspective in human research. In this paper I will clarify how my analysis includes other definitions of vulnerability. Then, I will take the practical-ethical perspective, rejecting the usefulness of taxonomies to analyze vulnerabilities...
July 30, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Mbih Jerome Tosam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Itziar de Lecuona, María Villalobos-Quesada
INTRODUCTION: The paradigm shift to a knowledge-based economy has incremented the use of personal information applied to health-related activities, such as biomedical research, innovation, and commercial initiatives. The convergence of science, technology, communication and data technologies has given rise to the application of big data to health; for example through eHealth, human databases and biobanks. METHODS: In light of these changes, we enquire about the value of personal data and its appropriate use...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Angelina Olesen, Latifah Amin, Zurina Mahadi
INTRODUCTION: To explore academia perceptions and experience with unethical authorship practices in their respective institutions. METHOD: 21 in-depth interviews were carried out. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed variability in experiences with various types of unethical authorship practices among the interviewees. Second, we found that unethical authorship practices are not so unusual among academia although the exact numbers of incidents are unknown due to the fact that such practices are seldom reported...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Teodora Alexa-Stratulat, Marius Neagu, Anca-Iulia Neagu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Beatrice Gabriela Ioan
The article explores the challenges of ensuring voluntary and informed consent which is obtained from potential research subjects in the north-eastern part of Romania. This study is one of the first empirical papers of this nature in Romania. The study used a quantitative survey design using the adapted Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) questionnaire. The target population consisted of 100 adult persons who voluntarily enrolled in clinical trials. The informed consent form must contain details regarding the potential risks and benefits, the aim of the clinical trial, study design, confidentiality, insurance and contact details in case of additional questions...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ercan Avci
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ademola K Fayemi
In this paper, I advance Odera Oruka's insights on the ethics of consumerism in order to draw relevant implications of his thoughts on rethinking the problem of obesity. I argue that Oruka's ethics of consumerism and his right to human minimum theory entail some salient ideas that might serve as a better ethical model for reducing the global obesity prevalence. Though Oruka's African moral philosophy is yet to receive universal attention it arguably deserves, the interests of the international and 'globesity' community would be better served learning from the contributions of an African moral theory to contemporary bioethical discourse on obesity...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Mbih J Tosam, Primus Che Chi, Nchangwi Syntia Munung, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Godfrey B Tangwa
Although the world has experienced remarkable progress in health care since the last half of the 20th century, global health inequalities still persist. In some poor countries life expectancy is between 37-40 years lower than in rich countries; furthermore, maternal and infant mortality is high and there is lack of access to basic preventive and life-saving medicines, as well a high prevalence of neglected diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Moreover, globalization has made the world more connected than before such that health challenges today are no longer limited within national or regional boundaries, making all persons equally vulnerable...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ademola K Fayemi
The question of racial identity in the process and outcome of aesthetic surgery is gaining increasing attention in bioethical discourse. This paper attempts an ethical examination of the racial identity issues involved in aesthetic surgery. Dominant moral values in Western culture are explored in the evaluation of aesthetic surgery. The paper argues that African values are yet to receive the universal attention they arguably deserve especially in the rethinking of values underlying aesthetic surgery as racial transformation...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Thaddeus Metz
Many countries in Africa, and more generally those in the Global South with tropical areas, are plagued by illnesses that the wealthier parts of the world (mainly 'the West') neither suffer from nor put systematic effort into preventing, treating or curing. What does an ethic with a recognizably African pedigree entail for the ways various agents ought to respond to such neglected diseases? As many readers will know, a characteristically African ethic prescribes weighty duties to aid on the part of those in a position to do so, and it therefore entails that there should have been much more contribution from the Western, 'developed' world...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
John-Stewart Gordon
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Polycarp Ikuenobe
I argue that the metaphysical capacity of autonomy is not intrinsically valuable; it is valuable only when used in relation to a community's values and instrumentally for making the proper choices that will promote one's own and the community's well-being. I use the example of the choice to take one's life by suicide to illuminate this view. I articulate a plausible African conception of personhood as a basis for the idea of relational autonomy. I argue that this conception is better understood as a social-moral thesis, and not a metaphysical thesis...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Cornelius Ewuoso
This study argues the thesis that a set of guidelines - firmly rooted in a particular interpretation of African moral theory, specifically, Ubuntu - will do a better job than current medical ethics frameworks, in addressing ethical challenges around misattributed parentage within the clinical context. Incidental information such as information with significant personal/health implications raises unique challenges for medical professionals. For example, withholding information of misattributed paternity accidentally discovered in clinical interactions may be seen by a patient as a violation of his/her right-to-know...
July 8, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Joseph Ochieng, Erisa Mwaka, Betty Kwagala, Nelson Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: The globalization of clinical research in the last two decades has led to a significant increase in the volume of clinical research in developing countries. As of 2016, Uganda was the third largest destination for clinical trials in Africa. This requires adequate capacity and systems to facilitate ethical practice. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving review of laws, guidelines, policies and records from 1896 to date. RESULTS: Modern medicine evolved from 1896 and by the time of Uganda's independence in 1962, a 1500 bed national referral hospital was in place and a fully-fledged medical school was established at the Makerere University...
June 29, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Bridget Pratt
Engaging citizens is vital to achieving people-centred health research. This paper aims to put attention to dynamics of power and dynamics of difference back at the centre of citizen engagement in health research priority-setting. Without attention to power and difference, engagement can lead to presence without voice and voice without influence, particularly for disadvantaged and marginalised groups. By analysing six key bodies of literature, the paper first identifies the different components of engagement-who initiates, for what purpose, who participates, and how they participate-and the dynamics of power and dynamics of difference relevant to them...
June 25, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ndukaku Okorie
In this paper, I discuss the question of partiality and impartiality in the application of triage. Triage is a process in medical research which recommends that patients should be sorted for treatment according to the degree or severity of their injury. In employing the triage protocol, however, the question of partiality arises because socially vulnerable groups will be neglected since there is the likelihood that the social determinants of a patient's health may diminish her chance of survival. As a process that is based on the severity of a patient's injury, triage will be unfair, and hence negatively partial, to socially vulnerable people...
June 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Developing World Bioethics
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