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Developing World Bioethics

Yusuf Yuksekdag
Compulsory (health) service contracts have recently received considerable attention in the normative literature. The service contracts are considered and offered as a permissible and liberal alternative to emigration restrictions if individuals relinquish their right to exit via contract in exchange for the state-funded tertiary education. To that end, the recent normative literature on the service programmes has particularly focused on discussing the circumstances or conditions in which the contracts should be signed, so that they are morally binding on the part of the skilled workers...
December 12, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Glenda Morais Rocha, Cesar Koppe Grisolia
Brazil is the biggest market for pesticides in the world. In the registration process, a pesticide must be authorized by the Institute of the Environment, Health Surveillance Agency and Ministry of Agriculture. Evaluations follow a package of toxicological studies submitted by the companies and also based on the Brazilian law regarding pesticides. We confronted data produced by private laboratories, submitted to the Institute of the Environment for registration, with data obtained from scientific databases, corresponding to mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of pesticides...
December 6, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Nancy S Jecker, Jacqueline Joon-Lin Chin
Growing demand for direct care workers to assist care-dependent elderly people has created an opening for migrant workers from low- income nations to sell their services to middle and high-income nations. Using Singapore as a case example, we draw on capability theory to make the case that receiving nations that import direct care workers should be held to global justice standards that protect workers' floor level human capabilities. Specifically, we (1) show that Singapore and other receiving nations fail to protect human capabilities at a threshold level required by dignity; (2) identify specific human capabilities placed at risk; and (3) recommend standards for receiving nations that support central capabilities...
November 26, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Dan Allman, Bridget Haire, Aminu Yakubu, Muhammed O Afolabi, Joseph Cooper
Community engagement in research, including public health related research, is acknowledged as an ethical imperative. While medical care and public health action take priority over research during infectious disease outbreaks, research is still required in order to learn from epidemic responses. The World Health Organisation developed a guide for community engagement during infectious disease epidemics called the Good Participatory Practice for Trials of Emerging (and Re-emerging) Pathogens that are Likely to Cause Severe Outbreaks in the Near Future and for which Few or No Medical Counter-Measures Exist (GPP-EP)...
November 15, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Jamie Webb
This paper considers the ethics of placebo-controlled trials in developing countries, where a treatment already exists but is not available due to the low local standard of care. Such trials would not be permitted in more developed nations where a higher standard of care is available. I argue that there are moral intuitions against such trials, but a further intuition that if the trials were aimed at producing treatment options for the developing world, that would be more permissible than if the trials were designed with the benefit of rich world people in mind...
September 18, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Mbih Jerome Tosam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Itziar de Lecuona, María Villalobos-Quesada
INTRODUCTION: The paradigm shift to a knowledge-based economy has incremented the use of personal information applied to health-related activities, such as biomedical research, innovation, and commercial initiatives. The convergence of science, technology, communication and data technologies has given rise to the application of big data to health; for example through eHealth, human databases and biobanks. METHODS: In light of these changes, we enquire about the value of personal data and its appropriate use...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Angelina Olesen, Latifah Amin, Zurina Mahadi
INTRODUCTION: To explore academia perceptions and experience with unethical authorship practices in their respective institutions. METHOD: 21 in-depth interviews were carried out. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed variability in experiences with various types of unethical authorship practices among the interviewees. Second, we found that unethical authorship practices are not so unusual among academia although the exact numbers of incidents are unknown due to the fact that such practices are seldom reported...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Teodora Alexa-Stratulat, Marius Neagu, Anca-Iulia Neagu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Beatrice Gabriela Ioan
The article explores the challenges of ensuring voluntary and informed consent which is obtained from potential research subjects in the north-eastern part of Romania. This study is one of the first empirical papers of this nature in Romania. The study used a quantitative survey design using the adapted Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) questionnaire. The target population consisted of 100 adult persons who voluntarily enrolled in clinical trials. The informed consent form must contain details regarding the potential risks and benefits, the aim of the clinical trial, study design, confidentiality, insurance and contact details in case of additional questions...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ercan Avci
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ademola K Fayemi
In this paper, I advance Odera Oruka's insights on the ethics of consumerism in order to draw relevant implications of his thoughts on rethinking the problem of obesity. I argue that Oruka's ethics of consumerism and his right to human minimum theory entail some salient ideas that might serve as a better ethical model for reducing the global obesity prevalence. Though Oruka's African moral philosophy is yet to receive universal attention it arguably deserves, the interests of the international and 'globesity' community would be better served learning from the contributions of an African moral theory to contemporary bioethical discourse on obesity...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Mbih J Tosam, Primus Che Chi, Nchangwi Syntia Munung, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Godfrey B Tangwa
Although the world has experienced remarkable progress in health care since the last half of the 20th century, global health inequalities still persist. In some poor countries life expectancy is between 37-40 years lower than in rich countries; furthermore, maternal and infant mortality is high and there is lack of access to basic preventive and life-saving medicines, as well a high prevalence of neglected diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Moreover, globalization has made the world more connected than before such that health challenges today are no longer limited within national or regional boundaries, making all persons equally vulnerable...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Ademola K Fayemi
The question of racial identity in the process and outcome of aesthetic surgery is gaining increasing attention in bioethical discourse. This paper attempts an ethical examination of the racial identity issues involved in aesthetic surgery. Dominant moral values in Western culture are explored in the evaluation of aesthetic surgery. The paper argues that African values are yet to receive the universal attention they arguably deserve especially in the rethinking of values underlying aesthetic surgery as racial transformation...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Thaddeus Metz
Many countries in Africa, and more generally those in the Global South with tropical areas, are plagued by illnesses that the wealthier parts of the world (mainly 'the West') neither suffer from nor put systematic effort into preventing, treating or curing. What does an ethic with a recognizably African pedigree entail for the ways various agents ought to respond to such neglected diseases? As many readers will know, a characteristically African ethic prescribes weighty duties to aid on the part of those in a position to do so, and it therefore entails that there should have been much more contribution from the Western, 'developed' world...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
John-Stewart Gordon
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Polycarp Ikuenobe
I argue that the metaphysical capacity of autonomy is not intrinsically valuable; it is valuable only when used in relation to a community's values and instrumentally for making the proper choices that will promote one's own and the community's well-being. I use the example of the choice to take one's life by suicide to illuminate this view. I articulate a plausible African conception of personhood as a basis for the idea of relational autonomy. I argue that this conception is better understood as a social-moral thesis, and not a metaphysical thesis...
September 2018: Developing World Bioethics
John Barugahare
Implementation of existing ethical guidelines for international collaborative medical and health research is still largely controversial in sub-Saharan Africa for two major reasons: One, they are seen as foreign and allegedly inconsistent with what has been described as an 'African worldview', hence, demand for their strict implementations reeks of 'bioethical imperialism'. Two, they have other discernible inadequacies - lack of sufficient detail, apparent as well as real ambiguities, vagueness and contradictions...
August 6, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
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