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Developing World Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752949/haitian-people-s-expectations-regarding-post-disaster-humanitarian-aid-teams-actions
#1
Lonzozou Kpanake, Ronald Jean-Jacques, Paul Clay Sorum, Etienne Mullet
The way people at the receiving end of humanitarian assistance perceive this intervention may provide invaluable bottom-up feedback to improve the quality of the intervention. We analyzed and mapped Haitians' views regarding international humanitarian aid in cases of natural disaster. Two hundred fifty participants-137 women and 113 men aged 18-67-who had suffered from the consequences of the earthquake in 2010 were presented with a series of vignettes depicting a humanitarian team's action and were asked to what extent these actions corresponded to what ought to be expected from an international aid mission...
July 28, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752914/research-in-epidemic-and-emergency-situations-a-model-for-collaboration-and-expediting-ethics-review-in-two-caribbean-countries
#2
Derrick Aarons
Various forms of research are essential in emergency, disaster and disease outbreak situations, but challenges exist including the long length of time it takes to get research proposals approved. Consequently, it would be very advantageous to have an acceptable model for efficient coordination and communication between and among research ethics committees/IRBs and ministries of health, and templates for expediting (done with speed and efficiency) ethical review of research proposals in emergency and epidemic situations to be used across the Caribbean and in other low and middle income countries...
July 28, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745008/-you-cannot-collect-data-using-your-own-resources-and-put-it-on-open-access-perspectives-from-africa-about-public-health-data-sharing
#3
Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Tenzin Wangmo, Claire Leonie Ward, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Simone Elger
Data-sharing is a desired default in the field of public health and a source of much ethical deliberation. Sharing data potentially contributes the largest, most efficient source of scientific data, but is fraught with contextual challenges which make stakeholders, particularly those in under-resourced contexts hesitant or slow to share. Relatively little empirical research has engaged stakeholders in discussing the issue. This study sought to explore relevant experiences, contextual, and subjective explanations around the topic to provide a rich and detailed presentation of what it means to different stakeholders and contexts to share data and how that can guide practice and ethical guidance...
July 25, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714281/the-ethics-and-politics-of-patient-physician-mistrust-in-contemporary-china
#4
Yunxiang Yan
Focusing on the shared sense of victimization and disadvantage-ness by both patients and doctors/medical workers in cases of medical conflicts, this paper aims to examine the current patient-doctor tensions in the larger context of moral transformation in Chinese society since the 1980s. Although the decline of public trust in certain aspects is closely associated with the impact of commodification and commercialization of medical sector during the past two decades, other factors play important role as well...
July 17, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691185/regulating-clinical-trials-in-india-the-economics-of-ethics
#5
Gerard Porter
The relationship between the ethical standards for the governance of clinical trials and market forces can be complex and problematic. This article uses India as a case study to explore this nexus. From the mid-2000s, India became a popular destination for foreign-sponsored clinical trials. The Indian government had sought to both attract clinical trials and ensure these would be run in line with internationally accepted ethical norms. Reports of controversial medical research, however, triggered debate about the robustness and suitability of India's regulatory system...
July 9, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544136/conceptualizations-of-fairness-and-legitimacy-in-the-context-of-ethiopian-health-priority-setting-reflections-on-the-applicability-of-accountability-for-reasonableness
#6
Kadia Petricca, Asfaw Bekele
A critical element in building stronger health systems involves strengthening good governance to build capacity for transparent and fair health planning and priority setting. Over the past 20 years, the ethical framework Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) has been a prominent conceptual guide in strengthening fair and legitimate processes of health decision-making. While many of the principles embedded within the framework are congruent with Western conceptualizations of what constitutes procedural fairness, there is a paucity in the literature that captures the degree of resonance between these principles and the views of decision makers from non-Western settings; particularly in Africa, where many countries have only recently, within the last 20-30 years, become more democratic...
May 22, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544334/corruption-or-professional-dignity-an-ethical-examination-of-the-phenomenon-of-red-envelopes-monetary-gifts-in-medical-practice-in-china
#7
Wei Zhu, Lijie Wang, Chengshang Yang
In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field...
May 21, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707453/dignity-is-a-useful-concept-for-bioethics
#8
EDITORIAL
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990743/punishment-of-minor-female-genital-ritual-procedures-is-the-perfect-the-enemy-of-the-good
#9
Allan J Jacobs, Kavita Shah Arora
Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#10
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699996/evaluating-the-usefulness-of-compulsory-licensing-in-developing-countries-a-comparative-study-of-thai-and-brazilian-experiences-regarding-access-to-aids-treatments
#11
Samira Guennif
While compulsory licensing (CL) is described in the TRIPS agreement as flexibility to protect public health by improving access to medicines in developing countries, a recent literature contends adversely that CL may harm public health. Therefore, this article intends to evaluate the usefulness of CL in the South through the prism of obligations and goals entrusted to patent holders (the effective and non-abusive exploitation of patents in order to achieve industrial and health developments) and in light of experiences in Thailand and Brazil regarding access to antiretroviral drugs...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699957/the-vulnerability-of-study-participants-in-the-context-of-transnational-biomedical-research-from-conceptual-considerations-to-practical-implications
#12
Helen Grete Orth, Silke Schicktanz
Outsourcing clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries to low- (middle)-income countries - summarized as transnational biomedical research (TBR) - has lead to many concerns about ethical standards. Whether study participants are particularly vulnerable is one of those concerns. However, the concept of vulnerability is still vague and varies in its definition. Despite the fact that important international ethical guidelines such as the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association or the Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences refer to vulnerability as ethical principle, each of their approaches are different...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527727/the-enemy-as-a-patient-what-can-be-learned-from-the-emotional-experience-of-physicians-and-why-does-it-matter-ethically
#13
Gil Rubinstein, Miriam Ethel Bentwich
This qualitative research examines the influence of animosity on physicians during clinical encounters and its ethical implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Israeli-Jewish physicians: four treated Syrians and six treated Palestinian terrorists/Hezbollah militants or Palestinian civilians. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to uncover main themes in these interviews. Whereas the majority of physicians stated they are obligated to treat any patient, physicians who treated Syrians exhibited stronger emotional expression and implicit empathy, while less referring to the presence of the Israeli-Arab conflict...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527640/research-ethics-education-in-post-graduate-medical-curricula-in-i-r-iran
#14
Nazila Nikravanfard, Faezeh Khorasanizadeh, Kazem Zendehdel
Research ethics training during post-graduate education is necessary to improve ethical standards in the design and conduct of biomedical research. We studied quality and quantity of research ethics training in the curricula of post-graduate programs in the medical science in I.R. Iran. We evaluated curricula of 125 post-graduate programs in medical sciences in I.R. Iran. We qualitatively studied the curricula by education level, including the Master and PhD degrees and analyzed the contents and the amount of teaching allocated for ethics training in each curriculum...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518590/informed-consent-in-health-research-challenges-and-barriers-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-with-specific-reference-to-nepal
#15
Pramod R Regmi, Nirmal Aryal, Om Kurmi, Puspa Raj Pant, Edwin van Teijlingen, Sharada P Wasti
Obtaining 'informed consent' from every individual participant involved in health research is a mandatory ethical practice. Informed consent is a process whereby potential participants are genuinely informed about their role, risk and rights before they are enrolled in the study. Thus, ethics committees in most countries require 'informed consent form' as part of an ethics application which is reviewed before granting research ethics approval. Despite a significant increase in health research activity in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) in recent years, only limited work has been done to address ethical concerns...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038286/benefit-sharing-in-a-global-context-working-towards-solutions-for-implementation
#16
Daniel J Hurst
Due to the state of globalized clinical research, questions have been raised as to what, if any, benefits those who contribute to research should receive. One model for compensating research participants is "benefit sharing," and the basic premise is that, as a matter of justice, those who contribute to scientific research should share in its benefits. While incorporated into several international documents for over two decades, benefit sharing has only been sparsely implemented. This analysis begins by addressing the concept of benefit sharing, its historical development, and how it has been applied in the context of virus sharing for influenza research...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936124/the-saudi-law-of-ethics-of-research-on-living-creatures-and-its-implementing-regulations
#17
Ghiath Alahmad
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia passed a Law and Implementing Regulations of Ethics of Research on Living Creatures in 14/09/1431 Hijri (24/08/2010). We have performed an ethical analysis of this law and, accordingly, this paper discusses the major components, key strengths, and weaknesses of this law. The Saudi system considers Islamic Shariah in addition to international research ethics guidelines. The Law and its Implementing Regulations contain all ethical requirements for research. We conclude that this law can serve as an example, not only for other Arab countries in the region that have similar values and social structure to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but also for other Islamic countries...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513968/the-views-of-ethics-committee-members-and-medical-researchers-on-the-return-of-individual-research-results-and-incidental-findings-ownership-issues-and-benefit-sharing-in-biobanking-research-in-a-south-indian-city
#18
Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz, Srinivasan K
The return of individual research results and incidental findings from biobanking research is a much debated ethical issue globally but has extensive relevance in India where the burden of out of pocket health care expenses is high for the majority. The views of 21 ethics committee (EC) members and 22 researchers from Bengaluru, India, concerning the ethics of biobanking research were sought through in-depth interviews using an unfolding case vignette with probes. A shared view among most was that individual research results which are 'actionable' or have 'clinical significance' should be returned to the sample contributors through their treating physicians...
May 17, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508541/opt-in-or-opt-out-to-increase-organ-donation-in-south-africa-appraising-proposed-strategies-using-an-empirical-ethics-analysis
#19
Harriet Etheredge, Claire Penn, Jennifer Watermeyer
Utilising empirical ethics analysis, we evaluate the merits of systems proposed to increase deceased organ donation in South Africa (SA). We conclude that SA should maintain its soft opt-in policy, and enhance it with 'required transplant referral' in order to maximise donor numbers within an ethically and legally acceptable framework. In SA, as is the case worldwide, the demand for donor organs far exceeds the supply thereof. Currently utilising a soft opt-in system, SA faces the challenge of how to increase donor numbers in a context which is imbued with inequalities in access to healthcare, multiplicitous personal beliefs and practices, distrust of organ transplant and varying levels of education and health literacy...
May 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508422/age-related-inequalities-in-health-and-healthcare-the-life-stages-approach
#20
Nancy S Jecker
How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies...
May 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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