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Developing World Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131502/racial-identity-aesthetic-surgery-and-yor%C3%A3-b%C3%A3-african-values
#1
Ademola K Fayemi
The question of racial identity in the process and outcome of aesthetic surgery is gaining increasing attention in bioethical discourse. This paper attempts an ethical examination of the racial identity issues involved in aesthetic surgery. Dominant moral values in Western culture are explored in the evaluation of aesthetic surgery. The paper argues that African values are yet to receive the universal attention they arguably deserve especially in the rethinking of values underlying aesthetic surgery as racial transformation...
November 12, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110410/how-to-deal-with-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-light-of-an-african-ethic
#2
Thaddeus Metz
Many countries in Africa, and more generally those in the Global South with tropical areas, are plagued by illnesses that the wealthier parts of the world (mainly 'the West') neither suffer from nor put systematic effort into preventing, treating or curing. What does an ethic with a recognizably African pedigree entail for the ways various agents ought to respond to such neglected diseases? As many readers will know, a characteristically African ethic prescribes weighty duties to aid on the part of those in a position to do so, and it therefore entails that there should have been much more contribution from the Western, 'developed' world...
November 7, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063669/-it-is-an-entrustment-broad-consent-for-genomic-research-and-biobanks-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Paulina Tindana, Sassy Molyneux, Susan Bull, Michael Parker
In recent years, there has been an increase in the establishment of biobanks for genetic and genomic studies around the globe. One example of this is the Human Heredity and Health in Africa Initiative (H3Africa), which has established biobanks in the sub-region to facilitate future indigenous genomic studies. The concept of 'broad consent' has been proposed as a mechanism to enable potential research participants in biobanks to give permission for their samples to be used in future research studies. However, questions remain about the acceptability of this model of consent...
October 23, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960794/models-for-truth-telling-in-physician-patient-encounters-what-can-we-learn-from-yoruba-concept-of-ooto
#4
Cornelius Ewuoso
Empirical studies have now established that many patients make clinical decisions based on models other than Anglo American model of truth-telling and patient autonomy. Some scholars also add that current medical ethics frameworks and recent proposals for enhancing communication in health professional-patient relationship have not adequately accommodated these models. In certain clinical contexts where health professional and patients are motivated by significant cultural and religious values, these current frameworks cannot prevent communication breakdown, which can, in turn, jeopardize patient care, cause undue distress to a patient in certain clinical contexts or negatively impact his/her relationship with the community...
September 29, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944604/the-social-practice-of-medical-guanxi-personal-connections-and-patient-physician-trust-in-china-an-anthropological-and-ethical-tsudy
#5
Xiang Zou, Yu Cheng, Jing-Bao Nie
In China's healthcare sector, a popular and socio-culturally distinctive phenomenon known as guanxi jiuyi (medical guanxi), whereby patients draw on their guanxi (personal connections) with physicians when seeking healthcare, is thriving. Integrating anthropological investigation with normative inquiry, this paper examines medical guanxi through the lens of patient-physician trust and mistrust. The first-hand empirical data acquired - on the lived experiences and perspectives of both patients and physicians - is based on six months' fieldwork carried out in a county hospital in Guangdong, southern China, which included in-depth interviews with 20 patients and 20 medical professionals...
September 25, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922586/rebuilding-patient-physician-trust-in-china-developing-a-trust-oriented-bioethics
#6
EDITORIAL
Jing-Bao Nie, Joseph D Tucker, Wei Zhu, Yu Cheng, Bonnie Wong, Arthur Kleinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922581/the-crisis-of-patient-physician-trust-and-bioethics-lessons-and-inspirations-from-china
#7
Jing-Bao Nie, Lun Li, Grant Gillett, Joseph D Tucker, Arthur Kleinman
Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient-physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Yet, in spite of some pioneering works, the subject of patient-physician trust and mistrust - a crucial matter in healthcare especially because there are numerous ethical implications - has largely been marginalized in bioethics as a global discourse...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922561/reconciling-female-genital-circumcision-with-universal-human-rights
#8
John-Stewart Gordon
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922559/quarantine-isolation-and-the-duty-of-easy-rescue-in-public
#9
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue that a stronger justification is provided by a principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue: a state may permissibly compel individuals to engage in activities that entail a small cost to them but a large benefit to others, because individuals have a moral duty of easy rescue to engage in those activities...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922547/the-vicious-circle-of-patient-physician-mistrust-in-china-health-professionals-perspectives-institutional-conflict-of-interest-and-building-trust-through-medical-professionalism
#10
Jing-Bao Nie, Yu Cheng, Xiang Zou, Ni Gong, Joseph D Tucker, Bonnie Wong, Arthur Kleinman
To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886233/mistrust-of-physicians-in-china-society-institution-and-interaction-as-root-causes
#11
Cheris Shun-Ching Chan
Based on two years' ethnographic research on doctor-patient relations in urban China, this paper examines the causes of patients' mistrust of physicians. I identify the major factors at the societal, institutional, and interpersonal levels that lead to patients' mistrust of physicians. First, I set the context by describing the extent of mistrust at the societal level. Then, I investigate the institutional sources of mistrust. I argue that the financing mechanism of public hospitals and physicians' income structures are the most crucial factors in inducing patients' mistrust...
September 8, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872755/african-communal-basis-for-autonomy-and-life-choices
#12
Polycarp Ikuenobe
I argue that the metaphysical capacity of autonomy is not intrinsically valuable; it is valuable only when used in relation to a community's values and instrumentally for making the proper choices that will promote one's own and the community's well-being. I use the example of the choice to take one's life by suicide to illuminate this view. I articulate a plausible African conception of personhood as a basis for the idea of relational autonomy. I argue that this conception is better understood as a social-moral thesis, and not a metaphysical thesis...
September 5, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872746/-we-are-the-eyes-and-ears-of-researchers-and-community-understanding-the-role-of-community-advisory-groups-in-representing-researchers-and-communities-in-malawi
#13
Deborah Nyirenda, Salla Sariola, Kate Gooding, Mackwellings Phiri, Rodrick Sambakunsi, Elvis Moyo, Chiwoza Bandawe, Bertie Squire, Nicola Desmond
Community engagement to protect and empower participating individuals and communities is an ethical requirement in research. There is however limited evidence on effectiveness or relevance of some of the approaches used to improve ethical practice. We conducted a study to understand the rationale, relevance and benefits of community engagement in health research. This paper draws from this wider study and focuses on factors that shaped Community Advisory Group (CAG) members' selection processes and functions in Malawi...
September 5, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130262/zika-contraception-and-the-non-identity-problem
#14
Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid, Dominic Jc Wilkinson
The 2016 outbreak of the Zika arbovirus was associated with large numbers of cases of the newly-recognised Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). This novel teratogenic epidemic raises significant ethical and practical issues. Many of these arise from strategies used to avoid cases of CZS, with contraception in particular being one proposed strategy that is atypical in epidemic control. Using contraception to reduce the burden of CZS has an ethical complication: interventions that impact the timing of conception alter which people will exist in the future...
December 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130261/localising-the-ethical-in-stem-cell-science-case-studies-from-asia-north-america-and-europe
#15
EDITORIAL
Choon Key Chekar, Carolyn Heitmeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130259/research-ethics-and-the-zika-legacy-in-brazil
#16
EDITORIAL
Debora Diniz, Ilana Ambrogi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816023/community-sensitization-and-decision-making-for-trial-participation-a-mixed-methods-study-from-the-gambia
#17
Susan Dierickx, Sarah O'Neill, Charlotte Gryseels, Edna Immaculate Anyango, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Joseph Okebe, Julia Mwesigwa, Fatou Jaiteh, René Gerrets, Raffaella Ravinetto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. METHODS: This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia...
August 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707453/dignity-is-a-useful-concept-for-bioethics
#18
EDITORIAL
Debora Diniz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990743/punishment-of-minor-female-genital-ritual-procedures-is-the-perfect-the-enemy-of-the-good
#19
Allan J Jacobs, Kavita Shah Arora
Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#20
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
August 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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