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Developing World Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770559/ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-forensic-molecular-phenotyping-in-south-africa
#1
Nandi Slabbert, Laura Jane Heathfield
Conventional forensic DNA analysis involves a matching principle, which compares DNA profiles from evidential samples to those from reference samples of known origin. In casework, however, the accessibility to a reference sample is not guaranteed which limits the use of DNA as an investigative tool. This has led to the development of phenotype prediction, which uses SNP analysis to estimate the physical appearance of the sample donor. Physical traits, such as eye, hair and skin colour, have been associated with certain alleles within specific genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways...
May 17, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687570/should-we-formulate-an-incentivized-model-facilitating-kidney-donation-from-living-donors-a-focus-on-turkey-s-current-system
#2
Ercan Avci
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations...
April 23, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578658/ethical-issues-associated-with-hiv-phylogenetics-in-hiv-transmission-dynamics-research-a-review-of-the-literature-using-the-emanuel-framework
#3
Farirai Mutenherwa, Douglas R Wassenaar, Tulio de Oliveira
The reduced costs of DNA sequencing and the use of such data for HIV-1 clinical management and phylogenetic analysis have led to a massive increase of HIV-1 sequences in the last few years. Phylogenetic analysis has shed light on the origin, spread and characteristics of HIV-1 epidemics and outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis is now also being used to advance our knowledge of the drivers of HIV-1 transmission in order to design effective interventions. However, HIV phylogenetic analysis presents unique ethical challenges, which have not been fully explored...
March 26, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517167/how-can-we-ensure-that-the-global-south-benefits-from-and-contributes-to-the-field-of-bioethics
#4
EDITORIAL
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944604/the-social-practice-of-medical-guanxi-personal-connections-and-patient-physician-trust-in-china-an-anthropological-and-ethical-study
#5
Xiang Zou, Yu Cheng, Jing-Bao Nie
In China's healthcare sector, a popular and socio-culturally distinctive phenomenon known as guanxi jiuyi (medical guanxi), whereby patients draw on their guanxi (personal connections) with physicians when seeking healthcare, is thriving. Integrating anthropological investigation with normative inquiry, this paper examines medical guanxi through the lens of patient-physician trust and mistrust. The first-hand empirical data acquired - on the lived experiences and perspectives of both patients and physicians - is based on six months' fieldwork carried out in a county hospital in Guangdong, southern China, which included in-depth interviews with 20 patients and 20 medical professionals...
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922586/rebuilding-patient-physician-trust-in-china-developing-a-trust-oriented-bioethics
#6
EDITORIAL
Jing-Bao Nie, Joseph D Tucker, Wei Zhu, Yu Cheng, Bonnie Wong, Arthur Kleinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922581/the-crisis-of-patient-physician-trust-and-bioethics-lessons-and-inspirations-from-china
#7
Jing-Bao Nie, Lun Li, Grant Gillett, Joseph D Tucker, Arthur Kleinman
Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient-physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Yet, in spite of some pioneering works, the subject of patient-physician trust and mistrust - a crucial matter in healthcare especially because there are numerous ethical implications - has largely been marginalized in bioethics as a global discourse...
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922547/the-vicious-circle-of-patient-physician-mistrust-in-china-health-professionals-perspectives-institutional-conflict-of-interest-and-building-trust-through-medical-professionalism
#8
Jing-Bao Nie, Yu Cheng, Xiang Zou, Ni Gong, Joseph D Tucker, Bonnie Wong, Arthur Kleinman
To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization...
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886233/mistrust-of-physicians-in-china-society-institution-and-interaction-as-root-causes
#9
Cheris Shun-Ching Chan
Based on two years' ethnographic research on doctor-patient relations in urban China, this paper examines the causes of patients' mistrust of physicians. I identify the major factors at the societal, institutional, and interpersonal levels that lead to patients' mistrust of physicians. First, I set the context by describing the extent of mistrust at the societal level. Then, I investigate the institutional sources of mistrust. I argue that the financing mechanism of public hospitals and physicians' income structures are the most crucial factors in inducing patients' mistrust...
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714281/the-ethics-and-politics-of-patient-physician-mistrust-in-contemporary-china
#10
Yunxiang Yan
Focusing on the shared sense of victimization and disadvantage-ness by both patients and doctors/medical workers in cases of medical conflicts, this paper aims to examine the current patient-doctor tensions in the larger context of moral transformation in Chinese society since the 1980s. Although the decline of public trust in certain aspects is closely associated with the impact of commodification and commercialization of medical sector during the past two decades, other factors play important role as well...
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544334/corruption-or-professional-dignity-an-ethical-examination-of-the-phenomenon-of-red-envelopes-monetary-gifts-in-medical-practice-in-china
#11
Wei Zhu, Lijie Wang, Chengshang Yang
In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field...
March 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460499/implications-of-odera-oruka-s-ethics-of-consumerism-for-reducing-globesity
#12
Ademola Kazeem Fayemi
In this paper, I advance Odera Oruka's insights on the ethics of consumerism in order to draw relevant implications of his thoughts on rethinking the problem of obesity. I argue that Oruka's ethics of consumerism and his right to human minimum theory entail some salient ideas that might serve as a better ethical model for reducing the global obesity prevalence. Though Oruka's African moral philosophy is yet to receive universal attention it arguably deserves, the interests of the international and 'globesity' community would be better served learning from the contributions of an African moral theory to contemporary bioethical discourse on obesity...
February 20, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460473/when-a-physician-and-a-clinical-ethicist-collaborate-for-better-patient-care
#13
Thalia Arawi, Lama Charafeddine
Bioethics is a relatively new addition to bedside medical care in Arab world which is characterized by a special culture that often makes blind adaptation of western ethics codes and principles; a challenge that has to be faced. To date, the American University of Beirut Medical Center is the only hospital that offers bedside ethics consultations in the Arab Region aiming towards better patient-centered care. This article tackles the role of the bedside clinical ethics consultant as an active member of the medical team and the impact of such consultations on decision-making and patient-centered care...
February 20, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446214/new-developments-in-india-concerning-the-policy-of-passive-euthanasia
#14
Scaria Kanniyakonil
Euthanasia and assisted dying are illegal in India according to Sections 306 and 309 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), and Article 21 of the Constitution of India. There have been a number of cases where the Indian High Courts and Indian Supreme Court issued differing verdicts concerning the right to life and the right to die. Nevertheless, on 7 March 2011, a paradigm shift happened as a result of the Indian Supreme Court's judgment on involuntary passive euthanasia in the case of Aruna Shanbaug. In its judgment, the Supreme Court requested the government to prepare a law on euthanasia...
February 15, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446211/the-benefit-sharing-vision-of-h3africa
#15
Bege Dauda, Steven Joffe
One of the central ethical tenets of research in developing countries is the sponsor's obligation to benefit host participants and communities. Two known models of benefits provision dominate the ethical discourse of research in developing countries. The first model, known as the "reasonable availability," endorses the obligation to provide interventions proven to be effective at the end of a study. This contrasts with the second model, known as "fair benefits," which endorses other forms of benefits that host communities may deem as fair beyond those derived directly from the study's findings...
February 15, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356295/to-share-or-not-to-share%C3%A2-incentivizing-data-sharing-in-life-science-communities
#16
Louise Bezuidenhout
Most scientists recognize the importance of sharing data online in an open fashion. Nonetheless, many studies have documented the concerns that accompany data sharing activities, including loss of credit or IP, misuse and the time needed to curate interoperable data. To this end, discussions around data sharing often identify incentives that could potentially ameliorate these disincentivising concerns. Nonetheless, current Open Data discussions often rely on evidence-based studies to identify the disincentives to overcome...
January 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266755/global-health-inequalities-and-the-need-for-solidarity-a-view-from-the-global-south
#17
Mbih J Tosam, Primus Che Chi, Nchangwi Syntia Munung, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Godfrey B Tangwa
Although the world has experienced remarkable progress in health care since the last half of the 20th century, global health inequalities still persist. In some poor countries life expectancy is between 37-40 years lower than in rich countries; furthermore, maternal and infant mortality is high and there is lack of access to basic preventive and life-saving medicines, as well a high prevalence of neglected diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Moreover, globalization has made the world more connected than before such that health challenges today are no longer limited within national or regional boundaries, making all persons equally vulnerable...
December 20, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130262/zika-contraception-and-the-non-identity-problem
#18
Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid, Dominic Jc Wilkinson
The 2016 outbreak of the Zika arbovirus was associated with large numbers of cases of the newly-recognised Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). This novel teratogenic epidemic raises significant ethical and practical issues. Many of these arise from strategies used to avoid cases of CZS, with contraception in particular being one proposed strategy that is atypical in epidemic control. Using contraception to reduce the burden of CZS has an ethical complication: interventions that impact the timing of conception alter which people will exist in the future...
December 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130261/localising-the-ethical-in-stem-cell-science-case-studies-from-asia-north-america-and-europe
#19
EDITORIAL
Choon Key Chekar, Carolyn Heitmeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130259/research-ethics-and-the-zika-legacy-in-brazil
#20
EDITORIAL
Debora Diniz, Ilana Ambrogi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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