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Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893948/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-toxocara-canis-infection-in-serbia-during-2015
#1
Simona Gabrielli, Suzana Tasić-Otašević, Aleksandra Ignjatović, Maurizio Fraulo, Marija Trenkić-Božinović, Stefan Momčilović, Gabriella Cancrini
We report data on the Toxocara seroprevalence evidenced in 2015 from samples of 40 children and 298 adults of the population living in different areas of Serbia, and on possible association of certain variables with infection. Detection of specific antibodies was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; all ambiguous results and part of the positive and negative sera were further analyzed by confirmatory Western blot test. An overall 23.5% seroprevalence was noticed, which was confirmed in 13.0% of the examined population with no significant difference regarding the age (children = 10...
November 28, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893287/hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-boar-in-northwest-poland-sensitivity-of-methods-of-detection
#2
Samart Dorn-In, Karin Schwaiger, Magdalena Twarużek, Jan Grajewski, Christoph Gottschalk, Manfred Gareis
In northwest Poland, 163 blood and 53 fecal samples of wild boars were collected in winter 2012/13 and 2013/14. All blood samples were tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) by two reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based methods and by anti-HEV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). About 17.2% of blood samples were seropositive. One-step nested RT-PCR turned out to be too insensitive (11.6% were positive). Therefore a two-step nested RT-PCR was applied where 25...
November 28, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870554/occurrence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-and-disinfectant-resistance-genes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-ready-to-eat-meat-products
#3
Lili Li, Lei Ye, Sofie Kromann, Hecheng Meng
There are growing concerns about the coselection of resistance against antibiotics and disinfectants in bacterial pathogens. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQRs), and quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes (QACs) in Escherichia coli isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products obtained in Guangzhou, China, and to determine whether these genes were colocalized in the isolates...
November 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870549/evaluation-of-bacteriophage-application-to-cattle-in-lairage-at-beef-processing-plants-to-reduce-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-prevalence-on-hides-and-carcasses
#4
Terrance M Arthur, Norasak Kalchayanand, Getahun E Agga, Tommy L Wheeler, Mohammad Koohmaraie
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food safety concern for the beef industry. Several studies have provided evidence that cattle hides are the main source of beef carcass contamination during processing and that reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 load on the hides of cattle entering processing facilities will lead to reductions in carcass contamination. Bacteriophages have been proposed as a novel preharvest antimicrobial intervention to reduce the levels of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle hides. The objective of this study was to evaluate a commercialized phage application administered in the lairage area of commercial beef processing plants for the ability to reduce E...
November 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860517/ceftriaxone-resistant-nontyphoidal-salmonella-from-humans-retail-meats-and-food-animals-in-the-united-states-1996-2013
#5
Martha Iwamoto, Jared Reynolds, Beth E Karp, Heather Tate, Paula J Fedorka-Cray, Jodie R Plumblee, Robert M Hoekstra, Jean M Whichard, Barbara E Mahon
BACKGROUND: Ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella is a serious public health threat. Ceftriaxone is commonly used to treat severe Salmonella infections, especially in children. Identifying the sources and drivers of ceftriaxone resistance among nontyphoidal Salmonella is crucial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial resistance in foodborne and other enteric bacteria from humans, retail meats, and food animals...
November 18, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860487/lineage-ii-serovar-1-2a-and-1-2c-human-listeria-monocytogenes-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-types-divided-into-pfge-groups-using-the-band-patterns-below-145-5%C3%A2-kb
#6
Gloria Lopez-Valladares, Marie-Louise Danielsson-Tham, Richard V Goering, Wilhelm Tham
Among 504 clinical lineage II isolates of Listeria monocytogenes isolated during 1958-2010 in Sweden, 119 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (AscI) have been identified based on the number and distribution of all banding patterns in each DNA profile. In this study, these types were further divided into PFGE groups based on the configuration of small bands with sizes <145.5 kb. The 504 isolates included 483 serovar 1/2a isolates distributed into 114 PFGE types and 21 serovar 1/2c isolates distributed into 9 PFGE types; these were further divided into 21 PFGE groups...
November 18, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854542/antimicrobial-resistance-of-campylobacter-species-isolated-from-broilers-in-live-bird-markets-in-shanghai-china
#7
Beibei Li, Licai Ma, Yingli Li, Haiyan Jia, Jianchao Wei, Donghua Shao, Ke Liu, Yuanyuan Shi, Yafeng Qiu, Zhiyong Ma
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolates from broilers in live bird markets (LBMs). A total of 209 Campylobacter spp. isolates (84 Campylobacter jejuni; 125 Campylobacter coli) were recovered from 364 broiler cecum samples collected from five LBMs in Shanghai, China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 antimicrobials were determined using agar dilution method. More than 96% of the Campylobacter spp. isolates were resistant to quinolones and tetracyclines...
November 17, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854514/subtyping-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-isolated-from-feces-of-beef-cattle-and-clinical-cases-in-alberta
#8
Renata Tostes, Noriko Goji, Kingsley Amoako, Linda Chui, John Kastelic, Rebekah DeVinney, Kim Stanford, Tim Reuter
Clinical outcomes of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli infection are largely determined by virulence gene subtypes. This study used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-pyrosequencing assay to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms for subtyping three major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae) of pathogenic E. coli (O157, O26, O111, and O103) isolated from cattle over a 2-year interval (n = 465) and human clinical cases (n = 42) in western Canada. Most bovine isolates were PCR positive for at least one target virulence gene (367/465), whereas 100% of human isolates harbored eae in combination with at least one stx gene...
November 17, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841937/biocide-tolerance-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-salmonella-isolates-from-hen-eggshells
#9
Maria Luisa Fernández Márquez, María José Grande Burgos, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas López
The aim of the present study was to determine biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates from hen eggshells. A total of 39 isolates from hen eggshells, identified as either Salmonella spp. or Salmonella enterica according to 16S rDNA sequencing, were selected for biocide tolerance. Isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) above the wild-type MICs were considered to be biocide tolerant: benzalkonium chloride (BC, 7.7%), cetrimide (CT, 7.7%), hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP, 10...
November 14, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792449/longitudinal-monitoring-of-successive-commercial-layer-flocks-for-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis
#10
Thomas N Denagamage, Paul Patterson, Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Darrell Trampel, Nikki Shariat, Edward G Dudley, Bhushan M Jayarao, Subhashinie Kariyawasam
The Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (EQAP) provided the framework for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) control programs, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated Final Egg Rule, for commercial layer facilities throughout the United States. Although flocks with ≥3000 birds must comply with the FDA Final Egg Rule, smaller flocks are exempted from the rule. As a result, eggs produced by small layer flocks may pose a greater public health risk than those from larger flocks. It is also unknown if the EQAPs developed with large flocks in mind are suitable for small- and medium-sized flocks...
October 28, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792397/molecular-typing-and-virulence-gene-profiles-of-enterotoxin-gene-cluster-egc-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-obtained-from-various-food-and-clinical-specimens
#11
Minghui Song, Chunlei Shi, Xuebing Xu, Xianming Shi
The enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) has been proposed to contribute to the Staphylococcus aureus colonization, which highlights the need to evaluate genetic diversity and virulence gene profiles of the egc-positive population. Here, a total of 43 egc-positive isolates (16.2%) were identified from 266 S. aureus isolates that were obtained from various food and clinical specimens in Shanghai. Seven different egc profiles were found based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result for egc genes. Then, these 43 egc-positive isolates were further typed by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and accessory gene regulatory (agr) typing...
October 28, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788027/evaluation-of-an-alternative-experimental-infection-method-which-closely-mimics-the-natural-route-of-transmission-of-monophasic-salmonella-typhimurium-in-pigs
#12
Helen Lynch, Hector Argüello, Kavita Walia, Peadar G Lawlor, Geraldine Duffy, Gillian E Gardiner, Finola C Leonard
Salmonella carriage in pigs is a significant food safety issue. This study describes a new protocol of Salmonella infection based on exposure to an artificially contaminated environment that closely mimics natural exposure to the organism. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of this protocol, which could then be used as a tool in the investigation of control measures. In addition, Salmonella shedding pattern and growth performance of the pigs were examined. Trial pigs (n = 10) were placed in a pen that had been previously contaminated by housing two pigs experimentally challenged with a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST)...
October 27, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779903/monitoring-seven-potentially-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-serogroups-in-a-closed-herd-of-beef-cattle-from-weaning-to-finishing-phases
#13
Jennyka Hallewell, Tim Reuter, Kim Stanford, Ed Topp, Trevor W Alexander
The goal of this study was to monitor Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups and virulence genes in cattle (n = 30) originating from a closed herd. Fecal samples were collected (1) at weaning, (2) upon arrival to a feedlot, (3) after 30 days on feed (DOF), and (4) after 135 DOF. DNA was extracted from feces for detection of virulence and serogroup genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunomagnetic separation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed to collect and subtype STEC isolates...
October 25, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768383/treatment-of-salmonella-contaminated-eggs-and-pork-with-a-broad-spectrum-single-bacteriophage-assessment-of-efficacy-and-resistance-development
#14
Yingying Hong, Kyle Schmidt, Danielle Marks, Samantha Hatter, Anne Marshall, Luiz Albino, Paul Ebner
Numerous studies have assessed the efficacy of phage-based methods to inhibit Salmonella contamination in food products. As with most antibacterials, bacteria can develop resistance to phage in vitro. Here, we applied a single broad-spectrum Salmonella phage, vB_SalS_SJ_2 (SJ2; 10(8) PFU; MOI = 10), to Salmonella-contaminated meat and eggs to quantify the development of resistance in actual food matrices. Treatment with a single phage significantly reduced Salmonella Typhimurium contamination in both ground pork and liquid egg at various time points...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768382/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-1-4-5-12-i-r-type-assut-isolates-from-humans-animals-and-environment-in-portugal-2006-2011
#15
Rui Seixas, Tânia Raquel Santos, Jorge Machado, Luís Tavares, Fernando Bernardo, Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek, Manuela Oliveira
The increase in prevalence of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- related infections over the last few years has been considered a public health issue in many European countries, especially as this serovar may be associated with tetraresistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT). Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates (n = 187) obtained by the Portuguese National Laboratory from different sources, including human clinical cases (n = 170), veterinary (n = 10), environmental (n = 6), and food samples (n = 1), were collected from 15 districts between 2006 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754712/antibacterial-properties-of-endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-a-fern-species-equisetum-arvense-l-against-foodborne-pathogenic-bacteria-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#16
Gitishree Das, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Endophytic bacteria (EB) are a rich source of secondary metabolites with medicinal importance. In this study, EB were isolated from the bottle brush herb Equisetum arvense and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Evaluation of its antibacterial potential was conducted using two common foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890. Out of 103 identified EB, three species, Streptomyces albolongus, Dermacoccus sp., and Mycobacterium sp., showed significant antibacterial activity against S...
October 18, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710034/salmonella-infection-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-incidence-and-risk-factors-from-the-45-and-up-study
#17
Yingxi Chen, Kathryn Glass, Bette Liu, Kirsty Hope, Martyn Kirk
BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection is one of the most common foodborne bacterial pathogens, and causes a significant health burden globally. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for notification and hospitalization due to Salmonella infection in older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the 45 and Up Study, a large-scale Australian prospective study of adults aged ≥45 years, with record linkage to multiple databases for the years 2006-2012 to estimate the incidence of notification and hospitalization for Salmonella infection and estimate hazard ratios using Cox regression...
October 6, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676287/characteristics-of-clusters-of-salmonella-and-escherichia-coli-o157-detected-by-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-that-predict-identification-of-outbreaks
#18
Timothy F Jones, Nupur Sashti, Amanda Ingram, Quyen Phan, Hillary Booth, Joshua Rounds, Cyndy S Nicholson, Shaun Cosgrove, Kia Crocker, L Hannah Gould
INTRODUCTION: Molecular subtyping of pathogens is critical for foodborne disease outbreak detection and investigation. Many clusters initially identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are not confirmed as point-source outbreaks. We evaluated characteristics of clusters that can help prioritize investigations to maximize effective use of limited resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multiagency collaboration (FoodNet) collected data on Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 clusters for 3 years...
September 27, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661133/presence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-pork-intended-for-human-consumption-in-tropical-southern-of-mexico
#19
Ivonne Beatriz Hernández-Cortazar, Karla Yolanda Acosta-Viana, Eugenia Guzmán-Marin, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Juan Felipe de Jesus Torres-Acosta, Matilde Jimenez-Coello
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii, which is one of the most widespread parasites that infect animals and humans worldwide. One of the main routes of infection for humans is through the consumption of infected meat containing bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Pork is one of the foremost meat types associated with outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty blood samples were collected from finished pigs at slaughter and their sera was evaluated by an indirect-IgG ELISA...
September 23, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768387/antimicrobial-resistant-campylobacter-in-organically-and-conventionally-raised-layer-chickens
#20
Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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