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Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

Laura G Brown, Edward Rickamer Hoover, Brenda V Faw, Nicole K Hedeen, David Nicholas, Melissa R Wong, Craig Shepherd, Daniel L Gallagher, Janell R Kause
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths annually. L. monocytogenes contamination of sliced deli meats at the retail level is a significant contributing factor to L. monocytogenes illness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study to learn more about retail delis' practices concerning L. monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination prevention. This article presents data from this study on the frequency with which retail deli refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended maximum temperature for ready-to-eat food requiring time and temperature control for safety (TCS) (such as retail deli meat)...
March 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Daniel C Shippy, Bradley L Bearson, Devin B Holman, Brian W Brunelle, Heather K Allen, Shawn M D Bearson
Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged as a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar to cause human foodborne illness. An interesting trait of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is that it only expresses the fliC gene for bacterial motility (i.e., monophasic), while most Salmonella strains alternately express two flagellin genes (fliC and fljB). The goal of this study was to characterize the porcine response following inoculation with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate associated with a multistate pork outbreak to determine if the increased prevalence of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine is due to enhanced pathogenicity...
February 7, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Maria Gabriela Xavier de Oliveira, Vasco Túlio de Moura Gomes, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Andrea Micke Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl
Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii are Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms that cause watery diarrhea and septicemia in humans. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Arcobacter spp. in chicken meat from butcher shops in São Paulo (Brazil) and to verify their virulence genes and genotypic profiles. A total of 300 chicken cuts were analyzed. The results show the presence of Arcobacter spp. in 18.3% of samples, which were identified as A. butzleri (63.6%) and A...
February 6, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Reta Duguma Abdi, Barbara Erin Gillespie, Jacqueline Vaughn, Caitlin Merrill, Susan Ivory Headrick, Desta Beyene Ensermu, Doris Helen D'Souza, Getahun Ejeta Agga, Raul Antonio Almeida, Stephen Paul Oliver, Oudessa Kerro Dego
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results in culling of infected animals. Because of its notorious ability to acquire resistance to the commonly used as well as last resort antimicrobials such as methicillin and vancomycin and the development of multidrug-resistant strains, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S...
February 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Dorothy Vosik, Deepanker Tewari, Lisa Dettinger, Nkuchia M M'ikanatha, Nikki W Shariat
Although infrequently associated with reported salmonellosis in humans, Salmonella enterica, subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky (ser. Kentucky) is the most common nonclinical, nonhuman serovar reported in the United States. The goal of this study was to use Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) to subtype a collection of human clinical isolates of ser. Kentucky submitted to the Pennsylvania Department of Health and to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in these strains...
February 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Nurul Islam, Jaehyuk Choi, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Endophytes are a potential source of novel bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. In this study, 41 endophytic bacteria (EB) were isolated from tissues of a medicinally important plant Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew). The objective was to screen all the EB isolates for their antibacterial effects against five foodborne pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus cereus ATCC10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19115, Escherichia coli ATCC43890, and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC19585. Among the EB isolates, T...
January 29, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Kristen Pogreba-Brown, Erika Barrett
BACKGROUND: Rates of Campylobacter infection in Arizona have historically been higher than the national average, with the highest rates in Hispanic populations. The purpose of this retrospective case-case analysis was to determine how risk factors and disease presentation differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic) in cases of campylobacteriosis from 2012 to 2015 in Maricopa County, Arizona. METHODS: Basic demographics and seasonality, including standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs), were analyzed to determine differences by ethnicity...
January 29, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Javed Ahamad Khan, Ram Swaroop Rathore, Hussein Hasan Abulreesh, Faizan Abul Qais, Iqbal Ahmad
Campylobacteriosis is the common gastrointestinal disease worldwide. However, in many parts of the world, including India, the impact of campylobacteriosis is less commonly investigated. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat and poultry-related samples at retail shops in a region of Northern India. A total of 400 samples of chicken meat (150), chicken intestine (150), feathers (50), and chopping boards and knives (50) samples were screened for the presence of C...
January 29, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Valeria Velasco, José L Vergara, Ana M Bonilla, Javier Muñoz, Alejandra Mallea, Diego Vallejos, Mario Quezada-Aguiluz, Jorge Campos, Pedro Rojas-García
The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other emerging strains in meat-producing animals and retail meat has increased the risk of contamination of food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize S. aureus strains isolated from the pork chain supply in Chile. A total of 487 samples were collected: 332 samples from pigs at farms and slaughterhouses (nasal, n = 155; skin, n = 177); 85 samples from carcasses at slaughterhouses; and 70 meat samples at supermarkets and retail stores...
January 24, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Thi Thu Hao Van, Arif Anwar, Peter C Scott, Robert J Moore
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli play a major role in bacteria-related foodborne illness in humans. Recently, a newly identified species, Campylobacter hepaticus, was shown to be the causative agent of spotty liver disease in chickens. The pathogenic potential of C. hepaticus in humans is unknown. This new species contains genes usually used to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in DNA-based detection methods, such as the hippuricase (hipO) gene and the glyA (serine hydroxymethyltransferase) gene, with a high degree of similarity...
January 22, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Laura Ford, Glen P Carter, Qinning Wang, Torsten Seemann, Vitali Sintchenko, Kathryn Glass, Deborah A Williamson, Peter Howard, Mary Valcanis, Cristina Fabiola Sotomayor Castillo, Michelle Sait, Benjamin P Howden, Martyn D Kirk
In Australia, the incidence of Salmonella Typhimurium has increased dramatically over the past decade. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is transforming public health microbiology, but poses challenges for surveillance. To compare WGS-based approaches with conventional typing for Salmonella surveillance, we performed concurrent WGS and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) for a period of 5 months. We exchanged data via a central shared virtual machine and performed comparative genomic analyses...
January 16, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Michael Hume, Muhammad Umar Sohail
Enteropathogen colonization and product contamination are major poultry industry problems. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, and associated risks to human health, is limiting the use of antibiotics as first-line defense against enteropathogens in poultry. The chitin derivative, chitosan, has drawn substantial attention for its bactericidal properties. Different molecular weight (MW) chitosans can have varied effects against different bacteria in monoculture. In the current study, cecal contents from each of three market-age broilers and Salmonella Typhimurium, as indicator enteropathogen, were exposed to in vitro anaerobic culture to three chitosan preparations (0...
January 10, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Artun Yibar, Ece Cetin, Zafer Ata, Evren Erkose, Mustafa Tayar
This study examined the incidence of Clostridium perfringens in raw, ready-to-cook (RTC), and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and meat-based products (N = 306) collected from restaurants, supermarkets, and butcher shops in Bursa, Turkey. In addition, we investigated the presence of the C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), as well as cpe genes and their source (chromosomal or plasmid borne). In this study, tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) agar for classic culture isolation and API and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were used to identify C...
January 9, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Caitlin N Murphy, Randal C Fowler, Andrea J Williams, Peter C Iwen, Paul D Fey
Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica is a common cause of illness in humans ranging from gastroenteritis to invasive disease. National surveillance programs continually monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance patterns and mechanisms of resistance to identify emerging public health threats. Our study shows the emergence of nonsusceptibility to both levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, a concerning phenotype that threatens first-line antibiotic therapy, in Salmonella isolates recovered between 2014 and 2015. From 2010 to 2013 the rate of resistance increased from 0...
January 3, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Norhan Khairy Abd El-Aziz, Yasmine Hasanine Tartor, Ahlam Abd El-Aziz Gharib, Ahmed Mohamed Ammar
Foodborne infections due to bacterial pathogens are increasing worldwide. Given the surreptitious nature of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, they largely remain a threat to public health and food safety due to their non-detectability through conventional plate count techniques. Hence, species-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) was used along with the plate count method to quantify VBNC Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Enterobacteriaceae in fresh and processed meat samples...
January 3, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Deepak Kumar, Suchawan Pornsukarom, G K Sivaraman, Siddhartha Thakur
The deposition of manure originating from food animal farms in the environment can lead to the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacterial foodborne pathogens, thereby potentially impacting human health. The objective of our study was to determine the dissemination of multidrug methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri (MDR-MRSS) in the environment after land application of manure on commercial swine farms. A total of 400 environmental samples (40 manure and 360 soil) were collected after repeated sampling from four commercial swine farms located in North Carolina (n = 1) and Iowa (n = 3) in the United States...
December 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Han Sol Kim, So Jeong Choi, Ki Sun Yoon
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of washing on Staphylococcus aureus reduction in salads and the effect of reheating on Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores reduction in fried rice at restaurants using the stochastic food safety objective (FSO) tool. The leaf vegetable was inoculated with S. aureus and washed with tap water, 100 ppm of NaClO, or 30 ppm of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) for either 60 s or 5 min. The washing effect of 30 ppm SAEW was greater than that of 100 ppm NaClO...
December 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Pravin R Kaldhone, Jing Han, Joanna Deck, Bijay Khajanchi, Rajesh Nayak, Steven L Foley, Steven C Ricke
Salmonella is a predominant foodborne pathogen in the United States and other countries. Mobile genetic elements such as plasmids allow Salmonella to adapt to external stress factors such as nutrient deprivation and host factors. Incompatibility group I1 (IncI1) plasmid-carrying Salmonella enterica strains were examined to determine the presence of plasmid-associated genes and their influence on phenotypic characteristics. The objective of this study was to understand the genetic determinants on IncI1 plasmids and their impact on antimicrobial susceptibility, competitive growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and plasmid transfer...
December 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Jane A M Araújo, Erick A Esmerino, Verônica O Alvarenga, Leandro P Cappato, Iracema C Hora, Marcia Cristina Silva, Monica Q Freitas, Tatiana C Pimentel, Eduardo H M Walter, Anderson S Sant'Ana, Adriano G Cruz
This study aimed to develop a checklist for good hygiene practices (GHP) for raw material of vegetable origin using the focus groups (FGs) approach (n = 4). The final checklist for commercialization of horticultural products totaled 28 questions divided into six blocks, namely: water supply; hygiene, health, and training; waste control; control of pests; packaging and traceability; and hygiene of facilities and equipment. The FG methodology was efficient to elaborate a participatory and objective checklist, based on minimum hygiene requirements, serving as a tool for diagnosis, planning, and training in GHP of fresh vegetables, besides contributing to raise awareness of the consumers' food safety...
December 20, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Maria Vitale, Salvatore Gaglio, Paola Galluzzo, Giuseppe Cascone, Chiara Piraino, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti, Rosa Alduina
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. In this retrospective study, 84 S. aureus strains were characterized. The collection comprises 78 strains isolated during 1998 and 2014 from dairy products and tissue samples from livestock bred for dairy production in Sicily. One isolate was obtained from a pet (dog), one from an exotic animal (a circus elephant), and four human isolates were obtained during a severe food poisoning outbreak that occurred in Sicily in 2015. All the strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), for antibiotic resistance and presence of toxin genes...
December 20, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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