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Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186826/cross-sectional-study-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-pig-farms-in-england
#1
Georgina Limon, Wendy Beauvais, Nikolaos Dadios, Isabelle Villena, Charlotte Cockle, Radu Blaga, Javier Guitian
Ingestion of undercooked meat has been proposed as an important source of human Toxoplasma gondii infection. To ascertain the contribution of meat consumption to the risk of human infection, estimates of the prevalence of infection in meat-producing animals are required. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess T. gondii infection in pigs raised in England, to identify risk factors for infection, and to compare performance of two serological tests: modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186422/seeds-of-the-wild-progenitor-of-maize-possess-bacteria-that-antagonize-foodborne-pathogens
#2
Hanan R Shehata, Mansel W Griffiths, Manish N Raizada
Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes help their hosts to combat pathogens. Here we explored the hypothesis that the plant-derived foods consumed by humans and other animals host endophytes that also antagonize foodborne pathogens or food-rotting agents. Our laboratory previously cultured a library of bacterial endophytes from different members of the maize/corn family (Zea) including wild relatives. Here, 190 of these endophytes were screened for their ability to antagonize four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella enterica Newport) and a food spoiling agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) using dual culture assays...
February 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151001/distribution-and-molecular-characterization-of-campylobacter-species-at-different-processing-stages-in-two-poultry-processing-plants
#3
Soo-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Jung Park, Jin-Hee Lee, Jong-Soo Lim, Kun-Ho Seo, Eun-Jeong Heo, Young-Jo Kim, Sung-Hwan Wee, Jin-San Moon
The present study analyzed the prevalence and molecular characterization of Campylobacter at different processing steps in poultry slaughterhouses to determine where contamination mainly occurs. A total of 1,040 samples were collected at four different stages (preprocessing cloacal swabs, postevisceration, postwashing, and postchilling) in two processing plants. Campylobacter was detected in 5.8% (15 of 260) of the cloacal swabs and in 13.3% (104 of 780) of the processing samples. In both plants, the sampling points with the greatest contamination rates were after evisceration (20...
February 2, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128649/effect-of-vancomycin-tylosin-and-chlortetracycline-on-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-colonization-of-broiler-chickens-during-grow-out
#4
Michael E Hume, Curtis J Donskey
Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed containing vancomycin, chlortetracycline, or tylosin from day of hatch to grow-out at 6 weeks. At 3 days of age, chicks received by crop gavage 10(7) colony-forming units (CFUs) of a human or poultry VRE isolate. Cecal contents were monitored weekly for VRE, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bacterial denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile methods...
January 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128639/evaluation-of-three-bacterial-identification-systems-for-species-identification-of-bacteria-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-and-bulk-tank-milk-samples
#5
Emily Savage, Shubhada Chothe, Valerie Lintner, Traci Pierre, Tammy Matthews, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Dawn Miller, Deepanker Tewari, Bhushan Jayarao
A study was conducted to evaluate Sensititre(®) Automated Reading and Incubation System 2x System (ARIS), API(®) (API), and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI) bacterial species identification systems using 132 diverse bacterial isolates from bovine milk samples and bulk tank milk received at the Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory. The results were compared with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which served as the reference method for species identification. The ARIS, API, and MALDI identified 0%, 40%, and 33...
January 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128637/antimicrobial-activity-of-punicalagin-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-its-effect-on-biofilm-formation
#6
Yunfeng Xu, Chao Shi, Qian Wu, Zhiwei Zheng, Peifeng Liu, Guanghui Li, Xiaoli Peng, Xiaodong Xia
Punicalagin, one of the main active compounds in pomegranate peel, has been reported to possess many properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, and immunosuppressive activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of punicalagin against Staphylococcus aureus and possible mode of action. Growth inhibition activity was examined by the agar diffusion method. Then agar dilution method was adopted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effects of punicalagin on cell membrane were assessed by measuring potassium efflux...
January 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121468/detection-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-arcobacter-spp-isolated-from-shellfish-in-spain
#7
Isidro F Bayas Morejón, Ana González, María Antonia Ferrús
This work aimed to determine the presence of Arcobacter spp. in shellfish and to determine its susceptibility to quinolones. One hundred samples (41 mussels, 37 clams, and 22 cockles) were purchased from different local retail shops in Valencia, Spain, from September 2013 to June 2015. All samples were analyzed simultaneously by culture, after an enrichment step, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directly and after enrichment. The susceptibility to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin of the isolates was tested using the disk-diffusion test and E-test strips method...
January 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103104/characterization-and-molecular-subtyping-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-in-butcher-shops
#8
Victoria Brusa, Magdalena Costa, Alejandra Londero, Gerardo A Leotta, Lucía Galli
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important emerging foodborne human pathogens. Ruminants are the main animal reservoir of STEC currently known, and meat can become contaminated at different stages of the production chain. The aim of this work was to subtype and establish the epidemiological relatedness of non-O157 STEC strains isolated from ground beef and the environment in butcher shops before (evaluation stage, 2010-2011 period) and after (verification stage, 2013) implementing improvement actions...
January 19, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085487/prevalence-virulence-potential-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-profile-of-listeria-monocytogenes-isolated-from-bovine-raw-milk-samples-obtained-from-rajasthan-india
#9
Sanjita Sharma, Vishnu Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Dahiya, Aarif Khan, Manisha Mathur, Amit Sharma
Listeriosis is a serious foodborne disease of a global concern, and can effectively be controlled by a continuous surveillance of the virulent and multidrug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes. This study was planned to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in bovine raw milk samples. A total of 457 raw milk samples collected from 15 major cities in Rajasthan, India, were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using standard microbiological and molecular methods. Five of the 457 samples screen tested positive for L...
January 13, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075607/efficacy-of-an-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-srp-vaccine-in-orally-challenged-goats-and-strain-persistence-over-time
#10
Jacob M Swift, Derek M Foster, Anna T Rogers, Hannah J Sylvester, Emily H Griffith, Megan E Jacob
Small ruminants have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at livestock exhibitions throughout the United States. Additionally, goat meat or milk may serve as a reservoir for foodborne transmission of the organism. These associations highlight the public health importance of an effective strategy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in goats. We examined the efficacy of the SRP(®) vaccine in goats orally challenged with E. coli O157:H7. Mixed-breed goats (n = 14) were randomly allocated into vaccinated and unvaccinated treatments (n = 7 per treatment)...
January 11, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072925/impact-of-low-and-high-doses-of-marbofloxacin-on-the-selection-of-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-commensal-gut-flora-of-young-cattle-discussion-of-data-from-2-study-populations
#11
Guillaume Lhermie, Véronique Dupouy, Farid El Garch, Nadine Ravinet, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Alain Bousquet-Mélou, Henri Seegers, Sébastien Assié
In the context of requested decrease of antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine, our objective was to assess the impact of two doses of marbofloxacin administered on young bulls (YBs) and veal calves (VCs) treated for bovine respiratory disease, on the total population of Enterobacteriaceae in gut flora and on the emergence of resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In two independent experiments, 48 YBs from 6 commercial farms and 33 VCs previously colostrum deprived and exposed to cefquinome were randomly assigned to one of the three groups LOW, HIGH, and Control...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072918/production-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxins-d-and-r-in-milk-and-meat-juice-by-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#12
Justyna Schubert, Magdalena Podkowik, Jarosław Bystroń, Jacek Bania
Seventeen Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for production of staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) and staphylococcal enterotoxin R (SER) in milk and meat juice. SED was secreted in milk by 12 S. aureus strains at 6-54 ng/mL at 24 h and 9-98 ng/mL at 48 h. Another five strains secreted SED at 0.9-1.9 μg/mL at 24 h and at 1.2-2.4 μg/mL at 48 h. Strains producing high levels of SED in milk secreted 77-666 μg/mL of SED in meat juice at 24 h and 132-1225 μg/mL at 48 h. Strains producing lower amounts of SED in milk secreted 228-1109 ng/mL of SED at 24 h and 377-1782 ng/mL at 48 h in meat juice...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072914/presence-of-pathogenic-rickettsiae-and-protozoan-in-samples-of-raw-milk-from-cows-goats-and-sheep
#13
Ewa Cisak, Violetta Zając, Jacek Sroka, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of various rickettsiae and protozoan in raw milk and the assessment the potential, milk-borne route in the spread of selected zoonotic pathogens. MATERIALS: A total of 119 raw milk samples collected randomly from 63 cows, 29 goats, and 27 sheep bred on 34 farms situated on eight communities in eastern Poland were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the presence of pathogenic rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067541/listeria-monocytogenes-circulating-in-rabbit-meat-products-and-slaughterhouses-in-italy-prevalence-data-and-comparison-among-typing-results
#14
Alessandra De Cesare, Antonio Parisi, Renzo Mioni, Damiano Comin, Alex Lucchi, Gerardo Manfreda
Rabbit meat has outstanding dietetic and nutritional properties. However, few data on microbiological hazards associated with rabbit productions are available. In this study, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 430 rabbit carcasses, 256 rabbit meat cuts and products, and 599 environmental sponges collected from four Italian rabbit slaughterhouses over a period of 1 year. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes among the 1285 rabbit meat and environmental samples was 11%, with statistically significant differences between slaughterhouses...
January 9, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045552/factors-influencing-knowledge-food-safety-practices-and-food-preferences-during-warm-weather-of-salmonella-and-campylobacter-cases-in-south-australia
#15
Adriana Milazzo, Lynne C Giles, Ying Zhang, Ann P Koehler, Janet E Hiller, Peng Bi
OBJECTIVE: To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days...
January 3, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982698/salmonella-enterica-serotype-napoli-is-the-first-cause-of-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonellosis-in-lombardy-italy-2010-2014-and-belongs-to-typhi-subclade
#16
Pol Huedo, Maria Gori, Anna Zolin, Ettore Amato, Giulia Ciceri, Anna Bossi, Mirella Pontello
Salmonella enterica serotype Napoli (S. Napoli) is currently emerging in Europe and particularly in Italy, where in 2014 it caused a large outbreak associated with elevated rates of bacteremia. However, no study has yet investigated its invasive ability and phylogenetic classification. Here, we show that between 2010 and 2014, S. Napoli was the first cause of invasive salmonellosis affecting 40 cases out of 687 (invasive index: 5.8%), which is significantly higher than the invasive index of all the other nontyphoidal serotypes (2...
December 16, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051328/a-single-step-enrichment-medium-for-nonchromogenic-isolation-of-healthy-and-cold-injured-salmonella-spp-from-fresh-vegetables
#17
Hong-Seok Kim, Dasom Choi, Il-Byeong Kang, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Jin-Hyeok Yim, Young-Ji Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Deog-Hwan Oh, Kun-Ho Seo
Culture-based detection of nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. in foods requires at least four working days; therefore, new detection methods that shorten the test time are needed. In this study, we developed a novel single-step Salmonella enrichment broth, SSE-1, and compared its detection capability with that of commercial single-step ONE broth-Salmonella (OBS) medium and a conventional two-step enrichment method using buffered peptone water and Rappaport-Vassiliadis soy broth (BPW-RVS). Minimally processed lettuce samples were artificially inoculated with low levels of healthy and cold-injured Salmonella Enteritidis (10(0) or 10(1) colony-forming unit/25 g), incubated in OBS, BPW-RVS, and SSE-1 broths, and streaked on xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) agar...
February 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992253/farm-fairs-and-petting-zoos-a-review-of-animal-contact-as-a-source-of-zoonotic-enteric-disease
#18
Cheyenne C Conrad, Kim Stanford, Claudia Narvaez-Bravo, Todd Callaway, Tim McAllister
Many public venues such as farms, fairs, and petting zoos encourage animal contact for both educational and entertainment purposes. However, healthy farm animals, including cattle, small ruminants, and poultry, can be reservoirs for enteric zoonotic pathogens, with human infections resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in some cases, severe complications that can lead to death. As animals shed these organisms in their feces, contamination of themselves and their surroundings is unavoidable. The majority of North Americans reside in urban and suburban settings, and the general public often possess limited knowledge of agricultural practices and minimal contact with farm animals...
February 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922763/antimicrobial-resistance-in-nontyphoidal-salmonella-isolated-from-human-and-poultry-related-samples-in-brazil-20-year-meta-analysis
#19
Daiane Voss-Rech, Luciana Potter, Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Luís Antonio Sangioni, Águeda Castagna Vargas, Sônia de Avila Botton
Nontyphoidal Salmonella are one of the leading causes of foodborne diseases in the world. As poultry products are recognized as main sources of human salmonellosis, nontyphoidal Salmonella control has become a global issue for the poultry industry. The increasing antimicrobial resistance in poultry-related nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars is a global matter of concern. By monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, alternative treatments can be identified and possible restrictions in the treatment of systemic human salmonellosis foreseen...
February 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893287/hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-boar-in-northwest-poland-sensitivity-of-methods-of-detection
#20
Samart Dorn-In, Karin Schwaiger, Magdalena Twarużek, Jan Grajewski, Christoph Gottschalk, Manfred Gareis
In northwest Poland, 163 blood and 53 fecal samples of wild boars were collected in winter 2012/13 and 2013/14. All blood samples were tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) by two reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based methods and by anti-HEV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). About 17.2% of blood samples were seropositive. One-step nested RT-PCR turned out to be too insensitive (11.6% were positive). Therefore a two-step nested RT-PCR was applied where 25...
February 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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