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Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

Yingying Hong, Kyle Schmidt, Danielle Marks, Samantha Hatter, Anne Marshall, Luiz Albino, Paul Ebner
Numerous studies have assessed the efficacy of phage-based methods to inhibit Salmonella contamination in food products. As with most antibacterials, bacteria can develop resistance to phage in vitro. Here, we applied a single broad-spectrum Salmonella phage, vB_SalS_SJ_2 (SJ2; 10(8) PFU; MOI = 10), to Salmonella-contaminated meat and eggs to quantify the development of resistance in actual food matrices. Treatment with a single phage significantly reduced Salmonella Typhimurium contamination in both ground pork and liquid egg at various time points...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Rui Seixas, Tânia Raquel Santos, Jorge Machado, Luís Tavares, Fernando Bernardo, Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek, Manuela Oliveira
The increase in prevalence of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- related infections over the last few years has been considered a public health issue in many European countries, especially as this serovar may be associated with tetraresistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT). Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates (n = 187) obtained by the Portuguese National Laboratory from different sources, including human clinical cases (n = 170), veterinary (n = 10), environmental (n = 6), and food samples (n = 1), were collected from 15 districts between 2006 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Gitishree Das, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Endophytic bacteria (EB) are a rich source of secondary metabolites with medicinal importance. In this study, EB were isolated from the bottle brush herb Equisetum arvense and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Evaluation of its antibacterial potential was conducted using two common foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890. Out of 103 identified EB, three species, Streptomyces albolongus, Dermacoccus sp., and Mycobacterium sp., showed significant antibacterial activity against S...
October 18, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Yingxi Chen, Kathryn Glass, Bette Liu, Kirsty Hope, Martyn Kirk
BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection is one of the most common foodborne bacterial pathogens, and causes a significant health burden globally. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for notification and hospitalization due to Salmonella infection in older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the 45 and Up Study, a large-scale Australian prospective study of adults aged ≥45 years, with record linkage to multiple databases for the years 2006-2012 to estimate the incidence of notification and hospitalization for Salmonella infection and estimate hazard ratios using Cox regression...
October 6, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Timothy F Jones, Nupur Sashti, Amanda Ingram, Quyen Phan, Hillary Booth, Joshua Rounds, Cyndy S Nicholson, Shaun Cosgrove, Kia Crocker, L Hannah Gould
INTRODUCTION: Molecular subtyping of pathogens is critical for foodborne disease outbreak detection and investigation. Many clusters initially identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are not confirmed as point-source outbreaks. We evaluated characteristics of clusters that can help prioritize investigations to maximize effective use of limited resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multiagency collaboration (FoodNet) collected data on Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 clusters for 3 years...
September 27, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Ivonne Beatriz Hernández-Cortazar, Karla Yolanda Acosta-Viana, Eugenia Guzmán-Marin, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Juan Felipe de Jesus Torres-Acosta, Matilde Jimenez-Coello
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii, which is one of the most widespread parasites that infect animals and humans worldwide. One of the main routes of infection for humans is through the consumption of infected meat containing bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Pork is one of the foremost meat types associated with outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty blood samples were collected from finished pigs at slaughter and their sera was evaluated by an indirect-IgG ELISA...
September 23, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Giulia Amagliani, Annalisa Petruzzelli, Elisa Carloni, Franco Tonucci, Martina Foglini, Eleonora Micci, Mariagrazia Ricci, Stefania Di Lullo, Luca Rotundo, Giorgio Brandi
Italy is one of the main producers and exporters of cheese made from unpasteurized sheep milk. Since raw milk and its derived products are known sources of human infections, cheese produced from raw sheep milk could pose a microbiological threat to public health. Hence, the objectives of the study were: to characterize the potential risk of the presence of pathogens Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella in raw ovine milk destined for cheese production obtained from all the sheep farms (n = 24) in the Marches region (Central Italy) that directly transform raw milk into cheeses and to evaluate the equivalence between the analytical methods applied...
September 8, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Peter Moono, Niki F Foster, David J Hampson, Daniel R Knight, Lauren E Bloomfield, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized humans. Recently, C. difficile infection (CDI) has been increasingly recognized as a cause of neonatal enteritis in food animals such as pigs, resulting in stunted growth, delays in weaning, and mortality, as well as colitis in large birds such as ostriches. C. difficile is a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, which produces two toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) as its main virulence factors. The majority of strains isolated from animals produce an additional binary toxin (C...
September 7, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Jana Ščerbová, Andrea Lauková
Campylobacter spp. have been isolated from various animals, including poultry. They are rapidly transmitted throughout broiler sheds by the fecal-oral route. A promising strategy to reduce Campylobacter spp. in poultry may be done due to the beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria and their bacteriocins. In this study, inhibition spectrum/activity of different enterocins was evaluated against Campylobacter spp. (isolated from different poultry) to indicate further practical use of enterocins. Enterocins are antimicrobial proteinaceous substances produced mostly by enterococci...
September 7, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Mingquan Cui, Chenbin Wu, Peng Zhang, Congming Wu
Campylobacter jejuni, a foodborne pathogen, is the major cause of enteritis in humans worldwide, however, its increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones reported recently is of a major concern. In the present study, multiplex-mismatch amplification mutation assay-polymerase chain reaction (MMAMA-PCR) was developed for the first time with the aim to quickly identify C. jejuni and to detect the single nucleotide mutation (C-257 to T) frequently observed in gyrA gene, associated with the acquisition of resistance to fluoroquinolones...
September 1, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Victoriya V Volkova, Butch KuKanich, Jim E Riviere
Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels...
August 23, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Esmond Nyarko, Kalmia E Kniel, Russell Reynnells, Cheryl East, Eric T Handy, Yaguang Luo, Patricia D Millner, Manan Sharma
Cantaloupes, marketed as "Rocky Ford," were implicated in the U.S. multistate outbreak of listeriosis in 2011, which caused multiple fatalities. Listeria monocytogenes can survive on whole cantaloupes and can be transferred to the flesh of melons. The growth of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut "Athena" and "Rocky Ford" cantaloupe cultivars during refrigerated storage was evaluated. Fresh-cut cubes (16.4 cm(3)) from field-grown cantaloupes were each inoculated with 5 log10 CFU/mL of a multi-strain mixture of L...
August 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Petrona Lee, Craig W Hedberg
Restaurants are important settings for foodborne disease outbreaks and consumers are increasingly using restaurant inspection results to guide decisions about where to eat. Although public posting of inspection results may lead to improved sanitary practices in the restaurant, the relationship between inspection results and risk of foodborne illness appears to be pathogen specific. To further examine the relationship between inspection results and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks, we evaluated results of routine inspections conducted in multiple restaurants in a chain (Chain A) that was associated with a large Salmonella outbreak in Illinois...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Jaeseung Shin, Ki-Bok Yoon, Doo-Young Jeon, Sung-Suk Oh, Kyung-Hwan Oh, Gyung Tae Chung, Seung Woo Kim, Seung-Hak Cho
BACKGROUND: Two outbreaks of gastroenteritis occurred in South Korea, affecting a middle school in the Jeollanam-do province in 2013 (Outbreak 1) and 10 schools in the Incheon province in 2014 (Outbreak 2). We investigated the outbreaks to identify the pathogen and mode of transmission. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Outbreak 1; and case-control studies were performed for the Outbreak 2. Samples from students, environments, and preserved food items were collected and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted to identify strains of pathogen...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Alice White, Alicia Cronquist, Edward J Bedrick, Elaine Scallan
BACKGROUND: Foodborne illness is a continuing public health problem in the United States. Although outbreak-associated illnesses represent a fraction of all foodborne illnesses, foodborne outbreak investigations provide critical information on the pathogens, foods, and food-pathogen pairs causing illness. Therefore, identification of a food source in an outbreak investigation is key to impacting food safety. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically identify outbreak-associated case demographic and outbreak characteristics that are predictive of food sources using Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) outbreaks reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1998 to 2014 with a single ingredient identified...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
So-Young Kim, Boram Chung, Jin-Hee Chang, Gyoo Yeol Jung, Hyoun Wook Kim, Beom-Young Park, Sang Suk Oh, Mi-Hwa Oh
Capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) coupled with stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was developed to identify 13 species of foodborne pathogens simultaneously. Species-specific MLPA probes were designed for nine of these species. These probes were targeted to the groEL, glyA, MMS, tuf, inv, ipaH, nuc, vvh, and 16S rRNA genes, which corresponded to Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Saiki Imamura, Mika Haruna, Tomoko Goshima, Hiromi Kanezashi, Tsukasa Okada, Keiko Akimoto
The development of procedures for the efficient removal or inactivation of noroviruses from contaminated oysters is of great interest in oyster production. However, there is a critical limitation for evaluating the depuration efficacy of presently available procedures, as no suitable cell culture system currently exists to cultivate noroviruses. Thus, we applied a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to characterize norovirus genotypes in pre- and post-depurated oysters. As a result, we revealed the diversity of noroviruses in pre- and post-depurated oysters...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Min Jiang, Jinjin Zhang, Yinghui Li, Xiaolu Shi, Yaqun Qiu, Yiman Lin, Qiongcheng Chen, Yixiang Jiang, Qinghua Hu
Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes foodborne gastroenteritis, which is often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish. Molecular typing can provide critical information for detecting outbreaks and for source attribution. In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of an optimized multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for the characterization of V. parahaemolyticus isolates. The discriminatory power of MLVA was compared to that of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) by typing 73 sporadic isolates...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Soo-Kyoung Lee, Dasom Choi, Hong-Seok Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
The current study was conducted to assess Salmonella spp. contamination in chicken carcasses produced at major poultry processing plants in South Korea. In total, 120 chicken carcasses were collected through 12 individual trials (10 chickens per trial) from six poultry processing plants in the summer of 2014 and the winter of 2015. Eighteen chicken samples (15%) were contaminated with Salmonella, with a higher rate of contamination observed during summer (14 isolates, 11.7%) than during winter (four isolates, 3...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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