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Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

Michael Hume, Muhammad Umar Sohail
Enteropathogen colonization and product contamination are major poultry industry problems. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, and associated risks to human health, is limiting the use of antibiotics as first-line defense against enteropathogens in poultry. The chitin derivative, chitosan, has drawn substantial attention for its bactericidal properties. Different molecular weight (MW) chitosans can have varied effects against different bacteria in monoculture. In the current study, cecal contents from each of three market-age broilers and Salmonella Typhimurium, as indicator enteropathogen, were exposed to in vitro anaerobic culture to three chitosan preparations (0...
January 10, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Artun Yibar, Ece Cetin, Zafer Ata, Evren Erkose, Mustafa Tayar
This study examined the incidence of Clostridium perfringens in raw, ready-to-cook (RTC), and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and meat-based products (N = 306) collected from restaurants, supermarkets, and butcher shops in Bursa, Turkey. In addition, we investigated the presence of the C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), as well as cpe genes and their source (chromosomal or plasmid borne). In this study, tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) agar for classic culture isolation and API and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were used to identify C...
January 9, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Caitlin N Murphy, Randal C Fowler, Andrea J Williams, Peter C Iwen, Paul D Fey
Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica is a common cause of illness in humans ranging from gastroenteritis to invasive disease. National surveillance programs continually monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance patterns and mechanisms of resistance to identify emerging public health threats. Our study shows the emergence of nonsusceptibility to both levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, a concerning phenotype that threatens first-line antibiotic therapy, in Salmonella isolates recovered between 2014 and 2015. From 2010 to 2013 the rate of resistance increased from 0...
January 3, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Norhan Khairy Abd El-Aziz, Yasmine Hasanine Tartor, Ahlam Abd El-Aziz Gharib, Ahmed Mohamed Ammar
Foodborne infections due to bacterial pathogens are increasing worldwide. Given the surreptitious nature of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, they largely remain a threat to public health and food safety due to their non-detectability through conventional plate count techniques. Hence, species-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) was used along with the plate count method to quantify VBNC Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Enterobacteriaceae in fresh and processed meat samples...
January 3, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Deepak Kumar, Suchawan Pornsukarom, G K Sivaraman, Siddhartha Thakur
The deposition of manure originating from food animal farms in the environment can lead to the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacterial foodborne pathogens, thereby potentially impacting human health. The objective of our study was to determine the dissemination of multidrug methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri (MDR-MRSS) in the environment after land application of manure on commercial swine farms. A total of 400 environmental samples (40 manure and 360 soil) were collected after repeated sampling from four commercial swine farms located in North Carolina (n = 1) and Iowa (n = 3) in the United States...
December 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Han Sol Kim, So Jeong Choi, Ki Sun Yoon
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of washing on Staphylococcus aureus reduction in salads and the effect of reheating on Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores reduction in fried rice at restaurants using the stochastic food safety objective (FSO) tool. The leaf vegetable was inoculated with S. aureus and washed with tap water, 100 ppm of NaClO, or 30 ppm of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) for either 60 s or 5 min. The washing effect of 30 ppm SAEW was greater than that of 100 ppm NaClO...
December 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Pravin R Kaldhone, Jing Han, Joanna Deck, Bijay Khajanchi, Rajesh Nayak, Steven L Foley, Steven C Ricke
Salmonella is a predominant foodborne pathogen in the United States and other countries. Mobile genetic elements such as plasmids allow Salmonella to adapt to external stress factors such as nutrient deprivation and host factors. Incompatibility group I1 (IncI1) plasmid-carrying Salmonella enterica strains were examined to determine the presence of plasmid-associated genes and their influence on phenotypic characteristics. The objective of this study was to understand the genetic determinants on IncI1 plasmids and their impact on antimicrobial susceptibility, competitive growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and plasmid transfer...
December 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Jane A M Araújo, Erick A Esmerino, Verônica O Alvarenga, Leandro P Cappato, Iracema C Hora, Marcia Cristina Silva, Monica Q Freitas, Tatiana C Pimentel, Eduardo H M Walter, Anderson S Sant'Ana, Adriano G Cruz
This study aimed to develop a checklist for good hygiene practices (GHP) for raw material of vegetable origin using the focus groups (FGs) approach (n = 4). The final checklist for commercialization of horticultural products totaled 28 questions divided into six blocks, namely: water supply; hygiene, health, and training; waste control; control of pests; packaging and traceability; and hygiene of facilities and equipment. The FG methodology was efficient to elaborate a participatory and objective checklist, based on minimum hygiene requirements, serving as a tool for diagnosis, planning, and training in GHP of fresh vegetables, besides contributing to raise awareness of the consumers' food safety...
December 20, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Maria Vitale, Salvatore Gaglio, Paola Galluzzo, Giuseppe Cascone, Chiara Piraino, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti, Rosa Alduina
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. In this retrospective study, 84 S. aureus strains were characterized. The collection comprises 78 strains isolated during 1998 and 2014 from dairy products and tissue samples from livestock bred for dairy production in Sicily. One isolate was obtained from a pet (dog), one from an exotic animal (a circus elephant), and four human isolates were obtained during a severe food poisoning outbreak that occurred in Sicily in 2015. All the strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), for antibiotic resistance and presence of toxin genes...
December 20, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Guillermo Cantero, Florencia Correa-Fiz, Troels Ronco, Mikael Strube, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar, Karl Pedersen
Campylobacter has been the most commonly reported cause of bacterial diarrheal disease in humans in the European Union since 2005. Most broiler batches at slaughter are colonized with Campylobacter, and the major source of infection is contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study was to characterize a selection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from broilers through whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 16 isolates (C. jejuni = 12 and C. coli = 4) from five broiler farms from Catalonia (northeastern Spain) were analyzed...
December 19, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Anna C L P de Campos, Juan J Puño-Sarmiento, Leonardo P Medeiros, Luís E S Gazal, Renato Pariz Maluta, Armando Navarro, Renata K T Kobayashi, Eder P Fagan, Gerson Nakazato
Cow raw milk cheese is widely eaten in Brazil. These products may be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we investigated the presence of Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese from different States in Brazil. From 147 "Minas" cheese samples, 28 cheeses were positive for E. coli. Among 39 E. coli isolates of the cheeses, one was positive for eae and negative for bpfA and efa1/lifA using PCR, and so was classified as atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). Two other isolates were positive for extraintestinal pathogenic E...
December 7, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Zhe Ma, Xinyi Yang, Yizhen Fang, Zexin Tong, Huixing Lin, Hongjie Fan
The outcomes of infection of humans and animals with Salmonella range from a persistent asymptomatic carrier state to temporal mild gastroenteritis or severe systemic infection. A rapid and accurate diagnostic test would help formulate strategies for effective prevention of their infections in the animal population. Current sequencing data predict that the outer membrane protein, PagC, is present in all common Salmonella serovars with sequence similarities of more than 98%. PagC sequences in other bacterial species are less than 65% similarity at the amino acid level to those of Salmonella PagC...
November 30, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Heidi H Petersen, Heidi L Enemark
Viability assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts is crucial for evaluation of the public health significance of this important zoonotic protozoon. Viability is commonly assessed in wet mounts after acid pretreatment and staining with fluorogenic vital dyes. However, in some studies, oocyst viability is evaluated in dry mounts after staining in suspension. Here, we evaluate the effect of acid pretreatment in nine replicate samples and compare the assessment of oocyst viability after evaluation in wet and dry mounts, respectively...
November 29, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Cristina Garcia-Graells, Sigrid C J De Keersmaecker, Kevin Vanneste, Brigitte Pochet, Katie Vermeersch, Nancy Roosens, Katelijne Dierick, Nadine Botteldoorn
A collection of 105 colistin-resistant Salmonella isolates collected from 2012 to 2015 in the national surveillance program in Belgium was screened by PCR for the presence of genes mcr-1 and mcr-2. Of these, 1.90% (2/105) and 0.95% (1/105) tested positive for mcr-1 and mcr-2, respectively. The presence of the mcr-1 or mcr-2 determinant has been confirmed by whole genome sequencing and allowed the localization of these two genes on IncX4 type plasmids. We report here the presence of mcr-1 and the first mcr-2 gene in Salmonella ever isolated in the Belgian food chain...
November 28, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Karen Apellanis Borges, Thales Quedi Furian, Sara Neves de Souza, Rafaela Menezes, Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle, Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes, Eduardo César Tondo, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento
Salmonella Enteritidis remains a standout among the leading causes of foodborne diseases worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated that a unique clonal group of Salmonella Enteritidis, named SE86, is involved in foodborne outbreaks in southern Brazil and is frequently identified among strains isolated from poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the isolation source (food products involved in salmonellosis outbreaks and poultry sources) on the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86...
November 6, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Krista Carlson, Manoranjan Misra, Swomitra Mohanty
In response to the potential hazards associated with the globalization of the food industry, research has been focused on the development of new sensing techniques to provide the means of contamination detection at any stage in the food supply chain. The demand for on-site detection is growing as pre-emptive sensing of pathogens could eliminate foodborne-related outbreaks and associated healthcare costs. Reduction in food waste is also a driver for point-of-use (POU) sensing, from both an economic and environmental standpoint...
November 6, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Antonio Parisi, Marta Caruso, Giovanni Normanno, Laura Latorre, Angela Miccolupo, Rosa Fraccalvieri, Francesco Intini, Teresa Manginelli, Gianfranco Santagada
The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in horses and its zoonotic potential is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to provide data on the prevalence and genetic characteristics of MRSA isolated from horses on farms, at racecourses, and at slaughterhouses in Italy, using standard and molecular methods. In addition, we report the prevalence of MRSA in horse handlers. Among 388 horses tested by nasal swabs, 27 (7%) were positive for MRSA ST398 (t011, t899, t1255) and ST1 (t127)...
October 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Muhammad Ali Syed, Syeda Hala Hussain Shah, Yasmin Sherafzal, Syed Shafi-Ur-Rehman, Mushtaq Ahmed Khan, John B Barrett, Tiffanie A Woodley, Bushra Jamil, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Charlene R Jackson
Table eggs are nutritionally important food consumed globally. Despite being protected inside the hard shell and a semipermeable membrane, the egg contents may be contaminated with microbes and thus become a possible carrier of infectious agents to humans. A number of medically significant bacterial species such as Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica have already been reported from table eggs. More important is the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains in this food source...
October 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Ji-Hyoung Ha, Sung Hyun Kim, Hee-Min Lee, Su-Ji Kim, Hae-Won Lee
In recent years, fresh vegetables have frequently been associated with the foodborne transmission of enteric viruses, such as human norovirus (NoV). Therefore, several studies have focused on developing methods to inactivate foodborne viruses for preventing outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is commonly used as a disinfectant, but results in undesirable effects on the appearance and taste of foods and can generate toxic byproducts when it exceeds the allowable concentration. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of NaOCl concentrations (50-1000 ppm) for reducing the amounts of human NoV (NoV GII...
October 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Stéfani T A Dantas, Bruna F Rossi, Erika C R Bonsaglia, Ivana G Castilho, Rodrigo T Hernandes, Ary Fernandes Júnior, Vera L M Rall
Cross-contamination is one of the main factors related to foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to analyze the cross-contamination process of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from poultry to cucumbers, on various cutting board surfaces (plastic, wood, and glass) before and after washing and in the presence and absence of biofilm. Thus, 10 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were used to test cross-contamination from poultry to the cutting boards and from thereon to cucumbers. Moreover, these strains were evaluated as to their capacity to form biofilm on hydrophobic (wood and plastic) and hydrophilic materials (glass)...
October 20, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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