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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889481/mitotic-nuclear-envelope-breakdown-and-spindle-nucleation-are-controlled-by-interphase-contacts-between-centromeres-and-the-nuclear-envelope
#1
Alfonso Fernández-Álvarez, Cécile Bez, Eileen T O'Toole, Mary Morphew, Julia Promisel Cooper
Faithful genome propagation requires coordination between nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown, spindle formation, and chromosomal events. The conserved linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects fission yeast centromeres and the centrosome, across the NE, during interphase. During meiosis, LINC connects the centrosome with telomeres rather than centromeres. We previously showed that loss of telomere-LINC contacts compromises meiotic spindle formation. Here, we define the precise events regulated by telomere-LINC contacts and address the analogous possibility that centromeres regulate mitotic spindle formation...
November 22, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889482/the-red-light-receptor-phytochrome-b-directly-enhances-substrate-e3-ligase-interactions-to-attenuate-ethylene-responses
#2
Hui Shi, Xing Shen, Renlu Liu, Chang Xue, Ning Wei, Xing Wang Deng, Shangwei Zhong
Plants germinating under subterranean darkness assume skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program strengthened by ethylene in response to mechanical pressure of soil. Upon reaching the surface, light triggers a dramatic developmental transition termed de-etiolation that requires immediate termination of ethylene responses. Here, we report that light activation of photoreceptor phyB results in rapid degradation of EIN3, the master transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway. As a result, light rapidly and efficiently represses ethylene actions...
November 16, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867070/the-shh-topological-domain-facilitates-the-action-of-remote-enhancers-by-reducing-the-effects-of-genomic-distances
#3
Orsolya Symmons, Leslie Pan, Silvia Remeseiro, Tugce Aktas, Felix Klein, Wolfgang Huber, François Spitz
Gene expression often requires interaction between promoters and distant enhancers, which occur within the context of highly organized topologically associating domains (TADs). Using a series of engineered chromosomal rearrangements at the Shh locus, we carried out an extensive fine-scale characterization of the factors that govern the long-range regulatory interactions controlling Shh expression. We show that Shh enhancers act pervasively, yet not uniformly, throughout the TAD. Importantly, changing intra-TAD distances had no impact on Shh expression...
November 16, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840106/evolved-repression-overcomes-enhancer-robustness
#4
Ella Preger-Ben Noon, Fred P Davis, David L Stern
Biological systems display extraordinary robustness. Robustness of transcriptional enhancers results mainly from clusters of binding sites for the same transcription factor, and it is not clear how robust enhancers can evolve loss of expression through point mutations. Here, we report the high-resolution functional dissection of a robust enhancer of the shavenbaby gene that has contributed to morphological evolution. We found that robustness is encoded by many binding sites for the transcriptional activator Arrowhead and that, during evolution, some of these activator sites were lost, weakening enhancer activity...
November 8, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746046/high-throughput-proteomics-reveals-the-unicellular-roots-of-animal-phosphosignaling-and-cell-differentiation
#5
Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Marcia Ivonne Peña, Salvador Capella-Gutiérrez, Meritxell Antó, Toni Gabaldón, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Eduard Sabidó
Cell-specific regulation of protein levels and activity is essential for the distribution of functions among multiple cell types in animals. The finding that many genes involved in these regulatory processes have a premetazoan origin raises the intriguing possibility that the mechanisms required for spatially regulated cell differentiation evolved prior to the appearance of animals. Here, we use high-throughput proteomics in Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative of animals, to characterize the dynamic proteome and phosphoproteome profiles of three temporally distinct cell types in this premetazoan species...
October 8, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746047/ribonuclease-mediated-control-of-body-fat
#6
Cornelia Habacher, Yanwu Guo, Richard Venz, Pooja Kumari, Anca Neagu, Dimos Gaidatzis, Eva B Harvald, Nils J Færgeman, Heinz Gut, Rafal Ciosk
Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720609/a-c-%C3%A2-elegans-thermosensory-circuit-regulates-longevity-through-crh-1-creb-dependent-flp-6-neuropeptide-signaling
#7
Yen-Chih Chen, Hung-Jhen Chen, Wei-Chin Tseng, Jiun-Min Hsu, Tzu-Ting Huang, Chun-Hao Chen, Chun-Liang Pan
Sensory perception, including thermosensation, shapes longevity in diverse organisms, but longevity-modulating signals from the sensory neurons are largely obscure. Here we show that CRH-1/CREB activation by CMK-1/CaMKI in the AFD thermosensory neuron is a key mechanism that maintains lifespan at warm temperatures in C. elegans. In response to temperature rise and crh-1 activation, the AFD neurons produce and secrete the FMRFamide neuropeptide FLP-6. Both CRH-1 and FLP-6 are necessary and sufficient for longevity at warm temperatures...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720610/tbx2-and-tbx3-act-downstream-of-shh-to-maintain-canonical-wnt-signaling-during-branching-morphogenesis-of-the-murine-lung
#8
Timo H Lüdtke, Carsten Rudat, Irina Wojahn, Anna-Carina Weiss, Marc-Jens Kleppa, Jennifer Kurz, Henner F Farin, Anne Moon, Vincent M Christoffels, Andreas Kispert
Numerous signals drive the proliferative expansion of the distal endoderm and the underlying mesenchyme during lung branching morphogenesis, but little is known about how these signals are integrated. Here, we show by analysis of conditional double mutants that the two T-box transcription factor genes Tbx2 and Tbx3 act together in the lung mesenchyme to maintain branching morphogenesis. Expression of both genes depends on epithelially derived Shh signaling, with additional modulation by Bmp, Wnt, and Tgfβ signaling...
October 4, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666746/control-of-oriented-tissue-growth-through-repression-of-organ-boundary-genes-promotes-stem-morphogenesis
#9
Stefano Bencivenga, Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Max Bush, Samantha Fox, Robert Sablowski
The origin of the stem is a major but poorly understood aspect of plant development, partly because the stem initiates in a relatively inaccessible region of the shoot apical meristem called the rib zone (RZ). We developed quantitative 3D image analysis and clonal analysis tools, which revealed that the Arabidopsis homeodomain protein REPLUMLESS (RPL) establishes distinct patterns of oriented cell division and growth in the central and peripheral regions of the RZ. A genome-wide screen for target genes connected RPL directly to many of the key shoot development pathways, including the development of organ boundaries; accordingly, mutation of the organ boundary gene LIGHT-SENSITIVE HYPOCOTYL 4 restored RZ function and stem growth in the rpl mutant...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875684/a-tether-is-a-tether-is-a-tether-tethering-at-membrane-contact-sites
#10
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Nadav Shai, Maya Schuldiner, Maria Bohnert
Membrane contact sites enable interorganelle communication by positioning organelles in close proximity using molecular "tethers." With a growing understanding of the importance of contact sites, the hunt for new contact sites and their tethers is in full swing. Determining just what is a tether has proven challenging. Here, we aim to delineate guidelines that define the prerequisites for categorizing a protein as a tether. Setting this gold standard now, while groups from different disciplines are beginning to explore membrane contact sites, will enable efficient cooperation in the growing field and help to realize a great collaborative opportunity to boost its development...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875683/redox-paradox-can-hypoxia-heal-ischemic-hearts
#11
Nuno Guimarães-Camboa, Sylvia M Evans
Adult cardiomyocytes are largely thought to lack proliferative and therefore regenerative potential. Reporting in Nature, Nakada et al. (2016) find that a hypoxic regime reduces mitochondrial metabolism and promotes proliferation in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, resulting in increased regeneration following myocardial infarction. These findings suggest the potential to transform post-MI care.
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875682/aging-hematopoietic-stem-cells-make-their-history
#12
Eva Maria Fast, Leonard Ira Zon
A major hallmark of aging is a decline in tissue regeneration. In a recent issue of Cell, Bernitz and colleagues (2016) determine the divisional history of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to be a key player of regenerative potential in the aging mouse.
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875681/subdistal-appendages-stabilize-the-ups-and-downs-of-ciliary-life
#13
Domenico F Galati, Brian J Mitchell, Chad G Pearson
Centrioles acquire subdistal appendages (sDAPs) during primary cilium formation. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Mazo et al. (2016) demonstrate that sDAPs keep cilia submerged within deep membrane invaginations. When sDAPs and centrosome cohesion are disrupted, cilia surface to the plasma membrane, which may alter mechanical and chemical signal transduction.
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875680/sumoylation-stabilizes-smoothened-to-promote-hedgehog-signaling
#14
Yun Qi, Han Liu, Xinhua Lin
The conserved Hedgehog signaling pathway is essential for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis and is tightly regulated. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ma et al. (2016) demonstrate that sumoylation works in parallel with phosphorylation to stabilize Smoothened, antagonizing its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, thus activating Hh target gene transcription.
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875679/one-gene-many-proteins-mapping-cell-specific-alternative-splicing-in-plants
#15
Ranjan Swarup, Martin Crespi, Malcolm J Bennett
Pre-mRNA alternative splicing (AS) generates protein variants from a single gene that can create novel regulatory opportunities. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Li et al. (2016) present a high-resolution expression map of AS events in Arabidopsis root tissues, giving insight into cell-type- and stage-specific AS mechanisms in plants.
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840109/transcriptomic-profiling-maps-anatomically-patterned-subpopulations-among-single-embryonic-cardiac-cells
#16
Guang Li, Adele Xu, Sopheak Sim, James R Priest, Xueying Tian, Tooba Khan, Thomas Quertermous, Bin Zhou, Philip S Tsao, Stephen R Quake, Sean M Wu
Embryonic gene expression intricately reflects anatomical context, developmental stage, and cell type. To address whether the precise spatial origins of cardiac cells can be deduced solely from their transcriptional profiles, we established a genome-wide expression database from 118, 949, and 1,166 single murine heart cells at embryonic day 8.5 (e8.5), e9.5, and e10.5, respectively. We segregated these cells by type using unsupervised bioinformatics analysis and identified chamber-specific genes. Using a random forest algorithm, we reconstructed the spatial origin of single e9...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840108/high-resolution-expression-map-of-the-arabidopsis-root-reveals-alternative-splicing-and-lincrna-regulation
#17
Song Li, Masashi Yamada, Xinwei Han, Uwe Ohler, Philip N Benfey
The extent to which alternative splicing and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) contribute to the specialized functions of cells within an organ is poorly understood. We generated a comprehensive dataset of gene expression from individual cell types of the Arabidopsis root. Comparisons across cell types revealed that alternative splicing tends to remove parts of coding regions from a longer, major isoform, providing evidence for a progressive mechanism of splicing. Cell-type-specific intron retention suggested a possible origin for this common form of alternative splicing...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840107/single-cell-resolution-of-temporal-gene-expression-during-heart-development
#18
Daniel M DeLaughter, Alexander G Bick, Hiroko Wakimoto, David McKean, Joshua M Gorham, Irfan S Kathiriya, John T Hinson, Jason Homsy, Jesse Gray, William Pu, Benoit G Bruneau, J G Seidman, Christine E Seidman
Activation of complex molecular programs in specific cell lineages governs mammalian heart development, from a primordial linear tube to a four-chamber organ. To characterize lineage-specific, spatiotemporal developmental programs, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of >1,200 murine cells isolated at seven time points spanning embryonic day 9.5 (primordial heart tube) to postnatal day 21 (mature heart). Using unbiased transcriptional data, we classified cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblast-enriched cells, thus identifying markers for temporal and chamber-specific developmental programs...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840105/live-imaging-of-axolotl-digit-regeneration-reveals-spatiotemporal-choreography-of-diverse-connective-tissue-progenitor-pools
#19
Joshua D Currie, Akane Kawaguchi, Ricardo Moreno Traspas, Maritta Schuez, Osvaldo Chara, Elly M Tanaka
Connective tissues-skeleton, dermis, pericytes, fascia-are a key cell source for regenerating the patterned skeleton during axolotl appendage regeneration. This complexity has made it difficult to identify the cells that regenerate skeletal tissue. Inability to identify these cells has impeded a mechanistic understanding of blastema formation. By tracing cells during digit tip regeneration using brainbow transgenic axolotls, we show that cells from each connective tissue compartment have distinct spatial and temporal profiles of proliferation, migration, and differentiation...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818180/rac1-mediated-dna-damage-and-inflammation-promote-nf2-tumorigenesis-but-also-limit-cell-cycle-progression
#20
Yuhao Shi, Saumya R Bollam, Shannon M White, Sean Z Laughlin, Garrett T Graham, Mandheer Wadhwa, Hengye Chen, Chan Nguyen, Jeremie Vitte, Marco Giovannini, Jeffery Toretsky, Chunling Yi
Merlin encoded by the Nf2 gene is a bona fide tumor suppressor that has been implicated in regulation of both the Hippo-Yap and Rac1-Pak1 pathways. Using genetically engineered murine liver models, we show that co-deletion of Rac1 with Nf2 blocks tumor initiation but paradoxically exacerbates hepatomegaly induced by Nf2 loss, which can be suppressed either by treatment with pro-oxidants or by co-deletion of Yap. Our results suggest that while Yap acts as the central driver of proliferation during Nf2 tumorigenesis, Rac1 primarily functions as an inflammation switch by inducing reactive oxygen species that, on one hand, induce nuclear factor κB signaling and expression of inflammatory cytokines, and on the other activate p53 checkpoint and senescence programs dampening the cyclin D1-pRb-E2F1 pathway...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
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