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Developmental Cell

Chang-Chih Wu, Shirui Hou, Brent A Orr, Bryan R Kuo, Yong Ha Youn, Taren Ong, Fanny Roth, Charles G Eberhart, Giles W Robinson, David J Solecki, Makoto M Taketo, Richard J Gilbertson, Martine F Roussel, Young-Goo Han
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) cooperates with Hedgehog (HH) signaling, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacologic evidence that MTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation is a prerequisite for HH signaling. The genetic loss of mTORC1 function inhibited HH signaling-driven growth of the cerebellum and medulloblastoma. Inhibiting translation or mTORC1 blocked HH signaling. Depleting 4EBP1, an mTORC1 target that inhibits translation, alleviated the dependence of HH signaling on mTORC1...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cell
Borko Amulic, Sebastian Lorenz Knackstedt, Ulrike Abu Abed, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Christopher J Harbort, Brian E Caffrey, Volker Brinkmann, Frank L Heppner, Philip W Hinds, Arturo Zychlinsky
Neutrophils are essential for immune defense and can respond to infection by releasing chromatin in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here we show that NETs are induced by mitogens and accompanied by induction of cell-cycle markers, including phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and lamins, nuclear envelope breakdown, and duplication of centrosomes. We identify cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) as essential regulators of NETs and show that the response is inhibited by the cell-cycle inhibitor p21(Cip)...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cell
Vassil Vassilev, Anna Platek, Sylvain Hiver, Hideki Enomoto, Masatoshi Takeichi
Cell migration plays a pivotal role in morphogenetic and pathogenetic processes. To achieve directional migration, cells must establish a front-to-rear axis of polarity. Here we show that components of the cadherin-catenin complex function to stabilize this front-rear polarity. Neural crest and glioblastoma cells undergo directional migration in vivo or in vitro. During this process, αE-catenin accumulated at lamellipodial membranes and then moved toward the rear with the support of a tyrosine-phosphorylated β-catenin...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cell
Amulya Sreekumar, Michael J Toneff, Eajer Toh, Kevin Roarty, Chad J Creighton, George K Belka, Dong-Kee Lee, Jianming Xu, Lewis A Chodosh, JoAnne S Richards, Jeffrey M Rosen
Puberty is characterized by dynamic tissue remodeling in the mammary gland involving ductal elongation, resolution into the mature epithelial bilayer, and lumen formation. To decipher the cellular mechanisms underlying these processes, we studied the fate of putative stem cells, termed cap cells, present in terminal end buds of pubertal mice. Employing a p63(CreERT2)-based lineage-tracing strategy, we identified a unipotent fate for proliferative cap cells that only generated cells with basal features. Furthermore, we observed that dislocated "cap-in-body" cells underwent apoptosis, which aided lumen formation during ductal development...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cell
Kazunori Ando, Eri Shibata, Stefan Hans, Michael Brand, Atsushi Kawakami
Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
Scott Curran, Charlotte Strandkvist, Jasper Bathmann, Marc de Gennes, Alexandre Kabla, Guillaume Salbreux, Buzz Baum
Under conditions of homeostasis, dynamic changes in the length of individual adherens junctions (AJs) provide epithelia with the fluidity required to maintain tissue integrity in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic forces. While the contribution of AJ remodeling to developmental morphogenesis has been intensively studied, less is known about AJ dynamics in other circumstances. Here, we study AJ dynamics in an epithelium that undergoes a gradual increase in packing order, without concomitant large-scale changes in tissue size or shape...
October 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
Hui Li, Yanglin Ding, Yiting Shi, Xiaoyan Zhang, Shuqun Zhang, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang
Low temperatures affect plant growth, development, productivity, and ecological distribution. Expression of the C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) transcription factors is induced by cold stress, which in turn activates downstream cold-responsive (COR) genes that are required for the acquisition of freezing tolerance. Inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) is a master regulator of CBFs, and ICE1 stability is crucial for its function. However, the regulation of ICE1 is not well understood. Here, we report that mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 interact with and phosphorylate ICE1, which reduces its stability and transcriptional activity...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Cell
Chunzhao Zhao, Pengcheng Wang, Tong Si, Chuan-Chih Hsu, Lu Wang, Omar Zayed, Zheping Yu, Yingfang Zhu, Juan Dong, W Andy Tao, Jian-Kang Zhu
Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are important signaling modules that convert environmental stimuli into cellular responses. We show that MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6 are rapidly activated after cold treatment. The mpk3 and mpk6 mutants display increased expression of CBF genes and enhanced freezing tolerance, whereas constitutive activation of the MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade in plants causes reduced expression of CBF genes and hypersensitivity to freezing, suggesting that the MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade negatively regulates the cold response...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Cell
Juli Liu, Yang Li, Bo Lin, Yi Sheng, Lei Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Sarah N Anderson, Cameron S Johnson, Joshua Chesnut, Daniel S Jones, Imtiyaz Khanday, Margaret Woodhouse, Chenxin Li, Liza J Conrad, Scott D Russell, Venkatesan Sundaresan
The zygotic transition, from a fertilized egg to an embryo, is central to animal and plant reproduction. Animal embryos depend upon maternally provided factors until zygotic genome activation (ZGA). In plants, the timing and parental genome contributions to ZGA are unresolved. Here, we use the flowering plant Oryza sativa (rice) to characterize transcriptomes of time-staged isogenic and hybrid zygotes following fertilization. Large-scale transcriptomic changes were observed in unicellular zygotes, including upregulation of S-phase genes, a characteristic of ZGA...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Shahrzad Bahrampour, Erika Gunnar, Carolin Jonsson, Helen Ekman, Stefan Thor
Great progress has been made in identifying transcriptional programs that establish stem cell identity. In contrast, we have limited insight into how these programs are down-graded in a timely manner to halt proliferation and allow for cellular differentiation. Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts undergo such a temporal progression, initially dividing to bud off daughters that divide once (type I), then switching to generating non-dividing daughters (type 0), and finally exiting the cell cycle. We identify six early transcription factors that drive neuroblast and type I daughter proliferation...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Kazuhiro Aoki, Yohei Kondo, Honda Naoki, Toru Hiratsuka, Reina E Itoh, Michiyuki Matsuda
The biophysical framework of collective cell migration has been extensively investigated in recent years; however, it remains elusive how chemical inputs from neighboring cells are integrated to coordinate the collective movement. Here, we provide evidence that propagation waves of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase activation determine the direction of the collective cell migration. A wound-healing assay of Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells revealed two distinct types of ERK activation wave, a "tidal wave" from the wound, and a self-organized "spontaneous wave" in regions distant from the wound...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Mateusz Majda, Peter Grones, Ida-Maria Sintorn, Thomas Vain, Pascale Milani, Pawel Krupinski, Beata Zagórska-Marek, Corrado Viotti, Henrik Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Olivier Hamant, Stéphanie Robert
The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Giuseppe Condomitti, Joris de Wit
Glial cells shape neural circuits by secreting cues that contribute to the spatiotemporal control of connectivity. A new study in Neuron from Farhy-Tselnicker et al. (2017) shows that the astrocyte-secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan GPC4 acts on presynaptic terminals to indirectly regulate AMPA receptor clustering and active synapse formation.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Lilian Lamech, Cole M Haynes
Ribosome stalling results in the production of truncated proteins that can cause proteotoxic stress if not efficiently degraded. A recent paper by Izawa et al. (2017) identifies Vms1 as a key player in the regulation of ribosome quality control specifically on mitochondria-localized ribosomes, ultimately preventing protein aggregate accumulation within mitochondria.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Matthew C Lorincz, Dirk Schübeler
CpG island promoters are generally devoid of DNA methylation in somatic cells but are frequently methylated during tumorigenesis. Reporting recently in Nature, Smith et al. (2017) show that the signaling-induced methylome in early extraembryonic tissues resembles that of many cancers, suggesting that placental nuclear programming might be co-opted in tumorigenesis.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Daniel von Wangenheim, Darren M Wells, Malcolm J Bennett
The jigsaw puzzle-shaped pavement cells in the leaf epidermis collectively function as a load-bearing tissue that controls organ growth. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Majda et al. (2017) shed light on how the jigsaw shape can arise from localized variations in wall stiffness between adjacent epidermal cells.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Dana O Robinson, Adrienne H K Roeder
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Skopelitis et al. (2017) demonstrate that sharp boundaries of gene expression can be created by threshold-based readout of mobile small RNA gradients. Support for this hypothesis comes from manipulation of small RNAs involved in top-bottom leaf patterning and from a novel synthetic biology approach.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Brian C Del Rosario, Amanda M Del Rosario, Anthony Anselmo, Peggy I Wang, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Jeannie T Lee
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) silences one X chromosome in the female mammal and is essential to peri-implantation development. XCI is thought to be cell autonomous, with all factors required being produced within each cell. Nevertheless, external cues may exist. Here, we search for such developmental signals by combining bioinformatic, biochemical, and genetic approaches. Using ex vivo and in vivo models, we identify the Hedgehog (HH) paracrine system as a candidate signaling cascade. HH signaling keeps XCI in check in pluripotent cells and is transduced by GLI transcription factors to binding sites in Tsix, the antisense repressor of XCI...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Alex M Rohacek, Thomas W Bebee, Richard K Tilton, Caleb M Radens, Chris McDermott-Roe, Natoya Peart, Maninder Kaur, Michael Zaykaner, Benjamin Cieply, Kiran Musunuru, Yoseph Barash, John A Germiller, Ian D Krantz, Russ P Carstens, Douglas J Epstein
Alternative splicing contributes to gene expression dynamics in many tissues, yet its role in auditory development remains unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and identified pathogenic mutations in Epithelial Splicing-Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed alternative splicing defects that were restored upon repair of an ESRP1 mutant allele. To determine how ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss, we evaluated Esrp1(-/-) mouse embryos and uncovered alterations in cochlear morphogenesis, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell fate specification...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
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