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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416012/spatiotemporal-m-i-rna-architecture-and-3-utr-regulation-in-the-c-elegans-germline
#1
Asija Diag, Marcel Schilling, Filippos Klironomos, Salah Ayoub, Nikolaus Rajewsky
In animal germlines, regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation is particularly important but poorly understood. Here, using a cryo-cut approach, we mapped RNA expression along the Caenorhabditis elegans germline and, using mutants, dissected gene regulatory mechanisms that control spatiotemporal expression. We detected, at near single-cell resolution, >10,000 mRNAs, >300 miRNAs, and numerous unannotated miRNAs. Most RNAs were organized in distinct spatial patterns. Germline-specific miRNAs and their targets were co-localized...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416013/spatial-transcriptomics-of-c-elegans-males-and-hermaphrodites-identifies-sex-specific-differences-in-gene-expression-patterns
#2
Annabel Ebbing, Ábel Vértesy, Marco C Betist, Bastiaan Spanjaard, Jan Philipp Junker, Eugene Berezikov, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hendrik C Korswagen
To advance our understanding of the genetic programs that drive cell and tissue specialization, it is necessary to obtain a comprehensive overview of gene expression patterns. Here, we have used spatial transcriptomics to generate high-resolution, anteroposterior gene expression maps of C. elegans males and hermaphrodites. To explore these maps, we have developed computational methods for discovering region- and tissue-specific genes. We have found extensive sex-specific gene expression differences in the germline and sperm and discovered genes that are specifically expressed in the male reproductive tract...
November 3, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393075/a-robust-transposon-endogenizing-response-from-germline-stem-cells
#3
Sungjin Moon, Madeline Cassani, Yu An Lin, Lu Wang, Kun Dou, Zz Zhao Zhang
The heavy occupancy of transposons in the genome implies that existing organisms have survived from multiple, independent rounds of transposon invasions. However, how and which host cell types survive the initial wave of transposon invasion remain unclear. We show that the germline stem cells can initiate a robust adaptive response that rapidly endogenizes invading P element transposons by activating the DNA damage checkpoint and piRNA production. We find that temperature modulates the P element activity in germline stem cells, establishing a powerful tool to trigger transposon hyper-activation...
November 1, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393076/setdb1-links-the-meiotic-dna-damage-response-to-sex-chromosome-silencing-in-mice
#4
Takayuki Hirota, Paul Blakeley, Mahesh N Sangrithi, Shantha K Mahadevaiah, Vesela Encheva, Ambrosius P Snijders, Elias ElInati, Obah A Ojarikre, Dirk G de Rooij, Kathy K Niakan, James M A Turner
Meiotic synapsis and recombination ensure correct homologous segregation and genetic diversity. Asynapsed homologs are transcriptionally inactivated by meiotic silencing, which serves a surveillance function and in males drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Silencing depends on the DNA damage response (DDR) network, but how DDR proteins engage repressive chromatin marks is unknown. We identify the histone H3-lysine-9 methyltransferase SETDB1 as the bridge linking the DDR to silencing in male mice. At the onset of silencing, X chromosome H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) enrichment is downstream of DDR factors...
October 29, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393074/activity-of-the-spca1-calcium-pump-couples-sphingomyelin-synthesis-to-sorting-of-secretory-proteins-in-the-trans-golgi-network
#5
Yongqiang Deng, Mehrshad Pakdel, Birgit Blank, Emma L Sundberg, Christopher G Burd, Julia von Blume
How the principal functions of the Golgi apparatus-protein processing, lipid synthesis, and sorting of macromolecules-are integrated to constitute cargo-specific trafficking pathways originating from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is unknown. Here, we show that the activity of the Golgi localized SPCA1 calcium pump couples sorting and export of secreted proteins to synthesis of new lipid in the TGN membrane. A secreted Ca2+ -binding protein, Cab45, constitutes the core component of a Ca2+ -dependent, oligomerization-driven sorting mechanism whereby secreted proteins bound to Cab45 are packaged into a TGN-derived vesicular carrier whose membrane is enriched in sphingomyelin, a lipid implicated in TGN-to-cell surface transport...
October 29, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30344111/metabolic-remodeling-during-liver-regeneration
#6
Matias J Caldez, Noémi Van Hul, Hiromi W L Koh, Xing Qi Teo, Jun Jun Fan, Peck Yean Tan, Matthew R Dewhurst, Peh Gek Too, S Zakiah A Talib, Beatrice E Chiang, Walter Stünkel, Hanry Yu, Philip Lee, Tobias Fuhrer, Hyungwon Choi, Mikael Björklund, Philipp Kaldis
Liver disease is linked to a decreased capacity of hepatocytes to divide. In addition, cellular metabolism is important for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Since metabolic changes are a hallmark of liver disease, we investigated the connections between metabolism and cell division. We determined global metabolic changes at different stages of liver regeneration using a combination of integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses with advanced functional redox in vivo imaging. Our data indicate that blocking hepatocyte division during regeneration leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and downregulation of oxidative pathways...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318244/a-mechanosensitive-rhoa-pathway-that-protects-epithelia-against-acute-tensile-stress
#7
Bipul R Acharya, Alexander Nestor-Bergmann, Xuan Liang, Shafali Gupta, Kinga Duszyc, Estelle Gauquelin, Guillermo A Gomez, Srikanth Budnar, Philippe Marcq, Oliver E Jensen, Zev Bryant, Alpha S Yap
Adherens junctions are tensile structures that couple epithelial cells together. Junctional tension can arise from cell-intrinsic application of contractility or from the cell-extrinsic forces of tissue movement. Here, we report a mechanosensitive signaling pathway that activates RhoA at adherens junctions to preserve epithelial integrity in response to acute tensile stress. We identify Myosin VI as the force sensor, whose association with E-cadherin is enhanced when junctional tension is increased by mechanical monolayer stress...
October 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415657/local-auxin-biosynthesis-is-a-key-regulator-of-plant-development
#8
Javier Brumos, Linda M Robles, Jeonga Yun, Thien C Vu, Savannah Jackson, Jose M Alonso, Anna N Stepanova
Auxin is a major phytohormone that controls numerous aspects of plant development and coordinates plant responses to the environment. Morphogenic gradients of auxin govern cell fate decisions and underlie plant phenotypic plasticity. Polar auxin transport plays a central role in auxin maxima generation. The discovery of the exquisite spatiotemporal expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes of the WEI8/TAR and YUC families suggested that local auxin production may contribute to the formation of auxin maxima...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399339/mechanical-force-driven-adherens-junction-remodeling-and-epithelial-dynamics
#9
Diana Pinheiro, Yohanns Bellaϊche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399338/the-polyploid-state-plays-a-tumor-suppressive-role-in-the-liver
#10
Shuyuan Zhang, Kejin Zhou, Xin Luo, Lin Li, Ho-Chou Tu, Alfica Sehgal, Liem H Nguyen, Yu Zhang, Purva Gopal, Branden D Tarlow, Daniel J Siegwart, Hao Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399337/pericyte-alk5-timp3-axis-contributes-to-endothelial-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-brain
#11
Jui M Dave, Teodelinda Mirabella, Scott D Weatherbee, Daniel M Greif
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399336/oxidative-stress-orchestrates-cell-polarity-to-promote-embryonic-wound-healing
#12
Miranda V Hunter, Patrick Morley Willoughby, Ashley E E Bruce, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Embryos have a striking ability to heal wounds rapidly and without scarring. Embryonic wound repair is a conserved process, driven by polarization of cell-cell junctions and the actomyosin cytoskeleton in the cells around the wound. However, the upstream signals that trigger cell polarization around wounds are unknown. We used quantitative in vivo microscopy in Drosophila and zebrafish embryos to identify reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a critical signal that orchestrates cell polarity around wounds. ROS promote trafficking of adherens junctions and accumulation of actin and myosin at the wound edge and are necessary for wound closure...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399335/soxb1-activity-regulates-sensory-neuron-regeneration-maintenance-and-function-in-planarians
#13
Kelly G Ross, Alyssa M Molinaro, Celeste Romero, Brian Dockter, Katrina L Cable, Karla Gonzalez, Siqi Zhang, Eva-Maria S Collins, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
SoxB1 genes play fundamental roles in neurodevelopmental processes and maintaining stem cell multipotency, but little is known about their function in regeneration. We addressed this question by analyzing the activity of the SoxB1 homolog soxB1-2 in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Expression and functional analysis revealed that soxB1-2 marks ectodermal-lineage progenitors, and its activity is required for differentiation of subsets of ciliated epidermal and neuronal cells. Moreover, we show that inhibiting soxB1-2 or its candidate target genes leads to abnormal sensory neuron regeneration that causes planarians to display seizure-like movements or phenotypes associated with the loss of sensory modalities...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399334/the-lysosomal-transcription-factor-tfeb-represses-myelination-downstream-of-the-rag-ragulator-complex
#14
Ana M Meireles, Kimberle Shen, Lida Zoupi, Harini Iyer, Ellen L Bouchard, Anna Williams, William S Talbot
Myelin allows for fast and efficient axonal conduction, but much remains to be determined about the mechanisms that regulate myelin formation. To investigate the genetic basis of myelination, we carried out a genetic screen using zebrafish. Here, we show that the lysosomal G protein RagA is essential for CNS myelination. In rraga-/- mutant oligodendrocytes, target genes of the lysosomal transcription factor Tfeb are upregulated, consistent with previous evidence that RagA represses Tfeb activity. Loss of Tfeb function is sufficient to restore myelination in RagA mutants, indicating that hyperactive Tfeb represses myelination...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399333/a-regeneration-toolkit
#15
REVIEW
Mayssa H Mokalled, Kenneth D Poss
The ability of animals to replace injured body parts has been a subject of fascination for centuries. The emerging importance of regenerative medicine has reinvigorated investigations of innate tissue regeneration, and the development of powerful genetic tools has fueled discoveries into how tissue regeneration occurs. Here, we present an overview of the armamentarium employed to probe regeneration in vertebrates, highlighting areas where further methodology advancement will deepen mechanistic findings.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399332/rotten-to-the-core-why-micronuclei-rupture
#16
C Patrick Lusk, Megan C King
A recent study in Nature from Liu et al. (2018) suggests that the rupture of micronuclei and resulting exposure of genomic DNA to the cytosol is driven by microtubule-induced defects in the biochemical composition of their bounding membranes.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399331/locally-sourced-auxin-biosynthesis-and-transport-in-the-root-meristem
#17
Nicholas J Morffy, Lucia C Strader
Localized maxima of the plant hormone auxin are crucial to root development and meristem maintenance. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Brumos et al. used elegant genetic and grafting experiments to distinguish between the contributions of local and distal auxin sources to auxin maxima generation and root meristem maintenance.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399330/reconsidering-the-passive-diffusion-model-of-steroid-hormone-cellular-entry
#18
Sarah D Neuman, Arash Bashirullah
Steroid hormones have long been thought to enter target cells via passive diffusion through the plasma membrane. Now, reporting in Developmental Cell, Okamoto et al. (2018) demonstrate that, at least for Drosophila, steroid hormones require a protein transporter for cellular entry.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318245/the-proton-coupled-monocarboxylate-transporter-hermes-is-necessary-for-autophagy-during-cell-death
#19
Panagiotis D Velentzas, Lejie Zhang, Gautam Das, Tsun-Kai Chang, Charles Nelson, William R Kobertz, Eric H Baehrecke
Nutrient availability influences the production and degradation of materials that are required for cell growth and survival. Autophagy is a nutrient-regulated process that is used to degrade cytoplasmic materials and has been associated with human diseases. Solute transporters influence nutrient availability and sensing, yet we know little about how transporters influence autophagy. Here, we screen for solute transporters that are required for autophagy-dependent cell death and identify CG11665/hermes. We show that hermes is required for both autophagy during steroid-triggered salivary gland cell death and TNF-induced non-apoptotic eye cell death...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293839/a-membrane-transporter-is-required-for-steroid-hormone-uptake-in-drosophila
#20
Naoki Okamoto, Raghuvir Viswanatha, Riyan Bittar, Zhongchi Li, Sachiko Haga-Yamanaka, Norbert Perrimon, Naoki Yamanaka
Steroid hormones are a group of lipophilic hormones that are believed to enter cells by simple diffusion to regulate diverse physiological processes through intracellular nuclear receptors. Here, we challenge this model in Drosophila by demonstrating that Ecdysone Importer (EcI), a membrane transporter identified from two independent genetic screens, is involved in cellular uptake of the steroid hormone ecdysone. EcI encodes an organic anion transporting polypeptide of the evolutionarily conserved solute carrier organic anion superfamily...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
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