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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486134/abl-regulates-planar-polarized-junctional-dynamics-through-%C3%AE-catenin-tyrosine-phosphorylation
#1
Masako Tamada, Dene L Farrell, Jennifer A Zallen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486133/rhod-inhibits-rhoc-rock-dependent-cell-contraction-via-pak6
#2
Charlotte H Durkin, Flavia Leite, João V Cordeiro, Yutaka Handa, Yoshiki Arakawa, Ferran Valderrama, Michael Way
RhoA-mediated regulation of myosin-II activity in the actin cortex controls the ability of cells to contract and bleb during a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration and division. Cell contraction and blebbing also frequently occur as part of the cytopathic effect seen during many different viral infections. We now demonstrate that the vaccinia virus protein F11, which localizes to the plasma membrane, is required for ROCK-mediated cell contraction from 2 hr post infection. Curiously, F11-induced cell contraction is dependent on RhoC and not RhoA signaling to ROCK...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486132/the-pomxyz-proteins-self-organize-on-the-bacterial-nucleoid-to-stimulate-cell-division
#3
Dominik Schumacher, Silke Bergeler, Andrea Harms, Janet Vonck, Sabrina Huneke-Vogt, Erwin Frey, Lotte Søgaard-Andersen
Cell division site positioning is precisely regulated to generate correctly sized and shaped daughters. We uncover the strategy used by the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus to position the FtsZ cytokinetic ring at midcell. PomX, PomY, and the nucleoid-binding ParA/MinD ATPase PomZ self-assemble forming a large nucleoid-associated complex that localizes at the division site before FtsZ to directly guide and stimulate division. PomXYZ localization is generated through self-organized biased random motion on the nucleoid toward midcell and constrained motion at midcell...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486131/large-cytoplasm-is-linked-to-the-error-prone-nature-of-oocytes
#4
Hirohisa Kyogoku, Tomoya S Kitajima
Chromosome segregation during meiosis in oocytes is error prone. The uniquely large cytoplasmic size of oocytes, which provides support for embryogenesis after fertilization, might be a predisposing factor for meiotic errors. However, this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we show that cytoplasmic size affects the functionality of the acentrosomal spindle. Artificially decreasing the cytoplasmic size in mouse oocytes allows the acentrosomal spindle poles to have a better-focused distribution of microtubule-organizing centers and to biorient chromosomes more efficiently, whereas enlargement of the cytoplasmic size has the opposite effects...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486130/gastric-acid-secretion-from-parietal-cells-is-mediated-by-a-ca-2-efflux-channel-in-the-tubulovesicle
#5
Nirakar Sahoo, Mingxue Gu, Xiaoli Zhang, Neel Raval, Junsheng Yang, Michael Bekier, Raul Calvo, Samarjit Patnaik, Wuyang Wang, Greyson King, Mohammad Samie, Qiong Gao, Sasmita Sahoo, Sinju Sundaresan, Theresa M Keeley, Yanzhuang Wang, Juan Marugan, Marc Ferrer, Linda C Samuelson, Juanita L Merchant, Haoxing Xu
Gastric acid secretion by parietal cells requires trafficking and exocytosis of H/K-ATPase-rich tubulovesicles (TVs) toward apical membranes in response to histamine stimulation via cyclic AMP elevation. Here, we found that TRPML1 (ML1), a protein that is mutated in type IV mucolipidosis (ML-IV), is a tubulovesicular channel essential for TV exocytosis and acid secretion. Whereas ML-IV patients are reportedly achlorhydric, transgenic overexpression of ML1 in mouse parietal cells induced constitutive acid secretion...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486129/the-canonical-notch-signaling-pathway-structural-and-biochemical-insights-into-shape-sugar-and-force
#6
REVIEW
Rhett A Kovall, Brian Gebelein, David Sprinzak, Raphael Kopan
The Notch signaling pathway relies on a proteolytic cascade to release its transcriptionally active intracellular domain, on force to unfold a protective domain and permit proteolysis, on extracellular domain glycosylation to tune the forces exerted by endocytosed ligands, and on a motley crew of nuclear proteins, chromatin modifiers, ubiquitin ligases, and a few kinases to regulate activity and half-life. Herein we provide a review of recent molecular insights into how Notch signals are triggered and how cell shape affects these events, and we use the new insights to illuminate a few perplexing observations...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486128/a-geometric-model-of-stripe-refinement
#7
Eric D Siggia
Organizing data about patterning and morphogenesis into a coherent framework remains a challenge in developmental biology. Reporting in Science, Corson et al. (2017) apply innovative analysis to an old problem of bristle patterns in Drosophila, reducing the nonlinear interactions among tens of cells to a succinct model with quantitative predictions.
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486127/%C3%AE-cell-renewal-versus-differentiation-slow-and-steady-wins-the-race
#8
Ondine Cleaver
Pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells proliferate and transiently express the bHLH transcription factor Ngn3. In recent issues of Developmental Cell, Azzarelli et al. (2017) and Krentz et al. (2017) demonstrate how CDK phosphorylation of Ngn3 governs the switch between their renewal and differentiation. Lengthening the cell cycle allows Ngn3 accumulation, outpacing phosphorylation-induced degradation.
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486126/more-cytoplasm-more-problems
#9
Predrag Jevtić, Daniel L Levy
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Kyogoku and Kitajima (2017) investigate the effect of cytoplasmic volume on the fidelity of chromosome segregation during meiosis in mouse oocytes. The authors find that large cytoplasmic volume affects spindle pole morphology, chromosome alignment, and stringency of checkpoint signaling, resulting in error-prone chromosome segregation.
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457793/multi-site-neurogenin3-phosphorylation-controls-pancreatic-endocrine-differentiation
#10
Roberta Azzarelli, Christopher Hurley, Magdalena K Sznurkowska, Steffen Rulands, Laura Hardwick, Ivonne Gamper, Fahad Ali, Laura McCracken, Christopher Hindley, Fiona McDuff, Sonia Nestorowa, Richard Kemp, Kenneth Jones, Berthold Göttgens, Meritxell Huch, Gerard Evan, Benjamin D Simons, Douglas Winton, Anna Philpott
The proneural transcription factor Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) plays a critical role in pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation, although regulation of Ngn3 protein is largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that Ngn3 protein undergoes cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-mediated phosphorylation on multiple serine-proline sites. Replacing wild-type protein with a phosphomutant form of Ngn3 increases α cell generation, the earliest endocrine cell type to be formed in the developing pancreas. Moreover, un(der)phosphorylated Ngn3 maintains insulin expression in adult β cells in the presence of elevated c-Myc and enhances endocrine specification during ductal reprogramming...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457792/a-gene-regulatory-network-balances-neural-and-mesoderm-specification-during-vertebrate-trunk-development
#11
Mina Gouti, Julien Delile, Despina Stamataki, Filip J Wymeersch, Yali Huang, Jens Kleinjung, Valerie Wilson, James Briscoe
Transcriptional networks, regulated by extracellular signals, control cell fate decisions and determine the size and composition of developing tissues. One example is the network controlling bipotent neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) that fuel embryo elongation by generating spinal cord and trunk mesoderm tissue. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics to identify the molecular signature of NMPs and reverse engineer the mechanism that regulates their differentiation. Together with genetic perturbations, this reveals a transcriptional network that integrates opposing retinoic acid (RA) and Wnt signals to determine the rate at which cells enter and exit the NMP state...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441533/a-global-view-of-rna-protein-interactions-identifies-post-transcriptional-regulators-of-root-hair-cell-fate
#12
Shawn W Foley, Sager J Gosai, Dongxue Wang, Nur Selamoglu, Amelia C Sollitti, Tino Köster, Alexander Steffen, Eric Lyons, Fevzi Daldal, Benjamin A Garcia, Dorothee Staiger, Roger B Deal, Brian D Gregory
The Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is comprised of two cell types, hair and nonhair cells, which differentiate from the same precursor. Although the transcriptional programs regulating these events are well studied, post-transcriptional factors functioning in this cell fate decision are mostly unknown. Here, we globally identify RNA-protein interactions and RNA secondary structure in hair and nonhair cell nuclei. This analysis reveals distinct structural and protein binding patterns across both transcriptomes, allowing identification of differential RNA binding protein (RBP) recognition sites...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441532/pcp-and-sax-3-robo-pathways-cooperate-to-regulate-convergent-extension-based-nerve-cord-assembly-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#13
Pavak K Shah, Matthew R Tanner, Ismar Kovacevic, Aysha Rankin, Teagan E Marshall, Nathaniel Noblett, Nhan Nguyen Tran, Tony Roenspies, Jeffrey Hung, Zheqian Chen, Cristina Slatculescu, Theodore J Perkins, Zhirong Bao, Antonio Colavita
Formation and resolution of multicellular rosettes can drive convergent extension (CE) type cell rearrangements during tissue morphogenesis. Rosette dynamics are regulated by both planar cell polarity (PCP)-dependent and -independent pathways. Here we show that CE is involved in ventral nerve cord (VNC) assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a VANG-1/Van Gogh and PRKL-1/Prickle containing PCP pathway and a Slit-independent SAX-3/Robo pathway cooperate to regulate, via rosette intermediaries, the intercalation of post-mitotic neuronal cell bodies during VNC formation...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441531/myrf-er-bound-transcription-factors-drive-c-%C3%A2-elegans-synaptic-plasticity-via-cleavage-dependent-nuclear-translocation
#14
Jun Meng, Xiaoxia Ma, Huaping Tao, Xia Jin, Daniel Witvliet, James Mitchell, Ming Zhu, Meng-Qiu Dong, Mei Zhen, Yishi Jin, Yingchuan B Qi
Synaptic refinement is a critical step in nervous system maturation, requiring a carefully timed reorganization and refinement of neuronal connections. We have identified myrf-1 and myrf-2, two C. elegans homologs of Myrf family transcription factors, as key regulators of synaptic rewiring. MYRF-1 and its paralog MYRF-2 are functionally redundant specifically in synaptic rewiring. They co-exist in the same protein complex and act cooperatively to regulate synaptic rewiring. We find that the MYRF proteins localize to the ER membrane and that they are cleaved into active N-terminal fragments, which then translocate into the nucleus to drive synaptic rewiring...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441530/aubergine-controls-germline-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-progeny-differentiation-via-distinct-mechanisms
#15
Xing Ma, Xiujuan Zhu, Yingying Han, Benjamin Story, Trieu Do, Xiaoqing Song, Su Wang, Ying Zhang, Marco Blanchette, Madelaine Gogol, Kate Hall, Allison Peak, Perera Anoja, Ting Xie
Piwi family protein Aubergine (Aub) maintains genome integrity in late germ cells of the Drosophila ovary through Piwi-associated RNA-mediated repression of transposon activities. Although it is highly expressed in germline stem cells (GSCs) and early progeny, it remains unclear whether it plays any roles in early GSC lineage development. Here we report that Aub promotes GSC self-renewal and GSC progeny differentiation. RNA-iCLIP results show that Aub binds the mRNAs encoding self-renewal and differentiation factors in cultured GSCs...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441529/mps1-regulates-kinetochore-microtubule-attachment-stability-via-the-ska-complex-to-ensure-error-free-chromosome-segregation
#16
John Maciejowski, Hauke Drechsler, Kathrin Grundner-Culemann, Edward R Ballister, Jose-Antonio Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo, Mathew J K Jones, Emily Foley, Michael A Lampson, Henrik Daub, Andrew D McAinsh, Prasad V Jallepalli
The spindle assembly checkpoint kinase Mps1 not only inhibits anaphase but also corrects erroneous attachments that could lead to missegregation and aneuploidy. However, Mps1's error correction-relevant substrates are unknown. Using a chemically tuned kinetochore-targeting assay, we show that Mps1 destabilizes microtubule attachments (K fibers) epistatically to Aurora B, the other major error-correcting kinase. Through quantitative proteomics, we identify multiple sites of Mps1-regulated phosphorylation at the outer kinetochore...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441528/phosphorylation-of-neurog3-links-endocrine-differentiation-to-the-cell-cycle-in-pancreatic-progenitors
#17
Nicole A J Krentz, Dennis van Hoof, Zhongmei Li, Akie Watanabe, Mei Tang, Cuilan Nian, Michael S German, Francis C Lynn
During pancreatic development, proliferating pancreatic progenitors activate the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into islet cells. The mechanisms that direct robust NEUROG3 expression within a subset of progenitor cells control the size of the endocrine population. Here we demonstrate that NEUROG3 is phosphorylated within the nucleus on serine 183, which catalyzes its hyperphosphorylation and proteosomal degradation. During progression through the progenitor cell cycle, NEUROG3 phosphorylation is driven by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4/6 at G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441527/proteostasis-or-aging-let-the-chips-fall-where-they-may
#18
Robyn Branicky, Siegfried Hekimi
The conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP/CHN-1 contributes to proteostasis by ubiquitylating HSP70 and HSP90-interacting proteins. In a recent issue of Cell,Tawo et al. (2017) show that CHIP/CHN-1 also directly ubiquitylates the insulin receptor INSR/DAF-2 to regulate its turnover. These findings suggest an unexpected interpretation of the effects of altered proteostasis on survival.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441526/it-s-t-time-for-normal-blood-vessels
#19
Bernard Thienpont, Diether Lambrechts
In a new report in Nature, Tian and colleagues (2017) describe that T cell activation in tumors induces blood vessel normalization. Because abnormal vasculature in tumors is known to reduce chemotherapy effectiveness and T lymphocyte infiltration and to increase metastasis, this suggests an exciting novel angle for checkpoint immunotherapy.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441525/myrfs-on-the-move-to-rewire-circuits
#20
Colleen N McLaughlin, Heather T Broihier
Synaptic plasticity occurs in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues and is a key step in the formation of mature neuronal circuits. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Meng et al. (2017) find that two conserved Myrf transcription factors coexist in the same complex to promote developmental circuit remodeling.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
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