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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441533/a-global-view-of-rna-protein-interactions-identifies-post-transcriptional-regulators-of-root-hair-cell-fate
#1
Shawn W Foley, Sager J Gosai, Dongxue Wang, Nur Selamoglu, Amelia C Sollitti, Tino Köster, Alexander Steffen, Eric Lyons, Fevzi Daldal, Benjamin A Garcia, Dorothee Staiger, Roger B Deal, Brian D Gregory
The Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is comprised of two cell types, hair and nonhair cells, which differentiate from the same precursor. Although the transcriptional programs regulating these events are well studied, post-transcriptional factors functioning in this cell fate decision are mostly unknown. Here, we globally identify RNA-protein interactions and RNA secondary structure in hair and nonhair cell nuclei. This analysis reveals distinct structural and protein binding patterns across both transcriptomes, allowing identification of differential RNA binding protein (RBP) recognition sites...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441532/pcp-and-sax-3-robo-pathways-cooperate-to-regulate-convergent-extension-based-nerve-cord-assembly-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#2
Pavak K Shah, Matthew R Tanner, Ismar Kovacevic, Aysha Rankin, Teagan E Marshall, Nathaniel Noblett, Nhan Nguyen Tran, Tony Roenspies, Jeffrey Hung, Zheqian Chen, Cristina Slatculescu, Theodore J Perkins, Zhirong Bao, Antonio Colavita
Formation and resolution of multicellular rosettes can drive convergent extension (CE) type cell rearrangements during tissue morphogenesis. Rosette dynamics are regulated by both planar cell polarity (PCP)-dependent and -independent pathways. Here we show that CE is involved in ventral nerve cord (VNC) assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a VANG-1/Van Gogh and PRKL-1/Prickle containing PCP pathway and a Slit-independent SAX-3/Robo pathway cooperate to regulate, via rosette intermediaries, the intercalation of post-mitotic neuronal cell bodies during VNC formation...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441531/myrf-er-bound-transcription-factors-drive-c-%C3%A2-elegans-synaptic-plasticity-via-cleavage-dependent-nuclear-translocation
#3
Jun Meng, Xiaoxia Ma, Huaping Tao, Xia Jin, Daniel Witvliet, James Mitchell, Ming Zhu, Meng-Qiu Dong, Mei Zhen, Yishi Jin, Yingchuan B Qi
Synaptic refinement is a critical step in nervous system maturation, requiring a carefully timed reorganization and refinement of neuronal connections. We have identified myrf-1 and myrf-2, two C. elegans homologs of Myrf family transcription factors, as key regulators of synaptic rewiring. MYRF-1 and its paralog MYRF-2 are functionally redundant specifically in synaptic rewiring. They co-exist in the same protein complex and act cooperatively to regulate synaptic rewiring. We find that the MYRF proteins localize to the ER membrane and that they are cleaved into active N-terminal fragments, which then translocate into the nucleus to drive synaptic rewiring...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441530/aubergine-controls-germline-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-progeny-differentiation-via-distinct-mechanisms
#4
Xing Ma, Xiujuan Zhu, Yingying Han, Benjamin Story, Trieu Do, Xiaoqing Song, Su Wang, Ying Zhang, Marco Blanchette, Madelaine Gogol, Kate Hall, Allison Peak, Perera Anoja, Ting Xie
Piwi family protein Aubergine (Aub) maintains genome integrity in late germ cells of the Drosophila ovary through Piwi-associated RNA-mediated repression of transposon activities. Although it is highly expressed in germline stem cells (GSCs) and early progeny, it remains unclear whether it plays any roles in early GSC lineage development. Here we report that Aub promotes GSC self-renewal and GSC progeny differentiation. RNA-iCLIP results show that Aub binds the mRNAs encoding self-renewal and differentiation factors in cultured GSCs...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441529/mps1-regulates-kinetochore-microtubule-attachment-stability-via-the-ska-complex-to-ensure-error-free-chromosome-segregation
#5
John Maciejowski, Hauke Drechsler, Kathrin Grundner-Culemann, Edward R Ballister, Jose-Antonio Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo, Mathew J K Jones, Emily Foley, Michael A Lampson, Henrik Daub, Andrew D McAinsh, Prasad V Jallepalli
The spindle assembly checkpoint kinase Mps1 not only inhibits anaphase but also corrects erroneous attachments that could lead to missegregation and aneuploidy. However, Mps1's error correction-relevant substrates are unknown. Using a chemically tuned kinetochore-targeting assay, we show that Mps1 destabilizes microtubule attachments (K fibers) epistatically to Aurora B, the other major error-correcting kinase. Through quantitative proteomics, we identify multiple sites of Mps1-regulated phosphorylation at the outer kinetochore...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441528/phosphorylation-of-neurog3-links-endocrine-differentiation-to-the-cell-cycle-in-pancreatic-progenitors
#6
Nicole A J Krentz, Dennis van Hoof, Zhongmei Li, Akie Watanabe, Mei Tang, Cuilan Nian, Michael S German, Francis C Lynn
During pancreatic development, proliferating pancreatic progenitors activate the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into islet cells. The mechanisms that direct robust NEUROG3 expression within a subset of progenitor cells control the size of the endocrine population. Here we demonstrate that NEUROG3 is phosphorylated within the nucleus on serine 183, which catalyzes its hyperphosphorylation and proteosomal degradation. During progression through the progenitor cell cycle, NEUROG3 phosphorylation is driven by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4/6 at G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441527/proteostasis-or-aging-let-the-chips-fall-where-they-may
#7
Robyn Branicky, Siegfried Hekimi
The conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP/CHN-1 contributes to proteostasis by ubiquitylating HSP70 and HSP90-interacting proteins. In a recent issue of Cell,Tawo et al. (2017) show that CHIP/CHN-1 also directly ubiquitylates the insulin receptor INSR/DAF-2 to regulate its turnover. These findings suggest an unexpected interpretation of the effects of altered proteostasis on survival.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441526/it-s-t-time-for-normal-blood-vessels
#8
Bernard Thienpont, Diether Lambrechts
In a new report in Nature, Tian and colleagues (2017) describe that T cell activation in tumors induces blood vessel normalization. Because abnormal vasculature in tumors is known to reduce chemotherapy effectiveness and T lymphocyte infiltration and to increase metastasis, this suggests an exciting novel angle for checkpoint immunotherapy.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441525/myrfs-on-the-move-to-rewire-circuits
#9
Colleen N McLaughlin, Heather T Broihier
Synaptic plasticity occurs in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues and is a key step in the formation of mature neuronal circuits. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Meng et al. (2017) find that two conserved Myrf transcription factors coexist in the same complex to promote developmental circuit remodeling.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441524/sequential-rosettes-drive-c-%C3%A2-elegans-ventral-nerve-cord-assembly
#10
Martha C Soto
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling orients developmental events in vertebrates and invertebrates, including convergent extension (CE). In this issue of Development Cell, Shah and Tanner et al. (2017) report that ROBO/SAX-3 signaling acts in parallel with PCP signaling to drive the CE required for ventral nerve cord assembly in C. elegans.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392197/thermo-induced-maintenance-of-photo-oxidoreductases-underlies-plant-autotrophic-development
#11
Jun-Ho Ha, Hyo-Jun Lee, Jae-Hoon Jung, Chung-Mo Park
Chlorophyll biosynthesis enables autotrophic development of developing seedlings. Upon light exposure, the chlorophyll precursor protochlorophyllide produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Developing seedlings acquire photosynthetic competence through the action of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) that convert protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, reducing ROS production that would otherwise induce cellular damage and chlorophyll bleaching. Here, we show that FCA mediates the thermostabilization of PORs to trigger the conversion of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide in developing seedlings...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399403/thada-regulates-the-organismal-balance-between-energy-storage-and-heat-production
#12
Alexandra Moraru, Gulcin Cakan-Akdogan, Katrin Strassburger, Matilda Males, Sandra Mueller, Markus Jabs, Michael Muelleder, Martin Frejno, Bart P Braeckman, Markus Ralser, Aurelio A Teleman
Human susceptibility to obesity is mainly genetic, yet the underlying evolutionary drivers causing variation from person to person are not clear. One theory rationalizes that populations that have adapted to warmer climates have reduced their metabolic rates, thereby increasing their propensity to store energy. We uncover here the function of a gene that supports this theory. THADA is one of the genes most strongly selected during evolution as humans settled in different climates. We report here that THADA knockout flies are obese, hyperphagic, have reduced energy production, and are sensitive to the cold...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399402/hematopoiesis-lineage-tree-uprooted-every-cell-is-a-rainbow
#13
Karen K Hirschi, Stefania Nicoli, Kenneth Walsh
Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into distinct cell types was thought to occur through a series of discrete, stable progenitor states. Work from Velten et al. (2017) now shows that hematopoietic cells differentiate via a mechanism of continuous lineage priming and thus represent a CLOUD-HSPC.
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399401/formation-of-a-snf1-mec1-atg1-module-on-mitochondria-governs-energy-deprivation-induced-autophagy-by-regulating-mitochondrial-respiration
#14
Cong Yi, Jingjing Tong, Puzhong Lu, Yizheng Wang, Jinxie Zhang, Chen Sun, Kangning Yuan, Renyu Xue, Bing Zou, Nianzhong Li, Shuhua Xiao, Chong Dai, Yuwei Huang, Liling Xu, Lin Li, She Chen, Di Miao, Haiteng Deng, Hongliang Li, Li Yu
Autophagy is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism by which energy deprivation activates autophagy is not fully understood. We show that Mec1/ATR, a member of the DNA damage response pathway, is essential for glucose starvation-induced autophagy. Mec1, Atg13, Atg1, and the energy-sensing kinase Snf1 are recruited to mitochondria shortly after glucose starvation. Mec1 is recruited through the adaptor protein Ggc1. Snf1 phosphorylates Mec1 on the mitochondrial surface, leading to recruitment of Atg1 to mitochondria...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399400/phr1-balances-between-nutrition-and-immunity-in-plants
#15
Hans Motte, Tom Beeckman
Plants assemble beneficial root-associated microbiomes to support growth, especially in nutrient-poor conditions. To do so, however, plants have to suppress their immune system. Reporting in Nature, Castrillo et al. (2017) identified PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1 (PHR1) as a central regulator in this balance between nutrient stress response and immune regulation.
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399399/sinat-e3-ligases-control-the-light-mediated-stability-of-the-brassinosteroid-activated-transcription-factor-bes1-in-arabidopsis
#16
Mengran Yang, Chengxiang Li, Zhenying Cai, Yinmeng Hu, Trevor Nolan, Feifei Yu, Yanhai Yin, Qi Xie, Guiliang Tang, Xuelu Wang
The plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) participate in light-mediated regulation of plant growth, although the underlying mechanisms are far from being fully understood. In addition, the function of the core transcription factor in the BR signaling pathway, BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1), largely depends on its phosphorylation status and its protein stability, but the regulation of BES1 is not well understood. Here, we report that SINA of Arabidopsis thaliana (SINATs) specifically interact with dephosphorylated BES1 and mediate its ubiquitination and degradation...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399398/selective-autophagy-of-bes1-mediated-by-dsk2-balances-plant-growth-and-survival
#17
Trevor M Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin
Plants encounter a variety of stresses and must fine-tune their growth and stress-response programs to best suit their environment. BES1 functions as a master regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway that promotes plant growth. Here, we show that BES1 interacts with the ubiquitin receptor protein DSK2 and is targeted to the autophagy pathway during stress via the interaction of DSK2 with ATG8, a ubiquitin-like protein directing autophagosome formation and cargo recruitment. Additionally, DSK2 is phosphorylated by the GSK3-like kinase BIN2, a negative regulator in the BR pathway...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399397/genome-architecture-from-a-different-angle
#18
Elizabeth H Finn, Tom Misteli
The study of genome architecture has recently been advanced by new techniques combining nuclear proximity ligation and high-throughput sequencing, but independent methods to validate them have been lacking. Reporting in Nature, Beagrie et al. (2017) describe such an orthogonal technique, called genome architecture mapping, to map genomes in 3D space.
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399396/crosstalk-between-the-secretory-and-autophagy-pathways-regulates-autophagosome-formation
#19
REVIEW
Saralin Davis, Juan Wang, Susan Ferro-Novick
The induction of autophagy by nutrient deprivation leads to a rapid increase in the formation of autophagosomes, unique organelles that replenish the cellular pool of nutrients by sequestering cytoplasmic material for degradation. The urgent need for membranes to form autophagosomes during starvation to maintain homeostasis leads to a dramatic rearrangement of intracellular membranes. Here we discuss recent findings that have begun to uncover how different parts of the secretory pathway directly and indirectly contribute to autophagosome formation during starvation...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399395/spectraplakin-induces-positive-feedback-between-fusogens-and-the-actin-cytoskeleton-to-promote-cell-cell-fusion
#20
Yihong Yang, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jun Li, Yuxiang Jiang, Zhiwen Zhu, Huifang Hu, Wei Li, Jia-Wei Wu, Zhi-Xin Wang, Meng-Qiu Dong, Shanjin Huang, Guangshuo Ou
Cell-cell fusion generally requires cellular fusogenic proteins and actin-propelled membrane protrusions. However, the molecular connections between fusogens and the actin cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans fusogen EFF-1 and F-actin are enriched at the cortex of the post-embryonic fusing cells, and conditional mutations of WASP and Arp2/3 delay cell-cell fusion by impairing EFF-1 localization. Our affinity purification and mass spectrometry analyses determined that an actin-binding protein, spectraplakin/VAB-10A, binds to EFF-1...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
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