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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216382/the-physical-basis-of-coordinated-tissue-spreading-in-zebrafish-gastrulation
#1
Hitoshi Morita, Silvia Grigolon, Martin Bock, S F Gabriel Krens, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Embryo morphogenesis relies on highly coordinated movements of different tissues. However, remarkably little is known about how tissues coordinate their movements to shape the embryo. In zebrafish embryogenesis, coordinated tissue movements first become apparent during "doming," when the blastoderm begins to spread over the yolk sac, a process involving coordinated epithelial surface cell layer expansion and mesenchymal deep cell intercalations. Here, we find that active surface cell expansion represents the key process coordinating tissue movements during doming...
February 12, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216383/large-scale-analysis-of-crispr-cas9-cell-cycle-knockouts-reveals-the-diversity-of-p53-dependent-responses-to-cell-cycle-defects
#2
Kara L McKinley, Iain M Cheeseman
Defining the genes that are essential for cellular proliferation is critical for understanding organismal development and identifying high-value targets for disease therapies. However, the requirements for cell-cycle progression in human cells remain incompletely understood. To elucidate the consequences of acute and chronic elimination of cell-cycle proteins, we generated and characterized inducible CRISPR/Cas9 knockout human cell lines targeting 209 genes involved in diverse cell-cycle processes. We performed single-cell microscopic analyses to systematically establish the effects of the knockouts on subcellular architecture...
February 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171750/crosstalk-between-clcb-dyn1-mediated-adaptive-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-and-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-increases-metastasis
#3
Ping-Hung Chen, Nawal Bendris, Yi-Jing Hsiao, Carlos R Reis, Marcel Mettlen, Hsuan-Yu Chen, Sung-Liang Yu, Sandra L Schmid
Signaling receptors are internalized and regulated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Two clathrin light chain isoforms, CLCa and CLCb, are integral components of the endocytic machinery whose differential functions remain unknown. We report that CLCb is specifically upregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Engineered single CLCb-expressing NSCLC cells, as well as "switched" cells that predominantly express CLCb, exhibit increased rates of CME and altered clathrin-coated pit dynamics...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171749/a-molecular-framework-for-the-embryonic-initiation-of-shoot-meristem-stem-cells
#4
Zhongjuan Zhang, Elise Tucker, Marita Hermann, Thomas Laux
The establishment of pluripotent stem cells is a key event during plant and animal embryogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. We show that in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, expression of the shoot meristem stem cell marker CLV3 becomes detectable in transition stage embryos. Surprisingly, the key regulator of stem cell homeostasis WUSCHEL (WUS) is expressed but dispensable for stem cell initiation. Rather, the WUS paralog WOX2, a regulator of embryo patterning initiated in the zygote, functions in this process by shielding stem cell progenitors from differentiation...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171748/antagonistic-self-organizing-patterning-systems-control-maintenance-and-regeneration-of-the-anteroposterior-axis-in-planarians
#5
Tom Stückemann, James Patrick Cleland, Steffen Werner, Hanh Thi-Kim Vu, Robert Bayersdorf, Shang-Yun Liu, Benjamin Friedrich, Frank Jülicher, Jochen Christian Rink
Planarian flatworms maintain their body plan in the face of constant internal turnover and can regenerate from arbitrary tissue fragments. Both phenomena require self-maintaining and self-organizing patterning mechanisms, the molecular mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. We show that a morphogenic gradient of canonical Wnt signaling patterns gene expression along the planarian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. Our results demonstrate that gradient formation likely occurs autonomously in the tail and that an autoregulatory module of Wnt-mediated Wnt expression both shapes the gradient at steady state and governs its re-establishment during regeneration...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171747/the-apical-domain-is-required-and-sufficient-for-the-first-lineage-segregation-in-the-mouse-embryo
#6
Ekaterina Korotkevich, Ritsuya Niwayama, Aurélien Courtois, Stefanie Friese, Nicolas Berger, Frank Buchholz, Takashi Hiiragi
Mammalian development begins with segregation of the extra-embryonic trophectoderm from the embryonic lineage in the blastocyst. While cell polarity and adhesion play key roles, the decisive cue driving this lineage segregation remains elusive. Here, to study symmetry breaking, we use a reduced system in which isolated blastomeres recapitulate the first lineage segregation. We find that in the 8-cell stage embryo, the apical domain recruits a spindle pole to ensure its differential distribution upon division...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171746/macrophage-functions-in-tissue-patterning-and-disease-new-insights-from-the-fly
#7
REVIEW
Will Wood, Paul Martin
Macrophages are multifunctional innate immune cells that seed all tissues within the body and play disparate roles throughout development and in adult tissues, both in health and disease. Their complex developmental origins and many of their functions are being deciphered in mammalian tissues, but opportunities for live imaging and the genetic tractability of Drosophila are offering complementary insights into how these fascinating cells integrate a multitude of guidance cues to fulfill their many tasks and migrate to distant sites to either direct developmental patterning or raise an inflammatory response...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171745/breaking-down-neighbors-to-fuel-tumorigenesis
#8
John Vaughen, Tatsushi Igaki
Autophagy supports cell growth and survival autonomously by recycling intracellular proteins and/or organelles. Reporting in Nature, Katheder and colleagues (2017) find that tumors trigger non-autonomous autophagy in neighboring cells and distant organs, thus fueling tumor growth and metastasis. This opens new avenues for understanding and manipulating cancers through cell-cell communication.
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171744/centrosome-amplification-and-cancer-a-question-of-sufficiency
#9
Jordan W Raff, Renata Basto
Centrosome amplification is a common feature of many types of cancer, but whether it is a cause or consequence is hotly debated. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Levine et al. (2017) provide strong evidence that centrosome amplification is sufficient to initiate tumorigenesis in a mouse model.
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171743/a-tale-of-division-and-polarization-in-the-mammalian-embryo
#10
Shankar Srinivas, Tristan Argeo Rodriguez
The first cell fate choice in mouse development is the segregation of the embryonic inner cell mass and the extra-embryonic trophectoderm. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Korotkevic and colleagues (2017) show that the interplay between cell polarization and cell-cell contact drives the segregation of these lineages, providing a framework for self-organization in development.
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132849/non-canonical-and-sexually-dimorphic-x-dosage-compensation-states-in-the-mouse-and-human-germline
#11
Mahesh N Sangrithi, Helene Royo, Shantha K Mahadevaiah, Obah Ojarikre, Leena Bhaw, Abdul Sesay, Antoine H F M Peters, Michael Stadler, James M A Turner
Somatic X dosage compensation requires two mechanisms: X inactivation balances X gene output between males (XY) and females (XX), while X upregulation, hypothesized by Ohno and documented in vivo, balances X gene with autosomal gene output. Whether X dosage compensation occurs in germ cells is unclear. We show that mouse and human germ cells exhibit non-canonical X dosage states that differ from the soma and between the sexes. Prior to genome-wide reprogramming, X upregulation is present, consistent with Ohno's hypothesis...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132848/vernalization-triggered-intragenic-chromatin-loop-formation-by-long-noncoding-rnas
#12
Dong-Hwan Kim, Sibum Sung
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) affect gene regulation through structural and regulatory interactions with associated proteins. The Polycomb complex often binds to lncRNAs in eukaryotes, and an lncRNA, COLDAIR, associates with Polycomb to mediate silencing of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) during the process of vernalization in Arabidopsis. Here, we identified an additional Polycomb-binding lncRNA, COLDWRAP. COLDWRAP is derived from the repressed promoter of FLC and is necessary for the establishment of the stable repressed state of FLC by vernalization...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132847/centrosome-amplification-is-sufficient-to-promote-spontaneous-tumorigenesis-in-mammals
#13
Michelle S Levine, Bjorn Bakker, Bram Boeckx, Julia Moyett, James Lu, Benjamin Vitre, Diana C Spierings, Peter M Lansdorp, Don W Cleveland, Diether Lambrechts, Floris Foijer, Andrew J Holland
Centrosome amplification is a common feature of human tumors, but whether this is a cause or a consequence of cancer remains unclear. Here, we test the consequence of centrosome amplification by creating mice in which centrosome number can be chronically increased in the absence of additional genetic defects. We show that increasing centrosome number elevated tumor initiation in a mouse model of intestinal neoplasia. Most importantly, we demonstrate that supernumerary centrosomes are sufficient to drive aneuploidy and the development of spontaneous tumors in multiple tissues...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118601/the-spatiotemporal-limits-of-developmental-erk-signaling
#14
Heath E Johnson, Yogesh Goyal, Nicole L Pannucci, Trudi Schüpbach, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Jared E Toettcher
Animal development is characterized by signaling events that occur at precise locations and times within the embryo, but determining when and where such precision is needed for proper embryogenesis has been a long-standing challenge. Here we address this question for extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk) signaling, a key developmental patterning cue. We describe an optogenetic system for activating Erk with high spatiotemporal precision in vivo. Implementing this system in Drosophila, we find that embryogenesis is remarkably robust to ectopic Erk signaling, except from 1 to 4 hr post-fertilization, when perturbing the spatial extent of Erk pathway activation leads to dramatic disruptions of patterning and morphogenesis...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118600/tmem2-regulates-embryonic-vegf-signaling-by-controlling-hyaluronic-acid-turnover
#15
Jessica E De Angelis, Anne K Lagendijk, Huijun Chen, Alisha Tromp, Neil I Bower, Kathryn A Tunny, Andrew J Brooks, Jeroen Bakkers, Mathias Francois, Alpha S Yap, Cas Simons, Carol Wicking, Benjamin M Hogan, Kelly A Smith
Angiogenesis is responsible for tissue vascularization during development, as well as in pathological contexts, including cancer and ischemia. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) regulate angiogenesis by acting through VEGF receptors to induce endothelial cell signaling. VEGF is processed in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but the complexity of ECM control of VEGF signaling and angiogenesis remains far from understood. In a forward genetic screen, we identified angiogenesis defects in tmem2 zebrafish mutants that lack both arterial and venous Vegf/Vegfr/Erk signaling...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118599/mutant-ras-calms-stressed-out-cancer-cells
#16
Kirsten L Bryant, Channing J Der
Mutant RAS-driven cancers are infamously resistant to chemotherapeutics. Reporting in Cell, Grabocka and Bar-Sagi (2016) demonstrate that when subjected to stress, mutant KRAS-dependent lipid production leads to upregulated stress granule formation. This confers not only cell-autonomous cytoprotection but also paracrine establishment of a stress-resistant tumor niche.
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118598/endothelial-cells-get-%C3%AE-ox-ed-in-to-support-lymphangiogenesis
#17
Aaron M Hosios, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Acetyl-CoA has diverse fates in metabolism and can be derived from a variety of nutrients. In a recent study published in Nature, Wong et al. (2016) show that endothelial cells oxidize fatty acids to produce acetyl-CoA for epigenetic modifications critical to lymphangiogenesis.
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118597/mis-placed-congeniality-when-pathogens-ask-their-plant-hosts-for-another-drink
#18
Pingtao Ding, Jonathan D G Jones
Plants control nutrient availability in intercellular spaces (the apoplast) via transporters, channels, and vesicular transport. Recent papers in Science and Nature from two groups have highlighted how plants control sugar to restrict bacterial growth (Yamada et al., 2016) and how increased water availability enhances pathogenesis (Xin et al., 2016).
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118596/lighting-up-erk-activity
#19
Ben-Zion Shilo, Naama Barkai
Activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is used by many signaling pathways to control tissue patterning in a broad range of multicellular organisms. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Johnson et al. (2017) provide an optogenetic approach to manipulate this pathway with high precision and explore its signaling code.
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089369/deciphering-the-fringe-mediated-notch-code-identification-of-activating-and-inhibiting-sites-allowing-discrimination-between-ligands
#20
Shinako Kakuda, Robert S Haltiwanger
Fringe proteins are β3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modulate Notch activity by modifying O-fucose residues on epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of Notch. Mammals have three Fringes: Lunatic, Manic, and Radical. While Lunatic and Manic Fringe inhibit Notch1 activation from Jagged1 and enhance activation from Delta-like 1, Radical Fringe enhances signaling from both. We used a mass spectrometry approach to determine whether the variable effects of Fringes on Notch1 result from generation of unique glycosylation patterns on Notch1...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
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