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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625565/the-cep19-rabl2-gtpase-complex-binds-ift-b-to-initiate-intraflagellar-transport-at-the-ciliary-base
#1
Tomoharu Kanie, Keene Louis Abbott, Nancie Ann Mooney, Edward Douglas Plowey, Janos Demeter, Peter Kent Jackson
Highly conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein complexes direct both the assembly of primary cilia and the trafficking of signaling molecules. IFT complexes initially accumulate at the base of the cilium and periodically enter the cilium, suggesting an as-yet-unidentified mechanism that triggers ciliary entry of IFT complexes. Using affinity-purification and mass spectrometry of interactors of the centrosomal and ciliopathy protein, CEP19, we identify CEP350, FOP, and the RABL2B GTPase as proteins organizing the first known mechanism directing ciliary entry of IFT complexes...
June 14, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633020/apoptosis-and-compensatory-proliferation-signaling-are-coupled-by-crki-containing-microvesicles
#2
Kajal H Gupta, Josef W Goldufsky, Stephen J Wood, Nicholas J Tardi, Gayathri S Moorthy, Douglas Z Gilbert, Janet P Zayas, Eunsil Hahm, Mehmet M Altintas, Jochen Reiser, Sasha H Shafikhani
Apoptosis has been implicated in compensatory proliferation signaling (CPS), whereby dying cells induce proliferation in neighboring cells as a means to restore homeostasis. The nature of signaling between apoptotic cells and their neighboring cells remains largely unknown. Here we show that a fraction of apoptotic cells produce and release CrkI-containing microvesicles (distinct from exosomes and apoptotic bodies), which induce proliferation in neighboring cells upon contact. We provide visual evidence of CPS by videomicroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633019/edem-function-in-erad-protects-against-chronic-er-proteinopathy-and-age-related-physiological-decline-in-drosophila
#3
Michiko Sekiya, Akiko Maruko-Otake, Stephen Hearn, Yasufumi Sakakibara, Naoki Fujisaki, Emiko Suzuki, Kanae Ando, Koichi M Iijima
The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633018/chromosome-mis-segregation-generates-cell-cycle-arrested-cells-with-complex-karyotypes-that-are-eliminated-by-the-immune-system
#4
Stefano Santaguida, Amelia Richardson, Divya Ramalingam Iyer, Ons M'Saad, Lauren Zasadil, Kristin A Knouse, Yao Liang Wong, Nicholas Rhind, Arshad Desai, Angelika Amon
Aneuploidy, a state of karyotype imbalance, is a hallmark of cancer. Changes in chromosome copy number have been proposed to drive disease by modulating the dosage of cancer driver genes and by promoting cancer genome evolution. Given the potential of cells with abnormal karyotypes to become cancerous, do pathways that limit the prevalence of such cells exist? By investigating the immediate consequences of aneuploidy on cell physiology, we identified mechanisms that eliminate aneuploid cells. We find that chromosome mis-segregation leads to further genomic instability that ultimately causes cell-cycle arrest...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633017/distinct-roles-of-rna-helicases-mvh-and-tdrd9-in-piwi-slicing-triggered-mammalian-pirna-biogenesis-and-function
#5
Joanna M Wenda, David Homolka, Zhaolin Yang, Pietro Spinelli, Ravi Sachidanandam, Radha Raman Pandey, Ramesh S Pillai
Small RNAs called PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) act as an immune system to suppress transposable elements in the animal gonads. A poorly understood adaptive pathway links cytoplasmic slicing of target RNA by the PIWI protein MILI to loading of target-derived piRNAs into nuclear MIWI2. Here we demonstrate that MILI slicing generates a 16-nt by-product that is discarded and a pre-piRNA intermediate that is used for phased piRNA production. The ATPase activity of Mouse Vasa Homolog (MVH) is essential for processing the intermediate into piRNAs, ensuring transposon silencing and male fertility...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633016/mll-wdr5-complex-regulates-kif2a-localization-to-ensure-chromosome-congression-and-proper-spindle-assembly-during-mitosis
#6
Aamir Ali, Sailaja Naga Veeranki, Akash Chinchole, Shweta Tyagi
Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633015/haploidy-in-humans-an-evolutionary-and-developmental-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Ido Sagi, Nissim Benvenisty
Although haploidy has not been observed in vertebrates, its natural occurrence in various eukaryotic species that had diverged from diploid ancestors suggests that there is an innate capacity for an organism to regain haploidy and that haploidy may confer evolutionary benefits. Haploid embryonic stem cells have been experimentally generated from mouse, rat, monkey, and humans. Haploidy results in major differences in cell size and gene expression levels while also affecting parental imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, and mitochondrial metabolism genes...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633014/a-krabsody-for-embryo-placental-development
#8
Didier Trono
Many of the hundreds of KRAB zinc finger proteins encoded by human and mouse are involved in taming the transcriptional regulatory potential of transposable elements. Reporting recently in Science, Yang et al. (2017) reveal that one murine family member, ZFP568, controls Igf2 expression for proper embryonic and placental development.
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633013/sphingosine-1-phosphate-as-the-lymphocyte-s-ticket-to-ride-and-survive
#9
Chih-Hao Chang, Gwendalyn J Randolph
An established role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 in T cells is to guide their exit from lymph nodes. Reporting in Nature, Mendoza et al. (2017) now show that lymphatic endothelial sphingosine 1-phosphate signals through sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 to prevent mitochondria degradation and thereby support survival of naive T cells.
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633012/morph-or-move-how-distinct-endothelial-cell-responses-to-blood-flow-shape-vascular-networks
#10
Claudio A Franco, Holger Gerhardt
Blood vessel shape is malleable and dynamically regulated. In two recent papers in Nature Cell Biology, Jin et al. (2017) and Sugden et al. (2017) show that endoglin alters endothelial cell shape or behavior in response to blood flow, thus regulating vessel structure.
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633011/partners-in-crime
#11
Barbara Conradt
Caspases have apoptotic and non-apoptotic functions, both of which depend on their abilities to cleave proteins at specific sites. What distinguishes apoptotic from non-apoptotic substrates has so far been unclear. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Weaver et al. (2017) now provide an answer to this crucial question.
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633010/tensing-up-for-lipid-droplet-formation
#12
Aurélien Roux, Robbie Loewith
Lipid droplets are fat storage organelles in cells that physically resemble stable oil-water emulsion droplets. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ben M'barek et al. (2017) show that the resemblance is more than superficial: physical principles governing emulsion stability also control lipid droplet nucleation and growth.
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602583/coupled-caspase-and-n-end-rule-ligase-activities-allow-recognition-and-degradation-of-pluripotency-factor-lin-28-during-non-apoptotic-development
#13
Benjamin P Weaver, Yi M Weaver, Shohei Mitani, Min Han
Recent findings suggest that components of the classical cell death machinery also have important non-cell-death (non-apoptotic) functions in flies, nematodes, and mammals. However, the mechanisms for non-canonical caspase substrate recognition and proteolysis, and the direct roles for caspases in gene expression regulation, remain largely unclear. Here we report that CED-3 caspase and the Arg/N-end rule pathway cooperate to inactivate the LIN-28 pluripotency factor in seam cells, a stem-like cell type in Caenorhabditis elegans, thereby ensuring proper temporal cell fate patterning...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579322/er-membrane-phospholipids-and-surface-tension-control-cellular-lipid-droplet-formation
#14
Kalthoum Ben M'barek, Dalila Ajjaji, Aymeric Chorlay, Stefano Vanni, Lionel Forêt, Abdou Rachid Thiam
Cells convert excess energy into neutral lipids that are made in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bilayer. The lipids are then packaged into spherical or budded lipid droplets (LDs) covered by a phospholipid monolayer containing proteins. LDs play a key role in cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis. A key unanswered question in the life of LDs is how they bud off from the ER. Here, we tackle this question by studying the budding of artificial LDs from model membranes. We find that the bilayer phospholipid composition and surface tension are key parameters of LD budding...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586647/phosphate-starvation-dependent-iron-mobilization-induces-cle14-expression-to-trigger-root-meristem-differentiation-through-clv2-pepr2-signaling
#15
Dolores Gutiérrez-Alanís, Lenin Yong-Villalobos, Pedro Jiménez-Sandoval, Fulgencio Alatorre-Cobos, Araceli Oropeza-Aburto, Javier Mora-Macías, Federico Sánchez-Rodríguez, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez, Luis Herrera-Estrella
Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability causes terminal differentiation of the root apical meristem (RAM), a phenomenon known as root meristem exhaustion or determined growth. Here, we report that the CLE14 peptide acts as a key player in this process. Low Pi stress induces iron mobilization in the RAM through the action of LPR1/LPR2, causing expression of CLE14 in the proximal meristem region. CLV2 and PEPR2 receptors perceive CLE14 and trigger RAM differentiation, with concomitant downregulation of SHR/SCR and PIN/AUXIN pathway...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586646/nuclear-pores-regulate-muscle-development-and-maintenance-by-assembling-a-localized-mef2c-complex
#16
Marcela Raices, Lucas Bukata, Stephen Sakuma, Joana Borlido, Leanora S Hernandez, Daniel O Hart, Maximiliano A D'Angelo
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are multiprotein channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm. NPCs have been shown to have tissue-specific composition, suggesting that their function can be specialized. However, the physiological roles of NPC composition changes and their impacts on cellular processes remain unclear. Here we show that the addition of the Nup210 nucleoporin to NPCs during myoblast differentiation results in assembly of an Mef2C transcriptional complex required for efficient expression of muscle structural genes and microRNAs...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586645/the-protein-phosphatase-4-and-smek1-complex-dephosphorylates-hyl1-to-promote-mirna-biogenesis-by-antagonizing-the-mapk-cascade-in-arabidopsis
#17
Chuanbin Su, Ziwei Li, Jinping Cheng, Lei Li, Songxiao Zhong, Li Liu, Yun Zheng, Binglian Zheng
Phosphorylation plays an essential role in microRNA (miRNA) processing by regulating co-factors of the miRNA biogenesis machinery. HYL1 (Hyponastic Leaves 1), a core co-factor in plant miRNA biogenesis, is a short-lived phosphoprotein. However, the precise balance and regulatory mechanism of the stability and phosphorylation of HYL1 remain unclear. Here, we show that a highly conserved PP4 (Protein Phosphatase 4) and SMEK1 (Suppressor of MEK 1) complex dephosphorylates HYL1 to promote miRNA biogenesis, by antagonizing the MAPK cascade in Arabidopsis...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586644/endothelial-to-osteoblast-conversion-generates-osteoblastic-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer
#18
Song-Chang Lin, Yu-Chen Lee, Guoyu Yu, Chien-Jui Cheng, Xin Zhou, Khoi Chu, Monzur Murshed, Nhat-Tu Le, Laura Baseler, Jun-Ichi Abe, Keigi Fujiwara, Benoit deCrombrugghe, Christopher J Logothetis, Gary E Gallick, Li-Yuan Yu-Lee, Sankar N Maity, Sue-Hwa Lin
Prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis is frequently associated with bone-forming lesions, but the source of the osteoblastic lesions remains unclear. We show that the tumor-induced bone derives partly from tumor-associated endothelial cells that have undergone endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion. The tumor-associated osteoblasts in PCa bone metastasis specimens and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were found to co-express endothelial marker Tie-2. BMP4, identified in PDX-conditioned medium, promoted EC-to-OSB conversion of 2H11 endothelial cells...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586643/on-the-formation-of-digits-and-joints-during-limb-development
#19
REVIEW
Tom W Hiscock, Patrick Tschopp, Clifford J Tabin
Critical steps in forming the vertebrate limb include the positioning of digits and the positioning of joints within each digit. Recent studies have proposed that the iterative series of digits is established by a Turing-like mechanism generating stripes of chondrogenic domains. However, re-examination of available data suggest that digits are actually patterned as evenly spaced spots, not stripes, which then elongate into rod-shaped digit rays by incorporating new cells at their tips. Moreover, extension of the digit rays and the patterning of the joints occur simultaneously at the distal tip, implying that an integrated model is required to fully understand these processes...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586642/r-spondin-is-more-than-just-wnt-s-sidekick
#20
David J Huels, Owen J Sansom
The intestinal crypt and its stem cells are dependent on the Wnt pathway. Reporting in Nature, Yan et al. (2017) show that Wnts and Wnt signaling potentiator R-spondins have non-interchangeable roles. Both are necessary for intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance, and R-spondins are the limiting factor that defines ISC number.
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
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