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Developmental Cell

Yosuke Ogura, Fu-Lai Wen, Mustafa M Sami, Tatsuo Shibata, Shigeo Hayashi
The dynamics of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling underlies its versatile functions in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and cell motility. Classical studies in Drosophila established that a gradient of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ERK signaling is essential for these cellular responses. However, we challenge this view by the real-time monitoring of ERK activation; we show that a switch-like ERK activation is essential for the invagination movement of the Drosophila tracheal placode...
June 27, 2018: Developmental Cell
Natalia P Achkar, Seok Keun Cho, Christian Poulsen, Agustin L Arce, Delfina A Re, Axel J Giudicatti, Elizabeth Karayekov, Moon Young Ryu, Suk Won Choi, Jesper Harholt, Jorge J Casal, Seong Wook Yang, Pablo A Manavella
Light is the most influential environmental stimulus for plant growth. In response to deficient light, plants reprogram their development to adjust their growth in search for a light source. A fine reprogramming of gene expression orchestrates this adaptive trait. Here we show that plants alter microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in response to light transition. When plants suffer an unusual extended period of light deprivation, the miRNA biogenesis factor HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1 (HYL1) is degraded but an inactive pool of phosphorylated protein remains stable inside the nucleus...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Kelsey Marie Van Dalfsen, Stefanie Hodapp, Abdurrahman Keskin, George Maxwell Otto, Charles Andrew Berdan, Andrea Higdon, Tia Cheunkarndee, Daniel Koji Nomura, Marko Jovanovic, Gloria Ann Brar
Cellular stress responses often require transcription-based activation of gene expression to promote cellular adaptation. Whether general mechanisms exist for stress-responsive gene downregulation is less clear. A recently defined mechanism enables both up- and downregulation of protein levels for distinct gene sets by the same transcription factor via coordinated induction of canonical mRNAs and long undecoded transcript isoforms (LUTIs). We analyzed parallel gene expression datasets to determine whether this mechanism contributes to the conserved Hac1-driven branch of the unfolded protein response (UPRER ), indeed observing Hac1-dependent protein downregulation accompanying the upregulation of ER-related proteins that typifies UPRER activation...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Eva P Karasmanis, Cat-Thi Phan, Dimitrios Angelis, Ilona A Kesisova, Casper C Hoogenraad, Richard J McKenney, Elias T Spiliotis
Neuronal function requires axon-dendrite membrane polarity, which depends on sorting of membrane traffic during entry into axons. Due to a microtubule network of mixed polarity, dendrites receive vesicles from the cell body without apparent capacity for directional sorting. We found that, during entry into dendrites, axonally destined cargos move with a retrograde bias toward the cell body, while dendritically destined cargos are biased in the anterograde direction. A microtubule-associated septin (SEPT9), which localizes specifically in dendrites, impedes axonal cargo of kinesin-1/KIF5 and boosts kinesin-3/KIF1 motor cargo further into dendrites...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Shaobo Zhang, Christopher Amourda, David Garfield, Timothy E Saunders
The ability to form specific cell-cell connections within complex cellular environments is critical for multicellular organisms. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell matching that instruct these connections remain elusive. Here, we quantitatively explored the dynamics and regulation of cell matching processes utilizing Drosophila cardiogenesis. We found that cell matching is highly robust at boundaries between cardioblast (CB) subtypes, and filopodia of different CB subtypes have distinct binding affinities...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Sha Wang, Cristina Cebrian, Santiago Schnell, Deborah L Gumucio
The early midgut undergoes intensive elongation, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are unknown. The early midgut epithelium is pseudostratified, and its nuclei travel between apical and basal surfaces in concert with cell cycle. Using 3D confocal imaging and 2D live imaging, we profiled behaviors of individual dividing cells. As nuclei migrate apically for mitosis, cells maintain a basal process (BP), which splits but is inherited by only one daughter. After mitosis, some daughters directly use the inherited BP as a "conduit" to transport the nucleus basally, while >50% of daughters generate a new basal filopodium and use it as a path to return the nucleus...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Paul Hiebert, Mateusz S Wietecha, Michael Cangkrama, Eric Haertel, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Michael Stumpe, Heiko Steenbock, Serena Grossi, Hans-Dietmar Beer, Peter Angel, Jürgen Brinckmann, Dimitris Kletsas, Jörn Dengjel, Sabine Werner
Nrf2 is a key regulator of the antioxidant defense system, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for cancer prevention and promotion of tissue repair. Here we show, however, that activation of Nrf2 in fibroblasts induces cellular senescence. Using a combination of transcriptomics, matrix proteomics, chromatin immunoprecipitation and bioinformatics we demonstrate that fibroblasts with activated Nrf2 deposit a senescence-promoting matrix, with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 being a key inducer of the senescence program...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Michael N Wosczyna, Thomas A Rando
Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity due to the activity of tissue-specific muscle stem cells. Consequently, these cells have received the most attention in studies investigating the cellular processes of skeletal muscle regeneration. However, efficient capacity to rebuild this tissue also depends on additional cells in the local milieu, as disrupting their normal contributions often leads to incomplete regeneration. Here, we review these additional cells that contribute to the regenerative process...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Drew D Honson, Todd S Macfarlan
Transposable elements (TEs) have profoundly affected the evolution of transcriptional and chromatin profiles in mammalian genomes. In a recent paper, Percharde et al. (2018) identify a lncRNA-like function for LINE1 transposable elements in regulating gene expression to facilitate embryonic stem cell self-renewal and preimplantation development.
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Santiago Balseiro Gómez, Shaul Yogev
Cargo transport to axons and dendrites is essential for maintaining neuronal polarity and function. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Karasmanis et al. (2018) identify a septin-SEPT9-in differentially regulating the motility of two kinesin motors, thereby controlling cargo entry into dendrites.
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Udi Binshtok, David Sprinzak
A gradient of EGFR-ERK signaling has been classically implicated in various developmental processes. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ogura et al. (2018) show that in the Drosophila tracheal placode, EGFR-ERK signaling propagates via a cell-by-cell relay mechanism rather than a gradient, and this sequential ERK activation controls proper placode invagination.
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Kaelyn Sumigray, Terry Lechler
During embryonic development, the midgut needs to undergo extensive elongation to form the small intestine. In this issue of Development Cell, Wang et. al. (2018) explore the cell dynamics of this tissue and find that regulated re-integration of cells into the epithelial layer is important for elongation.
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Christos Papadimitriou, Hilal Celikkaya, Mehmet I Cosacak, Violeta Mashkaryan, Laura Bray, Prabesh Bhattarai, Kerstin Brandt, Heike Hollak, Xin Chen, Shuijin He, Christopher L Antos, Weilin Lin, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Andreas Dahl, Thomas Kurth, Jens Friedrichs, Yixin Zhang, Uwe Freudenberg, Carsten Werner, Caghan Kizil
Neural stem cells (NSCs) constitute an endogenous reservoir for neurons that could potentially be harnessed for regenerative therapies in disease contexts such as neurodegeneration. However, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), NSCs lose plasticity and thus possible regenerative capacity. We investigate how NSCs lose their plasticity in AD by using starPEG-heparin-based hydrogels to establish a reductionist 3D cell-instructive neuro-microenvironment that promotes the proliferative and neurogenic ability of primary and induced human NSCs...
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
Seong Won Lee, Young Mi Oh, Ya-Lin Lu, Woo Kyung Kim, Andrew S Yoo
The ability to convert human somatic cells efficiently to neurons facilitates the utility of patient-derived neurons for studying neurological disorders. As such, ectopic expression of neuronal microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-9/9∗ and miR-124 (miR-9/9∗ -124) in adult human fibroblasts has been found to evoke extensive reconfigurations of the chromatin and direct the fate conversion to neurons. However, how miR-9/9∗ -124 break the cell fate barrier to activate the neuronal program remains to be defined. Here, we identified an anti-neurogenic function of EZH2 in fibroblasts that acts outside its role as a subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 to directly methylate and stabilize REST, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal genes...
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
Amar Pal Singh, Yulia Fridman, Neta Holland, Michal Ackerman-Lavert, Rani Zananiri, Yvon Jaillais, Arnon Henn, Sigal Savaldi-Goldstein
Plants acquire essential elements from inherently heterogeneous soils, in which phosphate and iron availabilities vary. Consequently, plants have developed adaptive strategies to cope with low iron or phosphate levels, including alternation between root growth enhancement and attenuation. How this adaptive response is achieved remains unclear. Here, we found that low iron accelerates root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana by activating brassinosteroid signaling, whereas low-phosphate-induced high iron accumulation inhibits it...
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
Kevin C Slep
Like permutating motifs in music, similar protein folds are employed across biology for distinct functions. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Aher et al. (2018) provide insight into how variable TOG domains within an array in the microtubule regulator CLASP are used to prevent microtubule catastrophe and potentiate rescue.
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
Torrey R Mandigo, Eric S Folker
The even positioning of nuclei at the periphery of differentiated myofibers is among the most striking examples of cellular organization. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Roman et al. (2018) show that fibronectin deposited by the associated myofibroblasts initiates both lateral and peripheral nuclear movements by distinct downstream mechanisms.
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
Maria-Del-Carmen Diaz-de-la-Loza, Robert P Ray, Poulami S Ganguly, Silvanus Alt, John R Davis, Andreas Hoppe, Nic Tapon, Guillaume Salbreux, Barry J Thompson
Epithelial tissues can elongate in two dimensions by polarized cell intercalation, oriented cell division, or cell shape change, owing to local or global actomyosin contractile forces acting in the plane of the tissue. In addition, epithelia can undergo morphogenetic change in three dimensions. We show that elongation of the wings and legs of Drosophila involves a columnar-to-cuboidal cell shape change that reduces cell height and expands cell width. Remodeling of the apical extracellular matrix by the Stubble protease and basal matrix by MMP1/2 proteases induces wing and leg elongation...
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
Roland S Wu, Ian I Lam, Hilary Clay, Daniel N Duong, Rahul C Deo, Shaun R Coughlin
Zebrafish is a powerful model for forward genetics. Reverse genetic approaches are limited by the time required to generate stable mutant lines. We describe a system for gene knockout that consistently produces null phenotypes in G0 zebrafish. Yolk injection of sets of four CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes redundantly targeting a single gene recapitulated germline-transmitted knockout phenotypes in >90% of G0 embryos for each of 8 test genes. Early embryonic (6 hpf) and stable adult phenotypes were produced...
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
George R R Bell, Sean R Collins
The physicist Edward Purcell wrote in 1977 about mechanisms that cells could use to propel themselves in a low Reynolds number environment. Reporting in Developmental Cell, O'Neill et al. (2018) provide direct evidence for one of these mechanisms by optogenetically driving the migration of cells suspended in liquid through RhoA activation.
July 2, 2018: Developmental Cell
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