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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735680/dynamic-control-of-dntp-synthesis-in-early-embryos
#1
Yonghyun Song, Robert A Marmion, Junyoung O Park, Debopriyo Biswas, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Stanislav Y Shvartsman
Exponential increase of cell numbers in early embryos requires large amounts of DNA precursors (deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs)). Little is understood about how embryos satisfy this demand. We examined dNTP metabolism in the early Drosophila embryo, in which gastrulation is preceded by 13 sequential nuclear cleavages within only 2 hr of fertilization. Surprisingly, despite the breakneck speed at which Drosophila embryos synthesize DNA, maternally deposited dNTPs can generate less than half of the genomes needed to reach gastrulation...
July 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743005/xenopus-laevis-m18bp1-directly-binds-existing-cenp-a-nucleosomes-to-promote-centromeric-chromatin-assembly
#2
Bradley T French, Frederick G Westhorpe, Charles Limouse, Aaron F Straight
Vertebrate centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the three-protein Mis18 complex (Mis18α, Mis18β, and M18BP1) that recruits the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres, but how the Mis18 complex recognizes centromeric chromatin is unknown. Using Xenopus egg extract, we show that direct, cell-cycle-regulated binding of M18BP1 to CENP-A nucleosomes recruits the Mis18 complex to interphase centromeres to promote new CENP-A nucleosome assembly...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743004/association-of-m18bp1-knl2-with-cenp-a-nucleosome-is-essential-for-centromere-formation-in-non-mammalian-vertebrates
#3
Tetsuya Hori, Wei-Hao Shang, Masatoshi Hara, Mariko Ariyoshi, Yasuhiro Arimura, Risa Fujita, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Tatsuo Fukagawa
Centromeres are specified and maintained by sequence-independent epigenetic mechanisms through the incorporation of CENP-A into centromeres. Given that CENP-A incorporation requires the Mis18 complex to be in the centromere region, it is necessary to precisely understand how the Mis18 complex localizes to the centromere region. Here, we showed that centromere localization of the Mis18 complex depends on CENP-A, but not CENP-C or CENP-T, in chicken DT40 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that M18BP1/KNL2, a member of the Mis18 complex, contained the CENP-C-like motif in chicken and other vertebrates, which is essential for centromere localization and M18BP1/KNL2 function in DT40 cells...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743003/patterned-disordered-cell-motion-ensures-vertebral-column-symmetry
#4
Dipjyoti Das, Veena Chatti, Thierry Emonet, Scott A Holley
The biomechanics of posterior embryonic growth must be dynamically regulated to ensure bilateral symmetry of the spinal column. Throughout vertebrate trunk elongation, motile mesodermal progenitors undergo an order-to-disorder transition via an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and sort symmetrically into the left and right paraxial mesoderm. We combine theoretical modeling of cell migration in a tail-bud-like geometry with experimental data analysis to assess the importance of ordered and disordered cell motion...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743002/drosophila-histone-demethylase-kdm4a-has-enzymatic-and-non-enzymatic-roles-in-controlling-heterochromatin-integrity
#5
Serafin U Colmenares, Joel M Swenson, Sasha A Langley, Cameron Kennedy, Sylvain V Costes, Gary H Karpen
Eukaryotic genomes are broadly divided between gene-rich euchromatin and the highly repetitive heterochromatin domain, which is enriched for proteins critical for genome stability and transcriptional silencing. This study shows that Drosophila KDM4A (dKDM4A), previously characterized as a euchromatic histone H3 K36 demethylase and transcriptional regulator, predominantly localizes to heterochromatin and regulates heterochromatin position-effect variegation (PEV), organization of repetitive DNAs, and DNA repair...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743001/gcl-and-cul3-control-the-switch-between-cell-lineages-by-mediating-localized-degradation-of-an-rtk
#6
Juhee Pae, Ryan M Cinalli, Antonio Marzio, Michele Pagano, Ruth Lehmann
The separation of germline from somatic lineages is fundamental to reproduction and species preservation. Here, we show that Drosophila Germ cell-less (GCL) is a critical component in this process by acting as a switch that turns off a somatic lineage pathway. GCL, a conserved BTB (Broad-complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac) protein, is a substrate-specific adaptor for Cullin3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3(GCL)). We show that CRL3(GCL) promotes PGC fate by mediating degradation of Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and major determinant of somatic cell fate...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743000/cilia-control-fat-deposition-during-tissue-repair
#7
Eusebio Perdiguero, Antonio L Serrano, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
Fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are emerging as crucial regulators of fibrous and fat deposits during skeletal muscle regeneration. In a recent issue of Cell, Kopinke et al. (2017) report that primary cilia induce the adipogenic fate of FAPs in injured and diseased muscle by restraining Hedgehog signaling.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742999/adding-polyamine-metabolism-to-the-mtorc1-toolkit-in-cell-growth-and-cancer
#8
Ana P Gomes, Tanya Schild, John Blenis
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major nutrient sensor and regulator of cellular metabolic flux. Reporting recently in Nature, Zabala-Letona et al. (2017) show that mTORC1 regulates an additional branch of metabolism in the cell-polyamine synthesis-that is important for prostate cancer tumorigenicity.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742998/reading-the-centromere-epigenetic-mark
#9
Lydia Smith, Paul S Maddox
Centromeres epitomize the central problem of propagating non-DNA sequence-based information across generations. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hori et al. (2017) and French et al. (2017) show that the centromere-associated protein KNL-2/M18BP1 reads the centromere epigenetic code to maintain centromere identity.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742997/abl-to-integrate-opposing-cellular-growth-signals
#10
Dietmar Schmucker
Growth factor signaling has long been known to stimulate cellular growth and motility. That it might also directly promote repulsive signaling, however, is a surprising finding reported by Yoon et al. (2017) in this issue of Developmental Cell.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742996/how-primordial-germ-cells-destroy-somatic-signals
#11
Lynn Cooley
The Germ Cell-Less (GCL) protein is a key regulator of primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in Drosophila embryos. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Pae et al. (2017) show that GCL blocks somatic cell fate by specifically destroying the Torso Receptor Tyrosine Kinase.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712722/cell-polarity-regulates-biased-myosin-activity-and-dynamics-during-asymmetric-cell-division-via-drosophila-rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-n
#12
Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, David Salvador Garcia, Fabian Otte, Clemens Cabernard
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689759/amplification-of-f-actin-disassembly-and-cellular-repulsion-by-growth-factor-signaling
#13
Jimok Yoon, Sang Bum Kim, Giasuddin Ahmed, Jerry W Shay, Jonathan R Terman
Extracellular cues that regulate cellular shape, motility, and navigation are generally classified as growth promoting (i.e., growth factors/chemoattractants and attractive guidance cues) or growth preventing (i.e., repellents and inhibitors). Yet, these designations are often based on complex assays and undefined signaling pathways and thus may misrepresent direct roles of specific cues. Here, we find that a recognized growth-promoting signaling pathway amplifies the F-actin disassembly and repulsive effects of a growth-preventing pathway...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697337/basement-membrane-manipulation-in-drosophila-wing-discs-affects-dpp-retention-but-not-growth-mechanoregulation
#14
Mengqi Ma, Xueya Cao, Jianli Dai, José C Pastor-Pareja
Basement membranes (BMs) are extracellular matrix polymers basally underlying epithelia, where they regulate cell signaling and tissue mechanics. Constriction by the BM shapes Drosophila wing discs, a well-characterized model of tissue growth. Recently, the hypothesis that mechanical factors govern wing growth has received much attention, but it has not been definitively tested. In this study, we manipulated BM composition to cause dramatic changes in tissue tension. We found that increased tissue compression when perlecan was knocked down did not affect adult wing size...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697336/dgat1-dependent-lipid-droplet-biogenesis-protects-mitochondrial-function-during-starvation-induced-autophagy
#15
Truc B Nguyen, Sharon M Louie, Joseph R Daniele, Quan Tran, Andrew Dillin, Roberto Zoncu, Daniel K Nomura, James A Olzmann
Lipid droplets (LDs) provide an "on-demand" source of fatty acids (FAs) that can be mobilized in response to fluctuations in nutrient abundance. Surprisingly, the amount of LDs increases during prolonged periods of nutrient deprivation. Why cells store FAs in LDs during an energy crisis is unknown. Our data demonstrate that mTORC1-regulated autophagy is necessary and sufficient for starvation-induced LD biogenesis. The ER-resident diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) selectively channels autophagy-liberated FAs into new, clustered LDs that are in close proximity to mitochondria and are lipolytically degraded...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697335/chk1-inhibition-of-the-replication-factor-drf1-guarantees-cell-cycle-elongation-at-the-xenopus-laevis-mid-blastula-transition
#16
Clara Collart, James C Smith, Philip Zegerman
The early cell divisions of many metazoan embryos are rapid and occur in the near absence of transcription. At the mid-blastula transition (MBT), the cell cycle elongates and several processes become established including the onset of bulk transcription and cell-cycle checkpoints. How these events are timed and coordinated is poorly understood. Here we show in Xenopus laevis that developmental activation of the checkpoint kinase Chk1 at the MBT results in the SCF(β-TRCP)-dependent degradation of a limiting replication initiation factor Drf1...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697334/heart-regeneration-4-0-matrix-medicine
#17
Elif Eroglu, Kenneth R Chien
The heart has a markedly limited capacity for regeneration. Reporting in Nature, Bassat et al. (2017) and Morikawa et al. (2017) have uncovered a new mechanism of Yap inhibition by the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) that is released by the extracellular matrix protein Agrin in order to promote cardiac regeneration.
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697333/the-dyt6-dystonia-protein-thap1-regulates-myelination-within-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage
#18
Dhananjay Yellajoshyula, Chun-Chi Liang, Samuel S Pappas, Silvia Penati, Angela Yang, Rodan Mecano, Ravindran Kumaran, Stephanie Jou, Mark R Cookson, William T Dauer
The childhood-onset motor disorder DYT6 dystonia is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor THAP1, but the neurodevelopmental processes in which THAP1 participates are unknown. We find that THAP1 is essential for the timing of myelination initiation during CNS maturation. Conditional deletion of THAP1 in the CNS retards maturation of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage, delaying myelination and causing persistent motor deficits. The CNS myelination defect results from a cell-autonomous requirement for THAP1 in the OL lineage and is recapitulated in developmental assays performed on OL progenitor cells purified from Thap1 null mice...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697332/gating-ciliary-transport
#19
Irma Sánchez, Brian D Dynlacht
Cilia lack the ability to synthesize proteins and thus require dynamic transport. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Kanie et al. (2017) shed light on the mechanism of transport by implicating CEP19, which is associated with an autosomal-recessive obesity syndrome when mutated, in the triggering of intraflagellar transport.
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697331/a-tubulin-binding-switch-underlies-kip3-kinesin-8-depolymerase-activity
#20
Hugo Arellano-Santoyo, Elisabeth A Geyer, Ema Stokasimov, Geng-Yuan Chen, Xiaolei Su, William Hancock, Luke M Rice, David Pellman
Kinesin-8 motors regulate the size of microtubule structures, using length-dependent accumulation at the plus end to preferentially disassemble long microtubules. Despite extensive study, the kinesin-8 depolymerase mechanism remains under debate. Here, we provide evidence for an alternative, tubulin curvature-sensing model of microtubule depolymerization by the budding yeast kinesin-8, Kip3. Kinesin-8/Kip3 uses ATP hydrolysis, like other kinesins, for stepping on the microtubule lattice, but at the plus end Kip3 undergoes a switch: its ATPase activity is suppressed when it binds tightly to the curved conformation of tubulin...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
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