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Developmental Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089369/deciphering-the-fringe-mediated-notch-code-identification-of-activating-and-inhibiting-sites-allowing-discrimination-between-ligands
#1
Shinako Kakuda, Robert S Haltiwanger
Fringe proteins are β3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modulate Notch activity by modifying O-fucose residues on epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of Notch. Mammals have three Fringes: Lunatic, Manic, and Radical. While Lunatic and Manic Fringe inhibit Notch1 activation from Jagged1 and enhance activation from Delta-like 1, Radical Fringe enhances signaling from both. We used a mass spectrometry approach to determine whether the variable effects of Fringes on Notch1 result from generation of unique glycosylation patterns on Notch1...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041907/polarity-reversal-by-centrosome-repositioning-primes-cell-scattering-during-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#2
Mithila Burute, Magali Prioux, Guillaume Blin, Sandrine Truchet, Gaëlle Letort, Qingzong Tseng, Thomas Bessy, Sally Lowell, Joanne Young, Odile Filhol, Manuel Théry
During epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cells lining the tissue periphery break up their cohesion to migrate within the tissue. This dramatic reorganization involves a poorly characterized reorientation of the apicobasal polarity of static epithelial cells into the front-rear polarity of migrating mesenchymal cells. To investigate the spatial coordination of intracellular reorganization with morphological changes, we monitored centrosome positioning during EMT in vivo, in developing mouse embryos and mammary gland, and in vitro, in cultured 3D cell aggregates and micropatterned cell doublets...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041904/long-term-high-resolution-imaging-of-developing-c-%C3%A2-elegans-larvae-with-microfluidics
#3
Wolfgang Keil, Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham, Eric D Siggia
Long-term studies of Caenorhabditis elegans larval development traditionally require tedious manual observations because larvae must move to develop, and existing immobilization techniques either perturb development or are unsuited for young larvae. Here, we present a simple microfluidic device to simultaneously follow development of ten C. elegans larvae at high spatiotemporal resolution from hatching to adulthood (∼3 days). Animals grown in microchambers are periodically immobilized by compression to allow high-quality imaging of even weak fluorescence signals...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017618/selective-lysosomal-transporter-degradation-by-organelle-membrane-fusion
#4
Erin Kate McNally, Mahmoud Abdul Karim, Christopher Leonard Brett
Lysosomes rely on their resident transporter proteins to return products of catabolism to the cell for reuse and for cellular signaling, metal storage, and maintaining the lumenal environment. Despite their importance, little is known about the lifetime of these transporters or how they are regulated. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we discovered a new pathway intrinsic to homotypic lysosome membrane fusion that is responsible for their degradation. Transporter proteins are selectively sorted by the docking machinery into an area between apposing lysosome membranes, which is internalized and degraded by lumenal hydrolases upon organelle fusion...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011038/msx1-positive-progenitors-in-the-retinal-ciliary-margin-give-rise-to-both-neural-and-non-neural-progenies-in-mammals
#5
Marie-Claude Bélanger, Benoit Robert, Michel Cayouette
In lower vertebrates, stem/progenitor cells located in a peripheral domain of the retina, called the ciliary margin zone (CMZ), cooperate with retinal domain progenitors to build the mature neural retina. In mammals, it is believed that the CMZ lacks neurogenic potential and that the retina develops from one pool of multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). Here we identify a population of Msx1-expressing progenitors in the mouse CMZ that is both molecularly and functionally distinct from RPCs. Using genetic lineage tracing, we report that Msx1 progenitors have unique developmental properties compared with RPCs...
December 18, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073011/cenp-a-ubiquitylation-is-required-for-cenp-a-deposition-at-the-centromere
#6
LETTER
Yohei Niikura, Risa Kitagawa, Katsumi Kitagawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073010/ser68-phosphorylation-ensures-accurate-cell-cycle-dependent-cenp-a-deposition-at-centromeres
#7
LETTER
Kehui Wang, Zhouliang Yu, Yuting Liu, Guohong Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073009/how-meiosis-creates-the-single-copy-genome
#8
Mary Herbert, Attila Toth
Genome haploidization involves two meiotic divisions following a single round of DNA replication. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Argüello-Miranda et al. (2017) show that production and packaging of the single-copy genome into gametes during the second meiotic division is coordinated by a conserved casein kinase 1.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073008/cenp-a-modifications-on-ser68-and-lys124-are-dispensable-for-establishment-maintenance-and-long-term-function-of-human-centromeres
#9
Daniele Fachinetti, Glennis A Logsdon, Amira Abdullah, Evan B Selzer, Don W Cleveland, Ben E Black
CENP-A is a histone H3 variant key to epigenetic specification of mammalian centromeres. Using transient overexpression of CENP-A mutants, two recent reports in Developmental Cell proposed essential centromere functions for post-translational modifications of human CENP-A. Phosphorylation at Ser68 was proposed to have an essential role in CENP-A deposition at centromeres. Blockage of ubiquitination at Lys124 was proposed to abrogate localization of CENP-A to the centromere. Following gene inactivation and replacement in human cells, we demonstrate that CENP-A mutants that cannot be phosphorylated at Ser68 or ubiquitinated at Lys124 assemble efficiently at centromeres during G1, mediate early events in centromere establishment at an ectopic chromosomal locus, and maintain centromere function indefinitely...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073007/mesenchymal-microrna-function-branches-out
#10
Huojun Cao, Liu Hong, Brad A Amendt
Significant amounts of microRNAs (miRs) are detected in exosomes, but their function during fetal development is poorly understood. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hayashi et al. (2017) show that exosomal miRs secreted by mesenchymal cells can regulate epithelial KIT(+) progenitor cell expansion during murine salivary gland organogenesis.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041906/apc-c-fzr-cdh1-dependent-regulation-of-planar-cell-polarity-establishment-via-nek2-kinase-acting-on-dishevelled
#11
Ursula Weber, Marek Mlodzik
The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, well known for its role in cell-cycle progression. However, it has been linked to additional functions, mainly in neuronal contexts, when using the co-activator Cdh1/Fzr. Here, our data indicate a post-mitotic requirement for the APC/C(Fzr/Cdh1) in epithelial cell patterning and planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila. PCP signaling is critical for development by establishing cellular asymmetries and orientation within the plane of an epithelium, via differential localization of distinct complexes of core PCP factors...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041905/the-apc-c-coordinates-retinal-differentiation-with-g1-arrest-through-the-nek2-dependent-modulation-of-wingless-signaling
#12
Torcato Martins, Francesco Meghini, Francesca Florio, Yuu Kimata
The cell cycle is coordinated with differentiation during animal development. Here we report a cell-cycle-independent developmental role for a master cell-cycle regulator, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), in the regulation of cell fate through modulation of Wingless (Wg) signaling. The APC/C controls both cell-cycle progression and postmitotic processes through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Through an RNAi screen in the developing Drosophila eye, we found that partial APC/C inactivation severely inhibits retinal differentiation independently of cell-cycle defects...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041903/exosomal-microrna-transport-from-salivary-mesenchyme-regulates-epithelial-progenitor-expansion-during-organogenesis
#13
Toru Hayashi, Isabelle M A Lombaert, Belinda R Hauser, Vaishali N Patel, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions involve fundamental communication between tissues during organogenesis and are primarily regulated by growth factors and extracellular matrix. It is unclear whether RNA-containing exosomes are mobile genetic signals regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Here we identify that exosomes loaded with mesenchyme-specific mature microRNA contribute mobile genetic signals from mesenchyme to epithelium. The mature mesenchymal miR-133b-3p, loaded into exosomes, was transported from mesenchyme to the salivary epithelium, which did not express primary miR-133b-3p...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017619/casein-kinase-1-coordinates-cohesin-cleavage-gametogenesis-and-exit-from-m-phase-in-meiosis-ii
#14
Orlando Argüello-Miranda, Ievgeniia Zagoriy, Valentina Mengoli, Julie Rojas, Katarzyna Jonak, Tugce Oz, Peter Graf, Wolfgang Zachariae
Meiosis consists of DNA replication followed by two consecutive nuclear divisions and gametogenesis or spore formation. While meiosis I has been studied extensively, less is known about the regulation of meiosis II. Here we show that Hrr25, the conserved casein kinase 1δ of budding yeast, links three mutually independent key processes of meiosis II. First, Hrr25 induces nuclear division by priming centromeric cohesin for cleavage by separase. Hrr25 simultaneously phosphorylates Rec8, the cleavable subunit of cohesin, and removes from centromeres the cohesin protector composed of shugoshin and the phosphatase PP2A...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017617/mir-263a-regulates-enac-to-maintain-osmotic-and-intestinal-stem-cell-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#15
Kevin Kim, Ruei-Jiun Hung, Norbert Perrimon
Proper regulation of osmotic balance and response to tissue damage is crucial in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) homeostasis. We found that Drosophila miR-263a downregulates the expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in enterocytes (ECs) to maintain osmotic and ISC homeostasis. In the absence of miR-263a, the intraluminal surface of the intestine displays dehydration-like phenotypes, Na(+) levels are increased in ECs, stress pathways are activated in ECs, and ISCs overproliferate. Furthermore, miR-263a mutants have increased bacterial load and expression of antimicrobial peptides...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017616/gas2l1-is-a-centriole-associated-protein-required-for-centrosome-dynamics-and-disjunction
#16
Franco K C Au, Yue Jia, Kai Jiang, Ilya Grigoriev, Bill K T Hau, Yuehong Shen, Shengwang Du, Anna Akhmanova, Robert Z Qi
Mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation require timely separation of the two duplicated centrosomes, and this process is initiated in late G2 by centrosome disjunction. Here we report that GAS2L1, a microtubule- and actin-binding protein, associates with the proximal end of mature centrioles and participates in centriole dynamics and centrosome disjunction. GAS2L1 attaches microtubules and actin to centrosomes, and the loss of GAS2L1 inhibits centrosome disjunction in G2 and centrosome splitting induced by depletion of the centrosome linker rootletin...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989554/hypertranscription-in-development-stem-cells-and-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Michelle Percharde, Aydan Bulut-Karslioglu, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
Cells can globally upregulate their transcriptome during specific transitions, a phenomenon called hypertranscription. Evidence for hypertranscription dates back over 70 years but has gone largely ignored in the genomics era until recently. We discuss data supporting the notion that hypertranscription is a unifying theme in embryonic development, stem cell biology, regeneration, and cell competition. We review the history, methods for analysis, underlying mechanisms, and biological significance of hypertranscription...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997829/redox-regulation-by-pitx2-and-pitx3-is-critical-for-fetal-myogenesis
#18
Aurore L'honoré, Pierre-Henri Commère, Jean-François Ouimette, Didier Montarras, Jacques Drouin, Margaret Buckingham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997828/a-mechanism-for-controlled-breakage-of-under-replicated-chromosomes-during-mitosis
#19
Heike Duda, Meret Arter, Jiradet Gloggnitzer, Federico Teloni, Philipp Wild, Miguel G Blanco, Matthias Altmeyer, Joao Matos
While DNA replication and mitosis occur in a sequential manner, precisely how cells maintain their temporal separation and order remains elusive. Here, we unveil a double-negative feedback loop between replication intermediates and an M-phase-specific structure-selective endonuclease, MUS81-SLX4, which renders DNA replication and mitosis mutually exclusive. MUS81 nuclease is constitutively active throughout the cell cycle but requires association with SLX4 for efficient substrate targeting. To preclude toxic processing of replicating chromosomes, WEE1 kinase restrains CDK1 and PLK1-mediated MUS81-SLX4 assembly during S phase...
December 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997827/myocardial-vhl-hif-signaling-controls-an-embryonic-metabolic-switch-essential-for-cardiac-maturation
#20
Ivan Menendez-Montes, Beatriz Escobar, Beatriz Palacios, Manuel Jose Gómez, Jose Luis Izquierdo-Garcia, Lorena Flores, Luis Jesus Jiménez-Borreguero, Julian Aragones, Jesus Ruiz-Cabello, Miguel Torres, Silvia Martin-Puig
While gene regulatory networks involved in cardiogenesis have been characterized, the role of bioenergetics remains less studied. Here we show that until midgestation, myocardial metabolism is compartmentalized, with a glycolytic signature restricted to compact myocardium contrasting with increased mitochondrial oxidative activity in the trabeculae. HIF1α regulation mirrors this pattern, with expression predominating in compact myocardium and scarce in trabeculae. By midgestation, the compact myocardium downregulates HIF1α and switches toward oxidative metabolism...
December 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
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