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World Journal of Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155577/neurobiology-of-depression-a-neurodevelopmental-approach
#1
Juan M Lima-Ojeda, Rainer Rupprecht, Thomas C Baghai
OBJECTIVES: The main aims of this paper are to review and evaluate the neurobiology of the depressive syndrome from a neurodevelopmental perspective. METHODS: An English language literature search was performed using PubMed. RESULTS: Depression is a complex syndrome that involves anatomical and functional changes that have an early origin in the brain development. In subjects with genetic risk for depression, early stress factors are able to mediate not only the genetic risk but also the gene expression...
February 3, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090806/randomised-sham-controlled-study-of-high-frequency-bilateral-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-to-treat-adult-attention-hyperactive-disorder-adhd-negative-results
#2
Yaniv Paz, Keren Friedwald, Yeheal Levkovitz, Abraham Zangen, Uri Alyagon, Uri Nitzan, Aviv Segev, Hagai Maoz, May Koubi, Yuval Bloch
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies support the possible effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of bilateral prefrontal deep rTMS for the treatment of adult ADHD. METHODS: Twenty-six adult ADHD patients were randomised blindly to sham or actual deep TMS (dTMS). Twenty daily sessions were conducted using the bilateral H5 dTMS coil (Brainsway, IL) in order to stimulate the prefrontal cortex at 120% of the motor threshold at high frequency...
January 31, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132573/reduced-astrocyte-density-underlying-brain-volume-reduction-in-activity-based-anorexia-rats
#3
Linda Frintrop, Johanna Liesbrock, Lisa Paulukat, Sonja Johann, Martien J Kas, Rene Tolba, Nicole Heussen, Joseph Neulen, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Cordian Beyer, Jochen Seitz
OBJECTIVES: Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal model (activity-based anorexia, ABA). METHODS: Female rats had 24 h/day running wheel access and received reduced food intake until a 25% weight reduction was reached and maintained for 2 weeks...
January 30, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120636/the-influence-of-childhood-abuse-on-cortisol-levels-and-the-cortisol-awakening-response-in-depressed-and-nondepressed-older-adults
#4
Ilse Wielaard, Roxanne Schaakxs, Hannie C Comijs, Max L Stek, Didi Rhebergen
OBJECTIVES: Childhood abuse has been associated with depression in later life. This may be related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Therefore we aimed to examine the impact of childhood abuse and its interaction with depression on cortisol levels in older adults. METHODS: Data from 418 participants (mean age 70.8 years) in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used; 187 participants experienced childhood abuse; 309 participants had a diagnosis of depression...
January 25, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112047/venous-thromboembolism-during-treatment-with-antipsychotics-results-of-a-drug-surveillance-program
#5
Martin Letmaier, Renate Grohmann, Christiana Kren, Sermin Toto, Stefan Bleich, Rolf Engel, Thomas Gary, Konstantinos Papageorgiou, Anastasios Konstantinidis, Anna Katharina Holl, Annamaria Painold, Siegfried Kasper
OBJECTIVES: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be a life-threatening medical condition that may lead to leg swelling, respiratory distress and death. METHODS: The AMSP (Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie) is a continuous multicenter drug surveillance program that assesses severe adverse drug reactions during treatment of psychiatric inpatients. We report on a total of 264,422 inpatients who were treated with antipsychotics (APs) and monitored from 1993 to 2011 in 99 psychiatric hospitals...
January 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112043/genetics-of-schizophrenia-a-consensus-paper-of-the-wfsbp-task-force-on-genetics
#6
Ina Giegling, Ladislav Hosak, Rainald Mössner, Alessandro Serretti, Frank Bellivier, Stephan Claes, David A Collier, Alejo Corrales, Lynn E DeLisi, Carla Gallo, Michael Gill, James L Kennedy, Marion Leboyer, Wolfgang Maier, Miguel Marquez, Isabelle Massat, Ole Mors, Pierandrea Muglia, Markus M Nöthen, Jorge Ospina-Duque, Michael J Owen, Peter Propping, YongYong Shi, David St Clair, Florence Thibaut, Sven Cichon, Julien Mendlewicz, Michael C O'Donovan, Dan Rujescu
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disease affecting about 1% of the general population. The relative contribution of genetic factors has been estimated to be up to 80%. The mode of inheritance is complex, non-Mendelian, and in most cases involving the combined action of large numbers of genes. METHODS: This review summarises recent efforts to identify genetic variants associated with schizophrenia detected, e.g., through genome-wide association studies, studies on copy-number variants or next-generation sequencing...
January 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112029/two-patterns-of-anterior-insular-cortex-functional-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#7
Jian Li, Yanqing Tang, Fay Womer, Guoguang Fan, Qian Zhou, Wenge Sun, Ke Xu, Fei Wang
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) share structural abnormalities in the anterior insula cortex (AIC). The AIC appears to have a crucial role in emotional processing and regulation and cognitive control in BD and SZ. METHODS: Forty-six participants with BD, 68 with SZ and 66 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) from AIC subregions (ventral and dorsal) was compared among the three groups...
January 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112021/is-there-a-role-for-cannabidiol-in-psychiatry
#8
Julia Machado Khoury, Maila de Castro Lourenço das Neves, Marco Antônio Valente Roque, Daniela Alves de Brito Queiroz, André Augusto Corrêa de Freitas, Ângelo de Fátima, Fabrício Moreira, Frederico Duarte Garcia
OBJECTIVES: Understanding if cannabidiol (CBD) is a useful and safe for the treatment of psychiatric disorders is essential to empower psychiatrists and patients to take good clinical decisions. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review regarding the benefits and adverse events (AEs) of CBD in the treatment of schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder and substance use disorders. METHODS: We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Scielo, and Clinicaltrials...
January 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105895/prefrontal-cortex-dysfunction-in-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-contributes-to-executive-function-impairments-in-rats-potential-contribution-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Patrícia Maidana Miguel, Bruna Ferrary Deniz, Iohanna Deckmann, Heloísa Deola Confortim, Ramiro Diaz, Daniela Pereira Laureano, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Lenir Orlandi Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compromises the quality of life of individuals including adaptation to the social environment. ADHD aetiology includes perinatal conditions such as hypoxic-ischaemic events; preclinical studies have demonstrated attentional deficits and impulsive-hyperactive outcomes after neonatal hypoxic and/or ischaemic intervention, but data are missing to understand this relationship. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate executive function (EF) and impulsivity, and tissue integrity and dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats submitted to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI)...
January 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097908/common-and-specific-genes-and-peripheral-biomarkers-in-children-and-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Cristian Bonvicini, Stephen V Faraone, Catia Scassellati
OBJECTIVES: Elucidating the biological mechanisms involved in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been challenging. Relatively unexplored is the fact that these mechanisms can differ with age. METHODS: We present an overview on the major differences between children and adults with ADHD, describing several studies from genomics to metabolomics performed in ADHD children and in adults. A systematic search (up until February, 2016) was conducted. RESULTS: From a PRISMA flow-chart, a total of eligibility 350 studies from genomics and metabolomics were found for cADHD and 91 for aADHD...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095742/lithium-response-in-bipolar-disorders-and-core-clock-genes-expression
#11
Pierre A Geoffroy, Emmanuel Curis, Cindie Courtin, Jeverson Moreira, Thomas Morvillers, Bruno Etain, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Frank Bellivier, Cynthia Marie-Claire
OBJECTIVES: We examine if the lithium response is associated with changes in core clock genes expressions. METHODS: The effect of a therapeutic concentration of lithium (1mM) on the expression levels of 17 circadian genes, was examined in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from two well-characterized groups of BD patients, defined as lithium non-responders (NR, n = 20) or excellent responders (ER, n = 16). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were conducted at 2, 4 and 8 days (d2, d4, d8) with and without lithium exposure...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090807/neurocognitive-function-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Daniel A Geller, Amitai Abramovitch, Andrew Mittelman, Abigail Stark, Kesley Ramsey, Allison Cooperman, Lee Baer, S Evelyn Stewart
OBJECTIVES: The small body of neuropsychological research in pediatric OCD yields inconsistent results. A recent meta-analysis found small effect sizes, concluding that pediatric OCD may not be associated with cognitive impairments, stressing the need for more research. We investigated neuropsychological performance in a large sample of OCD youth, while assessing potential moderators. METHODS: Participants with OCD (n = 102), and matched controls (n = 161) were thoroughly screened and blindly evaluated for comorbidities, and completed a neuropsychological battery assessing processing-speed, visuospatial abilities (VSA), working memory (WM), nonverbal memory (NVM), and executive functions (EF)...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090804/choline-acetyltransferase-may-contribute-to-the-risk-of-tourette-syndrome-combination-of-family-based-analysis-and-case-control-study
#13
Xiuling Yang, Wenmiao Liu, Mingji Yi, Ru Zhang, Yinglei Xu, Zuzhou Huang, Shiguo Liu, Tang Li
OBJECTIVES: Twin and family analyses have revealed a genetic contribution to Tourette syndrome and postmortem studies have raised the intriguing possibility of a reduction in cholinergic interneuronsin TS patients. METHODS: We selected five tag SNPs (rs100824791, rs12264845, rs1880676, rs3793790 and rs3793798) of Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT) from the Han Chinese population Hapmap database. Genotyping was conducted on 401 TS nuclear family trios and 405 control subjects...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090803/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-in-bipolar-disorder-an-expression-study-in-peripheral-tissues
#14
Elena Milanesi, Roberta Zanardini, Gianluca Rosso, Giuseppe Maina, Alessandro Barbon, Cristina Mora, Alessandra Minelli, Massimo Gennarelli, Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto
OBJECTIVES: Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP2) is a member of the family of high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP1-6) and appears to play a governing role in Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) regulation in the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the putative involvement of IGFBP2 in mood disorder pathogenesis by measuring its expression levels in patient peripheral tissues. METHODS: IGFBP2 protein and mRNA levels were measured in the serum of 93 controls, 41 Bipolar Disorder (BD) and 43 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients and in the skin fibroblasts from 15 controls, 12 BD and 23 MDD patients...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010171/neural-correlates-of-prediction-violations-in-boys-with-tourette-syndrome-evidence-from-harmonic-expectancy
#15
Judith Buse, Christian Beste, Veit Roessner
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that Tourette syndrome (TS) might be associated with alterations of the attention system, but the nature of these alterations and the underlying neuroanatomical network remains elusive. We aimed at investigating the functional neuroanatomical modulators of attention allocation towards predictable vs. unpredictable stimuli in boys with TS. METHODS: Using fMRI, we ran a harmonic expectancy violation paradigm in 17 boys with TS and 23 matched healthy controls (HC)...
December 23, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010158/abnormalities-of-language-pathways-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-and-without-a-lifetime-history-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-a-dti-based-tractography-study
#16
Elise Leroux, Nicolas Delcroix, Sonia Dollfus
OBJECTIVES: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia and could be the result of white matter (WM) fibre abnormalities involved in speech production/comprehension and perception. We evaluated WM integrity changes in schizophrenia with (SZ+) and without (SZ-) lifetime AVHs compared to healthy controls, using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography, with a novel focus on the structural connectivity within both intra- and interhemispheric fasciculi...
December 23, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006997/guidelines-for-biological-treatment-of-substance-use-and-related-disorders-part-1-alcoholism-first-revision
#17
Michael Soyka, Henry R Kranzler, Victor Hesselbrock, Siegfried Kasper, Jochen Mutschler, Hans-Jürgen Möller
These practice guidelines for the biological treatment of alcohol use disorders are an update of the first edition, published in 2008, which was developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). For this 2016 revision, we performed a systematic review (MEDLINE/PUBMED database, Cochrane Library) of all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of alcoholism and extracted data from national guidelines. The Task Force evaluated the identified literature with respect to the strength of evidence for the efficacy of each medication and subsequently categorised it into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5)...
December 23, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844503/attentional-capture-by-physically-salient-stimuli-in-the-gamma-frequency-is-associated-with-schizophrenia-symptoms
#18
Laura Kornmayer, Gregor Leicht, Christoph Mulert
OBJECTIVES: Aberrant salience mainly is attributed to excessive dopaminergic processing in the ventral striatum. Increased gamma power during sensory processing of physical salience has been shown to be associated with positive trait schizotypy. In the present study, this is assessed in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The early evoked visual gamma-band response (GBR) at 40 Hz was assessed for a schizophrenia patient group (N = 22) and a matched healthy control group (N = 22) applying EEG time-frequency analysis...
December 23, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000543/allelic-variation-in-dopamine-d2-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-attentional-impulsiveness-on-the-barratt-impulsiveness-scale-bis-11
#19
Jasmine B Taylor, Tarrant D R Cummins, Allison M Fox, Beth P Johnson, Janette H Tong, Troy A W Visser, Ziarih Hawi, Mark A Bellgrove
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have postulated that noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic gene variations are likely to underlie individual differences in impulsiveness, however, few have shown this. The current study examined the relationship between catecholamine gene variants and self-reported impulsivity, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11; BIS-11) Methods: Six hundred and seventy seven (N = 677) non-clinical adults completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000540/telomere-length-in-psychiatric-disorders-is-it-more-than-an-ageing-marker
#20
Nancy Monroy-Jaramillo, Elena Dyukova, Consuelo Walss-Bass
Objectives Psychiatric and substance use disorders have been associated with premature biological ageing. Telomere length (TL), considered an ageing marker, has been analyzed in psychiatric disorders, and to a lesser extent in substance use disorders, with recent findings suggesting TL may be related to disease pathology. Methods We conducted a critical and non-systematic literature search of TL studies published up to June 2016 in psychiatric and substance use disorders, focusing on studies describing mechanisms, including studies linking telomere biology with genetic factors, stress, and mitochondrial alterations (104 studies selected)...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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