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World Journal of Biological Psychiatry

Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
L García-Álvarez, M P García-Portilla, J R Caso, L de la Fuente-Tomás, L González-Blanco, P Sáiz Martínez, J C Leza, J Bobes
OBJECTIVES: To identify the psychopathological, cognitive, functional, physical health and inflammatory markers that differentiate between early-stage schizophrenia (ESSCH) and late-stage schizophrenia (LSSCH). METHODS: Cross-sectional, naturalistic study of 104 patients with SCH. The sample was divided in two groups: 35 ESSCH (≤7 years' duration of illness) and 69 LSSCH (>10 years' duration of illness). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: chi-square test and Student's t-test and ANCOVA (or Quade test) controlling for age, sex, BMI and number of cigarettes/day...
October 8, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
W Königschulte, C Civai, P Hildebrand, T J Gaber, G R Fink, F D Zepf
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects of acute phenylalanine-tyrosine depletion (APTD) and acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) on bimodal divided attention. A balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) served as control condition. METHODS: 54 healthy adults (age: M = 23.8 years) were randomly assigned to APTD, ATD or BAL in a double-blind, between-subject approach. Divided attention was assessed after 4 hours. Blood samples were taken before and 6 hours after challenge intake...
October 8, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Agnieszka Slopien, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Filip Rybakowski
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic illness where restriction of food intake results in decreased adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of adiponectin and resistin in acute and partially weight-recovered anorectic inpatients. The associations of their levels with eating disorder symptoms were also assessed. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on 76 adolescent patients (ANG) and 30 age-matched healthy girls (CG)...
September 28, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Lindsay Melhuish Beaupre, Gregory M Brown, James L Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are a common symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Sleep is highly regulated by circadian rhythms, controlled by circadian genes, that act through a series of feedback loops to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. OBJECTIVES: To the best of our knowledge, a systematic review regarding the core circadian genes and their role in MDD has not been published recently. Also, a review of these genes and their role in sleep disturbances in depressed individuals appears to have never been done...
September 26, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Karl Rickels, Hans Juergen Moeller
IMPORTANCE: Benzodiazepines (BZs) are still widely prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders despite many publications in the literature which favour antidepressants (ADs) instead. What is the evidence? OBSERVATIONS: Treatment guidelines favour ADs over BZs for treatment of anxiety disorders without any head-to-head comparison of both drug groups with placebo. BZs are claimed to cause less efficacy and more safety issues than ADs, yet ADs also cause disturbing adverse events and, similar to BZs, discontinuation symptoms...
September 25, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Arif Khan, Kaysee Fahl Mar, Sagarika Gokul, Walter A Brown
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the mortality rates associated with psychiatric conditions like depression and schizophrenia compared with chronic medical conditions like hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: Examined clinical trial safety data from New Drug Approval programmes reviewed by the US Food and Drug Administration and calculated all-cause and suicide/non-suicide mortality rates per 100,000 patient-exposure-years (PEY) for seven diabetes, 12 hypertension, 11 depression, and nine schizophrenia programmes (126,151 patients, 63,106...
September 24, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Julian Koenig, Veronica Thaler, Peter Parzer, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
OBJECTIVES: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is associated with altered physiological reactivity to psychosocial stress. Findings from a previous study on alterations of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, indexed by differences in hair hormone levels (i.e., cortisol) in IGD patients compared to matched controls, were limited by a small sample size. METHODS: Following the protocol of the previous study, male patients with IGD (n = 31) and controls (n = 31) matched for age, educational status and smoking were recruited...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Maria Korman, Denise Palm, Adriana Uzoni, Frank Faltraco, Oliver Tucha, Johannes Thome, Andrew N Coogan
OBJECTIVES: The current paper addresses the evidence for circadian clock characteristics associated with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and possible therapeutic approaches based on chronomodulation through bright light therapy. METHODS: We review the data reported in ADHD on genetic risk factors for phase-delayed circadian rhythms and on the role of photic input in circadian re-alignment. RESULTS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes were recently associated with core ADHD symptoms, increased evening-orientation and frequent sleep problems...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Martina Platzer, Frederike T Fellendorf, Susanne A Bengesser, Armin Birner, Nina Dalkner, Carlo Hamm, Riccarda Hartleb, Robert Queissner, René Pilz, Alexandra Rieger, Alexander Maget, Harald Mangge, Sieglinde Zelzer, Bernd Reininghaus, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Eva Z Reininghaus
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is often accompanied by medical comorbidities, which affect illness course and prognosis. Adipokines may not only be involved in the aetiopathogenetic mechanisms of these comorbidities; there might be an association between adipokines and the neuropsychiatric core features of BD such as mood disturbances and cognitive deficits. METHODS: In this investigation, fasting blood samples from 120 individuals with BD (75 euthymic and 45 with mild depressive symptoms) and 68 control subjects were taken and adiponectin and leptin concentrations were analysed...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Hagit Cohen, Joseph Zohar, Lior Carmi
OBJECTIVES: The therapeutic value of the antidepressant agomelatine in the aftermath of traumatic experience and early post-reminder has been questioned. Herein, agomelatine, its vehicle or melatonin agonist were administered either acutely 1 hour post-stressor or repeatedly (7 days) after early post-reminder in a posttraumatic stress rat model (PSS) using the scent of predator urine. METHODS: Behavioral responses, brain molecular and morphological changes were evaluated after each treatment procedure in PSS-exposed and unexposed rats...
September 19, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Kirsten E Schoonover, Stacy L Queern, Suzanne E Lapi, Rosalinda C Roberts
Several schizophrenia brain regions exhibit decreased dysbindin. Dysbindin modulates copper transport crucial for myelination, monoamine metabolism, and cellular homeostasis. Schizophrenia patients (SZP) exhibit increased plasma copper, while copper-decreasing agents produce schizophrenia-like behavioral and pathological abnormalities. Therefore, we sought to determine dysbindin and copper transporter protein expression and copper content in SZP. We studied the copper-rich substantia nigra (SN) using Western blot and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
September 19, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Eric Hollander, Genoveva Uzunova, Bonnie P Taylor, Rachel Noone, Emma Racine, Ellen Doernberg, Katherine Freeman, Casara Jean Ferretti
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and use of the immunomodulator Trichuris Suis Ova (TSO) is a novel treatment approach. This pilot study determined the effect sizes for TSO vs. placebo on repetitive behaviors, irritability and global functioning in adults with ASD. METHODS: A 28-week double-blind, randomized two-period crossover study of TSO vs. placebo in 10 ASD adults, ages 17 to 35, was completed, with a 4-week washout between each 12-week period at Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine...
September 19, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Alessandra Mallei, Alessandro Ieraci, Maurizio Popoli
OBJECTIVES: Although stress is considered a primary risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, a majority of individuals are resilient to the effects of stress exposure and successfully adapt to adverse life events, while others, the so-called susceptible individuals, may have problems to properly adapt to environmental changes. However, the mechanisms underlying these different responses to stress exposure are poorly understood. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic social defeat stress protocol and levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcripts and epigenetic modifying enzymes were analysed by real-time PCR in the hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of susceptible and resilient mice...
September 19, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Timo Greiner, Michael Schneider, Johannes Regente, Sermin Toto, Stefan Bleich, Renate Grohmann, Martin Heinze
Priapism is a rare adverse effect of several psychotropics. Both, typical and atypical antipsychotics, as well as trazodone are known to cause priapism. The mechanism is still not fully understood, however, the most common assumption is that priapism occurs due to the α-adrenergic blocking effects of the drugs. Here we present from the AMSP database 19 cases of priapism being likely caused by a variety of psychotropics. We further reviewed case reports in order to find similaritie and to identify risk factors...
September 13, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Elzbieta Paszynska, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Magdalena Roszak, Yves Boucher, Agata Dutkiewicz, Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Maria Gawriolek, Justyna Otulakowska-Skrzynska, Szymon Rzatowski, Agnieszka Słopień
OBJECTIVES: Opiorphin is a physiological inhibitor of peptidases inactivating endogenous opioids displaying strong analgesic properties without undesirable side effects, antidepressant properties and hormonal dependency. It might therefore play an important role in patients with painful diseases related to neuro-hormonal dysregulation of the nervous system, affecting saliva secretion and composition such as anorexia (AN). The main objective aim of this study was to compare the level of opiorphin in saliva of patients with AN to matched subjects free of eating disorders...
September 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Rachel D Freed, Lushna M Mehra, Daniel Laor, Manishkumar Patel, Carmen M Alonso, Seunghee Kim-Schulze, Vilma Gabbay
OBJECTIVES: Peripheral inflammation has been associated with multiple psychiatric disorders, particularly with depression. However, findings remain inconsistent and unreproducible, most likely due to the disorder's heterogeneity in phenotypic presentation. Therefore, in the present study, in an effort to account for inter-individual differences in symptom severity, we utilised a dimensional approach to assess the relationships between a broad panel of inflammatory cytokines and key psychiatric symptoms (i...
August 16, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Srisaiyini Kidnapillai, Chiara C Bortolasci, Madhara Udawela, Bruna Panizzutti, Briana Spolding, Timothy Connor, Andrew Sanigorski, Olivia M Dean, Tamsyn Crowley, Stéphane Jamain, Laura Gray, Elizabeth Scarr, Marion Leboyer, Brian Dean, Michael Berk, Ken Walder
OBJECTIVES: To create a gene expression signature (GES) to represent the biological effects of a combination of known drugs for bipolar disorder (BD) on cultured human neuronal cells (NT2-N) and rat brains, which also has evidence of differential expression in individuals with BD. To use the GES to identify new drugs for BD using Connectivity Map (CMap). METHODS: NT2-N (n = 20) cells and rats (n = 8) were treated with a BD drug combination (lithium, valproate, quetiapine and lamotrigine) or vehicle for 24 and 6 h, respectively...
August 3, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Dario Cattaneo, Sara Baldelli, Chiara Resnati, Andrea Giacomelli, Paola Meraviglia, Davide Minisci, Noemi Astuti, Annalisa Ridolfo, Giuseppe V De Socio, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Galli, Cristina Gervasoni
OBJECTIVES: The management of psychiatric illness in HIV-infected patients is clinically challenging because of the risk of potential drug-drug interactions. Here, we aimed to measure the antidepressant and/or antipsychotic drug concentrations in HIV-infected patients during routine outpatient visits. METHODS: Six hundred HIV-infected patients were screened during the first 15 months after the introduction of our outpatient polytherapy management service in a search for subjects treated with psychotropic drugs for at least three months...
July 30, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Katrin Druschky, Stefan Bleich, Renate Grohmann, Rolf R Engel, Alexandra Neyazi, Susanne Stübner, Sermin Toto
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess seizure rates related to different antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in a clinical setting by using data from the drug safety program Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie (AMSP) Methods: Psychotropic drug utilization data and reports of APD-related seizures were collected in 89 psychiatric hospitals in Austria, Germany and Switzerland from the time period of 1993-2015. RESULTS: Out of 475,096 patients under surveillance, 320,383 patients were treated with APDs for the main indications of schizophrenic disorders, mood disorders and organic disorders...
July 30, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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