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World Journal of Biological Psychiatry

Johann Steiner, Harald Prüss, Stephan Köhler, Thomas Frodl, Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite intensive research, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders continue to be theoretical constructs that describe clinical syndromes and no pathophysiologically defined diseases. Moreover, there are no clear biomarkers at hand. Therefore, these diagnoses are still set up based on clinical ICD-10 / DSM-5 criteria and the exclusion of alcohol- / drug-associated, systemic or other brain organic causes. METHODS: Recently, autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as rare, but potentially treatable differential diagnosis...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Brian Dean, Andrew Tsatsanis, Linh Q Lam, Elizabeth Scarr, James A Duce
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether a breakdown in proteins regulating cortical iron homeostasis could be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. METHODS: Levels of select proteins responsible for cortical iron transport were quantitated by Western blotting of Brodmann's (BA) areas 6 and 10 from patients with major depressive disorder (n = 13), bipolar disorder (n = 12) and age/sex matched controls (n = 13). RESULTS: We found the inactive form of ceruloplasmin was lower in BA 6 from males compared to females...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Natasa Djordjevic, Branimir Radmanovic, Jelena Cukic, Dejan Baskic, Slavica Djukic-Dejanovic, Dragan Milovanovic, Eleni Aklillu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking and heavy coffee consumption on efficacy and safety of olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia patients, in relation to genetic polymorphism. METHODS: The study involved 120 patients with schizophrenia, treated with olanzapine for 30 days. Therapy efficacy was determined using three different psychiatric scales, and safety by assessing metabolic adverse effects and extrapyramidal symptoms. Genotyping included CYP1A2*1C, CYP1A2*1F and CYP1A1/1A2 intergenic polymorphism, as well as CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*6...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Andrew Gibbons, Laura Bell, Madhara Udawela, Brian Dean
OBJECTIVE: ATPase Type 13A4 (ATP13A4) is a cation-transporting, P5 -type ATPase that has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. Our recent microarray study reported a significant increase in ATP13A4 mRNA levels in Brodmann's Area (BA) 9 in subjects with schizophrenia compared to controls. Following this discovery we have sought to determine whether ATP13A4 expression was altered in other regions of the CNS that are affected in schizophrenia. METHODS: Quantitative PCR was used to measure the levels of ATP13A4 in BA 44 and BA 8, collected post-mortem, from 30 subjects with schizophrenia and 30 non-psychiatric control subjects...
December 3, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Ruijie Geng, Zezhi Li, Shunying Yu, Chengmei Yuan, Wu Hong, Zuowei Wang, Qingzhong Wang, Zhenghui Yi, Yiru Fang
OBJECTIVES: The identification of the potential molecule targets for subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) is critical for improving the effective clinical treatment on the mental illness. In the current study, we mined the genome-wide expression profiling and investigated the novel biological pathways associated with SSD. METHODS: Expression of the DEG were analyzed with microarrays of blood tissue cohort of 8 SSD patients and 8 healthy subjects. The gene co - expression is calculated by WGCNA, a R package software...
November 29, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Eric Hollander, Genoveva Uzunova, Bonnie P Taylor, Rachel Noone, Emma Racine, Ellen Doernberg, Katherine Freeman, Casara Jean Ferretti
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory mechanisms are implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and use of the immunomodulator Trichuris suis Ova (TSO) is a novel treatment approach. This pilot study determined the effect sizes for TSO versus placebo on repetitive behaviours, irritability and global functioning in adults with ASD. METHODS: A 28-week double-blind, randomised two-period crossover study of TSO versus placebo in ten ASD adults, aged 17-35, was completed, with a 4-week washout between each 12-week period at Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine...
November 16, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Georg S Kranz, Jack J Q Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Hagit Cohen, Joseph Zohar, Lior Carmi
OBJECTIVES: The therapeutic value of the antidepressant agomelatine in the aftermath of traumatic experience and early post-reminder has been questioned. Herein, agomelatine, its vehicle or melatonin agonist were administered either acutely 1 h post-stressor or repeatedly (7 days) after early post-reminder in a post-traumatic stress rat model (PSS) using the scent of predator urine. METHODS: Behavioural responses, and brain molecular and morphological changes were evaluated after each treatment procedure in PSS-exposed and unexposed rats...
November 1, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Johnathan Pierson, Rajashekar Reddy Yeruva, Rif S El-Mallakh
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that has been purported to be causally related to in utero infection of neurotropic organisms. For obvious ethical reasons, this hypothesis has never been tested prospectively in humans. However, with the recent introduction of Zika virus into the New World offers the opportunity to test the hypothesis of infection in schizophrenia. METHODS: This is a directed review examining the hypothesis. The literature relevant to Zika virus transmission in the New World, its biology and neurotropy is reviewed...
October 29, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
L García-Álvarez, M P García-Portilla, J R Caso, L de la Fuente-Tomás, L González-Blanco, P Sáiz Martínez, J C Leza, J Bobes
OBJECTIVES: To identify the psychopathological, cognitive, functional, physical health and inflammatory markers that differentiate between early-stage schizophrenia (ESSCH) and late-stage schizophrenia (LSSCH). METHODS: Cross-sectional, naturalistic study of 104 patients with SCH. The sample was divided in two groups: 35 ESSCH (≤7 years' duration of illness) and 69 LSSCH (>10 years' duration of illness). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: chi-square test and Student's t-test and ANCOVA (or Quade test) controlling for age, sex, BMI and number of cigarettes/day...
October 8, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
W Königschulte, C Civai, P Hildebrand, T J Gaber, G R Fink, F D Zepf
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects of acute phenylalanine-tyrosine depletion (APTD) and acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) on bimodal divided attention. A balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) served as control condition. METHODS: 54 healthy adults (age: M = 23.8 years) were randomly assigned to APTD, ATD or BAL in a double-blind, between-subject approach. Divided attention was assessed after 4 hours. Blood samples were taken before and 6 hours after challenge intake...
October 8, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Agnieszka Slopien, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Filip Rybakowski
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic illness where restriction of food intake results in decreased adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of adiponectin and resistin in acute and partially weight-recovered anorectic inpatients. The associations of their levels with eating disorder symptoms were also assessed. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on 76 adolescent patients (ANG) and 30 age-matched healthy girls (CG)...
September 28, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Lindsay Melhuish Beaupre, Gregory M Brown, James L Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are a common symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Sleep is highly regulated by circadian rhythms, controlled by circadian genes, that act through a series of feedback loops to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. OBJECTIVES: To the best of our knowledge, a systematic review regarding the core circadian genes and their role in MDD has not been published recently. Also, a review of these genes and their role in sleep disturbances in depressed individuals appears to have never been done...
September 26, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Karl Rickels, Hans Juergen Moeller
IMPORTANCE: Benzodiazepines (BZs) are still widely prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders despite many publications in the literature which favour antidepressants (ADs) instead. What is the evidence? OBSERVATIONS: Treatment guidelines favour ADs over BZs for treatment of anxiety disorders without any head-to-head comparison of both drug groups with placebo. BZs are claimed to cause less efficacy and more safety issues than ADs, yet ADs also cause disturbing adverse events and, similar to BZs, discontinuation symptoms...
September 25, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Arif Khan, Kaysee Fahl Mar, Sagarika Gokul, Walter A Brown
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the mortality rates associated with psychiatric conditions like depression and schizophrenia compared with chronic medical conditions like hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: Examined clinical trial safety data from New Drug Approval programmes reviewed by the US Food and Drug Administration and calculated all-cause and suicide/non-suicide mortality rates per 100,000 patient-exposure-years (PEY) for seven diabetes, 12 hypertension, 11 depression, and nine schizophrenia programmes (126,151 patients, 63,106...
September 24, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Julian Koenig, Veronica Thaler, Peter Parzer, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
OBJECTIVES: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is associated with altered physiological reactivity to psychosocial stress. Findings from a previous study on alterations of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, indexed by differences in hair hormone levels (i.e., cortisol) in IGD patients compared to matched controls, were limited by a small sample size. METHODS: Following the protocol of the previous study, male patients with IGD (n = 31) and controls (n = 31) matched for age, educational status and smoking were recruited...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Maria Korman, Denise Palm, Adriana Uzoni, Frank Faltraco, Oliver Tucha, Johannes Thome, Andrew N Coogan
OBJECTIVES: The current paper addresses the evidence for circadian clock characteristics associated with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and possible therapeutic approaches based on chronomodulation through bright light therapy. METHODS: We review the data reported in ADHD on genetic risk factors for phase-delayed circadian rhythms and on the role of photic input in circadian re-alignment. RESULTS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes were recently associated with core ADHD symptoms, increased evening-orientation and frequent sleep problems...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Martina Platzer, Frederike T Fellendorf, Susanne A Bengesser, Armin Birner, Nina Dalkner, Carlo Hamm, Riccarda Hartleb, Robert Queissner, René Pilz, Alexandra Rieger, Alexander Maget, Harald Mangge, Sieglinde Zelzer, Bernd Reininghaus, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Eva Z Reininghaus
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is often accompanied by medical comorbidities, which affect illness course and prognosis. Adipokines may not only be involved in the aetiopathogenetic mechanisms of these comorbidities; there might be an association between adipokines and the neuropsychiatric core features of BD such as mood disturbances and cognitive deficits. METHODS: In this investigation, fasting blood samples from 120 individuals with BD (75 euthymic and 45 with mild depressive symptoms) and 68 control subjects were taken and adiponectin and leptin concentrations were analysed...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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