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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Aysenur Yazıcı, Serkan Ortucu, Mesut Taskin, Lisa Marinelli
As the resistance to antimicrobial molecules increases among bacteria, the need for new antimicrobial molecules increases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP), which may be a new generation of antibiotic candidates, are important in this respect. AMPs are small, cationic and amphipathic peptide sequences. In eukaryotes, they are synthesized as a part of the immune system. Substantially, AMPs are discovered all kingdoms of life such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Approximately 3,000 AMPs have been reported in the literature...
November 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Ashesh Nandy, Sumanta Dey, Proyasha Roy, Subhash C Basak
We briefly review the situations arising out of epidemics that erupt rather suddenly, threatening life and livelihoods of humans. Ebola, Zika and the Nipah virus outbreaks are recent examples where the viral epidemics have led to considerably high degree of fatalities or debilitating consequences. The problems are accentuated by a lack of drugs or vaccines against the new and emergent viruses, and the inordinate amount of temporal and financial resources that are required to combat the novel pathogen. Progress in computational...
November 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Satakshi Hazra, Sanjukta Patra
Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are communicable diseases caused by a group of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths prevalent in more than 145 countries that affect the world's poverty stricken populations. WHO enlists 18 NTDs amongst people living in endemic areas having inaccessibility to preventive measures. Steps to reduce the global disease burden of the NTDs need attention at multi-factorial levels. Control programmes, mass drug administrations, transmission checks, eradication surveillances and diagnoses are some of them...
November 6, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Samira Hosseini, Jacqueline Oliva-Ramírez, Patricia Vázquez-Villegas, Aida Rodríguez García, Rodrigo B Muñoz-Soto, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, Sergio O Martinez-Chapa
Current review article focuses on Dengue, which is one of the most fatal infectious illnesses and is considered to be a worldwide threat. The paper covers essential topics including an overview on neglected tropical diseases with specific emphasis on Dengue fever, mosquito's cycle of life and mechanism of infection, adaptive response, and different stages in Dengue immunopathogenesis. The current work is also dedicated to the thorough study of Dengue outbreak across the globe with narrowed study to tropical and subtropical regions...
November 5, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Lluvia Ríos-Soto, Claudia Avitia-Domínguez, Erick Sierra-Campos, Mónica Valdez-Solana, Jorge Cisneros-Martínez, Marcelo Gómez Palacio-Gastellum, Alfredo Téllez-Valencia
BACKGROUND: Nowadays Malaria is still one the most important and lethal diseases worldwide, causing 445,000 deaths in a year. Due to the actual treatment resistance, there is an emergency to find new drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to find potential inhibitors of phosphoglycerate mutase 1 from P. falciparum. RESULTS: Through virtual screening of a chemical library of 15,123 small molecules, analyzed by two programs, four potential inhibitors of phosphoglycerate mutase 1 from P...
October 29, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson
Despite being one of the most commonly used drugs, the molecular mechanism of action of the anthelmintic praziquantel remains unknown. There are some unusual features of this drug. Critically, widespread resistance to praziquantel has not developed despite decades of use. Here we set out some challenges in praziquantel research and propose some provocative hypotheses to address these. We suggest that praziquantel may have multiple pharmacologically relevant targets and the effects on these may synergise to produce an overall, detrimental effect on the parasite...
October 29, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Carolina Catta Preta Costa, Nubia Boechat, Monica M Bastos, Fernando de C da Silva, Andressa Marttorelli, Thiago Moreno L Souza, Mayara S Baptista, Lucas Villas Boas Hoelz, Ernesto Raúl Cafffarenad
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is still one of the most significant challenges facing humanity. Worldwide, it is estimated that 36.7 million people are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite the variety of available drugs, the search for new enzymatic inhibitors of HIV is still important due to the presence of adverse effects and the development of resistant strains. Therefore, the present study aimed to design, synthesize, and biologically evaluate novel inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT)...
October 29, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Sharanya Sarkar, Khushboo Gulati, Manikyaprabhu Kairamkonda, Amit Mishra, Krishna Mohan Poluri
BACKGROUND: To carry out wide range of cellular functionalities, proteins often associate with one or more proteins in a phenomenon known as Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI). Experimental and computational approaches were applied on PPIs in order to determine the interacting partners, and also to understand how an abnormality in such interactions can become the principle cause of a disease. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to elucidate the case studies where PPIs involved in various human diseases have been proven or validated with computational techniques, and also to elucidate how small molecule inhibitors of PPIs have been designed computationally to act as effective therapeutic measures against certain diseases...
October 25, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Ahmad Abu Turab Naqvi, Taj Mohammad, Gulam Mustafa Hasan, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
Protein-ligand interaction is an imperative subject in structure-based drug design and protein function prediction process. Molecular docking is a computational method which predicts the binding of a ligand molecule to the particular receptor. It predicts the binding pose, strength and binding affinity of the molecules using various scoring functions. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, these two methods are widely used in combination to predict the binding modes, binding affinities and stability of different protein-ligand systems...
October 25, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Sneha Rai, Utkarsh Raj, Pritish Kumar Varadwaj
The conventional way of characterizing a disease consists of correlating clinical symptoms with pathological findings. Although, this approach for many years has assisted clinicians in establishing syndromic patterns for pathophenotypes, it has major limitations as it does not consider preclinical disease states and is unable to individualize medicine. Moreover, the complexity of disease biology is the major challenge in development of effective and safe medicines. Therefore, the process of drug development must consider biological responses in both pathological and physiological conditions...
October 25, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Brijesh Singh Yadav, Vijay Tripathi
The enormous quantity of publicly available active chemical ligand and biological receptor data knowledge allows scientists to retreat several open question by the analysis and systematic integration of these complex unique data. Systems biology play crucial role through the constructive alignment of bio-physiochemical monitoring of gene, protein along with metabolites from the complex data. Further it integrated information within the data and responses (metabolic and signaling pathway) which lead to formulation of computational models for the elucidation of structure and function of molecular determinant...
October 25, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Luciana Scotti, Marcusid Tullius Scotti, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Alex France Messias Monteiro, Jessika de Oliveira Viana, Derli Ranieri Costa Dantzger, Hamilton Mitsugu Ishik
Dengue like any neglected tropical disease affects a large part of the world population. In this disease, the infection is caused by arboviruses transmitted by the A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquito, in which it most severe manifestation is known as dengue hemorrhagic fever. The infected person presents symptoms characteristic of such as fever and rash. Among the ways of fighting dengue by bioactives is the inhibition of NS2B-NS3 protease, inhibition of protein E, and inhibition of sclerotization of the vector cuticle...
October 25, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Momin Khan, Akhtar Nadhman, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Sami Siraj, Muhammad Masoom Yasinzai
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, which is classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDS) faces several challenges in terms of successful chemotherapy and novel drug developments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop a Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for the hydrophobic polyphenol pigment curcumin to enable it for its potential use in cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Two Curcumin-loaded formulations SNEDD-A and B, were developed...
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Murali Aarthy, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, a major public health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical countries caused by the infection of Dengue virus transmitted by the anthropod vectors. The dengue virus infection is represented as the "Neglected Tropical Diseases" by the world health organization. The structural protein E binds to the receptor on the host cell surface during infection and the binding directs to the endocytic pathway. The conformational change of the envelope protein helps in fusing of the viral lipid membrane and delivers the viral genome into the cytosol...
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Muhammad Aamir, Asma Sadaf, Sehroon Khan, Shagufta Perveen, Afsar Khan
Many of the tropical diseases are neglected by the researchers and medicinal companies due to lack of profit and other interests. The Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi) is established to overcome the problems associated with these neglected diseases. According to a report published by WHO, leprosy (Hansen's disease) is also a neglected infectious disease. A negligible amount of advancements has been made in last few decades which includes the tools of diagnosis, causes, treatment, and genetic studies of the bacterium (Mycobacterium leprae) that causes leprosy...
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Aida Pitarch, Cesar Nombela, Concha Gil
Invasive candidiasis (IC) poses a major public health problem worldwide. Despite the introduction of new antifungal agents and changes in clinical practices, its morbidity and mortality rates and healthcare costs remain persistently high. This is mainly because of the serious underlying conditions of infected patients (critically ill or severely immunocompromised patients) and the difficulties encountered in early diagnosing this opportunistic mycosis and initiating prompt and appropriate antifungal therapy...
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
M Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Cristina Galiana-Rosello, Aikaterini Lalatsa, Dolores R Serrano
One of the main objectives of the WHO is controlling transmission of parasitic protozoavector-bornediseases. A quick and precise diagnosis is critical in selecting the optimal therapeutic regime that avoids unnecessary treatments and the emergence of resistance. Molecular assays based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) techniques are a good alternative to light microscopy and antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests in developing countries, since they allow for a large amount of genetic material generated from a few copies of DNA, and use primers that lead to high sensitivity and specificity, while the amplification process can be performed in isothermal conditions without the need of sophisticated equipment to interpret the results...
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Anna Maria Giuliodori, Roberto Spurio, Pohl Milon, Attilio Fabbretti
The use of antibiotics has revolutionized medicine, greatly improving our capacity to save millions of lives from otherwise deadly bacterial infections. Unfortunately, the health-associated benefits provided by antibiotics has been counteracted by bacteria developing or acquiring resistance mechanisms. The negative impact to public health is now considered of high risk due to the rapid spreading of multi-resistant strains. More than 60 % of clinically relevant antibiotics of natural origin target the ribosome, the supramolecular enzyme which translates the genetic information into proteins...
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Serena Fiorito, Francesco Epifano, Vito Alessandro Taddeo, Salvatore Genovese, Francesca Preziuso
O-Prenylphenylpropanoids represent a group of rare natural products. During the last twenty years such phytochemicals have been revealed to possess a great pharmacological potential. These compounds have been obtained for the most part from plant species of the Rutaceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae families, as well as from fungi and bacteria. In this review we wish to detail the state of the art about O-prenylphenylpropanoids having in vitro and in vivo anti-microbial properties from different points of view. The herein cited natural products are effective in inhibiting the virulence of human oral pathogens...
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Michele Ciulla, Antonio Di Stefano, Lisa Marinelli, Ivana Cacciatore, Giuseppe Di Biase
S. aureus under biofilm mode of growth is often related to several nosocomial infections, more frequently associated with indwelling medical devices (catheters, prostheses, portacaths or heart valves). As a biofilm, the biopolymer matrix provides an excellent growth medium, increasing the tolerance to antibiotics and host immune system. To date, the antimicrobial therapy alone is not effective. A novel strategy to prevent biofilm formation is based on the interference with the bacterial cell-cell communication, a process known as quorum sensing (QS) and mediated by the RNA-III-activating peptide (RAP) and its target protein TRAP (Target of RAP)...
October 22, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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