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Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233156/chikungunya-infection-a-global-public-health-menace
#1
REVIEW
A J Mathew, A Ganapati, J Kabeerdoss, A Nair, N Gupta, P Chebbi, S K Mandal, Debashish Danda
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been involved in epidemics in African and Asian subcontinents and, of late, has transcended to affect the Americas. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the major vectors for CHIKV infection, which results in dissemination of virus to various vital organs. Entry of virus into these tissues causes infiltration of innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and adaptive immune cells. Macrophages bearing the replicating virus, in turn, secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-17...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233155/contemporary-use-of-corticosteroids-in-rhinology
#2
REVIEW
Alexander Karatzanis, Alkiviadis Chatzidakis, Athanasia Milioni, Stephan Vlaminck, Hideyuki Kawauchi, Stylianos Velegrakis, Emmanuel Prokopakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exogenously administered corticosteroids are widely used today in the field of rhinology. Allergic rhinitis (AR), non-allergic rhinitis (NAR), acute rhinosinusitis (ARS), chronic rhinosinusitis with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps, and autoimmune disorders with nasal manifestations are common diseases treated effectively with intranasal and oral glucocorticoids. We focus on physiological pathways, therapeutic benefits, indications, contra-indications, and side effects of glucocorticoid utilization in the treatment of rhinologic disorders such as AR, NAR, ARS, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233154/alveolar-macrophages-in-allergic-asthma-the-forgotten-cell-awakes
#3
REVIEW
Christina Draijer, Marc Peters-Golden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of alveolar macrophages in innate immune responses has long been appreciated. Here, we review recent studies evaluating the participation of these cells in allergic inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: Immediately after allergen exposure, monocytes are rapidly recruited from the bloodstream and serve to promote acute inflammation. By contrast, resident alveolar macrophages play a predominantly suppressive role in an effort to restore homeostasis...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233153/phenotype-driven-therapeutics-in-severe-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Maria Theresa D Opina, Wendy C Moore
Inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of asthma treatment using a step-up approach with incremental dosing and additional controller medications in order to achieve symptom control and prevent exacerbations. While most patients respond well to this treatment approach, some patients remain refractory despite high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and a long-acting β-agonist. The problem lies in the heterogeneity of severe asthma, which is further supported by the emergence of severe asthma phenotypes. This heterogeneity contributes to the variability in treatment response...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233152/effects-of-allergic-sensitization-on-antiviral-immunity-allergen-virus-and-host-cell-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Regina K Rowe, Michelle A Gill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrate links between allergic sensitization and virus-induced atopic disease exacerbations. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding allergen, viral, and host cellular mechanisms relevant to these observations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have focused on the molecular pathways and genetic influences involved in allergen-mediated inhibition of innate antiviral immune responses. Multiple tissue and cell types from atopic individuals across the atopy spectrum exhibit deficient interferon responses to a variety of virus infections...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224342/galactose-%C3%AE-1-3-galactose-atypical-food-allergen-or-model-ige-hypersensitivity
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Wilson, Alexander J Schuyler, Nikhila Schroeder, Thomas A E Platts-Mills
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) is a carbohydrate allergen with several unique characteristics. In this article, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of the 'alpha-gal syndrome,' highlight data supporting the role of ticks in pathogenesis, and speculate on immune mechanisms that lead to sensitization. RECENT FINDINGS: First described as the target of IgE in individuals suffering immediate hypersensitivity reactions to the novel anti-EGF monoclonal antibody cetuximab, it is now clear that α-gal sensitization is associated with mammalian meat allergy as well as reactions to other mammalian products...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#7
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185161/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-i-immune-components-and-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Anna R Smith, George Knaysi, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Defects in skin barrier function in infancy set the stage for the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergy. Both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to damage of the stratum corneum (SC), with activation of specific protease enzymes under high pH conditions playing a key role. Immune cells and mediators in the dermis and epidermis impair SC repair mechanisms and support allergy development...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181152/airway-disease-in-rescue-recovery-workers-recent-findings-from-the-world-trade-center-collapse
#9
REVIEW
Krystal L Cleven, Mayris P Webber, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Kerry M Hena, David J Prezant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our goal is to summarize the airway disease literature since September 11, 2001 (9/11), focusing on studies published since 2011 in World Trade Center-exposed rescue/recovery workers. RECENT FINDINGS: Since 2011, studies have confirmed relationships between initial World Trade Center exposure intensity, severity of symptoms, airway disease diagnoses, and biomarkers of disease progression. Studies continue to document ongoing morbidity in rescue/recovery workers over 10 years after 9/11...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181151/update-on-potential-therapies-for-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#10
REVIEW
Andrew MacGinnite
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergy is common, affecting up to 8% of children in the USA. Currently, therapy is limited to avoidance of the implicated allergen and availability of self-injectable epinephrine. However, several new approaches to food allergy are under investigation. This article reviews the published data on these new approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Oral immunotherapy, in which allergic subjects are exposed to increasing amounts of antigen, can be accomplished in the majority of allergic individuals...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116637/adoptive-t-cell-immunotherapy-for-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Lauren P McLaughlin, Catherine M Bollard, Michael Keller
Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are a group of inborn errors of immunity with a broad range of clinical severity but often associated with recurrent and serious infections. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be curative for some forms of PID, chronic and/or refractory viral infections remain a cause of morbidity and mortality both before and after HSCT. Although antiviral pharmacologic agents exist for many viral pathogens, these are associated with significant costs and toxicities and may not be effective for increasingly drug-resistant pathogens...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097500/update-on-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#12
REVIEW
Katharine M Woessner
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an acquired disease characterized by chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation with underlying dysregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology including the role of eosinophils, mast cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), and platelets. Clinical features such as respiratory reactions induced by alcohol, aggressive nasal polyposis, and anosmia will allow for earlier recognition of these patients in clinical practice...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091866/review-of-diagnostic-challenges-in-occupational-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Jacques A Pralong, Andre Cartier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the most frequent occupational diseases and its diagnosis is often difficult. This review summarizes its current diagnostic challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: OA is associated with significant health and socio-economic burden. It is underdiagnosed and physicians need to adopt a stepwise approach to confirm the diagnosis. Although early removal from exposure to the offending agent is associated with a better prognosis, physicians should try to confirm the diagnosis of work-related asthma before taking a worker off work...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957697/benefit-of-slit-and-scit-for-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Diego Bagnasco
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use since more than one century, when Leonard Noon experimentally proved its efficacy in hayfever (Noon, in Lancet 1:1572-3, 1911). Since then, AIT was administered only as subcutaneous injections (SCIT) until the sublingual route (SLIT) was proposed in 1986. The use of SLIT was proposed following several surveys from the USA and UK that repeatedly reported fatalities due to SCIT (Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 75(1): 166, 1985; Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 660-77, 1985; Committee on the safety of medicines...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943047/epigenetic-changes-during-food-specific-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Bryan J Bunning, Rosemarie H DeKruyff, Kari C Nadeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence and severity of IgE-mediated food allergy has increased dramatically over the last 15 years and is becoming a global health problem. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that epigenetic modifications of the genome resulting from gene-environment interactions have a key role in the increased prevalence of atopic disease. In this review, we describe the recent evidence suggesting how epigenetic changes mediate susceptibility to food allergies, and discuss how immunotherapy (IT) may reverse these effects...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943046/fungal-exposure-and-asthma-ige-and-non-ige-mediated-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Zhonghua Zhang, Tiina Reponen, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey
Fungi are ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor environments and have been associated with respiratory disease including childhood and adult asthma. A growing body of evidence from human and animal studies has revealed a link between fungal exposure, especially indoor fungal exposure, with asthma initiation, persistence, and exacerbation. Despite the overwhelming evidence linking mold exposure and asthma, the mechanistic basis for the association has remained elusive. It is now clear that fungi need not be intact to impart negative health effects...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878551/interactions-of-gst-polymorphisms-in-air-pollution-exposure-and-respiratory-diseases-and-allergies
#17
REVIEW
Gayan Bowatte, Caroline J Lodge, Jennifer L Perret, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence from recently published original studies investigating how glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms modify the impact of air pollution on asthma, allergic diseases, and lung function. RECENT FINDINGS: Current studies in epidemiological and controlled human experiments found evidence to suggest that GSTs modify the impact of air pollution exposure on respiratory diseases and allergies...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873194/lupin-and-other-potentially-cross-reactive-allergens-in-peanut-allergy
#18
REVIEW
Maurizio Mennini, Lamia Dahdah, Oscar Mazzina, Alessandro Fiocchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of IgE cross-reactivity between peanut allergens and allergens from other legumes and tree nuts has been demonstrated, but the identification of the involved individual allergens is still limited. The aim of this review is to describe new allergenic findings, of potential relevance for cross-reactivity among peanut and lupin. RECENT FINDINGS: Seventeen allergens of peanut have been included in the official allergen nomenclature database to date...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873193/childcare-and-school-management-issues-in-food-allergy
#19
REVIEW
Angela Tsuang, Julie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to characterize food allergy management and anaphylaxis in schools and assess current policies and level of preparedness of schools to recognize and treat anaphylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: An increasing number of school-aged children have food allergies, and studies show that a significant number of school children with no known history of allergies will experience their first anaphylactic reaction at school. Stock-unassigned epinephrine auto-injectors are recommended in schools but not mandatory in most states, and therefore, epinephrine is not always available...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864812/how-in-vitro-assays-contribute-to-allergy-diagnosis
#20
REVIEW
Anne Casset, Naji Khayath, Frédéric de Blay
Diagnosis of allergic disorders is based upon the clinical history of the disease, the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody response, and the allergen exposure. During the last decade, many changes have occurred in the in vitro diagnostic tests used in daily practice. The most important one is the use of allergenic molecules, which helps to define severe profile of allergy and/or to better understand cross-reactivity. The correlation between IgE sensitization and bronchial or nasal response in provocation tests is not so clear, which implies that such tests are still helpful in allergy diagnosis...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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