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Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653125/eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Melanie A Ruffner, Jonathan M Spergel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: EoE is a significant cause of gastrointestinal morbidity affecting 1:2000. Patients with EoE typically have multiple atopic comorbidities, and additionally, many patients with EoE can be controlled well with elimination diets. The purpose of this review is to summarize the care of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis patients. RECENT FINDINGS: EoE represents a distinct clinical syndrome which is characterized by esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation of the esophageal mucosa...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634900/review-of-physical-urticarias-and-testing-methods
#2
REVIEW
Mario Sánchez-Borges, Luis González-Aveledo, Fernan Caballero-Fonseca, Arnaldo Capriles-Hulett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to update the information available on the prevalence, clinical picture, diagnostic methods, and treatment of urticarias induced by external physical stimuli. RECENT FINDINGS: Physical urticarias are present in up to 5% of the general population, and in 10 to 50% of patients with chronic urticaria. Recent investigations have provided evidence that the presence of physical urticaria alone or when comorbid with chronic spontaneous urticaria is associated with a worse prognosis and duration...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634899/primary-prevention-of-food-allergy
#3
REVIEW
Rachel L Peters, Melanie R Neeland, Katrina J Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarises recent developments on the prevention of food allergy in terms of the 5 D's of the development of food allergy: dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble, and vitamin D. RECENT FINDINGS: While several advances have improved our understanding of the development of food allergy, few preventive strategies have been implemented beyond changes in infant feeding guidelines. These now state that the introduction of allergenic solids such as peanuts should occur in the first year of life...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634898/role-of-obesity-in-asthma-mechanisms-and-management-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Hayley A Scott, Lisa G Wood, Peter G Gibson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a commonly reported comorbidity in asthma, particularly in severe asthma. Obese asthmatics are highly symptomatic with a poor quality of life, despite using high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. While the clinical manifestations have been documented, the aetiologies of obese-asthma remain unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: Several potential mechanisms have been proposed, including poor diet quality, physical inactivity and consequent accrual of excess adipose tissue...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623535/nanotechnologies-for-in-vitro-ige-testing
#5
REVIEW
Iwan Märki, Fabien Rebeaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the recent advances in the development of IgE antibody assays based on nanotechnologies. IgE blood testing is an important part of the diagnostic workup of IgE-mediated hypersentivity. We also address the challenges in moving from an academic proof-of-concept to a product routinely used by allergy experts. RECENT FINDINGS: Several nanotechnologies have been applied to the field of IgE testing: nanoparticles are used either as a support to capture analytes or as a detection tool to enhance the measurement signal...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623534/acquired-immunity-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#6
REVIEW
Bruce K Tan, Jin-Young Min, Kathryn E Hulse
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent disease that is associated with significant costs and quality of life impairments. Currently, patients are classified into subgroups based on clinical characteristics, most often the presence or absence of nasal polyps. However, despite medical and surgical treatment, many of these patients continue to have symptoms. Recent efforts have focused on gaining a more complete understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms that drive pathogenesis in CRS, and it is becoming clear that the inflammatory processes in CRS are quite complex...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616717/patient-and-public-outreach-initiatives-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-from-the-canadian-sinusitis-working-group-support-for-affected-patients-and-extending-an-understanding-of-crs-to-the-general-public
#7
REVIEW
Smriti Nayan, Shaun Kilty, Helen Buckie Lloyd, Martin Desrosiers
Chronic rhinosinusitis is an important disease entity that affects patients worldwide, yet there is limited public awareness regarding the disease. The Canadian Rhinosinusitis Working Group, a group of diverse medical professionals, has made a multitude of efforts to help improve the health literacy of patients and important stakeholders, as well as the quality of life of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This review will aim to outline these initiatives.
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602009/update-on-intranasal-medications-in-rhinosinusitis
#8
REVIEW
Kornkiat Snidvongs, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich
This review describes beneficial effects and adverse events of various intranasal medications in treating rhinosinusitis. Application of intranasal steroids has been described in treating all subtypes of adult rhinosinusitis, but reports are limited in pediatrics and mostly in acute pediatric subgroups resulted in benefits While saline irrigation is effective for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps and in pediatric acute rhinosinusitis, there is no evidence yet for saline drips and sprays. Application of intranasal antifungals and nasal irrigation with surfactant brings more harm than benefits...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597347/contribution-of-molecular-allergen-analysis-in-diagnosis-of-milk-allergy
#9
REVIEW
Zbigniew Bartuzi, Renata Rodrigues Cocco, Antonella Muraro, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to describe the available evidence supporting the utilization of the molecular allergen analysis (MAA) for diagnosis and management of cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). RECENT FINDINGS: Cow milk proteins are among the most common food allergens in IgE- and non-IgE-mediated food allergic disorders in children. Most individuals with CMPA are sensitized to both caseins and whey proteins. Caseins are more resistant to high temperatures compared to whey proteins...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589514/the-effect-of-breastfeeding-on-childhood-otitis-media
#10
REVIEW
Asbjørn Kørvel-Hanquist, B D Djurhuus, P Homøe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature regarding the association between breastfeeding and childhood otitis media (OM), with focus on the literature published within the past 5 years. The review comprises original articles and recent reviews. RECENT FINDINGS: The effect of a protective effect of breastfeeding on the risk of OM is still being discussed. Within the past 5 years, 6 reviews and 15 original articles have been published...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577270/hidden-causes-of-anaphylaxis
#11
REVIEW
Vivian C Nanagas, James L Baldwin, Keerthi R Karamched
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review important hidden causes of anaphylaxis in ingestants, non-ingestants, and uncommon settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple new and elusive causes of anaphylaxis have been described over the past 35 years. Further research is required to identify the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical impact of these hidden causes. Although these culprits should be considered in the appropriate clinical scenarios, many remain exceedingly rare...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555329/t-cells-in-allergic-asthma-key-players-beyond-the-th2-pathway
#12
REVIEW
Beatriz Leόn
Asthma is a common chronic lung disease that affects 300 million people worldwide. It causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow due to inflammation (swelling and excess mucus build-up in the airways) and airway constriction (tightening of the muscles surrounding the airways). Atopic asthma is the most common form of asthma, and is triggered by inhaled allergens that ultimately promote the activation of the Th2-like T cells and the development of Th2-mediated chronic inflammation. Different subsets of T cells, including T follicular helper cells, tissue-resident T, cells and Th2 effector cells, play different functions during allergic immune response...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555328/evolving-concepts-in-atopic-dermatitis
#13
REVIEW
Robert Sidbury, Kate Khorsand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tremendous advances have been made in the field of atopic dermatitis in the past 5 years. We will explore developments in burden of disease, co-morbidities, pathogenesis, prevention, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The tremendous burden moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) places on families from a medical, psychosocial, and financial perspective has been characterized. Epidemiologic studies have identified intriguing new associations beyond the well-characterized "atopic march" of food allergies, asthma, and hay fever...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551888/effects-of-long-term-exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-on-lung-function-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Erica S Schultz, Augusto A Litonjua, Erik Melén
Lung function in early life has been shown to be an important predictor for peak lung function in adults and later decline. Reduced lung function per se is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. With this review, we aim to summarize the current epidemiological evidence on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on lung function in children and adolescents. We focus in particular on time windows of exposure, small airway involvement, and vulnerable sub-groups in the population. Findings from studies published to date support the notion that exposure over the entire childhood age range seems to be of importance for lung function development...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540641/evaluation-of-penicillin-allergy-in-the-hospitalized-patient-opportunities-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#15
REVIEW
Justin R Chen, David A Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Penicillin allergy is often misdiagnosed and is associated with adverse consequences, but testing is infrequently done in the hospital setting. This article reviews historical and contemporary innovations in inpatient penicillin allergy testing and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship. RECENT FINDINGS: Adoption of the electronic medical record allows rapid identification of admitted patients carrying a penicillin allergy diagnosis. Collaboration with clinical pharmacists and the development of computerized clinical guidelines facilitates increased testing and appropriate use of penicillin and related β-lactams...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516366/patient-centered-outcomes-in-food-allergy
#16
REVIEW
Brooke I Polk, Chitra Dinakar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergy prevalence is increasing very rapidly, causing a significant disease burden. The threat of severe allergic reactions occurring unexpectedly and in settings that are not equipped to recognize and treat anaphylaxis is a constant source of worry for individuals and families with food allergies. Inadequate knowledge and understanding in the community significantly impairs the overall quality of life of these individuals and families. Additionally, families face challenges in finding and affording appropriate allergen-free foods...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501976/component-resolved-diagnosis-in-hymenoptera-anaphylaxis
#17
REVIEW
D Tomsitz, K Brockow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484946/rural-asthma-current-understanding-of-prevalence-patterns-and-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Robin Dawson Estrada, Dennis R Ownby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is the most common chronic illness of children and adolescents in the USA. While asthma has been understood to disproportionately affect urban dwellers, recent investigations have revealed rural pediatric asthma prevalence to be very similar to urban and to be more closely correlated with socioeconomic and environmental factors than geographic location or population density. RECENT FINDINGS: Rural children experience factors unique to location that impact asthma development and outcomes, including housing quality, cigarette smoke exposure, and small/large-scale farming...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477263/photodermatitis-for-the-allergist
#19
REVIEW
Samuel L Coffin, Jake E Turrentine, Ponciano D Cruz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The photodermatoses represent a group of disorders of sensitivity to light that continue to pose difficulties in diagnosis and management. Photodermatoses are of interest to allergists because many photosensitive skin disorders have immunologic underpinnings, and patients often present to clinic complaining of "allergy" to the sun. We provide a concise reference for allergists on the clinical recognition and management of photodermatitis. RECENT FINDINGS: New developments in the understanding of immunomodulatory effects of light have demonstrated normally immunosuppressive responses in the skin to light exposure, and a blunted immunosuppressive response in the pathogenesis of many photodermatoses...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470372/food-allergy-in-south-africa
#20
REVIEW
Claudia L Gray
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Whilst food allergy seems to have increased significantly in many developed countries in the past few decades, quality data on the burden of food allergy in many developing countries is scanty. Until recently, South Africa had a dearth of robustly designed food allergy studies. This article summarizes some of the recent research and observations regarding food allergy from the South African setting. RECENT FINDINGS: South Africa has recently seen two important food allergy prevalence studies in selected and unselected populations...
June 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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