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Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Wirach Chitsuthipakorn, Kachorn Seresirikachorn, Doron D Sommer, Tobial McHugh, Kornkiat Snidvongs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preliminary studies have suggested differences in endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) across ancestry/ethnic groups. Eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) is the predominant subtype for Western/European ancestry CRS patients and non-eosinophilic CRS (nECRS) for Asian patients. This review aims to re-analyze CRS endotypes across ancestry populations using one consistent criteria to existing data. RECENT FINDINGS: Although tissue eosinophilia is the most commonly used criterion for ECRS, various cut-off points are suggested...
July 11, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Amanda K Rudman Spergel, Michael Minnicozzi, Lisa M Wheatley, Alkis Togias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although evidence supports a beneficial effect of allergen immunotherapy on the symptoms of allergic respiratory disease and food allergy, it is not clear whether immunotherapy modifies the natural history of these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In aeroallergen immunotherapy, studies suggest that prevention of asthma can be attained. Less evident is the ability of immunotherapy to prevent new allergen sensitizations and more studies are needed to test whether immunotherapy can continue suppressing airway symptoms after treatment discontinuation...
July 11, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
August Generoso, Christine Muglia-Chopra, John Oppenheimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The profile of biologic therapies for asthma is growing rapidly. We discuss how to match the proper pediatric patient with the most effective therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently available biologic therapies are most effective in patients with T2 high asthma. Newer drugs are currently being studied which target TSLP and interleukin 33. These newer drugs may provide options for asthmatics who do not respond to the current anti-IgE, anti-IL5, and anti-IL4/13 therapies...
July 10, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Brian Reed, William K Dolen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many genetic conditions predispose affected individuals to opportunistic infections. A number of immunodeficiency diseases, including genetic defects termed Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), permit infection from many different strains of mycobacteria that would otherwise not cause disease. These include tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria, and bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG). Patients may present with infections from other organisms that depend on macrophage function for containment...
June 23, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Maureen Egan, Dan Atkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Observations suggesting that aeroallergens trigger eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in a subset of patients raise questions about the implications this finding has on the evaluation and management of patients with EoE, including a potential role for allergen immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of studies evaluating the potential role of aeroallergens as provocateurs of EoE have addressed this issue by assessing the seasonal variation in EoE diagnosis and/or symptom onset or worsening, with mixed results...
June 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Concepció Marin, Dolores Vilas, Cristóbal Langdon, Isam Alobid, Mauricio López-Chacón, Antje Haehner, Thomas Hummel, Joaquim Mullol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sense of smell is today one of the focuses of interest in aging and neurodegenerative disease research. In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, the olfactory dysfunction is one of the initial symptoms appearing years before motor symptoms and cognitive decline, being considered a clinical marker of these diseases' early stages and a marker of disease progression and cognitive decline. Overall and under the umbrella of precision medicine, attention to olfactory function may help to improve chances of success for neuroprotective and disease-modifying therapeutic strategies...
June 15, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Christopher P Parrish, Heidi Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide an update of recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis, and management of food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA). RECENT FINDINGS: Food allergy prevalence and FIA rates continue to rise, but FIA fatalities are stable. Basophil and mast cell activation tests promise more accurate identification of food triggers. Oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy can desensitize a significant portion of subjects...
June 14, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
David L Leverenz, Christopher Henderson, Ankoor Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide the reader with an updated summary of the cutaneous manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis, with a particular emphasis on the predilection of sarcoidosis for scars, tattoos, and other areas of traumatized skin. RECENT FINDINGS: While the mechanism underlying the propensity for traumatized skin to develop sarcoidosis lesions remains unclear, several theories have been proposed including the idea that cutaneous sarcoidosis represents an exuberant, antigen-driven foreign-body response, as well as the theory that traumatized skin represents an immunocompromised district with altered local immune trafficking and neural signaling...
June 14, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Mirela Curin, Musa Khaitov, Alexander Karaulov, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Raffaela Campana, Victoria Garib, Rudolf Valenta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to discuss how allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) can be improved through molecular approaches. We provide a summary of next-generation molecular AIT approaches and of their clinical evaluation. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of next generation molecular AIT forms for the treatment of severe manifestations of allergy and mention possible future molecular strategies for the secondary and primary prevention of allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: AIT has important advantages over symptomatic forms of allergy treatment but its further development is limited by the quality of the therapeutic antigen preparations which are derived from natural allergen sources...
June 9, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Joshua M Dorn, Mollie Alpern, Caitlin McNulty, Gerald W Volcheck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to review past and current literature on sulfonamide drug allergy and distill it in a practical manner to assist the clinician, specifically focusing on cross-reactivity and desensitization. RECENT FINDINGS: There do not appear to be consistent genetic markers to reliably predict features of or the presence hypersensitivity reactions. Recent evidence continues to alleviate early concerns cross-reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and non-antibiotics...
June 6, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Jordan Heath, Larry Hartzell, Claire Putt, Joshua L Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disorder that carries significant morbidity. The diagnosis requires sinus symptoms that persist despite standard medical therapy greater than 3 months. Viral infections, allergies, and anatomic differences in children lead to chronic obstruction of the osteomeatal complex. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic rhinosinusitis as a diagnosis is a conglomeration of multiple phenotypes and endotypes. As such, the diagnosis and management are complex...
May 29, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
S Shahzad Mustafa, Mario Sánchez-Borges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic urticaria is a common dermatological condition that has significant impact on quality of life. Multiple international societies have published guidelines, and although these guidelines generally agree on the definition of urticaria, as well as approach to diagnosis and management, there have been notable differences to date. These differences have been reconciled by the recent publication of the 2017 revision and update published by the EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO...
May 24, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
John Routes, James Verbsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a brief history of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), discusses the theoretical basis for the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay, highlights the results of recent studies using the TREC, and provides practical advice for the evaluation of infants with an abnormal TREC assay. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, all but three states perform NBS for SCID in the USA. NBS using the TREC assay is highly sensitive in identifying infants with SCID and may also identify infants with T cell lymphopenia due to other causes such as congenital syndromes, multiple congenital anamolies, and some combined immunodeficiencies...
May 10, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Evie Huang, Peck Y Ong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood leads to significant morbidity including psychosocial problems and infectious complications. There are only a few approved treatment options for these patients. These include topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus ointment, which are associated with potential side effects. RECENT FINDINGS: In order to find better and safer treatments, further understanding of AD mechanisms is needed. Primary skin barrier defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD...
May 10, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Désirée E S Larenas-Linnemann, Claudio A S Parisi, Carla Ritchie, Ricardo Cardona-Villa, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda, Annia Cherrez, Luis Felipe Ensina, Elizabeth Garcia, Iris V Medina, Mónica Rodríguez-González, Jorge Mario Sánchez Caraballo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since omalizumab has been approved for urticaria, numerous randomized and real-life observational trials have been published. We reviewed the period January 2017-February 2018. RECENT FINDINGS: Omalizumab is effective for the control of urticaria recalcitrant to antihistamines in different populations globally. The ratio of total serum IgE 4-week/baseline ≥2 can predict response with a high likelihood. In observational real-life trials, doses have been adjusted on an individual basis: in some populations, up to two-thirds of the patients can be controlled with 150 mg/month; however, others are still not controlled with 300 mg/month...
May 9, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Chadi A Makary, Hassan H Ramadan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic sinus and upper airway disease in children is a common health problem encountered every day. Its pathophysiology is complicated which leads to different treatment options and approaches. We seek to review the current literature and evidence to surgical treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical treatment with antibiotics and topical nasal sprays continues to be the first-line treatment. Surgical interventions include adenoidectomy, balloon catheter sinuplasty (BCS), and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS)...
April 25, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Federica Porcaro, Giovanni Corsello, Giovanni Battista Pajno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The progression of atopic disorders from atopic dermatitis in infants to allergic rhinitis and asthma in children, adolescents, and adults defines the allergy march. Allergen immunotherapy is the only causal treatment altering the immunological mechanism underlying the allergic diseases. The sublingual administration route is more acceptable than the subcutaneous one in pediatric age. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies show the efficacy and safety profile of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for the treatment of respiratory allergy diseases, but few data are available on its effect of primary and secondary prevention of allergic disease...
April 21, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Tania E Velez, Paul J Bryce, Kathryn E Hulse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms...
April 17, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Anthony Nardone, Andreas M Neophytou, John Balmes, Neeta Thakur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given racial disparities in ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and asthma risk, this review offers an overview of the literature investigating the ambient air pollution-asthma relationship in children of color between 2013 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: AAP is likely a key contributor to the excess burden of asthma in children of color due to pervasive exposure before birth, at home, and in school. Recent findings suggest that psychosocial stressors may modify the relationship between AAP and asthma...
April 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Sheeba Cherian, Pooja Varshney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To increase understanding of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), a non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reaction to food, by reviewing a growing body of literature, including recently published international consensus guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: FPIES primarily affects infants and young children and is characterized by the delayed onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, predominantly repetitive vomiting, in response to a trigger food...
April 6, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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