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Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097500/update-on-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#1
REVIEW
Katharine M Woessner
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an acquired disease characterized by chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation with underlying dysregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology including the role of eosinophils, mast cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), and platelets. Clinical features such as respiratory reactions induced by alcohol, aggressive nasal polyposis, and anosmia will allow for earlier recognition of these patients in clinical practice...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091866/review-of-diagnostic-challenges-in-occupational-asthma
#2
REVIEW
Jacques A Pralong, Andre Cartier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the most frequent occupational diseases and its diagnosis is often difficult. This review summarizes its current diagnostic challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: OA is associated with significant health and socio-economic burden. It is underdiagnosed and physicians need to adopt a stepwise approach to confirm the diagnosis. Although early removal from exposure to the offending agent is associated with a better prognosis, physicians should try to confirm the diagnosis of work-related asthma before taking a worker off work...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957697/benefit-of-slit-and-scit-for-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Diego Bagnasco
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use since more than one century, when Leonard Noon experimentally proved its efficacy in hayfever (Noon, in Lancet 1:1572-3, 1911). Since then, AIT was administered only as subcutaneous injections (SCIT) until the sublingual route (SLIT) was proposed in 1986. The use of SLIT was proposed following several surveys from the USA and UK that repeatedly reported fatalities due to SCIT (Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 75(1): 166, 1985; Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 660-77, 1985; Committee on the safety of medicines...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943047/epigenetic-changes-during-food-specific-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Bryan J Bunning, Rosemarie H DeKruyff, Kari C Nadeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence and severity of IgE-mediated food allergy has increased dramatically over the last 15 years and is becoming a global health problem. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that epigenetic modifications of the genome resulting from gene-environment interactions have a key role in the increased prevalence of atopic disease. In this review, we describe the recent evidence suggesting how epigenetic changes mediate susceptibility to food allergies, and discuss how immunotherapy (IT) may reverse these effects...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943046/fungal-exposure-and-asthma-ige-and-non-ige-mediated-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Zhonghua Zhang, Tiina Reponen, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey
Fungi are ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor environments and have been associated with respiratory disease including childhood and adult asthma. A growing body of evidence from human and animal studies has revealed a link between fungal exposure, especially indoor fungal exposure, with asthma initiation, persistence, and exacerbation. Despite the overwhelming evidence linking mold exposure and asthma, the mechanistic basis for the association has remained elusive. It is now clear that fungi need not be intact to impart negative health effects...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878551/interactions-of-gst-polymorphisms-in-air-pollution-exposure-and-respiratory-diseases-and-allergies
#6
REVIEW
Gayan Bowatte, Caroline J Lodge, Jennifer L Perret, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence from recently published original studies investigating how glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms modify the impact of air pollution on asthma, allergic diseases, and lung function. RECENT FINDINGS: Current studies in epidemiological and controlled human experiments found evidence to suggest that GSTs modify the impact of air pollution exposure on respiratory diseases and allergies...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873194/lupin-and-other-potentially-cross-reactive-allergens-in-peanut-allergy
#7
REVIEW
Maurizio Mennini, Lamia Dahdah, Oscar Mazzina, Alessandro Fiocchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of IgE cross-reactivity between peanut allergens and allergens from other legumes and tree nuts has been demonstrated, but the identification of the involved individual allergens is still limited. The aim of this review is to describe new allergenic findings, of potential relevance for cross-reactivity among peanut and lupin. RECENT FINDINGS: Seventeen allergens of peanut have been included in the official allergen nomenclature database to date...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873193/childcare-and-school-management-issues-in-food-allergy
#8
REVIEW
Angela Tsuang, Julie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to characterize food allergy management and anaphylaxis in schools and assess current policies and level of preparedness of schools to recognize and treat anaphylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: An increasing number of school-aged children have food allergies, and studies show that a significant number of school children with no known history of allergies will experience their first anaphylactic reaction at school. Stock-unassigned epinephrine auto-injectors are recommended in schools but not mandatory in most states, and therefore, epinephrine is not always available...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864812/how-in-vitro-assays-contribute-to-allergy-diagnosis
#9
REVIEW
Anne Casset, Naji Khayath, Frédéric de Blay
Diagnosis of allergic disorders is based upon the clinical history of the disease, the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody response, and the allergen exposure. During the last decade, many changes have occurred in the in vitro diagnostic tests used in daily practice. The most important one is the use of allergenic molecules, which helps to define severe profile of allergy and/or to better understand cross-reactivity. The correlation between IgE sensitization and bronchial or nasal response in provocation tests is not so clear, which implies that such tests are still helpful in allergy diagnosis...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796796/the-reemergence-of-the-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-characterizing-a-syndrome-in-the-precision-medicine-era
#10
REVIEW
Stephanie A Christenson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has reemerged in the medical literature. This review addresses our current understanding of ACOS as a clinical and biological entity and how new and existing therapies may be targeted to this group. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies suggest that ACOS is common and associated with more morbidity than asthma and COPD in general. However, there is no consensus on an ACOS definition, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disease...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796795/interleukin-5-antagonists-usher-in-a-new-generation-of-asthma-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Matthew P Giannetti, Juan C Cardet
Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in the USA. A subset of patients with asthma have refractory symptoms, persistent eosinophilic inflammation, and recurrent exacerbations despite maximal medical therapy. The monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL-5 pathway are a new class of medications designed to target severe eosinophilic asthma. There are two medications clinically available: mepolizumab and reslizumab, both of which target IL-5. A third medication, benralizumab, is currently under development and targets the IL-5 receptor...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796794/immunoglobulin-glycosylation-effects-in-allergy-and-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra Epp, Kathryn C Sullivan, Andrew B Herr, Richard T Strait
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review will be to familiarize the reader with the general area of antibody (Ab) glycosylation and to summarize the known functional roles of glycosylation and how glycan structure can contribute to various disease states with emphasis on allergic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Both immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype and conserved Fc glycosylation sites often dictate the downstream activity of an Ab where complexity and degree of glycosylation contribute to its ability to bind Fc receptors (FcRs) and activate complement...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796793/immune-responses-in-rhinovirus-induced-asthma-exacerbations
#13
REVIEW
John W Steinke, Larry Borish
Acute asthma exacerbations are responsible for urgent care visits and hospitalizations; they interfere with school and work productivity, thereby driving much of the morbidity and mortality associated with asthma. Approximately 80 to 85 % of asthma exacerbations in children, adolescents, and less frequently adults are associated with viral upper respiratory tract viral infections, and rhinovirus (RV) accounts for ∼60-70 % of these virus-associated exacerbations. Evidence suggests that it is not the virus itself but the nature of the immune response to RV that drives this untoward response...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796792/occupational-respiratory-allergic-diseases-in-healthcare-workers
#14
REVIEW
Jacek M Mazurek, David N Weissman
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783318/what-role-does-allergy-play-in-chronic-ear-disease-and-laryngitis
#15
REVIEW
Michael P Platt, Christopher D Brook, Jacob Kuperstock, John H Krouse
IgE-mediated allergy plays a well-established role in both nasal and pulmonary diseases due to the common epithelium and shared mediator responses of the upper and lower airways. This "unified airway" concept has also been described in other sites within the head and neck that contain similar respiratory mucosa: the middle ear and the larynx. This review will highlight the data suggesting a role for IgE-mediated allergic disease in chronic laryngopharyngeal and middle ear disease and the role for allergy testing to aid in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771884/temporal-regulation-by-innate-type-2-cytokines-in-food-allergies
#16
Michelle T Graham, Sandra Andorf, Jonathan M Spergel, Talal A Chatila, Kari C Nadeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergies (FAs) are a growing epidemic in western countries with poorly defined etiology. Defined as an adverse immune response to common food allergens, FAs present heterogeneously as a single- or multi-organ response that ranges in severity from localized hives and angioedema to systemic anaphylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research focusing on epithelial-derived cytokines contends that temporal regulation by these factors impact initial sensitization and persistence of FA responses upon repeated food allergen exposure...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709456/leveraging-partnerships-families-schools-and-providers-working-together-to-improve-asthma-management
#17
Melanie Gleason, Lisa Cicutto, Christy Haas-Howard, Bridget M Raleigh, Stanley J Szefler
Asthma is one of the most common illnesses of school-aged children and can lead to both health and educational disparities. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and racial/ethnic minorities suffer the greatest impact. They often lack the asthma self-management skills to successfully monitor, navigate, and negotiate appropriate asthma care. School settings are a strategic point of contact for this additional support. School nurses can monitor for signs of asthma worsening, manage symptoms, provide care coordination, and reinforce self-management skills...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645534/dysregulation-of-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Marianne Forkel, Jenny Mjösberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review recent literature indicating a role of innate lymphoid cells in human inflammatory bowel disease with a focus on the plastic population of ILC3. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies suggest an involvement of ILC3 in human intestinal inflammation. ILC3 present the most abundant ILC subtype in the human intestine at steady state. In IBD, this composition is skewed towards ILCs showing an ILC1 phenotype and cytokine profile. This change is likely due to the microenvironment causing skewing of the functionally plastic ILC subsets...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613655/differentiating-acute-otitis-media-and-acute-mastoiditis-in-hospitalized-children
#19
REVIEW
Anu Laulajainen-Hongisto, Antti A Aarnisalo, Jussi Jero
Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613654/biomarkers-of-airway-type-2-inflammation-and-integrating-complex-phenotypes-to-endotypes-in-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Michael C Peters, Michelle-Linh T Nguyen, Eleanor M Dunican
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decade, the most important advance in the field of asthma has been the widespread recognition that asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by multiple molecular processes. RECENT FINDINGS: The most well-established molecular mechanism in asthma is increased airway type-2 inflammation, and consequently, non-invasive biomarkers of increased airway type-2 inflammation, such as blood eosinophil counts or blood periostin levels, have proven important in stratifying asthma patients in clinical trials of type-2 cytokine inhibitors...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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