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Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Caroline Y Kuo, Rebecca Signer, Sulagna C Saitta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the progress in identifying the range of immunological dysfunction seen in DiGeorge syndrome and on more recent diagnostic and treatment approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, the associated thymic hypoplasia/aplasia is well known and can have profound effects on T cell function. Further, the humoral arm of the immune system can be affected, with hypogammaglobulinemia and poor vaccine-specific antibody response...
October 30, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Amanda L Cox, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review incorporates findings from studies of oral food challenges (OFC) over the last decade and highlights the latest innovations and understanding of the procedure. RECENT FINDINGS: PRACTALL guidelines are widely used in OFC research, but there is still no international consensus on the OFC protocol in clinical practice. Guidelines for performing OFC in clinical practice have been updated to include oral food challenges for infants. There have been advances in predictive models for outcomes and severity of reaction during OFC that take into account multiple clinical data as well as newer laboratory modalities...
October 30, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Katharina Bastl, Maximilian Kmenta, Uwe E Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The definition of a pollen season determines the start and the end of the time period with a certain amount of pollen in the ambient air. Different pollen season definitions were used for a long time including the use of different terms for data and methods used to define a pollen season. Recently suggested pollen season definitions for clinical trials were tested and applied for the first time to more aeroallergens. RECENT FINDINGS: This is a review on pollen season definitions and the latest recommendations...
October 29, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Matthew P Giannetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper will review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of exercise-induced anaphylaxis and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis with an emphasis on novel studies published in the past several years. RECENT FINDINGS: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is a clinical syndrome characterized by anaphylaxis during or shortly after physical exertion. The syndrome is broadly grouped into two categories: exercise-induced anaphylaxis and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAn)...
October 26, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Martina Anzaghe, Stefan Schülke, Stephan Scheurer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Utilization of virus-like particles (VLPs) is considered to improve allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). AIT aims at the efficient uptake of the target allergen by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) subsequently inducing adaptive allergen-specific immune responses to induce tolerance. The purpose of this review is to describe the immune-modulating properties of VLPs per se and to summarize the application of VLPs as antigen carriers, preferably for Th2 cytokines or allergens, with and without simultaneous administration of adjuvants in order to modulate allergic immune responses...
October 25, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Margaretha A Faber, Ine I Decuyper, Athina L Van Gasse, Vito Sabato, Margo M Hagendorens, Didier G Ebo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Ana Margarida Pereira, Cristina Jácome, Rute Almeida, João Almeida Fonseca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence-based clinical diagnosis of allergic disorders is increasingly challenging. Clinical decision support systems implemented in mobile applications (apps) are being developed to assist clinicians in diagnostic decisions at the point of care. We reviewed apps for allergic diseases general diagnosis, diagnostic refinement and diagnostic personalisation. Apps designed for specific medical devices are not addressed. RECENT FINDINGS: Apps with potential usefulness in the initial diagnosis and diagnostic refinement of respiratory, food, skin and drug allergies are described...
October 25, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Rachel E Roditi, Jennifer J Shin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the relationship between otitis media, allergic rhinitis, and age. RECENT FINDINGS: Otitis media and allergic rhinitis are prevalent conditions with a controversial relationship. Some data suggest that these entities are significantly associated, either through allergic rhinitis inducing Eustachian tube dysfunction or through allergic pathophysiology simultaneously occurring intranasally and in the ear. Other studies, however, have refuted this relationship...
October 20, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Carmen Rondón, Ibon Eguíluz-Gracia, Mohamed H Shamji, Janice A Layhadi, María Salas, María José Torres, Paloma Campo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: IgE is a key player in multiple inflammatory airway diseases. Ample literature demonstrates its presence in mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), local allergic rhinitis (LAR), asthma, or chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence shows that high-affinity IgE in blood stream of allergic individuals derives mainly from the mucosae. Also, mucosal synthesis of IgE can occur in the absence of systemic atopy, and may be relevant in atopic and non-atopic phenotypes of rhinitis as demonstrated in LAR...
October 13, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Rodrigo Jiménez-Saiz, Sarita U Patil
While allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated diseases holds curative potential, the considerable heterogeneity in clinical outcomes may relate to the complex mechanisms of tolerance. The regulation of humoral immunity by AIT contributes to the suppression of allergic responses. Recent findings have revealed novel roles for IgA and IgG antibodies in the induction of tolerance. These mechanisms synergize with their ability to block allergen-IgE binding and mediate inhibitory signaling of effector cells of the allergic response...
October 5, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Tara M Nordgren, Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Agriculture environments contain a variety of inflammatory aerosols that may increase risk for lung inflammation and disease in exposed individuals. In addition, epidemiological studies have also identified protective effects of rural environments and farming exposures. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we will discuss recent literature published since 2016 that investigates the impact of differing agricultural exposures on respiratory health. Discussions include the impact of farming modernization, education, and personal protective equipment usage among workers, timing and duration in mediating lung health outcomes, and population studies investigating the association between exposure and risk for numerous lung diseases...
October 5, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Antonella Muraro, Stefania Arasi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To familiarize the reader with the concept of precision medicine in food allergy by dealing with the current biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Many efforts have been devoted in order to characterize reliable biomarkers able to identify specific phenotypes and endotypes in food allergy. Specific IgE (sIgE), sIgE/total IgE ratios, and T cell assays are just a few candidates that have been investigated over time...
October 3, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Seema Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergen is an umbrella term for irritants of diverse origin. Along with other offenders such as pathogens, mutagens, xenobiotics, and pollutants, allergens can be grouped as inflammatory agents. Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are altered metabolism products of necrotic or stressed cells, which are deemed as alarm signals by the innate immune system. Like inflammation, DAMPs play a role in correcting the altered physiological state, but in excess, they can be lethal due to their signal transduction roles...
September 28, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Brett J Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The evolution of molecular-based methods over the last two decades has provided new approaches to identify and characterize fungal communities or "mycobiomes" at resolutions previously not possible using traditional hazard identification methods. The recent focus on fungal community assemblages within indoor environments has provided renewed insight into overlooked sources of fungal exposure. In occupational studies, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing has recently been utilized in a variety of environments ranging from indoor office buildings to agricultural commodity and harvesting operations...
September 27, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Kathryn R Michels, Nicholas W Lukacs, Wendy Fonseca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergy and asthma are growing problems in the developed world. The accelerated increase of these diseases may be related to microbiome modification that leads to aberrant activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Current research supports the concept that changes in microbial communities in early life impact TLR activation, resulting in an altered risk for the development of asthma and allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: Prenatal and early childhood events that generate microbiome modification are closely related with TLR activation...
September 26, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
John Baker, Anthony Stanley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Telemedicine uses technology to connect patients with providers at a distance. While the clinical aspects of this have been reviewed extensively, the technical aspects are not as well understood by allergists when they consider adding telemedicine to their practice. This review focuses on the technical aspects of setting up a telemedicine program. RECENT FINDINGS: With the advent of new technologies including high-speed Internet, video conferencing solutions, and digital examination equipment, facilitated virtual visits as replacements for in-person visits are now possible...
September 26, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Charles S Barnes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A warming world will impact everyone and everything. The practice of allergic and respiratory disease will not be excepted. All the impacts will be impossible to anticipate. This review is intended to discuss significant factors related to individuals with allergic and respiratory disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings include the increased growth of allergenic plants in response to higher carbon dioxide levels and warmer temperatures. This also contributes to the increased production of pollen as well as the appearance of allergenic species in new climactic areas...
September 20, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Michele N Pham, Supinda Bunyavanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of allergic disease is shaped by genetics and the environment, including diet. Many studies suggest a role for maternal diet during pregnancy. In this article, we discuss potential mechanisms by which specific nutrients, particular foods, and dietary patterns may influence allergic disease development and review studies examining the relationship between prenatal diet and the risk of childhood allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: The combination of in utero exposures and genetic predisposition may contribute to the development of allergic disease by altering immune and organ development...
September 18, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Luisa Taylor, Heidi Capling, Jay M Portnoy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the process of administering a telemedicine program including reviewing telemedicine guidelines; discussing licensing, credentialing, and privileging of providers; outlining scheduling and recruitment of patients; and measuring outcomes of a telemedicine program. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature findings suggest that telemedicine in specialty clinics continues to grow at a rapid pace. Medical specialty programs should prepare to adopt a practice that includes telemedicine to better serve their patients and families who have expressed significant satisfaction with the delivery of healthcare in this manner...
September 15, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
M J Rial, J Sastre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically examine evidence suggesting that food allergy induced by lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) follows a geographic pattern. RECENT FINDINGS: LTP syndrome remains most common in the Mediterranean basin, with a clear gradient seen in prevalence of LTP sensitization between northern and southern Europe. We hypothesize that high levels of birch pollen seem to protect against LTP allergy, as these higher levels correlate with a lower prevalence of LTP hypersensitivity...
September 11, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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