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Journal of Insect Science

Flaviane Santos de Souza, Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa, Eddy José Francisco de Oliveira, Márcia de Fátima Ribeiro, Bruno de Almeida Souza, Edilson Divino Araújo, Vera L Imperatriz-Fonseca, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho
Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a stingless bee native to Caatinga biome in Brazil, well adapted to hot and dry climate of that region and has been traditionally explored for honey production. Here, we evaluate the genetic structure of 173 colonies of M. subnitida in northeast Brazil by partially sequenced mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I (COI) to compare an introduced population isolated for 30 yr into the Island of Fernando de Noronha (IFN) with the continental populations. We identified high haplotype diversity (0...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Clara Tramuta, Silvia Gallina, Alberto Bellio, Daniela M Bianchi, Francesco Chiesa, Selene Rubiola, Angelo Romano, Lucia Decastelli
On 1 January 2018, a new regulation on 'Novel Food' has come into application in the EU. Insects and insect-based products are therefore included among the categories of food which constitute novel foods. Insects are nutrient-rich, produce fewer greenhouse gases and ammonia than conventional livestock, and have high feed conversion efficiency. Insects may be an alternative food source in the near future, but consideration of insects as a food requires scrutiny due to the risk of allergens. The aim of the present study was to develop a set of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect nine edible insect species directly in foods...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Xing-Chuan Jiang, Xiu-Yun Jiang, Su Liu
Acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) are essential for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and play crucial roles in the termination of neurotransmission. AChEs are encoded by the ace genes. However, the ace genes from the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), remained uncharacterized. In this study, two aces (Prace1 and Prace2) were identified from P. rapae. Prace1 encoded a PrAChE1 protein consisting of 694 amino acid residues, and Prace2 encoded the 638-amino-acid PrAChE2...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Dale W Spurgeon, Charles P-C Suh, Jesus F Esquivel
Distribution of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the United States has been greatly reduced by eradication efforts. Still, it remains a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp., [Malvales: Malvaceae]) in the New World, and has proven difficult to eliminate from Mexico and from southern Texas. In those regions, improved knowledge of boll weevil overwintering ecology may benefit efforts by eradication and management programs. Adult diapause in the boll weevil is well documented, but influences of the feeding period duration between adult eclosion and assessment of diapause remain unstudied...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Saadia Tobassum, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Tariq Zahid, Qurratulann Afza Gardner, Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan
In the present study, two common buthid scorpions, i.e., Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) (Scorpiones: Buthidae) and Hottentota tamulus (Fabricus, 1798) (Scorpiones: Buthidae), were maintained in the laboratory for venom recovery. The aim of study was to compare the quantity and quality of venom extracted from scorpions by manual and electrical method. We also recorded the effect of diet and temperature on venom production. Results of our study revealed that electrical method yielded good quality and higher quantity of venom as compared to manual method...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Avery L Russell, Stephen L Buchmann, William de O Sabino, Daniel R Papaj
Sexual selection on male body size in species with a female-biased sexual size dimorphism is common yet often poorly understood. In particular, in the majority of bee species, the relative contribution of intrasexual competition and female choice to patterns of male body size is unknown. In this field study, we examined two possible components of male mating success with respect to body size in the solitary bee Diadasia rinconis Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apidae): 1) ability to procure a mate and 2) the duration of copulation...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Jennifer A Hamel, Emma E Eskeland, Tyler K Lehmann, Paige L Stover
Individuals of different species sometimes mate in nature, and such behavior often carries costs, such as wasted gametes and inviable offspring. One context in which interspecific mating commonly occurs is when closely related species come into secondary contact. Here, we tested whether reproductive isolation is greater in an area of recent secondary contact than in allopatry for two closely related insect species, and we examined whether mating between individuals of these two species constitutes reproductive interference...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Miguel A García-Martínez, Ehdibaldo Presa-Parra, Jorge E Valenzuela-González, Rodrigo Lasa
Despite preliminary reports of ants trapped in food-baited fruit fly traps, little is known regarding the identity of the myrmecofauna that can be sampled using this technique. This study aimed to examine the inventory completeness, activity and species occurrence of canopy ant assemblages collected in baited traps used for monitoring fruit flies in different fruit orchards in central Veracruz, Mexico. The trap models used in the sampling were Multilure, McPhail glass, and 500 ml blue polyethylene bottles. Three commercial fruit fly food attractants (CeraTrap, Captor + Borax, and BioLure) and two grape juice products (Jumex grape juice and Tang) were used as baits for sampling...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Wenbo Chen, Chenxi Liu, Guoqing Lu, Hongmei Cheng, Zhicheng Shen, Kongming Wu
To determine cellular changes caused by the chimeric protein Vip3AcAa against Helicoverpa armigera, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine ultrastructural changes in midgut cells of third-instar larvae of Cry1Ac-susceptible H. armigera after feeding on an artificial diet containing the Vip3AcAa toxin. Midgut epithelial cells of Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera larvae that had fed on an artificial diet containing Vip3AcAa or on Bt cotton expressing Vip3AcAa+Cry1Ac were also examined using optical microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Kazunori Matsuo, Yoshimi Hirose, Takeshi Yokoyama, Yumiko Nakajima, Yu-Feng Hsu, Yutaka Banno
We reared a Telenomus species from eggs of Bombyx mandarina (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in Japan, and from eggs of B. mandarina in Taiwan. Morphological examination revealed that this Telenomus species is new to science. In this article, we describe it as Telenomus moricolus Matsuo et Hirose, sp. nov. Because B. mandarina is considered to be an ancestor of B. mori, a domestic insect, it is reasonable to assume that B. mandarina is an original host of T...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Wee L Yee
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major quarantine pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in western North America that is often managed using the organic insecticide spinosad, but there is a question of whether its semisynthetic relative spinetoram is more toxic and better to use for controlling the fly. Here, spinosad and spinetoram effects on R. indifferens kill and oviposition were determined by exposing 3-4, 7-10, or 14-18 d old flies to dry spinosad and spinetoram (0...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Rebeca P Santos, Cléa S F Mariano, Jacques H C Delabie, Marco A Costa, Kátia M Lima, Silvia G Pompolo, Itanna O Fernandes, Elder A Miranda, Antonio F Carvalho, Janisete G Silva
The foetida species complex comprises 13 Neotropical species in the ant genus Neoponera. Neoponera villosa Fabricius (1804) , Neoponera inversa Smith (1858), Neoponera bactronica Fernandes, Oliveira & Delabie (2013), and Neoponera curvinodis (Forel, 1899) have had an ambiguous taxonomic status for more than two decades. In southern Bahia, Brazil, these four species are frequently found in sympatry. Here we used Bayesian Inference and maximum likelihood analyses of COI and 16S mtDNA sequence data and conventional cytogenetic data together with observations on morphology to characterize sympatric populations of N...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
James R Hagler, Diego J Nieto, Scott A Machtley, Dale W Spurgeon, Brian N Hogg, Sean L Swezey
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (Fabales: Fabaceae) can be strategically planted as a trap crop for Lygus spp. in California's organic strawberry fields. Alfalfa has been shown to attract both Lygus spp. and, in turn, a Lygus-specific parasitoid, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). However, the impact of alfalfa trap-cropped strawberries on the Lygus spp. predator complex is unknown. Here we identify key predators of Lygus spp. found in organic strawberry. First, a general survey was conducted at an organic, non-trap cropped strawberry farm, to quantify predator abundance and to qualitatively assess their feeding activity on Lygus spp...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
An-Wen Liang, Han Zhang, Jia Lin, Fang-Hai Wang
The white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) has become an important pest on rice in China and Southeast Asian countries. White-backed planthopper wing bud length is in relation to adult wing length, but little is known about the development and differentiation of wing buds at the molecular level. Using Illumina HiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology, we sequenced four cDNA libraries, two biological replicates of long-winged female fifth-instar nymphs (LW), and two of short-winged nymphs (SW)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
N O Kapaldo, J W Carpenter, L W Cohnstaedt
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are effective foragers for floral and extra-floral sources of sugars and as a result may easily be exposed to toxicants in the environment, such as pesticides. Toxic sugar baits (TSB) or insecticide-laced baits are designed for insect vector management but may be a danger to foraging honey bees and their hives. During a mosquito movement study at a zoological institution, nonflowering foliage surrounding the zoo was marked with sugar solution dyed with over the counter food-coloring...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Charity G Owings, Christine J Picard
Determining range expansion for insect species is vital in order to evaluate their impact on new ecosystems and communities. This is particularly important for species which could be potentially harmful to humans or domestic animals. Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae) can act as a facultative ectoparasite and has an extensive history as the primary inducer of sheep-strike in Australia, New Zealand, and Africa. We present here the first record of this species in Indiana, United States. Lucilia cuprina's range expansion northward in the United States may be indicative of changing environmental conditions conducive to the proliferation of this species into historically cooler climates...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Stephanie L Gage, Fabiana Ahumada, Angela Rivera, Henry Graham, Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) are social insects that have evolved a coordinated defensive response to ensure colony survival. Their nests may contain valuable resources such as pollen and nectar that are attractive to a range of insect and mammalian intruders and need protecting. With sufficient provocation, honey bees will mobilize and sting intruders, who are likely to incur additional stings. To inspect and manage their colonies, beekeepers apply smoke to decrease the likelihood of being stung...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Tengfei Shi, Sawyer Burton, Yujie Zhu, Yufei Wang, Shengyun Xu, Linsheng Yu
Carbendazim is nowadays widely used to control fungus in various nectariferous crops. Little is known about how honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), respond to carbendazim exposure. In this study, the effects of field-realistic concentrations of carbendazim (4.516, 0.4516, and 0.04516 ppm) on the survival, biomarker enzyme activity (AChE, GST, CarE, and P450), and four antimicrobial peptide gene expression (hymenoptaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and abaecin) in forager honey bees were evaluated...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Carolyn May, Noah Hillerbrand, Lily M Thompson, Trevor M Faske, Eloy Martinez, Dylan Parry, Salvatore J Agosta, Kristine L Grayson
Thermal regimes can diverge considerably across the geographic range of a species, and accordingly, populations can vary in their response to changing environmental conditions. Both local adaptation and acclimatization are important mechanisms for ectotherms to maintain homeostasis as environments become thermally stressful, which organisms often experience at their geographic range limits. The spatial spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) after introduction to North America provides an exemplary system for studying population variation in physiological traits given the gradient of climates encompassed by its current invasive range...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Carly D Sibilia, Kelly A Brosko, Christopher H Hickling, Lily M Thompson, Kristine L Grayson, Jennifer R Olson
Traits that promote the maintenance of body temperatures within an optimal range provide advantages to ectothermic species. Pigmentation plasticity is found in many insects and enhances thermoregulatory potential as increased melanization can result in greater heat retention. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts that species with developmental plasticity will have darker pigmentation in colder environments, which can be an important adaptation for temperate species experiencing seasonal variation in climate...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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