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Journal of Insect Science

Tengfei Shi, Sawyer Burton, Yujie Zhu, Yufei Wang, Shengyun Xu, Linsheng Yu
Carbendazim is nowadays widely used to control fungus in various nectariferous crops. Little is known about how honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), respond to carbendazim exposure. In this study, the effects of field-realistic concentrations of carbendazim (4.516, 0.4516, and 0.04516 ppm) on the survival, biomarker enzyme activity (AChE, GST, CarE, and P450), and four antimicrobial peptide gene expression (hymenoptaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and abaecin) in forager honey bees were evaluated...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Carolyn May, Noah Hillerbrand, Lily M Thompson, Trevor M Faske, Eloy Martinez, Dylan Parry, Salvatore J Agosta, Kristine L Grayson
Thermal regimes can diverge considerably across the geographic range of a species, and accordingly, populations can vary in their response to changing environmental conditions. Both local adaptation and acclimatization are important mechanisms for ectotherms to maintain homeostasis as environments become thermally stressful, which organisms often experience at their geographic range limits. The spatial spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) after introduction to North America provides an exemplary system for studying population variation in physiological traits given the gradient of climates encompassed by its current invasive range...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Carly D Sibilia, Kelly A Brosko, Christopher H Hickling, Lily M Thompson, Kristine L Grayson, Jennifer R Olson
Traits that promote the maintenance of body temperatures within an optimal range provide advantages to ectothermic species. Pigmentation plasticity is found in many insects and enhances thermoregulatory potential as increased melanization can result in greater heat retention. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts that species with developmental plasticity will have darker pigmentation in colder environments, which can be an important adaptation for temperate species experiencing seasonal variation in climate...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Chunling He, Chaodong Zhu
Xylocopa, an important genus in Hymenoptera: Apidae, is of great significance in research on the early stages of insect social evolution. Most species in this genus burrow into wooden structures. Only the Proxylocopa subgenus nests in the soil. Here, we report the nesting behavior of Xylocopa xinjiangensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae), which is distributed only in Western China. During July 2013 and August 2016, we observed the nest architecture and nest building process of X. xinjiangensis. X. xinjiangensis is solitary and nests in the soil walls of gullies, mounds, and cliffs in the Manas area, Xinjiang, multiplying at the rate of one generation a year...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Zai-Ling Wang, Xiang-Ping Wang, Chuan-Ren Li, Zhen-Zhou Xia, Shi-Xiang Li
The ratio of protein and carbohydrate in an insect's nutritional regime can significantly influence its survival, growth, and fecundity. The effects of 11 different artificial diets containing protein (p): carbohydrate (c) ratios were determined in larvae of the phytophagus ladybug, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We recorded the developmental times and survival rates of the larvae and weighed their pupae. When the concentration of carbohydrates was kept constant while the concentration of proteins was increased (p29:c20, p31:c20, p33:c20, and p35:c20), H...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Panlong Wu, Jan C Axmacher, Xiao Song, Xuzhu Zhang, Huanli Xu, Chen Chen, Zhenrong Yu, Yunhui Liu
The loss of flower-rich habitats and agricultural intensification have resulted in significant losses of wild bee diversity from agricultural landscapes that is increasingly threatening the pollination of zoochorous agricultural crops and agricultural sustainability. However, the links of different wild bee functional trait groups with habitat types and plant resources in agricultural landscapes remain poorly understood, thus impeding the formulation of effective policies for bee conservation. We therefore analyzed how bees representing different functional groups responded to variations in habitat type, vegetation composition and plant diversity...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Atwa A Atwa
The fruit stalk borer (Oryctes elegans) is an important pest of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) trees in Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of using two species of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema kushidai and Steinernema glaseri, against O. elegans under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, both species of nematodes showed a significant effect on the mortality of O. elegans larvae. Significant variations were observed when insects were exposed to nematodes for variable durations under laboratory conditions...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Fang Yu, Ai-Ping Liang
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Ugyops sp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was sequenced, making it the first determined mitogenome from the subfamily Asiracinae, the basal clade of the family Delphacidae. The mitogenome was 15,259 bp in length with A + T content of 77.65% and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and a control region. The gene order was identical with that of the ancestral insect. The nucleotide composition analysis indicated that the whole mitogenome was strongly A-skewed (0...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Chase A Stratton, Elisabeth A Hodgdon, Samuel G Zuckerman, Anthony M Shelton, Yolanda H Chen
Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an invasive pest causing significant damage on Brassica crops in the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. Heading brassicas, like cauliflower, appear to be particularly susceptible. Swede midge is difficult to control because larvae feed concealed inside meristematic tissues of the plant. In order to develop damage and marketability thresholds necessary for integrated pest management, it is important to determine how many larvae render plants unmarketable and whether the timing of infestation affects the severity of damage...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Jie Cheng, Chun-Yan Wang, Zi-Hao Lyu, Tong Lin
To elucidate the role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), one of the most destructive defoliating pests in Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (Thymelaeaceae) forests, 16 GST cDNAs were identified in the transcriptome of adult H. vitessoides. All cDNAs included a complete open reading frame and were designated HvGSTd1-HvGSTu2. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the 16 HvGSTs were classified into seven different cytosolic classes; three in delta, two in epsilon, three in omega, three in sigma, one in theta, two in zeta, and two in unclassified...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Rong Wang, Zhihan Zhang, Xia Hu, Songqing Wu, Jinda Wang, Feiping Zhang
The casuarina moth, Lymantria xylina Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), is an important pest in the Australian pine tree, Casuarina equisetifolia, forest in the coastal area of South China. At the same time, as a closely related species of Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), it is also a potential quarantine pest. In the present study, specific primers were designed for identification of L. xylina based on the COI barcoding sequence between L. xylina and four other common forest pests. A 569-bp fragment was successfully amplified from 40 L...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Dong Ai, Shenhang Cheng, Hetan Chang, Ting Yang, Guirong Wang, Caihong Yu
Trehalase is an indispensable component of insect hemolymph that plays important role in energy metabolism and stress resistance. In this study, we cloned and expressed the gene encoding soluble trehalase (HaTreh-1) of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) and characterized the enzyme. HaTreh-1 had a full-length open reading frame encoding a protein of 571 amino acids. Sequence comparison indicated that HaTreh-1 was similar to some known insect trehalases. Two essential active sites (D321 and E519) and three essential residues (R168, R221, and R286) were conserved in HaTreh-1...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
M Guadalupe Rojas, Robert B Elliott, Juan A Morales-Ramos
Mortality caused by indirect exposure to Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana (GHA and NI8) to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), workers was evaluated. Groups of 50 workers were placed in one side of dual-box arenas. The opposite side of the arenas was lined with filter paper squares previously sprayed with unformulated purified spores (106 spores/ml) suspended in 0.2% Ethal TDA 3, HLB 8 of the three fungal strains, or untreated filter paper squares as the control...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Ayla Karatas, Emel Ozgumus Demir
Due to the increased interest shown in kefir, the present study examined its effects on some developmental characteristics in Drosophila. To compare the results related to kefir, another fermented product, i.e., yogurt, and the raw material of kefir, i.e., milk, were included in the experiment. All three foods were fed to Drosophila by addition to the medium. The results showed that the three foods delayed development in generations F1 and F2. In both generations, the number of adults was lower than that of the control group, but the comparison of the foods among themselves showed no significant difference...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
W L A Osbrink, D B Thomas, J A Goolsby, A T Showler, B Leal
Within the cattle fever tick quarantine zone along the Rio Grande, a steady displacement of native vegetation by Arundo donax L. has been occurring for over a century. Arundo rapidly grows to a height of 3-6 m creating a dense wall of vegetation impeding surveillance and interception of stray cattle breaching the cattle fever tick quarantine from Mexico. Additionally, arundo monocultures may decrease the number and diversity of predatory beetles feeding on cattle fever ticks. To compare predatory beetle abundance and diversity within and between arundo and native vegetation, beetles were trapped at 10 locations twice a month for 16 mo (=38,400 trap nights) in the cattle fever tick quarantine zone along the Mexico-American border between Brownsville and Del Rio, TX...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Zhen Zeng, Yong Wang, Nana Adwoa Nkuma Johnson, Guang-Dong Wang, Qin Yao, Ke-Ping Chen
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in regulating eukaryotic developmental and physiological processes such as neuron generation, myocyte formation, intestinal tissue development, and response to environmental stress. In this study, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), genome was found to encode 52 bHLH genes. All 52 P. xylostella bHLH (PxbHLH) genes were classified into correspondent bHLH families according to their orthology with bHLHs from fruit fly and other insect species...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Xue-Jie Guo, Ji-Nian Feng
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are prominent proteins that greatly contribute to insect survival under stress conditions. In this study, we cloned two Hsp transcripts (Aohsp70 and Aohsp90) from the grass thrip, Anaphothrips obscurus (Müller) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which is a polymorphic winged pest of corn and wheat. The cDNA sequences of Aohsp70 and Aohsp90 are 2382 and 2504 bp long, and encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 70.02 kDa and 83.40 kDa, respectively. Aohsp90 was highly expressed in adults of both brachypters and macropters...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Joscha A Alt, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
Detection of substrate vibrations is an evolutionarily old sensory modality and is important for predator detection as well as for intraspecific communication. In insects, substrate vibrations are detected mainly by scolopidial (chordotonal) sense organs found at different sites in the legs. Among these sense organs, the tibial subgenual organ (SGO) is one of the most sensitive sensors. The neuroanatomy and physiology of vibratory sense organs of cicadas is not well known. Here, we investigated the leg nerve by neuronal tracing and summed nerve recordings...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Wee L Yee
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be detected using sticky yellow rectangle traps. Recently, a related invasive fly from Europe and Asia, the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was detected in eastern North America, prompting surveys for it in the West. Sticky crossed-panel yellow Rebell and cylindrical-type yellow PALz traps were developed for R...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
J K Thomas, G J Fadul, G P Keller, M F Chaudhury
The success of the Screwworm Eradication Program is due to continuous mass rearing and dispersal of large numbers of competitive sterile flies in the field. Spray-dried powders of whole bovine blood, chicken egg, and milk substitute constituted the nutritional components of the traditional artificial larval diet used for mass rearing New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Diptera: Calliphoridae. However, due to shifting availability and increasing costs of diet ingredients, it is necessary to investigate alternative products for the diet...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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