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Journal of Insect Science

Tiago Lucini, Antônio R Panizzi
The Neotropical brown-stink bug Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is the most important pest damaging soybean in the Neotropics, the world largest production area. The alternating current-direct current (AC-DC) electropenetrography (EPG) technology was used to develop an EPG waveform library of adult females feeding on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) pods at different input resistor (Ri) levels. Thirteen waveform types/subtypes were identified and described. They were divided into non-probing (Z, Np, Dw1, and Dw2), and probing waveforms (Eh1, Eh2, Eh3, Eh4, and Eh5)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Lingyan Wang, Zhaoming Dong, Juan Wang, Yaru Yin, Huawei Liu, Wenbo Hu, Zhangchuan Peng, Chun Liu, Muwang Li, Yutaka Banno, Toru Shimada, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
The dominant obese translucent (Obs) mutant of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) results in a short and stout larval body, translucent phenotype, and abnormal pigmentation in the integument. The Obs mutant also displays deficiency in ecdysis and metamorphosis. In the present study, to gain an understanding of multiple Obs phenotypes, we investigated the phenotypes of Obs and performed a comparative analysis of the larval integument proteomes of Obs and normal silkworms. The phenotypic analysis revealed that the Obs larvae were indeed short and fat, and that chitin and uric acid content were lower but melanin content was higher in the Obs mutant...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Renhua Liu, Wenhui Wang, Xiaoyuan Liu, Yan Lu, Tingting Xiang, Wei Zhou, Yongji Wan
To investigate whether Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) intestinal microorganism play a role in the host defence system against viral pathogens, a lipase gene from the silkworm intestinal bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW41 was characterized, and antiviral activity of its protein against B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) was tested. The lipase gene has an open-reading frame of 648 bp, which encodes a 215-amino-acid enzyme with a 34-amino-acid signal peptide. The recombinant lipase (without signal peptide) was expressed and purified by using an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Laura D Steele, Brad S Coates, Keon Mook Seong, M Carmen Valero, Omprakash Mittapalli, Weilin Sun, John Clark, Barry R Pittendrigh
The organochloride insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites can increase cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and induce apoptosis. The highly DDT-resistant Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Drosophila) strain, 91-R, and its susceptible control, 91-C, were used to investigate functional and structural changes among mitochondrial-derived pathways. Resequencing of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) detected no structural differences between 91-R and 91-C, whereas RNA-seq suggested the differential expression of 221 mitochondrial-associated genes...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Hae-Na Chung, Stacy D Rodriguez, Kristina K Gonzales, Julia Vulcan, Joel J Cordova, Soumi Mitra, Christopher G Adams, Nathan Moses-Gonzales, Nicole Tam, Joshua W Cluck, Geoffrey M Attardo, Immo A Hansen
Sterile insect technique (SIT) is a promising, environmentally friendly alternative to the use of pesticides for insect pest control. However, implementing SIT with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes presents unique challenges. For example, during transport from the rearing facility to the release site and during the actual release in the field, damage to male mosquitoes should be minimized to preserve their reproductive competitiveness. The short flight range of male Ae. aegypti requires elaborate release strategies such as release via Unmanned Aircraft Systems, more commonly referred to as drones...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Lei Han, Guiling Ding, Yanjie Liu, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (SMPD) is a hydrolase that plays a major role in metabolic reactions involving sphingomyelin. Here, we describe an analysis of the cDNA sequence and gene structure of SMPD in bumblebee (Bombus lantschouensis). The expression of SMPD in different tissues and at different developmental stages and reproductive statuses was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that the SMPD cDNA has a length of 2000 bp and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,801 nucleotides that encodes a polypeptide of 599 amino acids...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Anna Chui-Ting Chieng, Alvin Kah-Wei Hee, Suk-Ling Wee
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Handel) is one of the most destructive pests of fruits. The discovery of methyl eugenol (ME) as a potent male attractant for this species has led to its successful use in area-wide fruit fly control programs such as male annihilation. While the antenna is recognized as primarily responsible for male flies' detection of attractants such as ME, little is known of the involvement of the maxillary palp. Using behavioral assays involving males with intact and ablated antennae and maxillary palp structures, we seek to ascertain the relative involvement of the maxillary palp in the ability of the male fly to detect ME...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Yuliang Zhang, Yitong Zhang, Maojie Fu, Guohua Yin, Richard T Sayre, Kayla K Pennerman, Fengshan Yang
Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) comprise a multifunctional protein superfamily, which plays important roles as detoxifiers and antioxidants in insects. The GST in Asian corn borer has not been previously characterized. In this study, we cloned, characterized, and expressed the complete GST genes from the midgut of Asian corn borer. Furthermore, we designed htL4440-OfGST vector to exploit this gene for RNA interference (RNAi) strategy to control this pest. A complete GST cDNA sequence in Asian corn borer was obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Zainab Al-Jbory, Mustapha El-Bouhssini, Ming-Shun Chen
Species in the stem gall midge genus Mayetiola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) cause serious damage to small grain crops. Among Mayetiola species are Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say), barley midge (Mayetiola hordei Keiffer), and oat midge (Mayetiola avenae Marchal). Larvae of these species inject saliva into host tissues to manipulate plants. To identify putative effectors, transcriptomic analyses were conducted on transcripts encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) from first instar larvae of the barley and oat midges, since SSGPs are the most likely source for effector proteins delivered into host tissues...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Antônio R Panizzi, Tiago Lucini, Taynara Possebom
The performance and preferences of the stink bug, Dichelops furcatus (F.), for spring cereals (wheat, rye, triticale, oat, and barley) were compared in the laboratory to their preferred host crop, soybean pods. Nymphs took significantly less time to reach adulthood on soybean pods compared to those fed seed heads of the five spring cereals tested. Wheat and rye yielded the longest developmental times, while nymphs fed triticale, oat, or barley developed faster, but still not as fast as those reared on soybean pods...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
B H King, Edwin R Burgess, Kaila L Colyott
The parasitoid wasps Spalangia endius Walker, Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, and Spalangia nigra Latrielle (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) develop on filth fly pupae. Females burrow through decaying organic matter and parasitize hosts; whereas, at least in S. endius, males tend to stay above ground searching for mates. Both sexes lack obvious digging morphology such as enlarged forelegs and are not known to exhibit physical aggression. Size data were obtained from specimens from Illinois field-collected hosts for all three species and from a Florida laboratory colony for S...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Samuel Novais, Nancy Calderón-Cortés, Gumersindo Sánchez-Montoya, Mauricio Quesada
The twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Chemsak and Giesbert) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) detaches branches of Spondias purpurea L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) that fall on the forest floor or remain suspended on vegetation. Many wood-boring beetles also oviposit in these branches and larval development creates cavities that are abandoned when the adults emerge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of wood-boring beetles as facilitators by creating new habitats for arthropods, and test for vertical stratification and temporal variation of arthropods associated with S...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Coy R St Clair, Claire A Fuller
Agricultural runoff containing herbicide is known to have adverse effects on freshwater organisms. Aquatic insects are particularly susceptible, and herbicide runoff has the potential to affect immunity in this group. Here we examined the effect of ecologically relevant levels of atrazine, an herbicide commonly used in the United States, on immune function in larvae of the blue dasher dragonfly (Odonata: Libelluludae, Pachydiplax longipennis Burmeister 1839) during a long-term exposure at ecologically relevant concentrations...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
You Li, Yongying Ruan, Matthew T Kasson, Edward L Stanley, Conrad P D T Gillett, Andrew J Johnson, Mengna Zhang, Jiri Hulcr
Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) rely on a symbiosis with fungi for their nutrition. Symbiotic fungi are preserved and transported in specialized storage structures called mycangia. Although pivotal in the symbiosis, mycangia have been notoriously difficult to study, given their minute size and membranous structure. We compared the application of novel visualization methods for the study of mycangia, namely micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and laser ablation tomography (LATscan) with traditional paraffin sectioning...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Jianglong Peng, Ying Zhou, Haoyuan Jia, Ling Li, Jun Qian, Feifei Han, Hao Yin, Yubao Cui
Aquaporin water channel proteins are highly conserved across many diverse species. Some evidence indicates that aquaporins in insects may contribute to insect-related mammalian diseases and inflammation, and thus these proteins may represent viable therapeutic targets. Here, we used RNA sequencing and bioinformatics to identify putative aquaporins from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae. Six putative aquaporins were identified based on sequence similarity with aquaporins from other species. These putative aquaporins, deposited in GenBank and named DerfAQP1-4 (KY231248, KY231249, KY231250, and KY231251, respectively), DerfAQP5...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Ainatun Nadrah Zulkifli, Hazlina Ahamad Zakeri, Wahizatul Afzan Azmi
The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is one of the most dangerous pests of major cultivated palms including coconut, oil palm, and sago. The larval stage of the weevil causes the most destruction of the palms as it completely destroys the palm cabbage. In this study, the larvae were given three different diets-coconut cabbage, oil palm cabbage, and sago stem, under laboratory conditions for food consumption and developmental time experiment. The protein profiles of the digestive systems of the larvae fed on these three diets were also determined...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Alison M Reeves, Scott T O'Neal, Richard D Fell, Carlyle C Brewster, Troy D Anderson
The honey bee is a widely managed crop pollinator that provides the agricultural industry with the sustainability and economic viability needed to satisfy the food and fiber needs of our society. Excessive exposure to apicultural pesticides is one of many factors that has been implicated in the reduced number of managed bee colonies available for crop pollination services. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to commonly used, beekeeper-applied apicultural acaricides on established biochemical indicators of bee nutrition and immunity, as well as morphological indicators of growth and development...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Sajjad Ali Khuhro, Qi Yan, Hui Liao, Guan-Heng Zhu, Jia-Bin Sun, Shuang-Lin Dong
The high sensitivity of the olfactory system is essential for feeding and oviposition in moth insects, and some chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are thought to play roles in this system by binding and carrying hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillar lymph. In this study, to identify the olfactory CSPs from a repertoire of 21 CSP members in the notorious rice pest Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), tissue expression patterns were firstly examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Everth Ebratt Ravelo, Jessica U Vaca, Emilio P Arévalo, Luis Delgado, María F Díaz, Laura Piñeros, Ángela P Castro, Helena Brochero, Arturo Goldarazena
The presence and distribution of Scirtothrips dorsalis was reported in Colombia in the Andean, Caribbean, and Orinoquia regions, from 0 to 1,200 meters of altitude (MASL) in the warm climate zone, with less than 2,000 mm rainfall per year and a temperature above 24°C, which corresponds to the tropical dry forest life zone (TDF). Larvae and adults of S. dorsalis were found on 13 plant species belonging to 12 genera in 12 families, of 181 plant species sampled from 129 genera in 47 families sampled. The botanical species with S...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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