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Journal of Insect Science

Sanjay Basnet, Shripat T Kamble
Bed bugs are one the most troublesome household pests that feed primarily on human blood. RNA interference (RNAi) is currently being pursued as a potential tool for insect population management and has shown efficacy against some phytophagous insects. We evaluated the different techniques to deliver dsRNA specific to bed bug muscle actin (dsactin) into bed bugs. Initially, stability of dsRNA in human blood was studied to evaluate the feasibility of feeding method. Adult bed bugs were injected with dsRNA between last thoracic segment and first abdominal segment on the ventral side, with a dose of 0...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Belen Marín, Susanne Krumböck, Hannes Schuler, Christian Stauffer
Heritable bacterial endosymbionts can alter the biology of numerous arthropods. They can influence the reproductive outcome of infected hosts, thus affecting the ecology and evolution of various arthropod species. The spruce bark beetle Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was reported to express partial, unidirectional crossing incompatibilities among certain European populations. Knowledge on the background of these findings is lacking; however, bacterial endosymbionts have been assumed to manipulate the reproduction of this beetle...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Priyadarshini Chakrabarti, Sagartirtha Sarkar, Parthiba Basu
Pesticides have been reported to be one of the major drivers in the global pollinator losses. The large-scale decline in honey bees, an important pollinator group, has resulted in comprehensive studies on honey bee colonies. Lack of information on native wild pollinators has paved the way for this study, which highlights the underlying evolutionary changes occurring in the wild honey bee populations exposed to pesticides along an agricultural intensification landscape. The study reports an increased genetic diversity in native Apis cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations continually exposed to pesticide stress...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Jennifer Schaler, John Stoffolano, Anna Maria Fausto, Gabriella Gambellini, John Burand
Research to date on the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) in three species of flies has focused on adult flies having access to and taking a proteinaceous diet. Since many studies have shown that diet affects viral infection in numerous organisms, this study examined the effect of a protein-free diet on the effect of the SGHV virus in adult house flies, Musca domestica. L. Adults infected with the virus, and maintained on a sugar diet only, showed salivary glands with a blue rather than a grayish color and mild hypertrophy compared with protein-fed flies...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Amanda D Roe, Misha Demidovich, John Dedes
Laboratory insect colonies are an essential part of experimental insect science. Formalized naming of laboratory stocks is standard practice in model organisms such as mice and fruit flies, but crucial details such as colony origin and standard names are often lacking in nonmodel systems. For institutions involved in rearing multiple nonmodel species, effective monitoring requires standardized naming and nomenclature, from establishment to production, distribution, and publication. Insect rearing has been the cornerstone of the Insect Production and Quarantine Laboratories (IPQL) at the Great Lakes Forestry Centre for over 70 yr, but the histories of the insect colonies in this facility have not been adequately documented and formal, standardized names do not exist...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Jieliang Zhao, Fei Zhu, Shaoze Yan
Insects are well equipped in walking on complex three-dimensional terrain, allowing them to overcome obstacles or catch prey. However, the gait transition for insects steering on a wall remains unexplored. Here, we find that honeybees adopted a tetrapod gait to change direction when climbing a wall. On the contrary to the common tripod gait, honeybees propel their body forward by synchronously stepping with both middle legs and then both front legs. This process ensures the angle of the central axis of the honeybee to be consistent with the crawling direction...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
WeiHua Ma, YuSuo Jiang, Jiao Meng, HuiTing Zhao, HuaiLei Song, JinShan Shen
In social insects, the foraging gene (for) regulates insect age- and task-based foraging behaviors. We studied the expression and localization of the for gene (Acfor) in Apis cerana cerana workers to explore whether the differential regulation of this gene is associated with the behaviors of nurses and foragers. The expression profiles of Acfor in different tissues and at different ages were examined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cellular localization in the brain was detected using in situ hybridization...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Min Hong, Dooseon Hwang, Saeyoull Cho
Because termites (Reticulitermes speratus) are very small, it is difficult to conduct experiments involving pathogen injection and hemocyte collection. Therefore, to observe hemocyte-mediated immune responses against foreign substances, in vitro hemocyte culture is essential. After collecting about 3 μl of hemolymph, hemocytes were cultured for 7 d, during which the cells maintained full function. Four types of hemocyte were identified, namely, granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, and prohemocytes, among which granulocytes are the main immune hemocytes that fight invasion by foreign substances...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Qing Zhao, Juan Wang, Meng-Qing Wang, Bo Cai, Hu-Fang Zhang, Jiu-Feng Wei
Dinorhynchus dybowskyi (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae) is used as a biological control agent against various insect pests for its predatory. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing technology. The results showed that the mitogenome is 15,952 bp long, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region. Furthermore, the gene order and orientation of this mitogenome are identical to those of most heteropterans...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Ephantus J Muturi, Jose L Ramirez, Bruce Zilkowski, Lina B Flor-Weiler, Alejandro P Rooney
We examined the chemical composition of garlic and asafoetida essential oils and their individual and combined toxicity against larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex restuans Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). The effect of the two essential oils on egg hatch was also examined. Ten and 12 compounds, respectively, were identified in garlic and asafoetida essential oils. Allyl disulfide (49.13%) and diallyl trisulfide (31.08%) were the most abundant compounds in garlic essential oil accounting for 80.2% of the total oil...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Hongxia Chen, Yueqin Liu, Wenbing Wang, Opeyemi J Olatunji, Gang Pan, Zhen Ouyang
1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is the most abundant poly-hydroxylated alkaloid in the latex of mulberry leaves and it protects mulberry from insect predation. However, silkworms can survive the poisoning effect of DNJ and accumulate DNJ by consumption of the mulberry leaves. In order to determine the molecular mechanism of DNJ accumulation in silkworm, comparative proteomic analysis was employed to evaluate protein expression in two groups of silkworm bodies (the third instar silkworm bodies had the maximum content of DNJ throughout life, and the newly hatched silkworm bodies had no DNJ)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Yao Tan, Bing Jia, Yuan-Ming Chi, Hai-Bin Han, Xiao-Rong Zhou, Bao-Ping Pang
Lygus pratensis is a phytophagous pest responsible for yield losses in Bt alfalfa and other economic crops in Northwestern China. To better characterize Miridae at the genomic level, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of L. pratensis was sequenced and analyzed in this study. The mt genome was amplified via the polymerase chain reaction to generate overlapping fragments. These fragments were then sequenced, spliced, and analyzed to include the examination of nucleotide composition, codon usage, compositional biases, protein-coding genes (PCGs), and RNA secondary structures...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
James R Hagler, Alison L Thompson, Melissa A Stefanek, Scott A Machtley
A study was conducted that compared the effectiveness of a sweepnet versus a vacuum suction device for collecting arthropods in cotton. The study differs from previous research in that body-mounted action cameras (B-MACs) were used to record the activity of the person conducting the arthropod collections. The videos produced by the B-MACs were then analyzed with behavioral event recording software to quantify various aspects of the sampling process. The sampler's speed and the number of sampling sweeps or vacuum suctions taken over a fixed distance (12...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Bamphitlhi Tiroesele, Steven R Skoda, Thomas E Hunt, Donald J Lee, Muhammad Irfan Ullah, Jaime Molina-Ochoa, John E Foster
Bean leaf beetle (BLB), Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), exhibits considerable color variation but little is known about the underlying genetic structure and gene flow among color phenotypes. Genetic and morphological variation among four color phenotypes-green with spots (G+S), green without spots (G-S), red with spots (R+S) and red without spots (R-S)-were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and morphometrics, respectively. AFLP generated 175 markers that showed ≥80% polymorphism...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Song-Quan Ong, Zairi Jaal
Larval age and nutrition significantly affected the insect's physiology. These influences are important when rearing a population of vectors that is used to monitor the resistance level, in which standardized conditions are crucial for a more harmonized result. Little information has been reported on the effects of larval age and nutrition on the susceptibility of insects to insecticides, and therefore, we studied the effects on the susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus Say's (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae to temephos by comparing the median lethal concentration (LC50) after 24 hr between the second and fourth instar larvae and between the larvae that fed on protein-based and carbohydrate-based larval diets...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Yong Fang, Jinda Wang, Chen Luo, Ran Wang
The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) cryptic species complex includes important crop pests, and among them, the cryptic species Mediterranean (MED) and Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cause substantial crop losses in China. The second-generation neonicotinoid clothianidin acts as an agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the insect nervous system and has both stomach and contact activity. In this study, the toxicity of clothianidin and five other insecticides to MED and MEAM1 was examined. The sublethal effects of clothianidin on the development and reproduction of MED and MEAM1 were also investigated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Leila Shamakhi, Arash Zibaee, Azadeh Karimi-Malati, Hassan Hoda
The developmental rates of Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were investigated at different constant temperatures of 11, 18, 22, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C to find out temperature thresholds, thermal requirements and larval antioxidant responses. The time to complete immature stages separately reduced by raising the rearing temperature except for eggs which showed no significant differences at 30-34°C. Data analysis by traditional and Ikemoto-Takai linear models determined Tmin of 10.0 and 9...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
S Poncio, P Montoya, J Cancino, D E Nava
The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Justin R Bejcek, Rachel Curtis-Robles, Michael Riley, Adrienne Brundage, Sarah A Hamer, Gabriel L Hamer
Arthropod-related morbidity and mortality represent a major threat to human and animal health. An important component of reducing vector-borne diseases and injuries is training the next generation of medical entomologists and educating the public in proper identification of arthropods of medical importance. One challenge of student training and public outreach is achieving a safe mounting technique that allows observation of morphological characteristics, while minimizing damage to specimens that are often difficult to replace...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Eden W McQueen, Nathan I Morehouse
Complex signaling traits such as pheromone profiles can play an important role in the early stages of reproductive isolation between populations. These signals can diverge along multiple trait axes, and signal receivers are often sensitive to subtle differences in signal properties. In the Lepidoptera, prior research has highlighted that natural selection can drive rapid chemical signal divergence, for instance via mate recognition to maintain species boundaries. Much less is known about the occurrence of such changes for predominantly sexually selected chemical signals, such as those released by many male lepidopterans...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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