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Journal of Insect Science

Richard M Turcotte, Anthony Lagalante, Jonathan Jones, Frank Cook, Thomas Elliott, Anthony A Billings, Yong-Lak Park
Systemic imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide to control the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriére in the United States. This study was conducted to 1) determine the effect of treatment timing (spring vs. fall) and application method (trunk injection vs. soil injection) on the spatial and temporal distribution of imidacloprid within the crown of A. tsugae-free eastern hemlock using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 2) compare ELISA to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the detection of imidacloprid in xylem fluid, and 3) determine the concentration of imidacloprid in leaf tissue using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) detection methods...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Kristina Friesen, Dennis R Berkebile, Jerry J Zhu, David B Taylor
Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Yi-Fei Wu, Lu-Sha Wei, Mark Anthony Torres, Xu Zhang, Shao-Ping Wu, Hui Chen
Studying the reproductive attributes of pests is central to understanding their life cycle history and in crafting management strategies to regulate, if not bring down, their population below threshold levels. In this article, the morphology of the male reproductive tract, topology of the spermatozoa, and salient features of spermiogenesis in the Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li was studied to provide baseline information for further pest management studies. Results showed that male reproductive tract of this species differs from those documented in other Coleopterans by having 20 testicular tubules in each testis and the presence of two types of accessory glands...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Fabian M Norry, Federico H Gomez
In insects, some developmentally related traits are negatively correlated. Here, we mapped Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for traits of eye size and head capsule, in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster Composite interval mapping identified QTL on all major chromosomes. Two negatively correlated traits (size of eyes and between-eyes distance) were influenced by one QTL that appeared to be antagonistic between the traits (QTL cytological range is 25F5-30A6), consistent with a negative genetic correlation between these traits of the head capsule...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Maminirina Randrianandrasana, Wen-Yen Wu, David A Carney, Amy J Wagoner Johnson, May R Berenbaum
Antherina suraka Boisduval (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) produces a silken cocoon that has been the focus of efforts to create a commercial wild silk industry in Madagascar. In this study, structural and mechanical properties of the cocoon of A. suraka from two sites were measured and compared to the cocoon of Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera) the world's most common source for silk. Results of environmental scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing showed that the silk sheet of A. suraka cocoon is less compact, with greater thickness and lower tensile strength and stiffness than that of B...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Wen-Juan Jiao, Fei-Qiang Li, Yue-Liang Bai, Xiao-Xiao Shi, Mu-Fei Zhu, Min-Jing Zhang, Cun-Gui Mao, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Sphingolipids and their metabolites have been implicated in viral infection and replication in mammal cells but how their metabolizing enzymes in the host are regulated by viruses remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 12 sphingolipid genes and their regulation by Rice stripe virus in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén), a serious pest of rice throughout eastern Asia. According to protein sequence similarity, we identified 12 sphingolipid enzyme genes in L. striatellus...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
M Guadalupe Rojas, Juan A Morales-Ramos
Nezara viridula adult coloration can vary, including a rare orange-colored type (i.e., N. viridula f. aurantiaca). In November 2015, three Nezara viridula males displaying orange coloration were found in an established colony in Stoneville, MS. The objectives of this study were to determine if alleles of these orange types conformed to the allele characteristics previously reported for N. viridula f. aurantiaca and to determine if there were any differences in reproductive output compared with the green-colored type...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Aditya Parmar, Sascha M Kirchner, Henning Langguth, Thomas F Döring, Oliver Hensel
Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7-9 and 9-10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
L P Saad, D R Souza-Campana, O C Bueno, M S C Morini
Sugarcane is an important crop within the Brazilian socioeconomic landscape. There is a constant need for approaches to increase sustainability at all steps of the production chain. Irrigating sugarcane crops with vinasse is one of these approaches, because vinasse is a residue of sugarcane processing that can be used to fertilize these same crops. However, due to its chemical properties, vinasse may be harmful to soil fauna. Analyzing the structure and functional organization of ant communities is a fast and practical way to monitor sites affected by the addition of chemicals...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
A S Fonseca, E J F Oliveira, G S Freitas, A F Assis, C C M Souza, E P B Contel, A E E Soares
The Meliponini, also known as stingless bees, are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world and plays an essential role in pollinating many wild plants and crops These bees can build nests in cavities of trees or walls, underground or in associations with ants or termites; interestingly, these nests are sometimes found in aggregations. In order to assess the genetic diversity and structure in aggregates of Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier), samples of this species were collected from six aggregations and genetically analyzed for eight specific microsatellite loci...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Erika M Tucker, Sandra M Rehan
Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
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January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
R Pimentel, D J H Lopes, A M M Mexia, J D Mumford
Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010-2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island...
2017: Journal of Insect Science
Houping Liu, Jason Mottern
Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) is a recently introduced pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in North America. Natural enemy surveys for this pest in Pennsylvania in 2016 recovered an encyrtid egg parasitoid from both field collections and laboratory rearing of field-collected L. delicatula egg masses. Both molecular and morphological data confirm that the egg parasitoids are Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) is primarily an egg parasitoid of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Neshat Golikhajeh, Bahram Naseri, Jabraeil Razmjou
Digestive enzymatic activity in three geographic strains (Miandiab, Kalposh and Moghan regions) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different sugar beet cultivars (Dorothea, Rozier, Persia and Perimer) was studied under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photo period of 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod). The results of this study demonstrated that digestive protease and amylase activity of S. exigua larvae was affected by both geographic origin of the pest and host plant cultivar...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Bruno Baur, G Heinrich Thommen, Armin Coray
Conservation programs increasingly involve the reintroduction of animals which otherwise would not recolonize restored habitats. We assessed the long-term success of a project in which the Blue-winged grasshopper, Oedipoda caerulescens (L., 1758), was reintroduced to a nature reserve in Northwestern Switzerland, an alluvial gravel area where the species went extinct in the 1960s. In summer 1995, we released 110 individuals (50 females and 60 males) and 204 individuals (101 females and 103 males) into two restored gravel patches with sparse vegetation...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Jamilla Akhund-Zade, Alan O Bergland, Sarah O Crowe, Robert L Unckless
Drosophila melanogaster is able to thrive in harsh northern climates through adaptations in life-history traits and physiological mechanisms that allow for survival through the winter. We examined the genetic basis of natural variation in one such trait, female virgin egg retention, which was previously shown to vary clinally and seasonally. To further our understanding of the genetic basis and evolution of virgin egg retention, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the previously sequenced Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) mapping population...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
J G Bajonero, J R P Parra
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) is a key tomato pest in South America and, recently, in Europe and Africa. To develop efficient control methods for this pest, adequate rearing protocols are desirable. As an alternative to tomato leaves (natural diet), we evaluated four artificial diets. Biological traits including larval and pupal viability and development time, pupal weight and deformations were assessed. Additionally, the optimum container size and larval density were evaluated. The diet based on casein, wheat germ and cellulose allowed the best development of T...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Michael J Skvarla, Ashley P G Dowling
Beetles (Coleoptera) are a charismatic group of insects targeted by collectors and often used in biodiversity surveys. As part of a larger project, we surveyed a small (4 hectare) plot in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas using 70 traps of 12 trap types and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter and identified all Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea (Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brachyceridae, Brentidae, and Curculionidae excluding Scolytinae) to species. This resulted in the collection of 7,973 specimens representing 242 species arranged in 8 families...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Aneliya Koleva Pavlova, Melanie Dahlmann, Mirjam Hauck, Annette Reineke
Rapid worldwide spread and polyphagous nature of the spotted wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) calls for efficient and selective control strategies to prevent severe economic losses in various fruit crops. The use of insecticides is one option for management of this invasive pest insect. Efficacy of insecticides is usually assessed first in laboratory bioassays, which are compounded by the cryptic nature of D. suzukii larvae and the fact that fruits used in bioassays often start to rot and dissolve before larvae have reached the adult stage...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
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