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Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis

Lisa Marx, Nicolás Ríos-Lombardía, Judith F Farnberger, Wolfgang Kroutil, Ana I Benítez-Mateos, Fernando López-Gallego, Francisco Morís, Javier González-Sabín, Per Berglund
Several chemoenzymatic routes have been explored for the preparation of cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent. Transaminases (TAs) and ketoreductases (KREDs) turned out to be useful biocatalysts for the preparation of key optically active precursors. Thus, the asymmetric amination of 1-acetonaphthone yielded an enantiopure ( R )-amine, which can be alkylated in one step to yield cinacalcet. Alternatively, the bioreduction of the same ketone resulted in an enantiopure ( S )-alcohol, which was easily converted into the previous ( R )-amine...
June 5, 2018: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Byeong-Seon Kim, Osvaldo Gutierrez, Marisa C Kozlowski, Patrick J Walsh
A simple one-pot synthesis of β-hydroxyallenamides is reported. This procedure entails chemo- and regioselective hydroboration of 3-en-1-ynyl-sulfonylamides with Cy2 BH followed by homoallenylation of aldehydes to yield β-hydroxyallenamides (up to 94% yield and >20:1 dr). Controlled synthesis of up to three continuous stereochemical elements was realized. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest a concerted Zimmerman-Traxler chair-like transition state. Initial results suggest that enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of β-hydroxyallenamides with optically active hydroboration reagents is viable...
April 3, 2018: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Joshua S Sapsford, Daniel J Scott, Nathan J Allcock, Matthew J Fuchter, Christopher J Tighe, Andrew E Ashley
Despite the ever-broadening applications of main-group 'frustrated Lewis pair' (FLP) chemistry to both new and established reactions, their typical intolerance of water, especially at elevated temperatures (>100 °C), represents a key barrier to their mainstream adoption. Herein we report that FLPs based on the Lewis acid i Pr3 SnOTf are moisture tolerant in the presence of moderately strong nitrogenous bases, even under high temperature regimes, allowing them to operate as simple and effective catalysts for the reductive amination of organic carbonyls, including for challenging bulky amine and carbonyl substrate partners...
March 20, 2018: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
György Keglevich, Réka Henyecz, Zoltán Mucsi, Nóra Zs Kiss
It was proved by our experiments that on microwave irradiation, the mono- or bidentate phosphorus ligands generally applied in the palladium(II)-catalyzed P-C coupling reaction of aryl bromides and dialkyl phosphites or secondary phosphine oxides may be substituted by the excess of the >P(O)H reagent that exists under a tautomeric equilibrium. Taking into account that the reduction of the palladium(II) salt and the ligation of the palladium(0) so formed requires 3 equivalents of the P-species for the catalyst applied in a quantity of 5-10%, all together, 15-30% of the P-reagent is necessary beyond its stoichiometric quantity...
December 19, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Kaluvu Balaraman, Ransheng Ding, Christian Wolf
A highly diastereoselective organocatalytic reaction for the synthesis of fluorinated 3,3'-bisindolines exhibiting adjacent tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenters is described. A broad variety of heterochiral bisindolines was prepared in 91-99% yield using 3-fluorooxindoles and isatylidene malononitriles in the presence of catalytic amounts of triethylamine in water or aqueous solution. The reaction can be upscaled without compromising yield and diastereoselectivity and the general usefulness of this method was demonstrated with various Michael acceptors and extended to aldol and Mannich reactions...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Xiaojun Zeng, Zhichao Lu, Shiwen Liu, Gerald B Hammond, Bo Xu
We developed an efficient synthesis of 2-fluoro-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds using readily available alkynyl ketones or esters as starting material. The key step is the insertion of hydrogen fluoride (HF) to the gold carbene intermediate generated from cationic gold catalyzed addition of N -oxides to alkynyl ketones or esters. This method gives excellent chemical yields and regioselectivity with good functional group tolerance.
November 23, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Gui Gao, Yue Fu, Minyan Li, Bo Wang, Bing Zheng, Shicong Hou, Patrick J Walsh
A nickel-catalyzed coupling of azaarylmethylamines with aryl chlorides has been achieved. NIXANTPHOS together with low cost NiBr2 was successfully developed and optimized to exhibit high reactivity at 2.5 mol % loading. Under optimized reaction conditions, aryl(azaaryl)methylamine products were afforded in good to excellent yields (22 examples, up to 98% yield).
August 17, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Gopeekrishnan Sreenilayam, Eric J Moore, Viktoria Steck, Rudi Fasan
Engineered myoglobins have recently emerged as promising scaffolds for catalyzing carbene-mediated transformations. In this work, we investigated the effect of altering the metal center and its first-sphere coordination environment on the carbene transfer reactivity of myoglobin. To this end, we first established an efficient protocol for the recombinant expression of myoglobin variants incorporating metalloporphyrins with non-native metals, including second- and third-row transition metals (ruthenium, rhodium, iridium)...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Zsófia Bata, Renzhe Qian, Alexander Roller, Jeannie Horak, László Csaba Bencze, Csaba Paizs, Friedrich Hammerschmidt, Beáta G Vértessy, László Poppe
Aromatic amino acid ammonia-lyases and aromatic amino acid 2,3-aminomutases contain the post-translationally formed prosthetic 3,5-dihydro-4-methylidene-5H-imidazol-5-one (MIO) group. MIO enzymes catalyze the stereoselective synthesis of α- or β-amino acid enantiomers, making these chemical processes environmentally friendly and affordable. Characterization of novel inhibitors enables structural understanding of enzyme mechanism and recognizes promising herbicide candidates as well. The present study found that both enantiomers of the aminophosphonic acid analogue of the natural substrate phenylalanine and a novel derivative bearing a methylidene at the β-position inhibited phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL), representing MIO enzymes...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Stefan E Payer, Xiang Sheng, Hannah Pollak, Christiane Wuensch, Georg Steinkellner, Fahmi Himo, Silvia M Glueck, Kurt Faber
The catalytic promiscuity of a ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. (FDC_Es) and phenolic acid decarboxylases (PADs) for the asymmetric conjugate addition of water across the C=C bond of hydroxystyrenes was extended to the N-, C- and S-nucleophiles methoxyamine, cyanide and propanethiol to furnish the corresponding addition products in up to 91% ee. The products obtained from the biotransformation employing the most suitable enzyme/nucleophile pairs were isolated and characterized after optimizing the reaction conditions...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Keyume Ablajan, Grace B Panetti, Xiaodong Yang, Byeong-Seon Kim, Patrick J Walsh
The direct arylation of weakly acidic sp3 -hybridized C-H bonds via deprotonated cross-coupling processes (DCCP) is a challenge. Herein, a Pd(NIXANTPHOS)-based catalyst for the mono arylation of 4-pyridylmethyl 2-aryl ethers to generate diarylated 4-pyridyl methyl ethers is introduced. Furthermore, under similar conditions, the diarylation of 4-pyridylmethyl ethers with aryl bromides has been developed. These methods enable the synthesis of new pyridine derivatives, which are common in medicinally active compounds and in application in materials science...
June 6, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Rick C Betori, Eric R Miller, Karl A Scheidt
A novel biocatalytic system to access a wide variety of β-hydroxydioxinones from β-ketodioxinones employing commercial engineered ketoreductases has been developed. This practical system provides a remarkably straightforward solution to limitations in accessing certain chemical scaffolds common in β-hydroxydioxinones that are of great interest due to their diversification capabilities. A few highlights of this system are that it is high yielding, highly enantioselective, and chromatography-free. We have demonstrated both a wide substrate scope and a high degree of scalability...
April 3, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Katharina Plasch, Verena Resch, Julien Hitce, Jarosław Popłoński, Kurt Faber, Silvia M Glueck
In order to extend the applicability of the regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of phenols, the substrate scope of o-benzoic acid (de)carboxylases has been investigated towards complex molecules with an emphasis on flavouring agents and polyphenols possessing antioxidant properties. o-Hydroxycarboxylic acid products were obtained with perfect regioselectivity, in moderate to excellent yields. The applicability of this method was proven by the regioselective bio-carboxylation of resveratrol on a preparative scale with 95% yield...
March 20, 2017: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Duc Duy Vo, Mikael Elofsson
Resveratrol-based natural products constitute a valuable source of unique compounds with diverse biological activities. In this report we investigate demethylation strategies to minimize formation of cyclized and dimerized products during the synthesis of viniferifuran and analogues. We found that boron trichloride/tetra-n-butylammonium iodide (BCl3/TBAI) is typically more effective than boron tribromide (BBr3). Based on these findings we carried out the first syntheses of dehydro-δ-viniferin, resveratrol-piceatannol hybrid and anigopreissin A...
December 22, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Melvyn B Ansell, George E Kostakis, Holger Braunschweig, Oscar Navarro, John Spencer
The bis(N-heterocyclic carbene)(diphenylacetylene)palladium complex [Pd(ITMe)2(PhC≡CPh)] (ITMe=1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazol-2-ylidene) acts as a highly active pre-catalyst in the diboration and silaboration of azobenzenes to synthesize a series of novel functionalized hydrazines. The reactions proceed using commercially available diboranes and silaboranes under mild reaction conditions.
December 7, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Daniel Schwendenwein, Giuseppe Fiume, Hansjörg Weber, Florian Rudroff, Margit Winkler
The enzymatic reduction of carboxylic acids is in its infancy with only a handful of biocatalysts available to this end. We have increased the spectrum of carboxylate-reducing enzymes (CARs) with the sequence of a fungal CAR from Neurospora crassa OR74A (NcCAR). NcCAR was efficiently expressed in E. coli using an autoinduction protocol at low temperature. It was purified and characterized in vitro, revealing a broad substrate acceptance, a pH optimum at pH 5.5-6.0, a Tm of 45 °C and inhibition by the co-product pyrophosphate which can be alleviated by the addition of pyrophosphatase...
November 3, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Jacqueline Jiménez, Byeong-Seon Kim, Patrick J Walsh
Isoindolinones comprise an important class of medicinally active compounds. Herein we report a straightforward functionalization of the isoindolinones with aryl bromides (22 examples) using a Pd(OAc)2/NIXANTPHOS-based catalyst system. Additionally 3-aryl 3-hydroxy isoindolinone derivatives, which exhibit anti-tumor activity, can be accessed via a tandem reaction. Thus, when the arylation product is exposed to air under basic conditions, in situ oxidation takes place to install the 3-hydroxyl group. Furthermore, a tandem arylation/allylic substitution reaction is advanced in which both the arylation and allylic substitution are catalyzed by the same palladium catalyst...
September 1, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Wen-Bo Chen, Chun-Hui Xing, Jie Dong, Qiao-Sheng Hu
The use of electron-poor, fluoro-containing arylboronic acids as general coupling partners for nickel(0) /tricyclohexylphosphine-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl arenesulfonates is described. Electron-poor fluoro-containing arylboronic acids were found to react, faster than electron-rich/neutral arylboronic acids, with (4-methoxyphenyl)(4-methylbenzenesulfonato-κO)bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)nickel. Bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0)/tricyclohexylphosphine, (4-methoxyphenyl)(4-methylbenzenesulfonato-κO)bis(tricyclohexylpho sphine)nickel and bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)nickel (II) bromide were all found to be efficient catalysts/catalyst precursors...
June 30, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Bing Zheng, Minyan Li, Gui Gao, Yuying He, Patrick J Walsh
A Palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of sulfonamides with aryl chlorides is presented. A Buchwald type precatalyst formed with Kwong's indole-based ligand enabled this transformation to be compatible with a large variety of methyl sulfonamides and aryl chlorides in good to excellent yields. Importantly, under the optimized reaction conditions, only mono-arylated products were observed. This method has been applied to the efficient synthesis of sumatriptan, which is used to treat migraines.
June 30, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Minyan Li, Baris Yucel, Jacqueline Jiménez, Madeline Rotella, Yue Fu, Patrick J Walsh
An umpolung synthesis of diarylmethylamine derivatives is presented. This reaction entails a Pd catalyzed arylation of 1,3-diaryl-2-azaallyl anions, in situ generated from N -benzyl aldimines. A Pd(NIXANTPHOS)-based catalyst together with hindered silylamide bases enabled the coupling of aldimines with aryl bromides in good to excellent yields without product isomerization. Moreover, regioselectivity in the arylation of unsymmetrical 1,3-diaryl-2-azaallyl anions was studied. This method is suitable for a gram scale synthesis of diarylmethylamine derivatives at room temperature without use of a glovebox...
June 16, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
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