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Spanish Journal of Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065215/a-comparative-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-the-cultural-cognition-of-humans-and-other-apes
#1
Andrew Whiten
The comparative and evolutionary analysis of social learning and all manner of cultural processes has become a flourishing field. Applying the 'comparative method' to such phenomena allows us to exploit the good fortunate we have in being able to study them in satisfying detail in our living primate relatives, using the results to reconstruct the cultural cognition of the ancestral forms we share with these species. Here I offer an overview of principal discoveries in recent years, organized through a developing scheme that targets three main dimensions of culture: the patterning of culturally transmitted traditions in time and space; the underlying social learning processes; and the particular behavioral and psychological contents of cultures...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065214/the-evolution-of-human-uniqueness
#2
Robert Boyd
The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065213/the-ecology-of-social-learning-in-animals-and-its-link-with-intelligence
#3
Carel van Schaik, Sereina Graber, Caroline Schuppli, Judith Burkart
Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065201/the-foundations-of-human-cooperation-in-teaching-and-imitation
#4
Kevin N Laland
Humans exhibit extensive large-scale cooperation, of a form unprecedented in the natural world. Here I suggest that this cooperation arises in our species alone because of our uniquely potent capacities for social learning, imitation and teaching, combined with the co-evolutionary feedbacks that these capabilities have generated on the human mind. Culture took human populations down evolutionary pathways not available to non-cultural species, either by creating conditions that promoted established cooperative mechanisms, such as indirect reciprocity and mutualism, or by generating novel cooperative mechanisms not seen in other taxa, such as cultural group selection...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065192/cognition-and-culture-in-evolutionary-context
#5
Fernando Colmenares, María Victoria Hernández-Lloreda
In humans and other animals, the individuals' ability to adapt efficiently and effectively to the niches they have actively contributed to construct relies heavily on an evolved psychology which has been shaped by biological, social, and cultural processes over evolutionary time. As expected, although many of the behavioral and cognitive components of this evolved psychology are widely shared across species, many others are species-unique. Although many animal species are known to acquire group-specific traditions (or cultures) via social learning, human culture is unique in terms of its contents and characteristics (observable and unobservable products, cumulative effects, norm conformity, and norm enforcement) and of its cognitive underpinnings (imitation, instructed teaching, and language)...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955716/development-and-feasibility-of-a-virtual-reality-task-for-the-cognitive-assessment-of-older-adults-the-eco-vr
#6
Camila R Oliveira, Brandel José P Lopes Filho, Michael A Sugarman, Cristiane S Esteves, Margarida Maria B M P Lima, Carmen Moret-Tatay, Tatiana Q Irigaray, Irani Iracema L Argimon
Cognitive assessment with virtual reality (VR) may have superior ecological validity for older adults compared to traditional pencil-and-paper cognitive assessment. However, few studies have reported the development of VR tasks. The aim of this study was to present the development, feasibility, content validity, and preliminary evidence of construct validity of an ecological task of cognitive assessment for older adults in VR (ECO-VR). The tasks were prepared based on theoretical and clinical backgrounds. We had 29 non-expert judges identify virtual visual stimuli and three-dimensional scenarios, and five expert judges assisted with content analysis and developing instructions...
December 13, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919314/advances-in-the-neuroscience-of-intelligence-from-brain-connectivity-to-brain-perturbation
#7
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Simone Rossi
Our view is that intelligence, as expression of the complexity of the human brain and of its evolutionary path, represents an intriguing example of "system level brain plasticity": tangible proofs of this assertion lie in the strong links intelligence has with vital brain capacities as information processing (i.e., pure, rough capacity to transfer information in an efficient way), resilience (i.e., the ability to cope with loss of efficiency and/or loss of physical elements in a network) and adaptability (i...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919311/education-and-intelligence-pity-the-poor-teacher-because-student-characteristics-are-more-significant-than-teachers-or-schools
#8
Douglas K Detterman
Education has not changed from the beginning of recorded history. The problem is that focus has been on schools and teachers and not students. Here is a simple thought experiment with two conditions: 1) 50 teachers are assigned by their teaching quality to randomly composed classes of 20 students, 2) 50 classes of 20 each are composed by selecting the most able students to fill each class in order and teachers are assigned randomly to classes. In condition 1, teaching ability of each teacher and in condition 2, mean ability level of students in each class is correlated with average gain over the course of instruction...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919297/fluid-intelligence-and-the-cross-frequency-coupling-of-neuronal-oscillations
#9
Adam Chuderski
Several existing theoretical models predict that the individual capacity of working memory and abstract reasoning (fluid intelligence) strongly depends on certain features of neuronal oscillations, especially their cross-frequency coupling. Empirical evidence supporting these predictions is still scarce, but it makes the future studies on oscillatory coupling a promising line of research that can uncover the physiological underpinnings of fluid intelligence. Cross-frequency coupling may serve as the optimal level of description of neurocognitive processes, integrating their genetic, structural, neurochemical, and bioelectrical underlying factors with explanations in terms of cognitive operations driven by neuronal oscillations...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919295/advances-in-intelligence-research-what-should-be-expected-in-the-xxi-century-questions-answers
#10
Roberto Colom
Here I briefly delineate my view about the main question of this International Seminar, namely, what should we expecting from the XXI Century regarding the advancements in intelligence research. This view can be summarized as 'The Brain Connection' (TBC), meaning that neuroscience will be of paramount relevance for increasing our current knowledge related to the key question: why are some people smarter than others? We need answers to the issue of what happens in our brains when the genotype and the environment are integrated...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917748/making-brains-run-faster-are-they-becoming-smarter
#11
Anja Pahor, Norbert Jaušovec
A brief overview of structural and functional brain characteristics related to g is presented in the light of major neurobiological theories of intelligence: Neural Efficiency, P-FIT and Multiple-Demand system. These theories provide a framework to discuss the main objective of the paper: what is the relationship between individual alpha frequency (IAF) and g? Three studies were conducted in order to investigate this relationship: two correlational studies and a third study in which we experimentally induced changes in IAF by means of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)...
December 5, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917739/do-cognitive-and-physical-functions-age-in-concert-from-age-70-to-76-evidence-from-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#12
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
The present study concerns the relation of mental and bodily characteristics to one another during ageing. The 'common cause' theory of ageing proposes that declines are shared across multiple, seemingly-disparate functions, including both physical and intellectual abilities. The concept of 'reserve' suggests that healthier cognitive (and perhaps bodily) functions from early in life are protective against the effects of senescence across multiple domains. In three waves of physical and cognitive testing data from the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,091 at age 70 years; n = 866 at 73; n = 697 at 76), we used multivariate growth curve modeling to test the 'common cause' and 'reserve' hypotheses...
December 5, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917731/the-measurement-of-intelligence-in-the-xxi-century-using-video-games
#13
M A Quiroga, F J Román, J De La Fuente, J Privado, R Colom
This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played "Professor Layton and the curious village"® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = ...
December 5, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881207/perceived-stress-and-social-adaptation-of-the-primary-caregivers-of-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#14
Mohd Ashik Shahrier, Md Nurul Islam, Mou-Mita Debroy
The study aimed to explore whether McCubbin and Patterson's Double ABCX model of stress and adaptation can promote a better understanding of the impacts of social support, definition of the stressor and coping strategies on stress and adaptation of the primary caregivers of Intellectually Disabled (ID) children above and beyond the effects of other factors. Structured Interview Schedule, Perceived Stress Scale (Keya, 2006) and Social Adjustment Scale (Mahmuda & Parvin, 2005) were administered on 130 caregivers of ID children and 140 caregivers of typically developing children recruited conveniently...
November 24, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881203/validation-of-the-spanish-version-of-the-school-engagement-measure-sem
#15
Estibaliz Ramos-Díaz, Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández, Lorena Revuelta
The scientific study of school engagement has recently been the subject of considerable interest in the field of educational psychology, and significant advances have been made in our knowledge of this construct. For instance, there is currently consensus in the scientific community that it is multifaceted, and has three dimensions: behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement. However, more advanced statistical analyses are needed to validate Spanish-language measures of school engagement, which this study proposes to do...
November 24, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881196/assessment-of-reading-precursors-in-spanish-speaking-children
#16
Anibal Puente, Jesús M Alvarado, Paz Fernández, Mónica Rosselli, Alfredo Ardila, Amelia Jiménez
This study's purpose was to analyse basic reading processes in different age groups of Spanish-speaking children using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and regression analysis. Two hundred forty-five children (aged 4 years and 9 months, to 9 years and 7 months; 120 boys, 125 girls), native Spanish-speakers, were selected from schools in Madrid. All participants were in either their last year of preschool or the first three years of elementary school, depending on their age. Nine classic reading tasks were created and administered to measure three reading skills: word recognition, phonological awareness, and reading comprehension...
November 24, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876106/hubris-and-humility-effect-and-the-domain-masculine-intelligence-type-in-two-countries-colombia-and-the-uk
#17
Josephine Storek, Adrian Furnham
Spanish-speaking Colombian (n = 50) and English-speaking British (N = 52) adults completed a self-assessed intelligence measure that yielded a score on domain-masculine intelligence (DMIQ), a composite of mathematical/logical and spatial intelligences. They also completed a Sex Role inventory in order to establish their masculinity and femininity. Males in both countries gave significantly higher self-estimates (Colombia: Males 110.36, Females 100.75, d = .94; England: Males 114.37, Females 105.75, d = .86; both p < ...
November 23, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873568/can-big-five-facets-distinguish-between-hedonic-and-eudaimonic-well-being-a-dominance-analysis
#18
Rosario J Marrero, Mar Rey, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera
In this study, the aim was to analyze the relative importance of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality facets for eudaimonic or psychological well-being (PWB) and hedonic or subjective well-being (SWB) through dominance analyses. The participants were 1,403 adult residents of Spain (mean age 37.2 years, SD = 13.9). As expected, facets captured a substantial proportion of the variance in PWB and SWB, with PWB being better predicted than SWB (explaining around 36-55% of the variance of PWB vs. 25% of the variance of SWB)...
November 22, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873562/validation-of-the-maslach-burnout-inventory-general-survey-on-a-representative-sample-of-dominican-teachers-normative-data
#19
José M Tomás, Saturnino de Los Santos, Alicia Alonso-Andres, Irene Fernández
Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment (Bakke, Demerouti, & Sanz-Vergel, 2014). Several instruments for its measurement exist, but the most widely used scale for measuring its dimensions, by far, is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) in its different versions. Among the available versions of the scale, the MBI-General Survey was developed to measure three dimensions of burnout (cynicism, personal accomplishment, and emotional exhaustion) regardless of the type of work...
November 22, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852347/gendering-guilt-among-dependent-family-members-caregivers
#20
Maria-Teresa Brea, María-Jesús Albar, Rosa Casado-Mejia
This study analyzes guilt among family caregivers of dependent patients, from a gender perspective. A qualitative design was used, conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups. Using purposive sampling, we selected 73 family caregivers and 23 health professionals (family medicine, community nursing, and social work) from the Primary Care District of Seville. The content of the information collected was analyzed in terms of the following categories: a) guilt for abandoning family and friends; b) guilt for the relationship with the dependent person; and c) guilt for placing the relative in a nursing home...
November 17, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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