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Spanish Journal of Psychology

Letizia Caso, Fridanna Maricchiolo, Stefano Livi, Aldert Vrij, Nicola Palena
The present experiment examined how the interaction between senders' communicative competence, veracity and the medium through which judgments were made affected observers' accuracy. Stimuli were obtained from a previous study. Observers (N = 220) judged the truthfulness of statements provided by a good truth teller, a good liar, a bad truth teller, and a bad liar presented either via an audio-only, video-only, audio-video, or transcript format. Log-linear analyses showed that the data were best explained via the saturated model, therefore indicating that all the four variables interacted, G2(0) = 0, p = 1, Q2 = 1...
November 13, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Juan Manuel Machimbarrena, Maite Garaigordobil
Bullying and cyberbullying pose a serious problem in our schools. Despite this research area's increasing relevance, most research into cyberbullying in the present day has focused only on adolescents. However, given the long-lasting effects of victimization, it is necessary to understand its prevalence throughout the different educational stages of students. This study aims to clarify the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying among students in the 5th and 6th grades. A sample of 1,993 (Mage = 10.68, SD = 0...
October 29, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Jesús Alonso-Tapia, Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz, Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Miguel Ruiz Díaz, Carmen Nieto
Although resilience varies depending on the specific type of adverse situation faced by the individual, to date resilience questionnaires do not consider its situational character. This study aims to develop and validate the Situated Subjective Resilience Questionnaire for Adults (SSRQA), which assesses resilience in five different adverse contexts. A total of 584 Spanish adults (including general population and clinical samples individuals) completed the SSRQA and other measures of resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy...
October 29, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Itziar Fernández, Amparo Caballero, Dolores Muñoz, Pilar Aguilar, Pilar Carrera
From a dispositional perspective, we extend the action identification theory (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987) and construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) to cross-situational consistency of self and self-control. Two studies examined the relationships among the abstract mindset (Vallacher & Wegner, 1989), cross-situational consistency in self-concept (Vignoles et al., 2016), and self-control (Tangney, Baumeister, and Boone 2004). In Study 1, participants (N = 725) characterized by high cross-situational consistency showed more abstraction in their thinking (p < ...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Carmen Touza, Rosario Martínez-Arias, Carmen Prado
The objectives of this study were to replicate the analyses conducted by the creators of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen with a Spanish sample group and compare the results, to present new validity evidences, to analyze which items were more relevant in the detection of situations of risk of abuse, and to establish a cut-off point to interpret the obtained scores. The IOA was used by 46 professionals from social services teams who assessed the situation of 231 elderly individuals and their main caregivers...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
María Ávila, Pilar Sanjuán
Motivation and coping are two of the most relevant factors associated to well-being. One of our objectives was to describe the motivation to pursue the personal goals, the coping strategies used to pursue them, and the levels of well-being experienced, in a group of people serving prison sentences (n = 175: 143 males and 32 females). We mainly wanted to study the joint contribution of motivation and coping on their well-being. The results have shown that motivation and coping contribute to the different dimensions of well-being...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Ivette Vargas-de la Cruz, Rebeca Pardo-Cebrián, Héctor Martínez Sánchez, María Xesús Froján-Parga
It has been suggested that achieving greater effectiveness in psychotherapeutic treatment requires analyzing what therapists actually do and say, how they do this and when it is done. Based on this approach, in this study we focused on the rules emitted by therapists, since providing rules is thought to be of fundamental importance in promoting effective and efficient clinical change. Specifically, we sought to determine whether the experience level of therapists and the brevity of therapy would be related to patterns of therapist rule emission as categorized by the Category System of Rules emitted by the Therapist (SISC-RULES-T) (Vargas-de la Cruz & Pardo-Cebrián, 2014)...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Inge Schweiger Gallo, Miryam Rodríguez Monter, José Luis Álvaro-Estramiana, Juan Ignacio Durán, José-Miguel Fernández-Dols
The Spanish term grima refers to the aversive emotional experience typically evoked when one hears, for example, a scratch upon a chalkboard. Whereas Spanish speakers can distinguish between the concepts of grima and disgust, English and German speakers lack a specific word for this experience and typically label grima as disgust. In the present research, we tested the degree of differentiation between the two aversive experiences in Spanish speakers. Study 1 addressed whether Spanish speakers apply spontaneously the term grima rather than disgust to grima-eliciting experiences...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Allan B I Bernardo, Sheri R Levy, Asley E Lytle
The Protestant work ethic (PWE), or the belief that hard work leads to success, is a popular belief across cultures. Much work indicates that PWE contributes to negative evaluations of disadvantaged groups presumably through the notion that they deserve their disadvantage for not working hard enough ("PWE-Justifier"). But there is another dimension of PWE that expresses the belief that everyone could succeed through hard work ("PWE-Equalizer"). We propose that the PWE-Justifier is meaningful in cultures that emphasize individualism and personal responsibility, but not in others...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Leandro da Silva-Sauer, Luis Valero-Aguayo, Francisco Velasco-Álvarez, Álvaro Fernández-Rodríguez, Ricardo Ron-Angevin
This study aimed to propose an adapted feedback using a psychological learning technique based on Skinner's shaping method to help the users to modulate two cognitive tasks (right-hand motor imagination and relaxed state) and improve better control in a Brain-Computer Interface. In the first experiment, a comparative study between performance in standard feedback (N = 9) and shaping method (N = 10) was conducted. The NASA Task Load Index questionnaire was applied to measure the user's workload. In the second experiment, a single case study was performed (N = 5) to verify the continuous learning by the shaping method...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Mikel Jimenez, Pedro R Montoro
In the present study, we conducted two experiments (Experiment 1: 35 participants, M = 29; SD = 8.4; Experiment 2: 36 participants, M = 25; SD = 6.1) with the intention to explore whether underlying perceptual grouping operations and illusory form perception generate dissociable priming effects when Kanizsa-like figures are presented as primes and the rotated inducers as controls under conditions of restricted awareness. Using five different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA conditions, Experiment 1: 27, 40 and 53 ms; Experiment 2: 27, 80 and 227 ms), we displayed masked illusory and groping primes that could be congruent or incongruent in their orientation with subsequent probe stimuli (vertical vs...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Dimitrios Lampropoulos, Thémis Apostolidis
Medicalizing beliefs about schizophrenia (biogenetic causes and psychiatric labels) are connected to the belief that people with schizophrenia are dangerous and to discriminating intentions towards them. In this research, we draw on the Social Dominance theory and we examine these beliefs as legitimizing myths that are connected to the individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) and that legitimize discrimination. In total, 238 Humanities students participated in the current research (Mage = 20.4; SD = 3...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Ginés Navarro-Carrillo, Ana M Beltrán-Morillas, Inmaculada Valor-Segura, Francisca Expósito
Despite the fact that literature regarding the implications of envy in the work environment has generated growing interest in recent years, the role of malicious and benign envy in the workplace has scarcely been studied. Therefore, the present study, using an experimental design, N = 213 (140 female and 73 male; Mage = 31.05, SD = 10.01; range from 18 to 68), aims to examine the effects of malicious (vs. benign) envy on perceived injustice, negative emotions, and the individual tendency to express counterproductive work behaviors...
October 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Fabiana Rego Freitas, Sonia Regina Pasian
The investigation of personality using the Rorschach Method has been historically established, however, its proper use requires continuous study, especially in regard to reliability, validity and normative references. This study's objective was to verify stability indicators of Rorschach (French Approach) through a reassessment (after 15 years) of non-patient adults previously addressed in the normative study by Pasian (1998). A total of 88 adults, aged between 34 and 69 years old, of both sexes, with different socio-economic and educational levels, were reassessed in 2013 in the state of São Paulo, Brazil...
October 2, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Celeste Simões, Francisco Rivera, Carmen Moreno, Margarida Gaspar de Matos
School performance is a critical aspect of adolescents' lives. Several factors have an impact on school performance. The aim of this study is to analyze the relevant personal and contextual variables associated with top performance and low achievement in a sample of Portuguese and Spanish adolescent students. The sample included 1,564 adolescents, mean age 14 years old, and was collected from the HBSC (Health Behavior in School-aged Children) survey. The questions in this study covered sociodemographic, health and wellbeing, health-related behaviors, family, school and peers...
September 24, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Jorge Javier Ricarte, Eva Aizpurúa, Laura Ros, José Miguel Latorre, Filip Raes
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is considered a transdiagnostic variable underlying common symptoms (e.g., depressed mood) across various mood disorders. Depressive rumination is one typical and frequent manifestation of RNT and is a well-known vulnerability factor of depression onset, maintenance and recurrence. Due to the time-related constraints in assessment settings and the association of rumination on sadness with diagnosis of depression, the rapid identification of individuals scoring high on this construct may become a useful screening tool in non-clinical samples...
August 13, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Alexandra Marques-Pinto, Élvio Henriques Jesus, Aida Maria Oliveira Cruz Mendes, Inês Fronteira, Magda Sofia Roberto
The nature of the turnover process calls for the study of more complex relationships among variables beyond simple bivariate or multiple associations between predictors and turnover intentions. The present article aims to examine the predictive value of job demands and resources in the explanation of nurses' intention to leave the organization and to test the mediating roles of professional burnout and engagement in these relationships, within a Portuguese nursing population. The research models were tested within the scope of the Registered Nurse Forecasting project...
August 8, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Livia de Freitas Keppeke, Teresa Helena Schoen
Visual-motor skill forms an important psycho diagnostic component and is associated with psycho-neurological aspects. The Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, widely used for the evaluation of this area, is meant for children up to 11 years. In adolescence, the changes associated with puberty generate nonlinear anthropometric development resulting in mild and temporary incoordination. This study investigated the relation between visual-motor development measured by the Bender test and pubertal changes according to the Tanner scale...
August 8, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Teresa Paula Marques, Alexandra Marques-Pinto, Maria-João Alvarez, Cícero Roberto Pereira
This study aimed to assess the risks and opportunities associated with Facebook usage and to explore the moderating role of psychosocial (mal)adjustment, nationality and age in these relationships. This correlational study involved a sample of 452 Brazilian and 500 Portuguese youths, aged between 14 and 20 years. Results showed that these youths spent a daily average of 61-120 minutes on Facebook, three to four times per week, displaying a positive attitude towards its use. These characteristics were most notable in the Brazilian youths [t(950) = 5...
August 8, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Liang Zhao
The action property of an object appears to function as an intrinsic part of its mental representation. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in cases where although the grasp response evoked by a visual object is irrelevant to a participant's task it still appears to be encoded. This is an affordance effect. Recent findings have shown that dangerous objects can modulate the motor system by evoking aversive affordances. However, the way the time course of response activation generated by the dangerous object develops remains unclear...
July 30, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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