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Current Cancer Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237381/targeting-fgfr-with-bgj398-in-breast-cancer-effect-on-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#1
Ana Sahores, Maria May, Gonzalo Sequeira, Cynthia Fuentes, Britta Jacobsen, Claudia Lanari, Caroline Ana Lamb
BACKGROUND: Endocrine resistance and metastatic dissemination comprise major clinical challenges for breast cancer treatment. The fibroblast growth factor receptor family (FGFR) consists of four tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptors, involved in key biological processes. Genomic alterations in FGFR have been identified in advanced breast cancer and thus, FGFR are an attractive therapeutic target. However, the efficacy of FGFR inhibitors on in vivo tumor growth is still controversial...
December 13, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189162/tunneling-nanotubes-a-versatile-target-for-cancer-therapy
#2
Pragyaparamita Sahoo, Soumya Ranjan Jena, Luna Samanta
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) are common acute leukemia in adults and children respectively. In therapy process of these malignancies, chemotherapy is the main strategy that fails in many of cases. Moreover, chemotherapy is usually associated with adverse effects it also damages the healthy cells. In this regard, development of new therapies is essential. Monoclonal antibodies directed to the cell surface markers of leukemic blasts may have promising consequences. These tools can provide a specific cell targeting with minimal toxic effects on other normal cells...
November 29, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189161/toxicology-of-trastuzumab-an-insight-into-mechanisms-of-cardiotoxicity
#3
Jie An, M Saeed Sheikh
Trastuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that is approved for the treatment of breast and gastric malignancies. Although it has shown promise as a biotherapeutic, its cardiotoxicity remains a major concern. Genotoxic anticancer anthracyclines such as doxorubicin and epirubicin are also known for their cardiotoxic effects. However, trastuzumab and anthracyclines are suggested to mediate cardiotoxicity via different pathways. The available lines of evidence suggest that trastuzumab can exacerbate the cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines and thus, prior exposure to anthracyclines is a regarded as one of the risk factors for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxcity...
November 29, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189160/role-of-glioma-associated-gli1-oncogene-in-carcinogenesis-and-cancer-targeted-therapy
#4
Jie Wu, Dingxin Di, Chen Zhao, Yingyi Liu, Hongxia Chen, Yan Gong, Xianda Zhao, Honglei Chen
Glioma-associated oncogenes (GLIs) are zinc finger protein family members and downstream regulatory factors of the classic Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. GLI proteins influence the growth and development of organisms and aid in tissue repair. However, aberrant expression of the GLI family member GLI1 promotes carcinogenesis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiogenesis, and other signaling pathways. Overexpression of GLI1 is thought to be an indicator of poor prognosis as well as a potential therapeutic target for cancers...
November 29, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189159/oncorine-the-world-first-oncolytic-virus-medicine-and-its-update-in-china
#5
Min Liang
The oncolytic viruses now hold a promise of new therapeutic strategy for cancer. Its concept has inspired a wave of commercial research and development activities for the products of this category in China since 1998. The first commercialized oncolytic virus product in the world, Oncorine (H101), developed by Shanghai Sunway Biotech Co., Ltd since 1999, was approved by Chinese SFDA in November, 2005 for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy after the phase III clinical trial, and finally acquired GMP certificate in August, 2006...
November 29, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189158/cancer-targeted-therapy-strategy-the-pathologist-s-perspectives
#6
Lara Alessandrini, Tiziana Perin, Shahin Kadare, Lino Del Pup, Lorenzo Memeo, Agostino Steffan, Lorenzo Colarossi, Massimiliano Berretta, Paolo De Paoli, Vincenzo Canzonieri
The effectiveness of new personalized treatment procedures in oncology is based on the fact that a certain tumor exhibits specific molecular features. More in detail, neoplastic tissues of patients should display a specific biomarker, most often a specific genetic alteration and/or under/overexpression of a definite protein, that could be the target of its respective drug. Immunohistochemical and molecular analyses, which usuallyinclude examination of nucleic acids from either tissues or fluids, are common tests to define the status of a tumor...
November 29, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173173/ar-copy-number-and-ar-signaling-directed-therapies-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#7
Samanta Salvi, Vincenza Conteduca, Cristian Lolli, Sara Testoni, Valentina Casadio, Andrea Zaccheroni, Lorena Rossi, Salvatore Luca Burgio, Cecilia Menna, Giuseppe Schepisi, Ugo De Giorgi
BACKGROUND: Adaptive upregulation of androgen receptor (AR) is the most common event involved in the progression from hormone sensitive to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR signaling remains the main target of new AR signalling-directed therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide in CRPC patients. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we discuss general mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies, with a focus on the role of AR copy number (CN). We reported methods and clinical applications of AR CN evaluation in tissue and liquid biopsy, thus to have a complete information regarding its role as predictive and prognostic biomarker...
November 22, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141550/autophagy-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-breast-cancer-treatment
#8
Natalia Lisiak, Ewa Toton, Maria Rybczynska
One of the crucial reasons of breast cancer therapy failure is an impairment of mechanisms responsible for metabolism and cellular homeostasis, which makes it difficult to foresee the response to the treatment. Targeted therapy in breast cancer is dictated by the expression of specific molecules such as growth factor or hormone receptors. Many types of breast cancer exhibit different abnormalities in the apoptotic pathway, which confer the resistance to many forms of chemotherapy. Because of the fundamental importance of autophagy in the development and progression of cancer and its ability to affect treatment response, there has been an immense research on molecular regulation and signal transduction mechanisms that control this process...
November 14, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141549/a-high-throughput-quantitative-expression-analysis-of-cancer-related-genes-in-human-hepg2-cells-in-response-to-limonene-a-potential-anticancer-agent
#9
Rand R Hafidh, Saba Z Hussein, Mohammed Q MalAllah, Ahmed S Abdulamir, Fatimah Abu Bakar
BACKGROUND: Citrus bioactive compounds, as active anticancer agent, have been under focus by several studies worldwide. However, the underlying genes responsible for the anticancer potential have not been sufficiently highlighted. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the gene expression profile of hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2, cells after treatment with Limonene. METHODS: The concentration that killed 50% of HepG2 cells was used to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of limonene anticancer activity...
November 14, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110617/degradation-of-androgen-receptor-through-small-molecules-for-prostate-cancer
#10
Raoling Ge, Xi Xu, Pengfei Xu, Lei Li, Zhiyu Li, Jinlei Bian
Prostate cancer is the most common carcinoma among aged males in western countries and more aggressive and lethal castration resistant prostate cancer often occurs after androgen deprivation therapy. The high expression of androgens and androgen receptor is closely related to prostate cancer. Efficient androgen receptor antagonists, such as enzalutamide and ARN-509, could be employed as potent anti-prostate cancer agents. Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed that F876L mutation in androgen receptor converts the action of enzalutamide and ARN-509 from an antagonist to agonist, so that novel strategies are urgent to address this resistance mechanism...
November 6, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110616/diallyl-disulfide-inhibits-breast-cancer-stem-cell-progression-and-glucose-metabolism-by-targeting-cd44-pkm2-ampk-signaling
#11
Xinhua Xie, Xiaojia Huang, Hailin Tang, Feng Ye, Lu Yang, Xiaofang Guo, Zhi Tian, Cheng Peng, Xiaoming Xie
It has been reported that diallyl disulfide (DADS) has anti-proliferative activity in many cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of DADS and the underlying mechanisms of its effect in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Mammosphere formation assay, glucose consumption assay, lactate production assay and mouse xenograft experiments were performed to explore the functions of DADS in BCSCs. ATPase activity assay, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay were conduct to explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of DADS in BCSCs...
October 24, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032751/development-in-drug-targeting-and-delivery-in-cervical-cancer
#12
Urvashi Aggarwal, Amit Kumar Goyal, Goutam Rath
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Standard treatment options available for cervical cancer including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy associated with their own side effects and toxicities. Tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer drugs is perhaps one of the most appropriate strategies to achieve optimal outcomes from treatment and improve quality of life. Recently nanocarriers based drug delivery systems owing to their unique properties have been extensively investigated for anticancer drug delivery...
October 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969556/ponatinib-a-review-of-efficacy-and-safety
#13
Fulvio Massaro, Matteo Molica, Massimo Breccia
Ponatinib is a third generation kinase inhibitor designed to overcome the gatekeeper T315I mutation. In different trials this drug showed inhibitory activity against native BCR-ABL1 kinase and several ABL1 mutations. For this reason, ponatinib is currently indicated for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in every phase of disease resistant and/or intolerant to dasatinib and nilotinib and for whom imatinib is not indicated anymore or for patients with T315I mutation. The drug is also indicated for Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)...
October 2, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969555/oxidative-stress-and-cancer-the-role-of-nrf2
#14
Soraya Sajadimajd, Mozafar Khazaei
Oxidative stress due to imbalance between ROS production and detoxification plays the pivotal role in determining cell fate. In response to excessive ROS, apoptotic signaling pathway is activated to promote normal cell death. However, through deregulation of biomolecules, high amount of ROS promotes carcinogenesis in cells with defective signaling factors. In this line, NRF2 appears to be as the master regulator to protect cells from oxidative and electrophilic stress. Nrf2 is an intracellular transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes to encode anti-oxidative enzymes, detoxifying factors, anti-apoptotic proteins and drug transporters...
October 2, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969535/the-pi3k-pathway-at-the-crossroads-of-cancer-and-the-immune-system-strategies-for-next-generation-immunotherapy-combinations
#15
Dearbhaile Collins, Maxime Chenard-Poirier, Juanita Lopez
Immunotherapy has led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of some malignancies, providing long-term, durable responses for a subset of patients with advanced cancers. Increasingly, research has identified links between the immune system and critical oncogenic growth factor pathways. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mTOR cascade is frequently hyperactivated in cancer, and plays an integral role in many cellular processes including tumour growth and survival and can underlie resistance to therapies. In this review, we first summarize two key learnings from the initial studies of inhibitors of this pathway, including the profile of immune-related adverse events such as colitis, transaminitis and pneumonitis and the increased incidence of infections with the majority of agents that target the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway...
September 26, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914191/neoisoliquiritigenin-inhibits-tumor-progression-by-targeting-grp78-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-breast-cancer
#16
Hailin Tang, Fu Peng, Xiaojia Huang, Xinhua Xie, Bo Chen, Jiangang Shen, Fei Gao, Jieshu You, Xiaoming Xie, Jianping Chen
Although breast cancer mortality has been stable or decreasing in the world, its incidence and recurrence rates have sharply risen worldwide in recent years. Identification of novel preventative biomarkers and drugs for breast cancer has become an urgent issue worldwide. Recently, GRP78 demonstrated a critical role in mediating tumorigenesis, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the impact of GRP78 in breast cancer and clinical characteristics remains unclear. In this study, we found that GRP78 could promote breast cancer initiation and progression, and higher expression of GRP78 indicated poorer state of breast cancer patients, suggesting that GRP78 was a significant oncogene with the potential to be a novel biomarker and target in clinical investigation...
September 14, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875836/coinhibitory-molecule-pd-1-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-microenvironment-of-multiple-myeloma
#17
Djordje Atanackovic, Tim Luetkens, Mary Steinbach, Nicolaus Kröger
Immunological dysfunction in the microenvironment of multiple myeloma is a potential target for immune-mediated therapies. The programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor is expressed on the surface of exhausted T and B cells and its ligand PD-L1 is expressed on tumor cells and inhibits T-cell-mediated apoptosis. Inhibiting such "checkpoint" by monoclonal antibodies recently has been shown high activity in solid tumors and malignant lymphomas. In patients with multiple myeloma PD-L1 is overexpressed on myeloma cells and PD1 on T-cells suggesting an active role of PD- 1/PD-L1 in the immunosuppressive microenvironment...
September 6, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820056/involvement-of-cd24-in-multiple-cancer-related-pathways-makes-it-an-interesting-new-target-for-cancer-therapy
#18
Shirin Eyvazi, Bahram Kazemi, Siavoush Dastmalchi, Mojgan Bandehpour
CD24 (cluster of differentiation 24) is a small heavy glycosylated protein, which is overexpressed in many cancer and some cancer stem cells and is associated with the development, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The exact role of CD24 in these processes is not fully understood, however, in this article, it has been tried to present collection of cancer-related mechanisms attributed to CD24. Based on the literature, CD24 dis-regulates different signaling pathways in various cancer cells, including; Src kinases, STAT3, EGFR, Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK...
August 18, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786349/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-intestinal-polyps-in-apcmin-mice
#19
Ashish Saxena, Ravinder Tammali, Kota V Ramana, Satish K Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that obesity is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular intake of high fat-containing diet can promote obesity and metabolic syndrome by increasing the insulin resistance and inflammatory response which contribute to carcinogenesis. Previously, we have shown that inhibition of polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR) prevents carcinogens- and inflammatory growth factors-induced CRC. However, the effect of AR inhibition on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced formation of intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia; ApcMin/+) mice is not known...
August 8, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786348/clinical-evidence-on-the-magnitude-of-change-in-growth-pathway-activity-in-relation-to-tamoxifen-resistance-is-required
#20
Sepideh Mansouri, Leila Farahmand, Azin Teymourzadeh, Keivan Majidzadeh-A
BACKGROUND: Despite prolonged disease-free survival and overall survival rates in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients undergoing adjuvant treatment, Tamoxifen therapy tends to fail due to eventual acquisition of resistance. OBJECTIVE: Although numerous studies have emphasized the role of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the development of Tamoxifen resistance, inadequate clinical evidence is available regarding the alteration of biomarker expression during acquired resistance, thus undermining the validity of the findings...
August 8, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
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