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Current Cancer Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067179/cd20-based-immunotherapy-of-b-cell-derived-hematologic-malignancies
#1
Dariush Shanehbandi, Jafar Majidi, Tohid Kazemi, Behzad Baradaran, Leili Aghebati-Maleki
CD20 is a surface antigen which is expressed at certain stages of B-cell differentiation. Targeting the CD20-positive B-cells with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been an effectual strategy in the treatment of hematologic malignancies such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Initial success with Rituximab (RTX) has encouraged the creation and development of more effective CD20 based therapeutics. However, treatment with conventional MAbs has not been adequate to overcome the problems such as refractory/relapsed disease...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067178/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-recent-progress-and-future-prospects
#2
Avineesh Singh, Preeti Patel, Vijay K Patel, Deepak K Jain, Ravichandran Veerasamy, Prabodh C Sharma, Harish Rajak
Colorectal cancer is a devastating disease with a dismal prognosis which is heavily hampered by delayed diagnosis. Surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the curative options. Due to few therapeutic treatments available i.e., mono and combination therapy and development of resistance towards drug response, novel and efficacious therapy is urgently needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are emerging class of therapeutic agents having potential anticancer activity with minimal toxicity for different types of malignancies in preclinical studies...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067177/recent-advances-in-application-of-poly-epsilon-caprolactone-and-its-derivative-copolymers-for-controlled-release-of-anti-tumor-drugs
#3
Zhiqiang Sun, Ranglong Duan, Dejun Xing, Xuan Pang, Zhiying Li, Xuesi Chen
Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) and its derivative copolymers have been extensively studied as drug carriers in pharmaceutical and medical fields, especially for controlled release of anti-tumor drugs. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, PCL based drug delivery systems lead to major advantages including uniform drug distribution, long term of degradation and drug release process, non-toxic in nature and cyto-compatible with body tissues. Approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), PCL provides a promising platform for design and fabrication of anti-tumor drug delivery systems with controllable drug release behaviors...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067176/the-linkage-between-inflammation-and-immune-tolerance-interfering-with-inflammation-in-cancer
#4
Vladimir Stanislavovich Rogovskii
Inflammation is linked to immune tolerance. In pregnancy and in immune privileged organs constitutive low-grade inflammation is required for maintaining immunological tolerance. Apart from immune tolerance in normality, there is the phenomenon of immune tolerance in cancer which mediates tumor escape from the immune system. It is widely accepted that, in many situations, chronic inflammation critically contributes to cancer. Like other types of immune tolerance, tumor-induced tolerance is also mediated by inflammation...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029074/a-rational-approach-to-target-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-glioblas
#5
Madan M Kwatra
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly brain cancer, and all attempts to control it have failed so far. However, the future looks bright, as we now know the molecular landscape of GBM through the work of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. GBMs exhibit significant inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, and to control this type of tumor, a personalized approach is required. One target, whose gene is amplified and mutated in a large number of GBMs, is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). But all attempts to target it have been unsuccessful...
December 26, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004613/the-role-of-egfr-met-interactions-in-the-pathogenesis-of-glioblastoma-and-resistance-to-treatment
#6
Gao Guo, Ram N Narayan, Lindsay Horton, Toral R Patel, Amyn A Habib
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. It is a devastating and intractable disease with a poor outcome. Aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is a key driver in gliomagenesis and resistance to treatment. EGFR gene amplification and mutations are an important genetic alteration in GBM resulting in increased expression of EGFR wild type (EGFRwt) as well as mutant oncogenic forms of the EGFR. EGFRvIII is the most common oncogenic mutant in GBM and is usually co-expressed with EGFRwt...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993118/nsaids-induced-regulation-of-alternatively-spliced-transcript-isoforms-possible-role-in-cancer-and-alzheimer-disease
#7
Mohammed Amir Husain, Sayeed Ur Rehman, Tarique Sarwar, Hassan Mubarak Ishqi, Mohammad Tabish
Alternative splicing is one of the post transcriptional modifications through which multiple mRNA isoforms are produced from any gene, also known as splice variants. These are expressed in tissue and developmental stage specific manner that are important during the development. Most human genes undergo alternative splicing, thus contributing to the diversity of proteins. However, many abnormal splicing processes may result in human diseases. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medications that act as analgesics, anti-pyretics and anti-inflammatory by affecting Cox genes and their products...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993117/role-of-genomic-alterations-in-her2-positive-breast-carcinoma-focus-on-susceptibility-and-trastuzumab-therapy
#8
Heena Singla, Sourav Kalra, Preeti Kheterpal, Vinod Kumar, Anjana Munshi
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening malignancy among women, across the globe. HER2 positive is a distinct breast cancer subtype, on account of its unique biology and physiological behavior. Amplification of HER2 oncogene/polysomy 17 leads to HER2 overexpression that is a significant causal implication in HER2 positive breast cancer. HER2 gene variants, as well as other genes/gene variants, are involved in its overexpression, disease prognosis and in predicting the susceptibility towards HER2 positive breast cancer Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is the most commonly used therapy for treating patients with HER2 positive status...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993116/molecular-approaches-target-to-immunotherapy-for-hpv-associated-cancers
#9
Fang Zhou, Lifang Zhang, Kong-Nan Zhao
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPVs) causes many cancers, which account for about 10-20% of total human cancers. Two recently developed prophylactic vaccines against virus infection confer strong immunogenicity to provide long-term protection. The use of these vaccines has contributed to a substantial decrease in the rates of cervical cancer the second most common cancer of women worldwide. However, therapeutic vaccines that can eliminate pre-existing HPV infections and treat an existing HPV- caused cancer have not been developed...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993115/virus-oncolytic-virus-and-human-prostate-cancer
#10
Guang Bin Liu, Liang Zhao, Lifang Zhang, Kong-Nan Zhao
Prostate cancer (PCa), a disease, is characterized by abnormal cell growth in the prostate - a gland in the male reproductive system. PCa is one of the leading causes of cancer death among men of all races. Although older age and a family history of the disease have been recognized as the risk factors of PCa, the cause of this cancer remains unclear. Mounting evidence suggests that infections with various viruses are causally linked to PCa pathogenesis. Published studies have provided strong evidence that at least two viruses (RXMV and HPV) contribute to prostate tumourigenicity and impact on the survival of patients with malignant PCa...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993114/hitting-a-moving-target-glioma-stem-cells-demand-new-approaches-in-glioblastoma-therapy
#11
Drew A Spencer, Brenda M Auffinger, Jason P Murphy, Megan E Muroski, Jian Qiao, Yureve Govind, Maciej S Lesniak
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to devastate patients and outfox investigators and clinicians despite the preponderance of research directed at its biology, pathogenesis and therapeutic advances. GBM routinely outlasts multidisciplinary treatment protocols, almost inevitably recurring in a yet more aggressive and resistant form with distinct genetic differences from the original tumor. Attempts to glean further insight into GBM point increasingly toward a subpopulation of cells with a stem-like phenotype...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993113/the-role-of-mifamurtide-in-chemotherapy-induced-osteoporosis-of-children-with-osteosarcoma
#12
Bellini Giulia, Di Pinto Daniela, Tortora Chiara, Manzo Iolanda, Punzo Francesca, Casale Fiorina, Rossi Francesca
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant bone tumor in childhood and young adulthood. Long-term survivors of OS patients show high prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures. The immunomodulatory mifamurtide, which modulates macrophages activity, improves disease outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of mifamurtide on macrophage component of bone, the osteoclasts, during chemotherapy in children with osteosarcoma. METHOD: Osteoclasts, obtained from peripheral blood cells of healthy donors were harvested in presence or not of mifamurtide...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093061/polyphyllin-ii-restores-sensitization-of-the-resistance-of-pc-9-zd-cells-to-gefitinib-by-a-negative-regulation-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#13
Ruzhen Zheng, Hao Jiang, Jinhui Li, Xinge Liu, Hongwei Xu
: EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are widely used for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a sensitizing EGFR mutation and provide a promising treatment strategy. However, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs restrict their application. The mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to TKIs have been explored and Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a very important role in NSCLC development as well as EGFR-TKI resistance. Polyphyllin II(PP II) is the main steroidal saponin constituent which derives from the root of Paris polychylia...
December 13, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928969/new-candidate-genes-for-lack-of-sensitivity-to-therapy-in-pediatric-leukemias
#14
Weronika Bereza, Joanna Szczepanek, Joanna Laskowska, Andrzej Tretyn
In recent years, significant development of molecular genetics has contributed to the better understanding of leukemogenesis and classification of the different leukemia subtypes. Patients diagnosed with acute leukemia usually undergo chemotherapy, which involves the induction of remission, consolidation of remission and maintenance therapy. Patients are still vulnerable to relapse due to differences in the sensitivity of leukemia cells to the chemotherapeutic agent, because of the active drugs removal from the cells, improving the repair of DNA damage or abnormalities in the apoptotic pathway...
December 8, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875952/in-vitro-sensitivity-profiling-of-neuroblastoma-cells-against-a-comprehensive-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitor-library-to-identify-agents-for-future-therapeutic-studies
#15
Anjali Singh, Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Aarthi Jayanthan, Aru Narendran
Solid tumors represent one of the most widespread causes of death in children across the world. Neuroblastoma (NB) constitutes about 8% of all childhood tumors, yet accounts for more than 15% of death, with an unacceptable overall survival rate. Despite the current multimodal therapeutic approaches involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy with myeloablative therapy and hematopoietic stem cell rescue, there is growing realization of the limitations of conventional agents to improve the outcome in high risk metastatic disease...
November 22, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903215/identification-of-novel-agents-for-the-treatment-of-brain-metastases-of-breast-cancer
#16
Vinay Kumar Venishetty, Werner J Geldenhuys, Tori B Terell-Hall, Jessica I G Griffith, Gregory R Sondag, Fayez F Safadi, Paul R Lockman
BACKGROUND: Brain cancer from metastasized breast cancer has a high mortality rate in women. The treatment of lesions is hampered in large part by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which prevents adequate distribution of anti-cancer compounds to brain metastases. METHOD: In this study we used a novel screening method to identify candidate molecules that are well-suited to utilizing the BBB choline transporter for distribution into the brain parenchyma. RESULTS: From our screen we identified two compounds, Ch-1 and Ch-2 that were able to reduce the brain tumor burden in a murine mouse model of brain metastasis of breast cancer...
November 21, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903214/chemotherapy-and-cardiotoxicity-in-hematologic-malignancies-a-review
#17
Antonio Stellitano, Roberta Fedele, Santina Barillà, Antonino Iaria, Carmelo Massimiliano Rao, Massimo Martino
Antineoplastic agents affect the cardiovascular system, and the incidence of cardiotoxicity is continuously growing in patients with hematologic malignancies and treated with antineoplastic therapy. Cardio-oncology is a quite young discipline, designed for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications of anticancer agents. Nowadays, with the current treatments and an accurate pharmacological control of comorbidities present at the time of the oncological diagnosis, early clinical events are infrequent, and it seems indeed that cardiotoxicity could emerge as time and years go by, after therapies completion...
November 21, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834128/studies-on-non-synonymous-polymorphisms-altering-human-dna-topoisomerase-ii-alpha-interaction-with-amsacrine-and-mitoxantrone-an-in-silico-approach
#18
Farzaneh Mohamadi Farsani, Mohamad Reza Ganjalikhany, Sadeq Vallian
DNA topoisomerase II-α (Top2-α), an essential enzyme for the management of DNA during replication, transcription, recombination, and chromatin remodeling, is one of the most important anticancer targets. Numerous molecules have been designed as Top2-α inhibitors. However, several studies have shown that polymorphisms and mutations in Top2 have conferred resistance to most of these anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to computationally examine the mechanisms by which genomic variations in Top2-α could affect its resistance to Amsacrine and Mitoxantrone as important inhibitors of the enzyme...
November 9, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799031/calcium-calpain-dependent-pathways-regulate-vesiculation-in-malignant-breast-cells
#19
Jack Taylor, Ritu Jaiswal, Mary Bebawy
Multidrug resistance in cancer (MDR) occurs when tumours become cross-resistant to a range of different anticancer agents. One mechanism by which MDR can be acquired is through cell to cell communication pathways. Membrane-derived microparticles (MPs) are emerging as important signaling molecules in this process. MPs are released from most eukaryotic cells and transfer functional proteins and nucleic acids to recipient cells conferring deleterious traits within the cancer cell population including MDR, metastasis, and angiogenesis...
October 26, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784207/does-hypoxic-response-mediate-primary-resistance-to-sunitinib-in-untreated-locally-advanced-breast-cancer
#20
Sofia Braga, Joana Cardoso, Saudade André, Margarida Brito, Pedro Sánchez, Lurdes Orvalho, Lucilia Salgado, Sérgio Dias, José B Pereira-Leal, José Luis Passos-Coelho
BACKGROUND: The antiangiogenic drug sunitinib has never been evaluated as single agent in untreated breast cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the activity of sunitinib, alone and with docetaxel, in untreated locally advanced or operable breast cancer and to uncover the mechanisms of response. METHOD: Patients were treated with an upfront window of sunitinib followed by four cycles of sunitinib plus docetaxel. Response, resistance and toxicity were evaluated according to standard clinical parameters, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, standard pathology characterization, molecular pathology and gene expression profiling...
October 25, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
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