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Current Diabetes Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721593/public-policies-and-interventions-for-diabetes-in-latin-america-a-scoping-review
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth Kaselitz, Gurpreet K Rana, Michele Heisler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful interventions are needed to diagnose and manage type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Latin America, a region that is experiencing a significant rise in rates of T2DM. Complementing an earlier review exploring diabetes prevention efforts in Latin America, this scoping review examines the literature on (1) policies and governmental programs intended to improve diabetes diagnosis and treatment in Latin America and (2) interventions to improve diabetes management in Latin America...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699089/cardiovascular-safety-of-antidiabetic-drugs-in-the-hospital-setting
#2
REVIEW
Stacey A Seggelke, Mark C Lindsay, Ingrid Hazlett, Rebecca Sanagorski, Robert H Eckel, Cecilia C Low Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with diabetes and/or stress hyperglycemia requires good glycemic control in the hospital setting, often requiring the use of glucose-lowering therapy. Standard-of-care dictates that non-insulin therapy be discontinued, with insulin therapy initiated using a basal-bolus approach. However, insulin is associated with a high risk for hypoglycemia and medical errors. Alternatives to insulin are needed in the inpatient setting, but the cardiovascular (CV) safety of non-insulin therapy is a concern...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695383/dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-cardiometabolic-risk
#3
REVIEW
Claudia Luévano-Contreras, Armando Gómez-Ojeda, Maciste Habacuc Macías-Cervantes, Ma Eugenia Garay-Sevilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681327/bariatric-surgery-for-adolescents-with-type-2-diabetes-an-emerging-therapeutic-strategy
#4
REVIEW
M A Stefater, T H Inge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing public health problem in youth, but conventional treatments are often insufficient to treat this disease and its comorbidities. We review evidence supporting an emerging role for bariatric surgery as a treatment for adolescent T2D. RECENT FINDINGS: Paralleling what has been seen in adult patients, bariatric surgery dramatically improves glycemic control in patients with T2D. In fact, remission of T2D has been observed in as many as 95-100% of adolescents with diabetes after bariatric surgery, particularly vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670660/memory-t-cells-in-type-1-diabetes-the-devil-is-in-the-detail
#5
REVIEW
Aditi Narsale, Joanna D Davies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapies that target beta-cell antigen-specific T cells subsets have not been as successful in patients with type 1 diabetes as in mice. This might be explained by complexities in the repertoire of beta-cell antigen-specific T cells and the variety of T cell subsets involved in type 1 diabetes development in human. RECENT FINDINGS: T cells that infiltrate islets of people with type 1 diabetes (i) react towards known islet cell antigens but also unknown antigens, (ii) differ from one patient to another, and (iii) are also present in the circulation, but not in the islets, of healthy people...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664253/social-determinants-of-health-and-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-type-2-diabetes-in-youth
#6
REVIEW
Ashley M Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pervasive disparities in T2DM among minority adults are well-documented, and scholars have recently focused on the role of social determinants of health (SDOH) in disparities. Yet, no research has summarized what is known about racial/ethnic disparities in youth-onset T2DM. This review summarizes the current literature on racial/ethnic disparities in youth-onset T2DM, discusses SDOH that are common among youth with T2DM, and introduces a conceptual model on the possible role of SDOH in youth-onset T2DM disparities...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664252/nutrition-and-hyperglycemia-management-in-the-inpatient-setting-meals-on-demand-parenteral-or-enteral-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
Andjela T Drincic, Jon T Knezevich, Padmaja Akkireddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to provide the latest evidence and expert recommendations for management of hospitalized patients with diabetes or hyperglycemia receiving enteral (EN), parenteral (PN) nutrition support or, those with unrestricted oral diet, consuming meals on demand. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with and without diabetes mellitus commonly develop hyperglycemia while receiving EN or PN support, placing them at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including in-hospital mortality...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660565/biopsychosocial-aspects-of-weight-management-in-type-1-diabetes-a-review-and-next-steps
#8
REVIEW
Kimberly A Driscoll, Karen D Corbin, David M Maahs, Richard Pratley, Franziska K Bishop, Anna Kahkoska, Korey K Hood, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the type 1 diabetes (T1D) and weight literature with an emphasis on barriers associated with weight management, the unique T1D-specific factors that impact weight loss success, maladaptive and adaptive strategies for weight loss, and interventions to promote weight loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Weight gain is associated with intensive insulin therapy. Overweight and obese weight status in individuals with T1D is higher than the general population and prevalence is rising...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646358/metabolomics-of-diabetes-in-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Carolyn F McCabe, Wei Perng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe ways in which metabolomics may enhance understanding of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) etiology and refine current diagnostic criteria. RECENT FINDINGS: Current clinical recommendations suggest screening for GDM between 24 and 28 of gestational weeks using an oral glucose tolerance test. Despite this consensus, there are discrepancies regarding the exact criteria for GDM diagnosis. Further, emerging evidence has unveiled heterogeneous physiological pathways underlying GDM-specifically, GDM with defective insulin secretion vs...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646357/management-of-hyperglycemia-and-diabetes-in-the-emergency-department
#10
REVIEW
Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, Rajesh Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglycemia in the emergency department (ED) is being recognized as a public health problem and presents a clinical challenge. This review critically summarizes available evidence on the burden, etiology, diagnosis, and practical management strategies for hyperglycemia in the ED. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are hyperglycemic emergencies that commonly present to the ED. However, the most common form of hyperglycemia in ED is associated with non-hyperglycemic medical emergencies...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646356/pharmacotherapy-in-the-management-of-pediatric-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Aaron S Kelly, Claudia K Fox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a rationale for the use of pharmacotherapy in pediatric weight management, summarizes results of some of the key pediatric clinical trials of approved and "off-label" obesity medications, introduces new options in the pediatric pipeline, and offers a glimpse into the future of pediatric obesity medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the need for adjunctive treatments to enhance the outcomes of lifestyle modification therapy among youth with obesity, none of the obesity medications evaluated to date have been shown to meaningfully reduce BMI or cardiometabolic risk factors...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597228/sglt2-i-in-the-hospital-setting-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-other-benefits-and-concerns
#12
REVIEW
Joshua A Levine, Susan L Karam, Grazia Aleppo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the newest class of antihyperglycemic agents. They are increasingly being prescribed in the outpatient diabetic population. In this review, we examine the risks and benefits of continuation and initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in the inpatient setting. RECENT FINDINGS: There are currently no published data regarding safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitor use in the hospital. Outpatient data suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors have low hypoglycemic risk...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593583/regulating-autophagy-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
REVIEW
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Itaru Monno, Daisuke Koya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autophagy promotes cellular health in response to various cellular stresses and to changes in nutrient conditions. In this review, we focus on the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and discuss the regulation of autophagy as a new therapeutic target for the suppression of diabetic nephropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous studies have indicated that autophagy deficiency or insufficiency in renal cells, including podocytes, mesangial cells, endothelial cells and tubular cells, contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573408/practical-recommendations-for-transitioning-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-from-hospital-to-home
#14
REVIEW
Amy C Donihi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide practical evidence-based recommendations for transitioning hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to home. RECENT FINDINGS: Hospitalized patients who have newly diagnosed or poorly controlled T2DM require initiation or intensification of their outpatient diabetes regimen. Potential barriers to medication access and continuity of care should be identified early in the hospitalization. Throughout hospitalization, patients should receive diabetes education focused on basic survival skills and tailored to learning needs...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567711/the-case-for-diabetes-population-health-improvement-evidence-based-programming-for-population-outcomes-in-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Sherita Hill Golden, Nisa Maruthur, Nestoras Mathioudakis, Elias Spanakis, Daniel Rubin, Mihail Zilbermint, Felicia Hill-Briggs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to describe diabetes within a population health improvement framework and to review the evidence for a diabetes population health continuum of intervention approaches, including diabetes prevention and chronic and acute diabetes management, to improve clinical and economic outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that compared to usual care, lifestyle interventions in prediabetes lower diabetes risk at the population-level and that group-based programs have low incremental medial cost effectiveness ratio for health systems...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534310/combination-immunotherapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Robert N Bone, Carmella Evans-Molina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease marked by β-cell destruction. Immunotherapies for T1D have been investigated since the 1980s and have focused on restoration of tolerance, T cell or B cell inhibition, regulatory T cell (Treg) induction, suppression of innate immunity and inflammation, immune system reset, and islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and lessons learned from single immunotherapy trials, describe recent and ongoing combination immunotherapy trials, and provide perspectives on strategies for future combination clinical interventions aimed at preserving insulin secretion in T1D...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526994/adolescent-s-health-behaviors-and-risk-for-insulin-resistance-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Jill L Kaar, Stacey L Simon, Sarah J Schmiege, Kristen J Nadeau, Megan M Kelsey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One-third of US adolescents are obese, and related comorbidities exist in this population. Preventing early indicators of these diseases, such as insulin resistance (IR), may impact future morbidity and mortality. Interventions to date have only focused on diet or exercise. Additional targets to prevent disease are needed. This paper reviews the evidence in adolescents examining multiple health behaviors that have been associated with IR. RECENT FINDINGS: Health behaviors (i...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526993/microvascular-complications-associated-with-rapid-improvements-in-glycemic-control-in-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Christopher H Gibbons, Ann Goebel-Fabbri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aggressive glycemic control has become the standard clinical approach to diabetes care. Unintended consequences have included the development of microvascular complications that are related to the rapidity of glycemic improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic neuropathy may develop in up to 10% of individuals secondary to aggressive glycemic control. The neuropathy is predominantly small fiber sensory and autonomic, and the severity of the neuropathy is tied to the change in the glycosylated hemoglobin A1C...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523592/islet-microencapsulation-strategies-and-clinical-status-in-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Mustafa Omami, James J McGarrigle, Mick Reedy, Douglas Isa, Sofia Ghani, Enza Marchese, Matthew A Bochenek, Maha Longi, Yuan Xing, Ira Joshi, Yong Wang, José Oberholzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells in the islets of Langerhans. Islet cell transplantation has become a successful therapy for specific patients with T1DM with hypoglycemic unawareness. The reversal of T1DM by islet transplantation is now performed at many major medical facilities throughout the world. However, many challenges must still be overcome in order to achieve continuous, long-term successful transplant outcomes...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508930/assessing-psychological-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-a-critical-comparison-of-measures
#20
REVIEW
E Holmes-Truscott, F Pouwer, J Speight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. RECENT FINDINGS: PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably between measures...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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