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Current Diabetes Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534310/combination-immunotherapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Robert N Bone, Carmella Evans-Molina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease marked by β-cell destruction. Immunotherapies for T1D have been investigated since the 1980s and have focused on restoration of tolerance, T cell or B cell inhibition, regulatory T cell (Treg) induction, suppression of innate immunity and inflammation, immune system reset, and islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and lessons learned from single immunotherapy trials, describe recent and ongoing combination immunotherapy trials, and provide perspectives on strategies for future combination clinical interventions aimed at preserving insulin secretion in T1D...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526994/adolescent-s-health-behaviors-and-risk-for-insulin-resistance-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Jill L Kaar, Stacey L Simon, Sarah J Schmiege, Kristen J Nadeau, Megan M Kelsey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One-third of US adolescents are obese, and related comorbidities exist in this population. Preventing early indicators of these diseases, such as insulin resistance (IR), may impact future morbidity and mortality. Interventions to date have only focused on diet or exercise. Additional targets to prevent disease are needed. This paper reviews the evidence in adolescents examining multiple health behaviors that have been associated with IR. RECENT FINDINGS: Health behaviors (i...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526993/microvascular-complications-associated-with-rapid-improvements-in-glycemic-control-in-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Christopher H Gibbons, Ann Goebel-Fabbri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aggressive glycemic control has become the standard clinical approach to diabetes care. Unintended consequences have included the development of microvascular complications that are related to the rapidity of glycemic improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic neuropathy may develop in up to 10% of individuals secondary to aggressive glycemic control. The neuropathy is predominantly small fiber sensory and autonomic, and the severity of the neuropathy is tied to the change in the glycosylated hemoglobin A1C...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523592/islet-microencapsulation-strategies-and-clinical-status-in-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Mustafa Omami, James J McGarrigle, Mick Reedy, Douglas Isa, Sofia Ghani, Enza Marchese, Matthew A Bochenek, Maha Longi, Yuan Xing, Ira Joshi, Yong Wang, José Oberholzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells in the islets of Langerhans. Islet cell transplantation has become a successful therapy for specific patients with T1DM with hypoglycemic unawareness. The reversal of T1DM by islet transplantation is now performed at many major medical facilities throughout the world. However, many challenges must still be overcome in order to achieve continuous, long-term successful transplant outcomes...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508930/assessing-psychological-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-a-critical-comparison-of-measures
#5
REVIEW
E Holmes-Truscott, F Pouwer, J Speight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. RECENT FINDINGS: PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably between measures...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508255/psychosocial-patient-reported-outcomes-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-diabetes-a-review-and-case-example
#6
REVIEW
Sarah D Corathers, Constance A Mara, Pavan K Chundi, Jessica C Kichler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to define psychosocial patient-reported outcomes (PROs) relevant to pediatric and adolescent diabetes populations. Potential domains for PROs include a spectrum of emotional, behavioral, social, physical, overall health, and/or care management areas. A literature review of potential PRO measures, selection criteria, and implementation strategies including a case example will be presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Among the pediatric, adolescent, and emerging adult populations, research indicates a relative higher risk for distress, depression, anxiety, and eating disorders as compared to peers without diabetes...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478590/simultaneous-pancreas-and-kidney-transplantation-is-it-a-treatment-option-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-analysis-of-the-international-pancreas-transplant-registry
#7
REVIEW
Angelika C Gruessner, Mark R Laftavi, Oleh Pankewycz, Rainer W G Gruessner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreas transplantation remains the best long-term treatment option to achieve euglycemia and freedom from insulin in patients with labile diabetes mellitus. It is an approved procedure for type 1 (T1DM), but it is still considered controversial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RECENT FINDINGS: This study analyzed all primary deceased donor pancreas transplants in patients with T2DM reported to IPTR/UNOS between 1995 and 2015. Characteristics, outcomes, and risk factors over time were determined using univariate and multivariate methods...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451950/the-role-and-potential-therapeutic-implications-of-the-fibroblast-growth-factors-in-energy-balance-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Maitane Izaguirre, María J Gil, Ignacio Monreal, Fabrizio Montecucco, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and its associated metabolic diseases have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, reducing life expectancy and quality of life. Several drugs have been tested to treat these diseases but many of them have damaging side effects. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop more effective therapies. Recently, endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have become attractive targets in the treatment of metabolic diseases. This review summarizes their most important functions as well as FGF-based therapies for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451949/interaction-between-the-haptoglobin-genotype-and-vitamin-e-on-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Irit Hochberg, Elliot M Berinstein, Uzi Milman, Chen Shapira, Andrew P Levy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite compelling evidence regarding the importance of oxidant stress in the development of vascular complications and observational studies suggesting that vitamin E may be protective from these complications, multiple clinical trials have failed to show benefit from vitamin E supplementation in the prevention of vascular complications in diabetes. One possible explanation for this failure of vitamin E may have been inappropriate patient selection. This review seeks to provide the clinical evidence and mechanistic basis for why a subset of individuals defined by their haptoglobin (Hp) genotype may derive cardiovascular protection by vitamin E supplementation...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439848/the-janus-head-of-oxidative-stress-in-metabolic-diseases-and-during-physical-exercise
#10
REVIEW
Dominik Pesta, Michael Roden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidative stress describes an imbalance between production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage macromolecules. However, ROS may also serve as signaling molecules activating cellular pathways involved in cell proliferation and adaptation. This review describes alterations in metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or diabetes mellitus as well as responses to acute and chronic physical exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic upregulation of oxidative stress associates with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439847/the-role-of-the-fda-and-regulatory-approval-of-new-devices-for-diabetes-care
#11
REVIEW
Shelley A Jazowski, Aaron N Winn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for assuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices in the USA. Extensive review times coupled with the demand for necessary treatments have prompted the policymakers to implement measures to speed medical devices to market.The purpose of this review is to summarize the evolution of the regulatory pathways through which medical devices utilized in diabetes care gain market access. RECENT FINDINGS: Regulatory pathways, ranging from premarket notification to premarket approval, require distinct, yet necessary ("least burdensome") evidence demonstrating a device's safety and effectiveness...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434144/peer-coaching-interventions-for-parents-of-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Carrie Tully, Caitlin Shneider, Maureen Monaghan, Marisa E Hilliard, Randi Streisand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peer support is a promising model of providing psychosocial support to parents of children with type 1 diabetes. This review seeks to discuss the findings of the existing literature in peer coaching as it relates to parents and diabetes as well as to identify gaps in knowledge for future intervention development and implementation. RECENT FINDINGS: Peer support programs vary widely with regard to recruitment, training, and delivery protocols. Across most programs, ongoing support and supervision are provided to peer coaches...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434143/the-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-myocardial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
REVIEW
Tomohiro Suhara, Yuichi Baba, Briana K Shimada, Jason K Higa, Takashi Matsui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) is a risk factor for heart failure. The mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a key mediator of the insulin signaling pathway. We will discuss the role of mTOR in myocardial dysfunction in T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: In T2DM, chronically activated mTOR induces multiple pathological events, including a negative feedback loop that suppresses IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1. While short-term treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, is a promising strategy for cardiac diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and cardiac hypertrophy in T2DM, there are many concerns about chronic usage of rapamycin...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432570/vascular-and-endothelial-function-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
REVIEW
Amy S Shah, Elaine M Urbina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and summarize the studies that have utilized noninvasive techniques to assess early vascular disease in youth with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive imaging modalities provide researchers with tools to investigate the vasculature in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. The data published to date consistently show adolescents with type 2 diabetes have greater vascular thickness and stiffness and worse endothelial function compared to their obese and lean peers...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378294/micrornas-in-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-emerging-role-in-maternal-metabolic-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Cédrik Poirier, Véronique Desgagné, Renée Guérin, Luigi Bouchard
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent emergence of microRNAs (miRNAs) as metabolic and developmental regulators in pregnancy and their role in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MiRNAs are short and stable RNA sequences that repress protein synthesis through interference with messenger RNA translation. RECENT FINDINGS: The placenta produces numerous miRNAs with some of them being released in the maternal circulation. These miRNA genes are encoded into specific clusters and expressed preferentially by placental cells, in a time-dependent manner...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378293/pharmacotherapy-of-obesity-clinical-trials-to-clinical-practice
#17
REVIEW
Kishore M Gadde, Y Pritham Raj
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of the current state of drug therapy for obesity, with a focus on four new drug therapies-lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg-which have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for long-term management of obesity since 2012. Topics discussed in this paper include rationale for pharmacotherapy, history of antiobesity drugs, and efficacy and safety data from randomized controlled trials with implications for clinical practice...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364357/treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-dka-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-hhs-novel-advances-in-the-management-of-hyperglycemic-crises-uk-versus-usa
#18
REVIEW
Ketan K Dhatariya, Priyathama Vellanki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are diabetic emergencies that cause high morbidity and mortality. Their treatment differs in the UK and USA. This review delineates the differences in diagnosis and treatment between the two countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale studies to determine optimal management of DKA and HHS are lacking. The diagnosis of DKA is based on disease severity in the USA, which differs from the UK...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364356/diabetes-in-cushing-disease
#19
REVIEW
G Mazziotti, A M Formenti, S Frara, F Maffezzoni, M Doga, A Giustina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus occurring in patients with Cushing disease (CD). RECENT FINDINGS: Insulin resistance and impairment in insulin secretion are both involved in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Correction of glucocorticoid excess does not always resolve abnormalities of glucose homeostasis, and correction of hyperglycaemia is specifically required. In fact, insulin resistance may persist even after correction of glucocorticoid excess and diabetes needs to be treated for long term...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364355/population-health-management-for-diabetes-health-care-system-level-approaches-for-improving-quality-and-addressing-disparities
#20
REVIEW
Julie A Schmittdiel, Anjali Gopalan, Mark W Lin, Somalee Banerjee, Christopher V Chau, Alyce S Adams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Population care approaches for diabetes have the potential to improve the quality of care and decrease diabetes-related mortality and morbidity. Population care strategies are particularly relevant as accountable care organizations (ACOs), patient-centered medical homes (PCMH), and integrated delivery systems are increasingly focused on managing chronic disease care at the health system level. This review outlines the key elements of population care approaches for diabetes in the current health care environment...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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