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Current Diabetes Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779366/t-cell-populations-and-functions-are-altered-in-human-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Sothea Touch, Karine Clément, Sébastien André
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are considered chronic inflammatory diseases. While early publications have reported the implication of innate immune cells such as macrophages to promote systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunctions, recent publications underline the alterations of the T cell compartment in human obesity and type 2 diabetes. These recent findings are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: In humans, obesity and T2D induce the expansion of proinflammatory T cells such as CD4 Th1, Th17, and CD8 populations, whereas innate T cells such as MAIT and iNKT cells are decreased...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779365/progress-in-defining-the-genetic-basis-of-diabetic-complications
#2
REVIEW
Emma Dahlström, Niina Sandholm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic complications affecting the kidneys, retina, nerves, and the cardiovasculature are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the genetic basis of these complications, based on recent findings especially from genome-wide association studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Variants in or near AFF3, RGMA-MCTP2, SP3-CDCA7, GLRA3, CNKSR3, and UMOD have reached genome-wide significance (p value <5 × 10(-8)) for association with diabetic kidney disease, and recently, GRB2 was reported to be associated at genome-wide significance with diabetic retinopathy...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770542/process-based-treatment-of-diabetes-in-kaiser-permanente-southern-california-how-to-make-diabetes-care-complete
#3
REVIEW
John P Martin, Natalie Aboubechara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) Complete Care management strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: The KPSC Complete Care program allows members of care management teams to coordinate the administration of care for patients with diabetes. This program encompasses teams of physicians, physician assistants, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, registered nurse (RN) care managers, office-based RNs, health educators, and many others to contribute to the glycemic and overall health outcomes for our patients with diabetes...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766247/cigarette-smoking-diabetes-and-diabetes-complications-call-for-urgent-action
#4
REVIEW
Ping Zhu, Xiong-Fei Pan, Liting Sheng, Henggui Chen, An Pan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aimed to examine the latest evidence linking cigarette smoking and cessation to risk of incident diabetes and its complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Abundant evidence has demonstrated that smoking is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients, while its relationship with microvascular complications is more limited to diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes. In addition, diabetes risk remains high in the short term after smoking cessation, while it reduces gradually in the long term...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766246/can-cardiovascular-epidemiology-and-clinical-trials-close-the-risk-management-gap-between-diabetes-and-prediabetes
#5
REVIEW
Leigh Perreault, Kristine Færch, Edward W Gregg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed published literature to determine the relationship between A1c and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and summarize the need and implications for CVD risk reduction with interventions, focusing in the prediabetic A1c range (<6.5%). RECENT FINDINGS: Strong evidence supports a continuous relationship between A1c and CVD-even below the current levels of A1c-defined prediabetes and after adjustment for known risk factors for CVD. Clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in CV morbidity and/or mortality when interventions are invoked in the prediabetic A1c range...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758174/prioritising-causal-genes-at-type-2-diabetes-risk-loci
#6
REVIEW
Antje K Grotz, Anna L Gloyn, Soren K Thomsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk have identified a large number of genetic loci associated with disease susceptibility. However, progress moving from association signals through causal genes to functional understanding has so far been slow, hindering clinical translation. This review discusses the benefits and limitations of emerging, unbiased approaches for prioritising causal genes at T2D risk loci. RECENT FINDINGS: Candidate causal genes can be identified by a number of different strategies that rely on genetic data, genomic annotations, and functional screening of selected genes...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758173/academic-and-government-partnerships-to-address-diabetes-in-the-usa-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Stella S Yi, Shadi Chamany, Lorna Thorpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multi-sector partnerships are broadly considered to be of value for diabetes prevention and management. The purpose of this article is to summarize academic and government collaborations focused on diabetes prevention and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Using a narrative review approach, we identified 17 articles describing 10 academic and government partnerships for diabetes management and surveillance. Challenges and gaps in the literature include complexity of diabetes management vis a vis current healthcare infrastructure; a paucity of racial/ethnic diversity in translational efforts; and the time/effort needed to maintain strong relationships across partner institutions...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755062/how-low-can-you-go-reducing-rates-of-hypoglycemia-in-the-non-critical-care-hospital-setting
#8
REVIEW
Kristen Kulasa, Patricia Juang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss strategies to reduce rates of hypoglycemia in the non-critical care setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies to reduce hypoglycemia rates should focus on the most common causes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia. Creating a standardized insulin order set with built-in clinical decision support can help reduce rates of hypoglycemia. Coordination of blood glucose monitoring, meal tray delivery, and insulin administration is an important and challenging task...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755061/a-scoping-review-of-behavioral-economic-interventions-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey T Kullgren, Dina Hafez, Allison Fedewa, Michele Heisler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper was to review studies of behavioral economic interventions (financial incentives, choice architecture modifications, or commitment devices) to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among at-risk patients or improve self-management among patients with T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: We found 15 studies that used varied study designs and outcomes to test behavioral economic interventions in clinical, workplace, or health plan settings...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741265/mechanisms-of-type-2-diabetes-risk-loci
#10
REVIEW
Kyle J Gaulton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Deciphering the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk loci can greatly inform on disease pathology. This review discusses current knowledge of mechanisms through which genetic variants influence T2DM risk and considerations for future studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Over 100 T2DM risk loci to date have been identified. Candidate causal variants at risk loci map predominantly to non-coding sequence. Physiological, epigenomic and gene expression data suggest that variants at many known T2DM risk loci affect pancreatic islet regulation, although variants at other loci also affect protein function and regulatory processes in adipose, pre-adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and brain...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741264/why-are-diabetes-medications-so-expensive-and-what-can-be-done-to-control-their-cost
#11
REVIEW
Laura N McEwen, Sarah Stark Casagrande, Shihchen Kuo, William H Herman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this study were to describe how medication prices are established, to explain why antihyperglycemic medications have become so expensive, to show trends in expenditures for antihyperglycemic medications, and to highlight strategies to control expenditures in the USA. RECENT FINDINGS: In the U.S., pharmaceutical manufacturers set the prices for new products. Between 2002 and 2012, expenditures for antihyperglycemic medications increased from $10 billion to $22 billion...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726156/remote-monitoring-and-consultation-of-inpatient-populations-with-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Robert J Rushakoff, Joshua A Rushakoff, Zachary Kornberg, Heidemarie Windham MacMaster, Arti D Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inpatient hyperglycemia is common and is linked to increased morbidity and mortality. We review current and innovative ways diabetes specialists consult in the management of inpatient diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: With electronic medical records (EMRs), remote monitoring and intervention may improve the management of inpatient hyperglycemia. Automated reports allow monitoring of glucose levels and allow diabetes teams to intervene through formal or remote consultation...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726155/initial-weight-loss-response-as-an-indicator-for-providing-early-rescue-efforts-to-improve-long-term-treatment-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Jessica L Unick, Christine A Pellegrini, Kathryn E Demos, Leah Dorfman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a large variability in response to behavioral weight loss (WL) programs. Reducing rates of obesity and diabetes may require more individuals to achieve clinically significant WL post-treatment. Given that WL within the first 1-2 months of a WL program is associated with long-term WL, it may be possible to improve treatment outcomes by identifying and providing additional intervention to those with poor initial success (i.e., "early non-responders"). We review the current literature regarding early non-response to WL programs and discuss how adaptive interventions can be leveraged as a strategy to "rescue" early non-responders...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726154/use-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-youth-onset-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Christine L Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has long been accepted as a tool for managing glycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and is receiving increased attention as a tool for monitoring glucose patterns in patients with other forms of diabetes, in particular type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent studies in adults with T2D have shown benefits of CGM in the investigation of glycemic variability, as well as utility as a tool for improving glycemic control. The literature on CGM use in youth-onset T2D, however, is sparse...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726153/immunological-issues-after-stem-cell-based-%C3%AE-cell-replacement
#15
REVIEW
Valeria Sordi, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Islet and pancreas transplantation prove that β cell replacement can cure the glycemic derangements in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells, able to restore normoglycemia in diabetic animal models. iPSCs in particular can be derived from the somatic cells of a person with T1D. This review aims to clarify if it is possible to transplant autologous iPSC-derived β cells without immunosuppression or which are the alternative approaches...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726152/cardiovascular-outcome-trial-update-in-diabetes-new-evidence-remaining-questions
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca Herbst, Wilburn Bolton, Afreen Shariff, Jennifer B Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seven trials of new agents to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been performed to assess cardiovascular (CV) safety. A significant amount of information regarding the effects of drugs in three classes is available, with new data from multiple other trials expected shortly. This article provides a summary of recently completed trials. RECENT FINDINGS: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors studied thus far do not alter the risk of major adverse CV events (MACE)...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812213/heterogeneity-in-the-beta-cell-population-a-guided-search-into-its-significance-in-pancreas-and-in-implants
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Pipeleers, Ines De Mesmaeker, Thomas Robert, Freya Van Hulle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intercellular differences in function have since long been noticed in the pancreatic beta-cell population. Heterogeneity in cellular glucose responsiveness is considered of physiological and pathological relevance. The present review updates evidence for the physiologic significance of beta-cell heterogeneity in the pancreas. It also briefly discusses what this role would imply for beta-cell implants in diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past 3 years, functionally different beta cells have been related to mechanisms that may underlie their heterogeneity in the pancreas, such as the stage in their life cycle and the degree of their clustering to islets with varying vascularization...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#18
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812204/multivariable-adaptive-artificial-pancreas-system-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Ali Cinar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the current state of the artificial pancreas (AP) systems and introduces various new modules that should be included in future AP systems. RECENT FINDINGS: A fully automated AP must be able to detect and mitigate the effects of meals, exercise, stress and sleep on blood glucose concentrations. This can only be achieved by using a multivariable approach that leverages information from wearable devices that provide real-time streaming data about various physiological variables that indicate imminent changes in blood glucose concentrations caused by meals, exercise, stress and sleep...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799123/application-of-one-step-iadpsg-versus-two-step-diagnostic-criteria-for-gestational-diabetes-in-the-real-world-impact-on-health-services-clinical-care-and-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Florence M Brown, Jennifer Wyckoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper seeks to summarize the impact of the one-step International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) versus the two-step gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) criteria with regard to prevalence, outcomes, healthcare delivery, and long-term maternal metabolic risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies demonstrate a 1.03-3.78-fold rise in the prevalence of GDM with IADPSG criteria versus baseline criteria. Women with GDM by IADPSG criteria have more adverse pregnancy outcomes than women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)...
August 10, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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