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Current Diabetes Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128916/cardiometabolic-risk-in-pcos-more-than-a-reproductive-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Laura C Torchen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is diagnosed by its characteristic reproductive features. However, PCOS is also associated with metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. The severity of these abnormalities varies according to the reproductive phenotype, with the so-called NIH or classic phenotype conferring the greatest metabolic risk. The increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well established among affected women with the NIH phenotype, but whether PCOS also confers an increased risk for cardiovascular events remains unknown...
November 11, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103170/alcohol-consumption-diabetes-risk-and-cardiovascular-disease-within-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Sarit Polsky, Halis K Akturk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study is to examine and summarize studies reporting on the epidemiology, the risk of developing diabetes, and the cardiovascular effects on individuals with diabetes of different levels of alcohol consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Men consume more alcohol than women in populations with and without diabetes. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of diabetes in the majority of the studies, whereas heavy drinkers and binge drinkers are at increased risk for diabetes...
November 4, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103096/a-decade-of-genetic-and-metabolomic-contributions-to-type-2-diabetes-risk-prediction
#3
REVIEW
Jordi Merino, Miriam S Udler, Aaron Leong, James B Meigs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize and reflect on advances over the past decade in human genetic and metabolomic discovery with particular focus on their contributions to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk prediction. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 10 years, a combination of advances in genotyping efficiency, metabolomic profiling, bioinformatics approaches, and international collaboration have moved T2D genetics and metabolomics from a state of frustration to an abundance of new knowledge...
November 4, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101482/modifiable-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-can-early-intervention-prevent-future-cardiovascular-events
#4
REVIEW
Evgenia Gourgari, Dana Dabelea, Kristina Rother
Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the following: i) current evidence for subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) ii) known modifiable risk factors for CVD and their relationship to subclinical CVD in this population iii) studies that have addressed these risk factors in order to improve CVD outcomes in children with T1DM RECENT FINDINGS: Subclinical CVD presents in children as increased carotid intima-media thickness, increased arterial stiffness, and endothelial and myocardial dysfunction...
November 3, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098478/persistent-organic-pollutants-as-risk-factors-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Chunxue Yang, Alice Pik Shan Kong, Zongwei Cai, Arthur C K Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be fully explained by known risk factors, such as unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history. This review summarizes the available studies linking persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to obesity and diabetes and discusses plausible underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing evidence suggest that POPs may act as obesogens and diabetogens to promote the development of obesity and diabetes and induce metabolic dysfunction...
November 2, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098423/hypoglycemia-reduction-strategies-in-the-icu
#6
REVIEW
Susan Shapiro Braithwaite, Dharmesh B Bavda, Thaer Idrees, Faisal Qureshi, Oluwakemi T Soetan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the strategies associated with hypoglycemia risk reduction among critically ill non-pregnant adult patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypoglycemia in the ICU has been associated with increased mortality in a number of studies. Insulin dosing and glucose monitoring rules, response to impending hypoglycemia, use of computerization, and attention to modifiable factors extrinsic to insulin algorithms may affect the risk for hypoglycemia. Recurring use of intravenous (IV) bolus doses of insulin in insulin-resistant cases may reduce reliance upon higher IV infusion rates...
November 2, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080983/autoimmune-responses-to-exosomes-and-candidate-antigens-contribute-to-type-1-diabetes-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#7
REVIEW
Yang D Dai, Huiming Sheng, Peter Dias, M Jubayer Rahman, Roman Bashratyan, Danielle Regn, Kristi Marquardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The initial autoimmune trigger of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, islet inflammation starts early in life, suggesting the presence of an endogenous trigger for the spontaneous autoimmune response in this T1D mouse model. In this review, we argue that abnormal release of exosomes might be the trigger of the early inflammatory and autoimmune responses in the islets. RECENT FINDINGS: Exosomes are nano-sized membrane complexes that are secreted by cells following fusion of late endosomes and/or multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080981/genetic-risk-scores-for-type-1-diabetes-prediction-and-diagnosis
#8
REVIEW
Maria J Redondo, Richard A Oram, Andrea K Steck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: About 50% of the heritability of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is attributed to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and the remainder to several (close to 50) non-HLA loci. A current challenge in the field of the genetics of T1D is to apply the knowledge accumulated in the last 40 years towards differential diagnosis and risk assessment. RECENT FINDINGS: T1D genetic risk scores seek to combine the information from HLA and non-HLA alleles to improve the accuracy of diagnosis, prediction, and prognosis...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080929/reporting-severe-hypoglycemia-in-type-1-diabetes-facts-and-pitfalls
#9
REVIEW
Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Birger Thorsteinsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe potential factors influencing reporting of severe hypoglycemia in adult patients with type 1 diabetes and to analyze their effect on reported rates of severe hypoglycemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Reported rates of severe hypoglycemia defined as need for third party assistance vary between 0.3-3.0 events per patient-year in unselected cohorts, corresponding to a yearly prevalence range of 10-53%. When defined as need for parenteral therapy with glucose or glucagon or need for admission to an emergency unit or hospitalization, incidence and prevalence rates of severe hypoglycemia are 0...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080075/current-therapies-that-modify-glucagon-secretion-what-is-the-therapeutic-effect-of-such-modifications
#10
REVIEW
Magnus F Grøndahl, Damien J Keating, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglucagonemia contributes significantly to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and suppressed glucagon levels may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Here, we give a brief overview of glucagon physiology and the role of glucagon in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and provide insights into how antidiabetic drugs influence glucagon secretion as well as a perspective on the future of glucagon-targeting drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: Several older as well as recent investigations have evaluated the effect of antidiabetic agents on glucagon secretion to understand how glucagon may be involved in the drugs' efficacy and safety profiles...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064042/treatment-induced-neuropathy-of-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Christopher H Gibbons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes (TIND) is an under-recognized iatrogenic painful sensory and autonomic neuropathy. This review highlights the clinical symptoms and signs, raises awareness of the cause, and provides education about prevention of TIND. RECENT FINDINGS: TIND may be triggered by a rapid decline in the blood glucose levels following the use of insulin, oral hypoglycemic medications, or even diet only to control diabetes. This may be seen in up to 10% of patients with diabetic neuropathy and has the potential for significant long-term complications that could be avoided through careful disease management...
October 24, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063419/understanding-cultural-influences-on-dietary-habits-in-asian-middle-eastern-and-latino-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-current-literature-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Natalie Mora, Sherita Hill Golden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063418/health-benefits-of-fasting-and-caloric-restriction
#13
REVIEW
Saeid Golbidi, Andreas Daiber, Bato Korac, Huige Li, M Faadiel Essop, Ismail Laher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063374/disentangling-the-role-of-melatonin-and-its-receptor-mtnr1b-in-type-2-diabetes-still-a-long-way-to-go
#14
REVIEW
Amélie Bonnefond, Philippe Froguel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex genetic metabolic disorder. T2D heritability has been estimated around 40-70%. In the last decade, exponential progress has been made in identifying T2D genetic determinants, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Among single-nucleotide polymorphisms mostly associated with T2D risk, rs10830963 is located in the MTNR1B gene, encoding one of the two receptors of melatonin, a neurohormone involved in circadian rhythms. Subsequent studies aiming to disentangle the role of MTNR1B in T2D pathophysiology led to controversies...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063276/the-infamous-famous-sulfonylureas-and-cardiovascular-safety-much-ado-about-nothing
#15
REVIEW
Laurentiu M Pop, Ildiko Lingvay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sulfonylureas (SUs) are one of the most commonly used glucose-lowering agents worldwide. While their efficacy is undisputed, their cardiovascular safety has been debated since the 1970's. RECENT FINDINGS: With no dedicated cardiovascular studies to definitively answer this question, observational studies and meta-analyses abound and have reported divergent results, fueling the controversy. Studies that compared SUs to metformin or newer agents, like GLP-1 agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, suggest a difference in cardiovascular events, yet this is likely the result of beneficial effects of the latter...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063208/glucometrics-and-insulinometrics
#16
REVIEW
Bithika M Thompson, Curtiss B Cook
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucometrics is the systematic analysis of inpatient glucose data and is of key interest as hospitals strive to improve inpatient glycemic control. Insulinometrics is the systematic analysis and reporting of inpatient insulin therapy. This paper reviews some of the questions to be resolved before a national benchmarking process can be developed that will allow institutions to track and compare inpatient glucose control performance against established guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: There remains a lack of standardization on how glucometircs should be measured and reported...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063207/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Martin Röhling, Alexander Strom, Gidon J Bönhof, Michael Roden, Dan Ziegler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the relationship of physical activity, exercise, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) based on epidemiological, clinical, and interventional studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of CAN increases with age and duration of diabetes. Further risk factors for CAN comprise poor glycemic control, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and the presence of diabetic complications...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058131/insulin-and-its-cardiovascular-effects-what-is-the-current-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Sahana Pai Dongerkery, Pamela R Schroeder, Mansur E Shomali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we examine the nature of the complex relationship between insulin and cardiovascular disease. With metabolic abnormalities comes increased risk for cardiovascular complications. We discuss the key factors implicated in development and progression of cardiovascular disease, its relationship to insulin therapy, and what can be learned from large, recent cardiovascular outcome studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies suggest that insulin has positive effects of facilitating glucose entry into cells and maintaining euglycemia and negative effects of favoring obesity and atherogenesis under certain conditions...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039056/emerging-concepts-on-disease-modifying-therapies-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Carla Greenbaum, Sandra Lord, Dana VanBuecken
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to characterize emerging concepts related to disease-modifying therapy in type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: We begin by describing the new understanding that islet autoimmunity, as identified by the presence of islet autoantibodies, inevitably leads to clinical type 1 diabetes. This understanding informs the new staging paradigm for type 1 diabetes, which suggests that type 1 diabetes may be recognized and diagnosed long before symptoms develop...
October 17, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022222/t-cell-receptor-profiling-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Laura M Jacobsen, Amanda Posgai, Howard R Seay, Michael J Haller, Todd M Brusko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The genetic susceptibility and dominant protection for type 1 diabetes (T1D) associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, along with minor risk variants, have long been thought to shape the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and eventual phenotype of autoreactive T cells that mediate β-cell destruction. While autoantibodies provide robust markers of disease progression, early studies tracking autoreactive T cells largely failed to achieve clinical utility...
October 11, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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