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Current Diabetes Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406850/the-evolving-role-of-the-cardiologist-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Robert J Chilton, Kelly M Gallegos, José Silva-Cardoso, Rene Oliveros, Son Pham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the treatment of type 2 diabetes from a cardiologist's view. RECENT FINDINGS: A new era in the treatment of type 2 diabetes began for the cardiologist in 2015 with the publication of the EMPA-REG outcome trial finding a significant reduction in CV death with empagliflozin (oral sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 [SGLT2] inhibitor) in patients with type 2 diabetes at increased cardiovascular risk. Shortly thereafter, the injectable glucagon-like peptide agonists (GLP-1) liraglutide and semaglutide found a significant reduction in composite major cardiovascular events (CV death, non-fatal MI, or stroke)...
November 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406415/phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-lipodystrophy-pathophysiology-metabolic-abnormalities-and-comorbidities
#2
REVIEW
Baris Akinci, Rasimcan Meral, Elif Arioglu Oral
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on recent progress in understanding the genetics of lipodystrophy syndromes, the pathophysiology of severe metabolic abnormalities caused by these syndromes, and causes of severe morbidity and a possible signal of increased mortality associated with lipodystrophy. An updated classification scheme is also presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Lipodystrophy encompasses a group of heterogeneous rare diseases characterized by generalized or partial lack of adipose tissue and associated metabolic abnormalities including altered lipid metabolism and insulin resistance...
November 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397837/implications-of-the-canvas-study-in-reducing-cardiovascular-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
Ameena Madan Paramasivan, Archana Purushothaman, Cyrus Desouza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trials (CVOTs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have demonstrated that sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) could reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and cardiovascular mortality independent of a glucose lowering mechanism. SGLT2i trials reported significant results that have generated biologically plausible theories with regard to the macrovascular benefit. In this review, we have summarized and discussed the results of the CANVAS program...
November 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377832/genetics-of-monogenic-diabetes-present-clinical-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Shivani Misra, Katharine R Owen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic forms of diabetes have specific treatments that differ from the standard care provided for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, making the appropriate diagnosis essential. In this review, we discuss current clinical challenges that remain, including improving case-finding strategies, particularly those that have transethnic applicability, and understanding the interpretation of genetic variants as pathogenic, with clinically meaningful impacts. RECENT FINDINGS: Biomarker approaches to the stratification for genetic testing now appear to be most effective in identifying cases of monogenic diabetes, and use of genetic risk scores may also prove useful...
October 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370487/update-on-therapeutic-options-in-lipodystrophy
#5
REVIEW
Baris Akinci, Rasimcan Meral, Elif Arioglu Oral
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the therapeutic approach for lipodystrophy syndromes with conventional treatment options and metreleptin therapy in detail and to point out the current investigational treatments in development. RECENT FINDINGS: The observation of leptin deficiency in patients with lipodystrophy and the potential of leptin replacement to rescue metabolic abnormalities in animal models of lipodystrophy were followed by the first clinical study of leptin therapy in patients with severe lipodystrophy...
October 29, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370486/comparison-of-lipid-lowering-medications-and-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Ilaria Cavallari, Alessia Delli Veneri, Ernesto Maddaloni, Rosetta Melfi, Giuseppe Patti, Nicola Napoli, Paolo Pozzilli, Germano Di Sciascio
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize available evidence regarding lipid-lowering interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Statins and non-statin therapies that act through upregulation of LDL receptor expression are associated with similar cardiovascular risk reduction per decrease in LDL cholesterol. In subjects with diabetes, with or without established cardiovascular disease, each 39 mg/dl reduction in LDL cholesterol observed with statins is associated with a 21% relative reduction in the risk of major coronary events at 5 years...
October 29, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370431/non-diabetic-hyperglycemia-in-the-pediatric-age-why-how-and-when-to-treat
#7
REVIEW
Valentina Fattorusso, Rosa Nugnes, Alberto Casertano, Giuliana Valerio, Enza Mozzillo, Adriana Franzese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-diabetic hyperglycemia (NDHY) is a pathological condition that is not yet well known. The aim of this review is to examine approaches for management of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: While it is well known that persistent hyperglycemia in diabetes affects immune response and risk for diabetes-related micro- and macrovascular complications, little is known about the biological effects of transient NDHY, particularly in the pediatric age group...
October 29, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361834/blood-pressure-variability-and-autonomic-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Vincenza Spallone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers the relationship between abnormal blood pressure (BP) variability and autonomic dysfunction through an attempt to answer questions about its clinical relevance and pertinence to diabetes and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and which therapeutic measures can lessen its cardiovascular impact. RECENT FINDINGS: Office, ambulatory, and home BP monitoring identify posture-related, circadian, short-term, and long-term BP variabilities...
October 25, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353256/the-environmental-determinants-of-diabetes-in-the-young-teddy-study-2018-update
#9
REVIEW
Marian Rewers, Heikki Hyöty, Åke Lernmark, William Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Desmond Schatz, Anette-G Ziegler, Jorma Toppari, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey Krischer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The environmental triggers of islet autoimmunity leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D) need to be elucidated to inform primary prevention. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study follows from birth 8676 children with T1D risk HLA-DR-DQ genotypes in the USA, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. Most study participants (89%) have no first-degree relative with T1D. The primary outcomes include the appearance of one or more persistent islet autoantibodies (islet autoimmunity, IA) and clinical T1D...
October 23, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343445/a-review-of-data-of-findings-on-night-shift-work-and-the-development-of-dm-and-cvd-events-a-synthesis-of-the-proposed-molecular-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
S Strohmaier, E E Devore, Y Zhang, E S Schernhammer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Night shift work has become highly prevalent in our 24/7 societies, with up to 18% of the US work force working alternate shift schedules. However, studies indicate that there may be adverse health effects of chronic night work across diverse populations. These effects are likely due to misalignment of the circadian system with work schedules, mediated by the system's primary marker melatonin as well as other downstream molecules. RECENT FINDINGS: Melatonin has multiple biologic actions that are relevant to cardiometabolic disease, including modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and (via the melatonin receptor) vasoconstriction...
October 20, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343423/who-will-win-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-versus-embryonic-stem-cells-for-%C3%AE-cell-replacement-and-diabetes-disease-modeling
#11
REVIEW
Elena F Jacobson, Emmanuel S Tzanakakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ever since the reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), scientists have been trying to determine if hiPSCs can give rise to progeny akin to native terminally differentiated cells as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) do. Many different somatic cell types have been successfully reprogrammed via a variety of methods. In this review, we will discuss recent studies comparing hiPSCs and hESCs and their ability to differentiate to desired cell types as well as explore diabetes disease models...
October 20, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343339/revisiting-the-diabetes-heart-failure-connection
#12
REVIEW
Markus Wallner, Deborah M Eaton, Dirk von Lewinski, Harald Sourij
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize current clinical data investigating the link between diabetes and heart failure pathophysiology, the association of glucose control with heart failure, and the impact of current antihyperglycemic drugs on heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Although heart failure is one of the most prevalent outcomes occurring in real life and cardiovascular outcome trials, insufficient attention was given to this condition in diabetes research over the last decades...
October 20, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343337/chronic-care-management-services-for-complex-diabetes-management-a-practical-overview
#13
REVIEW
Kayla L Del Valle, Marie E McDonnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Formalized chronic care management has the potential to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of complex diabetes management in adults, but has historically not been sustainably supported by health care systems. This review discusses the application of the chronic care model in the care of complex diabetes and its translation in the current reimbursement structure designed by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). RECENT FINDINGS: Following the introduction of Wagner's Chronic Care Model (CCM) in the late 1990s, evidence gathered over the past 2 decades has supported the shift in focus of health care systems from acute to chronic disease management and proactive care...
October 20, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338410/gut-microbiome-in-obesity-metabolic-syndrome-and-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Xinpu Chen, Sridevi Devaraj
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and diabetes are worldwide epidemics. There is also a growing body of evidence relating the gut microbiome composition to insulin resistance. The purpose of this review is to delineate the studies linking gut microbiota to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies as well as proof of concept studies using fecal transplantation demonstrate the pivotal role of the gut microbiota in regulating insulin resistance states and inflammation...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338403/effect-of-health-information-technologies-on-glycemic-control-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Yilin Yoshida, Suzanne A Boren, Jesus Soares, Mihail Popescu, Stephen D Nielson, Eduardo J Simoes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study was to present meta-analysis findings across selected clinical trials for the effect of health information technologies (HITs) on glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: HITs may be promising in diabetes management. However, findings on effect size of glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) yielded from HITs varied across previous studies. This is likely due to heterogeneity in sample size, adherence to standard quantitative method, and/or searching criteria (e...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338401/inflammation-markers-in-type-2-diabetes-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-pediatric-population
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Ludwig Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328521/pathogenesis-of-lipid-disorders-in-insulin-resistance-a-brief-review
#17
REVIEW
Petter Bjornstad, Robert H Eckel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance (IR) is recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia. This review summarizes the complex interplay between IR and dyslipidemia in people with and without diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: IR impacts the metabolism of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) by several mechanisms. Trials with insulin sensitizing therapies, including biguanides and thiazolidinediones, have provided inconsistent results on lipid lowering in people with and without diabetes...
October 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328516/fat-versus-carbohydrate-based-energy-restricted-diets-for-weight-loss-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Osama Hamdy, Mhd Wael Tasabehji, Taha Elseaidy, Shaheen Tomah, Sahar Ashrafzadeh, Adham Mottalib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of combined obesity and diabetes has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Although medical and surgical weight management are variably effective in addressing this epidemic, it is essential to parallel these strategies with a hypocaloric diet comprising the appropriate macronutrient composition to induce weight loss, enhance glycemic control, and improve cardiovascular risk factors. This review reports the current evidence of the role of carbohydrates and fat-based diets for weight management in patients with combined type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity...
October 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324282/beyond-statins-who-and-when-to-prescribe
#19
REVIEW
Om Ganda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Statins are the most evidence-based therapy to target LDL-C to reduce atherosclerotic events. Yet, many people are unable to achieve adequate reduction in this key atherogenic factor. Moreover, residual risk of cardiovascular events may persist even after "optimal" LDL-C due to elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Therefore, additional therapies beyond statins are needed, particularly in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials with ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors have reported further reductions in cardiovascular events, beyond statins...
October 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294763/diabetes-and-hiv
#20
REVIEW
Emile Camille Noubissi, Jean-Claude Katte, Eugene Sobngwi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to address the epidemiology and pathophysiological basis of the interaction between HIV infection and diabetes and the implication for treatment. Its importance stems from the current context of the growing burden of both conditions and the possible mechanisms of interactions that may exist but not yet sufficiently examined. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, and ART is associated with metabolic derangement and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes...
October 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
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