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Current Diabetes Reports

Daniel J Rubin
This article was originally published with errors that were introduced during the editing process. The corrected version of this article appears below.
March 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Fionnuala B Hickey, Finian Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the proposed role of immune modulation in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic kidney disease has not historically been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, increasing evidence is emerging in support of an immune role in its pathophysiology. Both systemic and local renal inflammation have been associated with DKD. Infiltration of immune cells, predominantly macrophages, into the kidney has been reported in a number of both experimental and clinical studies...
March 12, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Robin Whittemore, Roberta Delvy, Margaret M McCarthy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research on the experience of partners living with adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). RECENT FINDINGS: Eleven studies were included in the review. Three themes on the experience of living with a person with T1D were identified: the undercurrent of hypoglycemia, partners' involvement in diabetes care, and the impact on partners' lives. Due to considerable fear of hypoglycemia, partners had pervasive and deliberate ways in which they made attempts to minimize hypoglycemia in the person with diabetes and its cascade to a health emergency...
March 3, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Ambreen Gul, Philip Zager
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple experimental and clinical studies have identified pathways by which uric acid may facilitate the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes. However, it remains uncertain if the association of uric acid with CKD represents a pathogenic effect or merely reflects renal impairment. RECENT FINDINGS: In contrast to many published reports, a recent Mendelian randomization study did not identify a causal link between uric acid and CKD in people with type 1 diabetes...
March 1, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Ilse Vanhorebeek, Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss key studies that have set the scene for the debate on the efficacy and safety of tight glycemic control in critically ill patients, highlighting important differences among them, and describe the ensuing search towards strategies for safer glucose control. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in level of glycemic control, glucose measurement and insulin administration, expertise, and nutritional management may explain the divergent outcomes of the landmark studies on tight glycemic control in critical illness...
February 26, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Meredith Rose, Laura Aronow, Sarah Breen, Carrie Tully, Marisa E Hilliard, Ashley M Butler, Randi Streisand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in youth is growing across all racial/ethnic backgrounds, with the most marked increase in African-American youth under 5. Underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities are at an increased risk for health complications. This review focuses on the reported disparities, demographics of samples in behavioral interventions, and study design considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recruitment data from two ongoing behavioral intervention trials for young children with T1D are presented to compare enrolled/non-enrolled individuals and to discuss culturally appropriate study design considerations...
February 23, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
O Kenrik Duru, Tim Middleton, Mona K Tewari, Keith Norris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review are to identify population characteristics of important risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in the United States and to discuss barriers and opportunities to improve awareness, management, and outcomes in patients with DKD. RECENT FINDINGS: The major risk factors for the development and progression of DKD include hyperglycemia, hypertension, and albuminuria. DKD disproportionately affects minorities and individuals with low educational and socioeconomic status...
February 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Marissa A Feldman, Lindsay M Anderson, Jenna B Shapiro, Aneta M Jedraszko, Meredyth Evans, Lindsey E G Weil, Kimberly P Garza, Jill Weissberg-Benchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A systematic review was conducted of family-based interventions to improve glycemic control, adherence, and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published since the seminal Diabetes Control and Compliance Trial (DCCT). Interventions are summarized and findings reviewed to help guide clinical practice and future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty-five RCTs are reviewed...
February 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Laura T Dickens, Rochelle N Naylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic diabetes accounts for 1-2% of all diabetes cases, but is frequently misdiagnosed as type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. Accurate genetic diagnosis directs management, such as no pharmacologic treatment for GCK-MODY, low-dose sulfonylureas for HNF1A-MODY and HNF4A-MODY, and high-dose sulfonylureas for KATP channel-related diabetes. While diabetes treatment is defined for the most common causes of monogenic diabetes, pregnancy poses a challenge to management...
February 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Savitha Subramanian, Irl B Hirsch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease globally. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a heterogeneous disorder manifested as albuminuria and/or decreasing GFR. Hyperglycemic burden is the major contributor to the development of DKD. In this article, we review the evidence for the contribution of glycemic variability and the pitfalls associated with use of hemoglobin A1c (A1C), the gold standard for assessment of glucose control, in the setting of DKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Glycemic variability, characterized by swings in blood glucose levels, can result in generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, a putative inciting factor for hyperglycemia-induced alterations in intracellular metabolic pathways...
February 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Frances Peterson-Burch, Hiba Abujaradeh, Nicole Charache, Andrea Fischl, Denise Charron-Prochownik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Women with diabetes who have unplanned pregnancies and uncontrolled blood sugars are at a higher risk for maternal and fetal morbidities and mortalities. Preconception counseling (PC) has been shown to decrease the risks and improve health outcomes. From 2009 to 2017, the American Diabetes Association has recommended that preconception counseling be given at each clinic visit for all women with diabetes of childbearing age starting at puberty (prior to sexual debut)...
February 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Andjela T Drincic, Padmaja Akkireddy, Jon T Knezevich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes affects about a third of all hospitalized patients and up to 50% of inpatients go on to experience hyperglycemia. Despite strong evidence supporting the importance of adequate glycemic control, as well detailed guidelines from major national organizations, many patients continue to have hypo- and hyperglycemia during their hospital stay. While this may be partially related to provider and patient-specific factors, system-based barriers continue to pose a major obstacle...
February 14, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Emilio Herrera, Henar Ortega-Senovilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal lipid metabolism greatly changes during pregnancy and we review in this article how they influence fetal adiposity and growth under non-diabetic and gestational diabetic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In pregnant women without diabetes (control), maternal glycemia correlates with neonatal glycemia, neonatal body weight and fat mass. In pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal glucose correlates with neither neonatal glycemia, neonatal birth weight nor fat mass, but maternal triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol do correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
André J Scheen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, the use of thiazides as antihypertensive agents has been challenged because associated metabolic adverse events, including new-onset diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: These metabolic disturbances are less marked with low-dose thiazides and, in most but not all studies, with thiazide-like diuretics (chlorthalidone, indapamide) than with thiazide-type diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide). In post hoc analyses of subgroups of patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes, thiazides resulted in a significant reduction in cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for heart failure compared to placebo and generally were shown to be non-inferior to other antihypertensive agents...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
F Barutta, R Mastrocola, S Bellini, G Bruno, Gabriella Gruden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine and summarize studies assessing the relevance of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid receptors of type 1 (CB1R) and of type 2 (CB2R) are present in the normal kidney. Expression of CB1R and CB2R is altered in experimental DKD. Studies in experimental animals and cultured kidney cells show a beneficial effect of peripheral CB1R blockade and CB2R activation in DKD and an even greater efficacy of a combined treatment...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Katia M Perez, Emily R Hamburger, Morgan Lyttle, Rodayne Williams, Erin Bergner, Sachini Kahanda, Erin Cobry, Sarah S Jaser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent findings from studies of sleep in type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a focus on the role of sleep in self-management, the cognitive and psychosocial outcomes related to sleep disturbances, and factors associated with sleep disturbances specific to T1D. RECENT FINDINGS: People with T1D experience higher rates of sleep disturbances than people without diabetes, and these disturbances have negative implications for glycemic control and diabetes management, as well as psychosocial and cognitive outcomes...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
O Kenrik Duru, Carol M Mangione, Hector P Rodriguez, Dennis Ross-Degnan, J Frank Wharam, Bernard Black, Abel Kho, Nathalie Huguet, Heather Angier, Victoria Mayer, David Siscovick, Jennifer L Kraschnewski, Lizheng Shi, Elizabeth Nauman, Edward W Gregg, Mohammed K Ali, Pamela Thornton, Steven Clauser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes incidence is rising among vulnerable population subgroups including minorities and individuals with limited education. Many diabetes-related programs and public policies are unevaluated while others are analyzed with research designs highly susceptible to bias which can result in flawed conclusions. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes 2.0 (NEXT-D2) Network includes eight research centers and three funding agencies using rigorous methods to evaluate natural experiments in health policy and program delivery...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Jennifer M Yamamoto, Helen R Murphy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study is to discuss emerging technologies available in the management of type 1 diabetes in pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest evidence suggests that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) should be offered to all women on intensive insulin therapy in early pregnancy. Studies have additionally demonstrated the ability of CGM to help gain insight into specific glucose profiles as they relate to glycaemic targets and pregnancy outcomes...
January 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Tatsuhito Himeno, Hideki Kamiya, Jiro Nakamura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After a prolonged warm-up period of basic research, several modalities of cell replacement therapies are under development for diseases with no available cure. Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is one of the most prevalent chronic diabetes complications that causes sensorimotor dysfunction, subsequent high risks for lower limb amputations, and high mortality. Currently, no disease modifying therapy exists for DPN. RECENT FINDINGS: Several types of well-documented stem/progenitor cells have been utilized for cell transplantation therapies in DPN model rodents: mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and cells with similar characteristics of MSCs or EPCs derived from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells...
January 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Corinne Lee-Kubli, Andrew G Marshall, Rayaz A Malik, Nigel A Calcutt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuropathic pain may arise from multiple mechanisms and locations. Efficacy of current treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy is limited to an unpredictable subset of patients, possibly reflecting diversity of pain generator mechanisms, and there is a lack of targeted treatments for individual patients. This review summarizes preclinical evidence supporting a role for spinal disinhibition in painful diabetic neuropathy, the physiology and pharmacology of rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the spinal H-reflex and the translational potential of using RDD as a biomarker of spinally mediated pain...
January 23, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
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