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Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG

Horolma Pamjav, Á Fóthi, T Fehér, Erzsébet Fóthi
We have determined the distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in population samples from one of the most important areas in north-eastern Hungary from many villages in the Bodrogköz. The Bodrogköz region was chosen due to its isolated nature, because this area was a moorland encircled by the Tisza, Bodrog, and Latorca Rivers and inhabitants of this part of Hungary escaped from both Tatar and Ottoman invasions, which decimated the post-Hungarian Conquest populations in many parts of the country...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Qiang Zhou, Yongbin Dong, Qingling Shi, Long Zhang, Huanqing Chen, Chunhui Hu, Yuling Li
Grain weight, one of the important factors to determine corn yield, is a typical quantitative inheritance trait. However, the molecular genetic basis of grain weight still remains limited. In our previous researches, a major QTL associated with grain weight, qGW1.05, has been identified between SSR markers umc1601 and umc1754 at bin locus 1.05-1.06 in maize. Here, its genetic and environmental stabiliteis were verified using a BC3F2 population to identify the effect of qGW1.05 on grain weight. Further, qGW1...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Cassie L Albury, Shani Stuart, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects approximately 12-20% of the general adult population. Migraine pathogenesis is complex and not wholly understood. Molecular genetic investigations, imaging and biochemical studies, have unveiled a number of interconnected neurological pathways which seem to have a cause and effect component integral to its cause. Much weight of migraine attack initiation can be placed on the initial trigger and the pathways involved in its neuronal counter reaction. Ion channels play a large role in the generation, portrayal and mitigation of the brains response to external triggers...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ananda B Venkatachalam, Manoj B Parmar, Jonathan M Wright
Increasing organismal complexity during the evolution of life has been attributed to the duplication of genes and entire genomes. More recently, theoretical models have been proposed that postulate the fate of duplicated genes, among them the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model. In the DDC model, the common fate of a duplicated gene is lost from the genome owing to nonfunctionalization. Duplicated genes are retained in the genome either by subfunctionalization, where the functions of the ancestral gene are sub-divided between the sister duplicate genes, or by neofunctionalization, where one of the duplicate genes acquires a new function...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ian Morilla, Juan A Ranea
Drug resistance remains a major problem in combating malignancies, resulting critical the resistance to paclitaxel used in the treatment of many different cancers. Elucidating the cellular heterogeneity composition of tumours may be relevant to designing more effective treatment strategies on drug resistance. In particular, such heterogeneity correlates with the measurement of gene expression below the population level. However, experimental assays capturing differential response are limited and cannot discern the variation in gene expression specific to different cellular types in tumour populations...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Şurhan Göl, Mehmet Göktay, Jens Allmer, Sami Doğanlar, Anne Frary
Spinach is a popular leafy green vegetable due to its nutritional composition. It contains high concentrations of vitamins A, E, C, and K, and folic acid. Development of genetic markers for spinach is important for diversity and breeding studies. In this work, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology was used to develop genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After cleaning and contig assembly, the sequence encompassed 2.5% of the 980 Mb spinach genome. The contigs were mined for SSRs. A total of 3852 SSRs were detected...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Zhihong Ma, Xianglong Kong, Shufeng Liu, Shuxian Yin, Yuehua Zhao, Chao Liu, Zhanjun Lv, Xiufang Wang
Alu elements in the human genome are present in more than one million copies, accounting for 10% of the genome. However, the biological functions of most Alu repeats are unknown. In this present study, we detected the effects of Alu elements on EGFP gene expression using a plasmid system to find the roles of Alu elements in human genome. We inserted 5'-4TMI-Alus-CMV promoter-4TMI-Alus (or antisense Alus)-3' sequences into the pEGFP-C1 vector to construct expression vectors. We altered the copy number of Alus, the orientation of the Alus, and the presence of an enhancer (4TMI) in the inserted 5'-4TMI-Alus-CMV promoter-4TMI-Alus (or antisense Alus)-3' sequences...
March 29, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Sanyuan Ma, Xiaojuan Xia, Yufeng Li, Le Sun, Yue Liu, Yuanyuan Liu, Xiaogang Wang, Run Shi, Jiasong Chang, Ping Zhao, Qingyou Xia
Various genetically modified bioreactor systems have been developed to meet the increasing demands of recombinant proteins. Silk gland of Bombyx mori holds great potential to be a cost-effective bioreactor for commercial-scale production of recombinant proteins. However, the actual yields of proteins obtained from the current silk gland expression systems are too low for the proteins to be dissolved and purified in a large scale. Here, we proposed a strategy that reducing endogenous sericin proteins would increase the expression yield of foreign proteins...
March 29, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Adhimoolam Karthikeyan, Kai Li, Hua Jiang, Rui Ren, Cui Li, Haijian Zhi, Shouyi Chen, Junyi Gai
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens for soybeans in China. Among the country-wide 22 strains, SC5 dominates in Huang-Huai and Changjiang valleys. For controlling its damage, the resistance gene was searched through Mendelian inheritance study, gene fine-mapping, and candidate gene analysis combined with qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) analysis. The parents F1, F2, and RILs (recombinant inbred lines) of the cross Kefeng-1 (Resistance, R) × NN1138-2 (Susceptible, S) were used to examine the inheritance of SC5-resistance...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ya-Nan Zhang, Long-Wa Zhang, Da-Song Chen, Liang Sun, Zhao-Qun Li, Zhan-Feng Ye, Mei-Yan Zheng, Jin-Bu Li, Xiu-Yun Zhu
Species-specific sex pheromone is biosynthesized and released in most female moths as a chemical cue in mating communication. However, information on genes involved in this pathway is limited. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest that causes severe economic losses to many crops. In China, the female sex pheromones in sex pheromone glands (PGs) of S. exigua have been measured which comprises (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol in a ratio of 47:18:18:17...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Leilei Xu, Chao Xia, Xiaodong Qin, Weixiang Sun, Nelson Leung-Sang Tang, Yong Qiu, Jack Chun-Yiu Cheng, Zezhang Zhu
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural curvature of the spine that was estimated to affect millions of children worldwide. Recent study shows that the functional variant rs10738445 could add to the risk of AIS through the regulation of BNC2 gene. This study aims to investigate whether the rs10738445 of BNC2 gene is a functional susceptible locus for AIS in the Chinese population and to further clarify the association of the BNC2 expression with the curve severity. SNP rs10738445 was genotyped in 1952 patients and 2492 controls, and further replicated in 693 patients and 254 controls...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Juan M Calvo-Martín, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra
The Hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is responsible for the differentiation of the labial and prothoracic segments in Drosophila. Scr is expressed in several specific tissues throughout embryonic development, following a complex path that must be coordinated by an equally complex regulatory region. Although some cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) have been identified in the Scr regulatory region (~75 kb), there has been no detailed and systematic study of the distinct regulatory elements present within this region...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Zsofia Banlaki, Giulia Cimarelli, Zsofia Viranyi, Eniko Kubinyi, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Zsolt Ronai
A growing body of evidence highlights the relationship between epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, and population divergence as well as speciation. However, little is known about how general the phenomenon of epigenetics-wise separation of different populations is, or whether population assignment is, possible based on solely epigenetic marks. In the present study, we compared DNA methylation profiles between four different canine populations: three domestic dog breeds and their ancestor the gray wolf...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Haiying Liu, Alfred Quampah, Jinhong Chen, Jinrong Li, Zhuangrong Huang, Qiuling He, Chunhai Shi, Shuijin Zhu
Amino acid is an important nutrient resource for both human and animals. Using a set of 188 RILs population derived from an elite hybrid cross of upland cotton cultivars 'HS46' × 'MARCABUCAG8US-1-88' and their immortal F2 (IF2) with reciprocal backcrosses BC1F1 and BC2F1 (BC) populations in two environments, the QTLs located on the embryo genome and maternal plant genome for nine amino acids of cottonseed were studied across environments. The QTL Network-CL-2.0-seed software was used to analyze the QTLs and their genetic effects for nine amino acids...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Libo Xing, Siyan Qi, Lisha Du, Haiqin Wu, Hongxia Shao, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
Although INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) genes encoding specific plant transcription factors have important roles in plant growth and development, little is known about apple IDD (MdIDD) genes and their potential functions in the flower induction. In this study, we identified 20 putative IDD genes in apple and named them according to their chromosomal locations. All identified MdIDD genes shared a conserved IDD domain. A phylogenetic analysis separated MdIDDs and other plant IDD genes into four groups. Bioinformatic analysis of chemical characteristics, gene structure, and prediction of protein-protein interactions demonstrated the functional and structural diversity of MdIDD genes...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Mathilde Dupeyron, Rogerio Fernandes de Souza, Perla Hamon, Alexandre de Kochko, Dominique Crouzillat, Emmanuel Couturon, Douglas Silva Domingues, Romain Guyot
Coffea arabica (the Arabica coffee) is an allotetraploid species originating from a recent hybridization between two diploid species: C. canephora and C. eugenioides. Transposable elements can drive structural and functional variation during the process of hybridization and allopolyploid formation in plants. To learn more about the evolution of the C. arabica genome, we characterized and studied a new Copia LTR-Retrotransposon (LTR-RT) family in diploid and allotetraploid Coffea genomes called Divo. It is a complete and relatively compact LTR-RT element (~5 kb), carrying typical Gag and Pol Copia type domains...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Yueru Li, Xin Geng, Lisui Bao, Ahmed Elaswad, Kevin W Huggins, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Albinism is caused by a series of genetic abnormalities leading to reduction of melanin production. Albinism is quite frequent in catfish, but the causative gene and the molecular basis were unknown. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the 250 K SNP array. The GWAS analysis allowed mapping of the albino phenotype in the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 4 (Hps4) gene, which is known to be involved in melanosome biosynthesis. Sequencing analysis revealed that a 99-bp deletion was present in all analyzed albino catfish at the intron 2 and exon 3 junction...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Anil K Giri, Soham Bharadwaj, Priyanka Banerjee, Shraddha Chakraborty, Vaisak Parekatt, Donaka Rajashekar, Abhishek Tomar, Aarthi Ravindran, Analabha Basu, Nikhil Tandon, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj
Phenotypic characteristics are known to vary substantially among different ethnicities around the globe. These variations are mediated by number of stochastic events and cannot be attributed to genetic architecture alone. DNA methylation is a well-established mechanism that sculpts our epigenome influencing phenotypic variation including disease manifestation. Since DNA methylation is an important determinant for health issues of a population, it demands a thorough investigation of the natural differences in genome wide DNA methylation patterns across different ethnic groups...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ekaterina V Medvedeva, Veronika G Dmitrieva, Svetlana A Limborska, Nikolay F Myasoedov, Lyudmila V Dergunova
Brain stroke continues to claim the lives of million people every year. To build the effective strategies for stroke treatment it is necessary to understand the neuroprotective mechanisms that are able to prevent the ischemic injury. Consisting of the ACTH(4-7) fragment and the tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP), the synthetic peptide Semax effectively protects brain against ischemic stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its neuroprotection and participation of PGP in them are still needed to be clarified...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Lichun Tang, Yanting Zeng, Hongzi Du, Mengmeng Gong, Jin Peng, Buxi Zhang, Ming Lei, Fang Zhao, Weihua Wang, Xiaowei Li, Jianqiao Liu
Previous works using human tripronuclear zygotes suggested that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system could be a tool in correcting disease-causing mutations. However, whether this system was applicable in normal human (dual pronuclear, 2PN) zygotes was unclear. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 is also effective as a gene-editing tool in human 2PN zygotes. By injection of Cas9 protein complexed with the appropriate sgRNAs and homology donors into one-cell human embryos, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination-mediated correction of point mutations in HBB and G6PD...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
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