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Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG

Caitlin Uren, Marlo Möller, Paul D van Helden, Brenna M Henn, Eileen G Hoal
The KhoeSan populations are the earliest known indigenous inhabitants of southern Africa. The relatively recent expansion of Bantu-speaking agropastoralists, as well as European colonial settlement along the south-west coast, dramatically changed patterns of genetic diversity in a region which had been largely isolated for thousands of years. Owing to this unique history, population structure in southern Africa reflects both the underlying KhoeSan genetic diversity as well as differential recent admixture. This population structure has a wide range of biomedical and sociocultural implications; such as changes in disease risk profiles...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Babak Emamalizadeh, Abofazl Movafagh, Hossein Darvish, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Monavvar Andarva, Pegah Namdar-Aligoodarzi, Mina Ohadi
Evolutionary analyses of the critical core promoter interval support a selective advantage for expanding the length of certain short tandem repeats (STRs) in humans. We recently reported genome-wide data on human core promoter STRs that are "exceptionally long" (≥6-repeats). Near the top of the list, the neuron-specific gene, RIT2, contains one of the longest GA-STRs at 11-repeats. In the present study, we analyzed the evolutionary implications of this STR across species. We also studied this STR in a sample of 2,143 Iranian human subjects that encompassed a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and controls...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Eric M Hernandez-Hernandez, Rita Daniela Fernández-Medina, Lucio Navarro-Escalante, Jonathan Nuñez, Pablo Benavides-Machado, Claudia M A Carareto
The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei is the most limiting pest of coffee production worldwide. The CBB genome has been recently sequenced; however, information regarding the presence and characteristics of transposable elements (TEs) was not provided. Using systematic searching strategies based on both de novo and homology-based approaches, we present a library of TEs from the draft genome of CBB sequenced by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation. The library consists of 880 sequences classified as 66% Class I (LTRs: 46%, non-LTRs: 20%) and 34% Class II (DNA transposons: 8%, Helitrons: 16% and MITEs: 10%) elements, including families of the three main LTR (Gypsy, Bel-Pao and Copia) and non-LTR (CR1, Daphne, I/Nimb, Jockey, Kiri, R1, R2 and R4) clades and DNA superfamilies (Tc1-mariner, hAT, Merlin, P, PIF-Harbinger, PiggyBac and Helitron)...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Sekar Kanthimathi, Manickam Chidambaram, Dhanasekaran Bodhini, Samuel Liju, Aruyerchelvan Bhavatharini, Ram Uma, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan, Venkatesan Radha
Earlier studies have provided evidence that the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) share common genetic background. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) showed a strong association of six novel gene variants with T2DM among south Asians but not with Europeans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these variants that confer susceptibility to T2DM in Asian Indian population also correlate with GDM in Asian Indian population. In addition to these novel variants, three T2DM associated SNPs that were previously identified by GWAS in Caucasian populations, which also showed association with T2DM in south Indian population in our previous study were also evaluated for their susceptibility to GDM in our population...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Takafumi Shimasaki, Hokuto Ohtsuka, Chikako Naito, Kenko Azuma, Takeshi Tenno, Hidekazu Hiroaki, Hiroshi Murakami, Hirofumi Aiba
Overexpression of Ecl1-family genes (ecl1 (+), ecl2 (+), and ecl3 (+)) results in the extension of the chronological life span in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the mechanism for this extension has not been defined clearly. Ecl1-family proteins consist of approximately 80 amino acids, and four cysteine residues are conserved in their N-terminal domains. This study focused on the Ecl1 protein, mutating its cysteine residues sequentially to confirm their importance. As a result, all mutated Ecl1 proteins nearly lost the function to extend the chronological life span, suggesting that these four cysteine residues are essential for the Ecl1 protein...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Sanxu Liu, Wei Hou, Tianlin Sun, Yongtao Xu, Peng Li, Bisong Yue, Zhenxin Fan, Jing Li
Microsatellites are found in taxonomically different organisms, and such repeats are related with genomic structure, function and certain diseases. To characterize microsatellites for macaques, we searched and compared SSRs with 1-6 bp nucleotide motifs in rhesus, cynomolgus and pigtailed macaque. A total of 1395671, 1284929 and 1266348 perfect SSRs were mined, respectively. The most frequent perfect SSRs were mononucleotide SSRs. The most GC-content was in dinucleotide SSRs and the least was in the mononucleotide SSRs...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
L L Qi, Z I Talukder, B S Hulke, M E Foley
Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Liyuan Zhu, Sulan Kuang, Renyu Xue, Guangli Cao, Chengliang Gong
The mechanism of how Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enters cells is unknown. The primary components of membrane lipid rafts are proteins and cholesterol, and membrane lipid rafts are thought to be an active region for host-viral interactions. However, whether they contribute to the entry of BmNPV into silkworm cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the membrane protein components of lipid rafts from BmN cells with mass spectrometry (MS). Proteins and cholesterol were investigated after establishing infection with BmNPV in BmN cells...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Parastoo Maleki, Jagat B Budhathoki, William A Roy, Hamza Balci
In this article, we summarize the knowledge and best practices learned from bulk and single-molecule measurements to address some of the frequently experienced difficulties in single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements on G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. The number of studies that use smFRET to investigate the structure, function, dynamics, and interactions of GQ structures has grown significantly in the last few years, with new applications already in sight. However, a number of challenges need to be overcome before reliable and reproducible smFRET data can be obtained in measurements that include GQ...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ilya V Kirov, Anna V Kiseleva, Katrijn Van Laere, Nadine Van Roy, Ludmila I Khrustaleva
Tandem repeats are often associated with important chromosomal landmarks, such as centromeres, telomeres, subtelomeric, and other heterochromatic regions, and can be good candidates for molecular cytogenetic markers. Tandem repeats present in many plant species demonstrate dramatic differences in unit length, proportion in the genome, and chromosomal organization. Members of genus Allium with their large genomes represent a challenging task for current genetics. Using the next generation sequencing data, molecular, and cytogenetic methods, we discovered two tandemly organized repeats in the Allium fistulosum genome (2n = 2C = 16), HAT58 and CAT36...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Shunwen Lu, Justin D Faris, Michael C Edwards
Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contains at least 23 TaPr-1 genes encoding the group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins as identified in our previous work. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of TaPr-1-rk1 and TaPr-1-rk2, two novel genes closely related to the wheat PR-1 family. The two TaPr-1-rk genes are located on homoeologous chromosomes 3D and 3A, respectively, and each contains a large open reading frame (7385 or 6060 bp) that is interrupted by seven introns and subjected to alternative splicing (AS) with five or six isoforms of mRNA transcripts...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Justyna A Karolak, Marzena Gajecka
Keratoconus (KTCN) is a degenerative disorder of the eye characterized by the conical shape and thinning of the cornea. The abnormal structure of KTCN-affected cornea results in loss of visual acuity. While many studies examine how environmental factors influence disease development, finding the genetic triggers has been a major emphasis of KTCN research. This paper focuses on genomic strategies that were implemented for finding candidate genes, including linkage and association studies, and presents different approaches of mutation screening...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Tomasz Hura, Mirosław Tyrka, Katarzyna Hura, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Kinga Dziurka
The present study aimed at identifying the regions of triticale genome responsible for cell wall saturation with phenolic compounds under drought stress during vegetative and generative growth. Moreover, the loci determining the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, leaf water content (LWC) and osmotic potential (Ψ o) were identified, as leaf hydration and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus under drought are associated with the content of cell wall-bound phenolics (CWPh). Compared with LWC and Ψ o, CWPh fluctuations were more strongly associated with changes in chlorophyll fluorescence...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Can Song, Bochu Wang, Jun Tan, Liancai Zhu, Deshuai Lou, Xiaoxi Cen
The Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is a protected species from eastern Asia. In China, the Asiatic black bear occurs in 17 provinces from northeast to southwest regions. To date, information on microbial diversity in the gut of the Asiatic black bears from different populations remains limited. To determine the species composition and community structure of the gut microbiota in the Asiatic black bear, we characterized 36 fecal samples from Sichuan, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang provinces, China, by pyrosequencing the 16S V3-V4 hypervariable regions using the Illumina Miseq platform...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Katsunori Hatakeyama, Tomohisa Niwa, Takeyuki Kato, Takayoshi Ohara, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Satoru Matsumoto
To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Dong-Dong Zeng, Ran Qin, Mei Li, Md Alamin, Xiao-Li Jin, Yu Liu, Chun-Hai Shi
Ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT, EC plays major roles in photorespiration and primary nitrogen assimilation. However, due to no mutant or knockdown lines of OsFd-GOGAT have been reported in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the contribution of OsFd-GOGAT to rice foliar nitrogen metabolism remains little up-to-date. Here, we isolated a rice premature leaf senescence mutant named gogat1, which was reduced in 67% of the total GOGAT enzyme activity in leaves. The gogat1 mutant exhibited chlorosis under natural condition, while showed less extent premature leaf senescence under low light treatment...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Salil K Sukumaran, Maria Stumpf, Sarah Salamon, Ilyas Ahmad, Kurchi Bhattacharya, Sarah Fischer, Rolf Müller, Janine Altmüller, Birgit Budde, Holger Thiele, Muhammad Tariq, Naveed Altaf Malik, Peter Nürnberg, Shahid Mahmood Baig, Muhammad Sajid Hussain, Angelika A Noegel
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by a substantial reduction in brain size but with normal architecture. It is often linked to mutations in genes coding for centrosomal proteins; however, their role in brain size regulation is not completely understood. By combining homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in an MCPH family from Pakistan, we identified a novel mutation (XM_011518861.1; c.4114C > T) in CDK5RAP2, the gene associated with primary microcephaly-3 (MCPH3), leading to a premature stop codon (p...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Xuewen Xu, Jing Ji, Qiang Xu, Xiaohua Qi, Xuehao Chen
The hypocotyl-derived adventitious root (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis has not been adequately understood. In the present study, a mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model was used to analyze AR numbers (ARN) 7 days after waterlogging treatment in six generations (P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2), using cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N and sensitive Pepino as parents. The results showed that the genetic model D-4, mixed one negative dominance major gene and additive-dominance polygenes, is the best-fitting genetic model for waterlogging-triggered ARN phenotype...
December 17, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Xuefeng Wang, Zhiming Liu, Wenjian Wu
Cristaria plicata, a bivalve widespread in Eastern Asia fresh water, is utilized as the freshwater pearl mussel in China. With a high economic value in pearl production, it is also an ideal object used for the studies on biomineralization in freshwater. In the research, we performed a large-scale sequencing of Cristaria plicata mantle transcriptome using Illumina HiSeq™ 2500, obtaining 98,501 unigenes with 67,817,724 bases. 22.28 and 16.64% of the unigenes were annotated in the NR and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Mei Liang, Wei Yang, Shiying Su, Lili Fu, Hualin Yi, Chuanwu Chen, Xiuxin Deng, Lijun Chai
S-RNase-based self-incompatibility is found in Solanaceae, Rosaceae, and Scrophulariaceae, and is the most widespread mechanism that prevents self-fertilization in plants. Although 'Shatian' pummelo (Citrus grandis), a traditional cultivated variety, possesses the self-incompatible trait, the role of S-RNases in the self-incompatibility of 'Shatian' pummelo is poorly understood. To identify genes associated with self-incompatibility in citrus, we identified 16 genes encoding homologs of ribonucleases in the genomes of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and clementine mandarin (Citrus clementine)...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
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