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Current Molecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067171/molecular-cloning-and-developmental-expression-patterns-of-the-striatin-gene-encoding-a-member-of-the-regulatory-subunits-for-the-protein-serine-threonine-phosphatase-2a-in-fish
#1
S-S Xie, Z-W Luo, F-Y Liu, L Liu, Z Chen, J-W Xiang, T-H Yang, R-L Qi, Y Yang, Q Nie, L Wang, Z Huang, X-H Hu, Y-F Liu, Q Sun, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, W-B Liu, Y-Z Liu, D-Y Zhang, D W-C Li
The protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A) is one of the most important serine/threonine phosphatases in eukaryotes. The holoenzyme of PP-2A consists of three subunits: a scaffold A subunit, a catalytic C subunit and a regulatory B subunit. While both A and C subunits are coded by two different genes, the B subunits exist in 26 or more isoforms which are encoded by at least 15 different genes. Previous studies have shown that besides regulating specific PP-2A activity, the various B subunits may have other functions...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067170/editorial-roles-of-sumoylation-and-phosphorylation-in-normal-physiology-and-human-diseases
#2
David W Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067169/sumoylation-in-lens-differentiation-and-pathogenesi
#3
J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, L Gong, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, L Wang, X-H Hu, Z-X Huang, R-L Qi, T-H Yang, A-P Arrigo, L Zhang, X-C Tang, S Huang, F-Y Liu, Z-W Luo, Y-F Liu, Q Sun, J Gigantelli, Y-Z Liu, D W-C Li
Sumoylation, a post-translational modification discovered over a decade ago, turns out to be a very important regulatory mechanism mediating multiple cellular processes. Recent studies from our laboratory and others also revealed that it plays a crucial role in regulating both differentiation and pathogenesis of the ocular lenses. This review will summarize these progresses.
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067168/sumoylation-in-neurological-diseases
#4
F-Y Liu, Y-F Liu, Y Yang, Z-W Luo, J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, R-L Qi, T-H Yang, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, D W-C Li
Since the discovery of SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers) over 20 years ago, sumoylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification involved in almost all aspects of cellular physiology. In neurons, sumoylation dynamically modulates protein function and consequently plays an important role in neuronal maturation, synapse formation and plasticity. Thus, the dysfunction of sumoylation pathway is associated with many different neurological disorders. Hundreds of different proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders are SUMO-modified, indicating the importance of sumoylation involved in the neurological diseases...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017136/regulation-of-creb-functions-by-phosphorylation-and-sumoylation-in-nervous-and-visual-systems
#5
L Wang, X-H Hu, Z-X Huang, Q Nie, Z-G Chen, J-W Xiang, R-L Qi, T-H Yang, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, G Gigantelli, Q D Nguyen, D W-C Li
CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor regulating diverse cellular responses. Its phosphorylation at S133 is an essential event for its activation in both nervous and visual systems. The activated CREB is implicated in the regulation of development, protection, learning, memory and plasticity in the nerve system. Moreover, sumoylation, an important post-translational modification of protein, plays a key role in sustaining CREB activation in the rat hippocampus in order to enhance the long-term memory and other aspects...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017135/role-of-sumoylation-in-heart-development-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
L Zhang, T-H Yang, D W-C Li
Heart is an extremely important organ, and cardiovascular disorders emerge as primary life-threatening disease in human life. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTMs) on cardiac proteins are closely correlated with pathological abnormalities in heart. SUMOylation, one of the most prevalent PTMs with thousands of substrates throughout the cell including critical subcellular organelles, has been shown to precisely fine-tune the cell survival and proliferation during heart development, and delicately control the function of mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum in physiological heart functioning...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017134/contrast-functions-of-%C3%AE-a-and-%C3%AE-b-crystallins-in-cancer-development
#7
Z Wang, L Wang, Z-X Huang, X Hu, J Liu, W Hu, W Ji, Q Nie, J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, Y Xiao, W-J Qiang, J Zhu, J W Gigantelli, Q D Nguyen, D W-C Li
α-Crystallins, initially identified as the structural proteins of the ocular lens, belong to the small heat shock protein family. They play significant roles in maintaining the lens transparency and preventing protein aggregation. α-Crystallins exist in two isoforms: αA and αB, and they display differential tissue distribution. Their mutations are implicated in several human diseases including cardiac myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases, cataracts and various types of cancers. Increased αB expression was detected in retinoblastoma, breast cancer, glioblastoma, prostate and renal cell carcinomas, indicating its role in promoting tumor growth...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017139/sumoylation-in-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#8
L Gong, Q Sun, D W-C Li
Sumoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that conjugates small peptide SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) to a target protein. Global protein sumoylation and expression of components in sumoylation pathway were recently found to be altered in the process of organismal aging. In addition, key factors controlling cellular senescence are known to be sumoylated. This review will summarize current information on the function of sumoylation in cellular senescence and aging.
December 22, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017138/sumoylation-pathway-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer
#9
L Gong, R Qi, D W-C Li
Sumoylation is a covalent protein posttranslational modification that conjugates the small ubiquitin-like peptide SUMO to substrate. Sumoylation is critically implicated in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis, etc. Therefore, it is not surprising that dysregulation of sumoylation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and different types of cancer were found to be addicted to functional sumoylation pathway. The potential role for sumoylation as a therapeutic target in caner is emerging...
December 22, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017137/effects-of-crosstalk-between-sumoylation-and-phosphorylation-in-normal-cellular-physiology-and-human-diseases
#10
Q Nie, X-D Gong, M Liu, D W-C Li
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, sumoylation are important mechanisms to regulate the functions of different proteins. Among various PTMs, phosphorylation, discovered about 60 years ago, is probably the most common modification. In contrast, sumoylation, identified about two decades is emerging as a key regulatory mechanism modulating protein functions. Although studies on protein phosphorylation and sumoylation have been extensively reviewed, much less attention has been paid to their cross-talk and their co-regulation of the same protein target...
December 22, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894243/spinal-muscular-atrophy-more-than-a-disease-of-motor-neurons
#11
L A Nash, J K Burns, J W Chardon, R Kothary, R J Parks
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disease resulting in infant mortality. SMA is caused by genetic deletion or mutation in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which results in reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN protein deficiency preferentially affects α- motor neurons, leading to their degeneration and subsequent atrophy of limb and trunk muscles, progressing to death in severe forms of the disease. More recent studies have shown that SMN protein depletion is detrimental to the functioning of other tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, autonomic and enteric nervous systems, metabolic/endocrine (e...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894242/indazolo-3-2-b-quinazolinones-attack-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hep3b-cells-by-inducing-mitochondrial-dependent-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#12
Y Zhang, R Qiao, D He, Z Zhao, S Yang, H Zou, X Zhang, M Wu, J Chen, P Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Genotoxic stress resistance in patients often contributes to poor clinical outcomes, and is intensively associated to the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the connection between the anti-cancer activity of two novel indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinone (IQ) derivatives, IQ-7 and IQ-12, and their effect on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. The two compounds were shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in Hep3B cells (human hepatoma cell line)...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894241/a-novel-relationship-for-schizophrenia-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorder-part-6-a-hint-from-chromosome-6-high-density-association-screen
#13
X Chen, F Long, B Cai, X Chen, G Chen
Convergent evidence from genetics, symptomatology and psychopharmacology imply that there are intrinsic connections between schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), for example, any two or even three of these disorders could co-exist in some families. A total of 56.400 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on chromosome 6 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 on 119 SCZ, 253 BPD (type-I), 177 MDD patients and 1000 controls. Associated SNP loci on chromosome 6 were comprehensively revealed and outstanding susceptibility genes were identified including JARID2 (Homo sapiens jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) which plays an essential role in embryonic development and neural tube fusion process...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894240/sumoylation-regulation-of-retina-development-and-functions
#14
L Zhang, D W-C Li
The structure and developmental mechanisms of vertebrate retina are highly conserved. One of the most distinctive events during retinogenesis is the temporally and spatially generation of seven types of retinal cells from the multipotent retinal progenitor cells. The importance and prevalence of SUMOylation in regulation of this process through modulation of gene expression and protein function diversity have been increasingly appreciated. Here, we review the biological significance of SUMOylation in retina development, examine how SUMOylation balances the proliferation and cell cycle exit of retinal progenitor cells, and finally discuss the molecular mechanisms mediating the specification of different retina neurons and photoreceptors through modulation of various transcription factors...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889996/elevated-microsatellite-alterations-at-selected-tetranucleotide-repeats-emast-and-microsatellite-instability-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-and-its-clinical-features
#15
H S Lee, K U Park, D-W Kim, M H Ihn, W H Kim, A N Seo, H E Chang, S K Nam, S Y Lee, H-K Oh, S-B Kang
PURPOSE: Recently, a different type of microsatellite instability (MSI) instability designated 'elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats' (EMAST) has been reported in several neoplasms, but its clinical implications remain unclear. We aimed to determine the relationships among EMAST, MSI and clinicopathologic characteristics, including oncologic outcomes, in colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 100 sporadic CRC cases subjected to surgery using five markers (MYCL1, D9S242, D20S85, D8S321, and D20S82) for EMAST and the Bethesda panel for MSI status...
November 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889995/the-roles-of-the-unique-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-cancer-related-viral-and-bacterial-infections
#16
J Wang, X-H Liao, M Zheng, D Yang, X Z Zhou, H Liu, K P Lu
Infection is the process of pathogen invasion, as well as the host reaction to the foreign agents. Proline-directed phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism that regulates the function of fundamental proteins involved in infection and infection-induced cancer. Recently, the identification of the phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerase Pin1 has uncovered a unique regulatory signaling mechanism controlling protein conformation and function after phosphorylation. Pin1 is the only proline isomerase that specifically recognizes certain Pro-directed Ser/Thr phosphorylation motifs...
November 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804861/the-duality-of-kupffer-cell-responses-in-liver-metabolic-states
#17
X Liu, L Yu, W Hassan, L Sun, L Zhang, Z Jiang
Kupffer cells (KCs) are vital innate immune system cells in the liver that participate in various metabolic states. Although several studies have directly evaluated the role of KCs in different metabolic situations in the liver, the definite characteristics of KCs remain unknown. KC depletion techniques are used determine the functions of KCs under metabolic challenges; however, there is debate about their precise role even after successful ablation. While some KC ablation studies showed improvement in insulin resistance, fatty liver and metabolic parameters, other reports, under the similar conditions, have not...
October 31, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558071/the-male-abnormal-gene-family-21-mab21-members-regulate-eye-development
#18
Z Huang, J-W Xiang, L Zhou, Q Nie, L Wang, Z Chen, X-H Hu, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, Y-F Liu, Q Sun, X-C Tang, F-Y Liu, Z-W Luo, W-B Liu, D W-C Li
The male abnormal gene family contains 3 members, named mab21l1, mab21l2 and mab21l3. Since their first discovery in C. elegans, homologues of mab21l1 and mab21l2 have been found in Drosophila, Zebrafish, Xenopus, chicken, mouse and human. A number of studies have revealed that mab21 gene family members, mab21l1 and mab21l2, play important roles in regulating eye development. Here, we review the functions of the mab genes in regulating ocular development.
August 24, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494703/current-progress-of-reelin-in-development-inflammation-and-tissue-remodeling-from-nervous-to-visual-systems
#19
A Micera, B O Balzamino, F Biamonte, G Esposito, R Marino, F Fanelli, F Keller
Reelin is a matrix glycoprotein that plays a pivotal role for the positioning of neurons throughout brain development. In the early developing cortex Reelin regulates radial migration of cortical neurons while later in development, Reelin promotes maturation of dendrites and dendritic spines. Low Reelin levels characterize healthy adult brain while increased Reelin levels have been associated with cellular events underlying response to injury. Reelin has been detected in structural and immune cells outside brain (liver, gut/colon tracts, kidney, testis, ovary, lung, retina and cornea)...
August 5, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494032/putative-mechanisms-of-viral-transmission-and-molecular-dysregulation-of-mammary-epithelial-cells-by-human-papillomavirus-implications-for-breast-cancer
#20
E G de Lima, C M M do Amaral, F C Q Peixe, A P A D Gurgel, J da Costa Silva Neto, A C de Freitas
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in breast cancer samples. However, the role of HPV in breast carcinogenesis is not clear, and the interaction mechanisms between this infectious agent and the breast cancer cell need to be more fully clarified. In this article, we discuss the putative roles of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis.
August 5, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
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