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Current Molecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231755/the-immune-function-of-ly6chi-inflammatory-monocytes-during-infection-and-inflammation
#1
L Liu, Y Wei, X Wei
Monocytes originate from progenitors in bone marrow and circulate through blood vessels and patrol the vascular endothelium or differentiate into mononuclear phagocytes and infiltrate via the bloodstream to peripheral tissues during infection and other inflammatory conditions. Recruitment of inflammatory monocytes is essential for effectively clearance of bacteria, control of Toxoplasma gondii infections and limiting tissue damage. Unexpectedly, Ly6Chiinflammatory monocytes acquire the inflammatory regulatory capacity dual phenotypes during acute infection and inflammation...
February 19, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231754/survival-and-immunosuppression-induced-by-hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
P Giannoni, G Cutrona, D de Totero
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia among adults in the western world, is characterized by a progressive accumulation of relatively mature CD5+ B cells in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and bone marrow. Despite much recent advancement in therapy, CLL is still incurable. Lymph nodes and bone marrow represent sanctuary sites preserving leukemic cells from spontaneous or drug-induced apoptosis, and infiltration of leukemic cells in these districts correlates with clinical stages and prognosis...
February 19, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231753/prion-function-and-pathophysiology-in-non-mammalian-models
#3
N Guerrero, M M Meynard, J Borgonovo, K Palma, M L Concha, C Hetz
More than thirty years have passed since the discovery of the prion protein (PrP) and its causative role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Since a combination of both gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms may underlay prion pathogenesis, understanding its physiological role may give important clues about disease mechanisms. Historically, the primary strategy for prion research has involved the use of human tissue, cell cultures and mammalian animal models. Nevertheless, experimental difficulties of in vivo studies and some controversial observations obtained in these systems have triggered the search for alternative animal models...
February 19, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231752/decreased-hoxd10-expression-promotes-a-proliferative-and-aggressive-phenotype-in-prostate-cancer
#4
R-J Mo, J-M Lu, Y-P Wan, W Hua, Y-X Liang, Y-J Zhuo, Q-W Kuang, Y-L Liu, H-C He, W-D Zhong
HoxD10 gene plays a critical role in cell proliferation in the process of tumor development. However, the protein expression level and the function of HoxD10 in prostate cancer remain unknown. Using tissue microarray, we demonstrate that the protein expression of HoxD10 is commonly decreased in prostate cancer tissues (n = 92) compared to adjacent benign prostate tissues (n = 77). Functionally, knockdown of HoxD10 resulted in significant promotion of prostate cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of HoxD10 strikingly stimulated prostate tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model...
February 19, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231751/molecular-determinants-for-stim1-activation-during-store-operated-ca2-entry
#5
G Ma, S Zheng, Y Ke, L Zhou, L He, Y Huang, Y Wang, Y Zhou
BACKGROUND: STIM/ORAI-mediated store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediates a myriad of Ca2+-dependent cellular activities in mammals. Genetic defects in STIM1/ORAI1 lead to devastating severe combined immunodeficiency; whereas gain-of-function mutations in STIM1/ORAI1 are intimately associated with tubular aggregate myopathy. At molecular level, a decrease in the Ca2+ concentrations within the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) initiates multimerization of the STIM1 luminal domain to switch on the STIM1 cytoplasmic domain to engage and gate ORAI channels, thereby leading to the ultimate Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space into the cytosol...
February 19, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231750/molecular-determinants-of-colon-cancer-susceptibility-in-the-east-and-west
#6
W M Abdel-Rahman, M E Faris, P Peltomäki
The currently available knowledge of factors that dictate the development and progression as well as the clinical outcome of colorectal cancers (CRC) is mainly derived from Western countries. Considerable number of publications document different incidence rates and contrasting clinical features of CRC in various groups such as the differences between urban vs. rural areas, young vs. old age and the East vs. the West. In particular, Egyptian CRC is a surprisingly young age disease with higher proportion of poorly differentiated and advanced stage cancers as compared to the Western counterparts...
February 19, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190385/evidence-of-pkc-binding-and-translocation-to-explain-the-anticancer-mechanism-of-chlorogenic-acid-in-breast-cancer-cells
#7
S J Deka, S Gorai, D Manna, V Trivedi
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) exhibits potentials towards liver, breast and skin cancer. Cancer cells stimulated with CGA exhibits differential expression of transcriptional factors and regulatory molecules but the molecular target of the molecule is not known. Superposition of biophoric elements of CGA with Curcumin gives maximum common substructure score of 0.90. Molecular modeling studies further suggest that CGA fits into the C1b domain of PKC with extensive interaction with residues lining binding site. It binds PKC in a concentration dependent manner with dissociation constant KD, 28...
February 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176628/diabetes-type-4-a-paradigm-shift-in-the-understanding-of-glaucoma-the-brain-specific-diabetes-and-the-candidature-of-insulin-as-a-therapeutic-agent
#8
M A Faiq, T Dada
The present analytical anecdote aims at construing the probable mechanism and ensuing applications of the "Brain Diabetes Hypothesis of Glaucoma" proposed by our research group in early 2014. Here we go a step further to look into many important mechanisms that serve to bridge conceptual gaps to fill up the mosaic of a picture revealing that glaucoma indeed is brain specific diabetes and more appropriately "Diabetes Type 4". Based on this conceptual substance, we weave a novel idea of insulin being a potential remedy for glaucoma...
February 6, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067171/molecular-cloning-and-developmental-expression-patterns-of-the-striatin-gene-encoding-a-member-of-the-regulatory-subunits-for-the-protein-serine-threonine-phosphatase-2a-in-fish
#9
S-S Xie, Z-W Luo, F-Y Liu, L Liu, Z Chen, J-W Xiang, T-H Yang, R-L Qi, Y Yang, Q Nie, L Wang, Z Huang, X-H Hu, Y-F Liu, Q Sun, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, W-B Liu, Y-Z Liu, D-Y Zhang, D W-C Li
The protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A) is one of the most important serine/threonine phosphatases in eukaryotes. The holoenzyme of PP-2A consists of three subunits: a scaffold A subunit, a catalytic C subunit and a regulatory B subunit. While both A and C subunits are coded by two different genes, the B subunits exist in 26 or more isoforms which are encoded by at least 15 different genes. Previous studies have shown that besides regulating specific PP-2A activity, the various B subunits may have other functions...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067170/editorial-roles-of-sumoylation-and-phosphorylation-in-normal-physiology-and-human-diseases
#10
David W Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067169/sumoylation-in-lens-differentiation-and-pathogenesi
#11
J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, L Gong, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, L Wang, X-H Hu, Z-X Huang, R-L Qi, T-H Yang, A-P Arrigo, L Zhang, X-C Tang, S Huang, F-Y Liu, Z-W Luo, Y-F Liu, Q Sun, J Gigantelli, Y-Z Liu, D W-C Li
Sumoylation, a post-translational modification discovered over a decade ago, turns out to be a very important regulatory mechanism mediating multiple cellular processes. Recent studies from our laboratory and others also revealed that it plays a crucial role in regulating both differentiation and pathogenesis of the ocular lenses. This review will summarize these progresses.
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067168/sumoylation-in-neurological-diseases
#12
F-Y Liu, Y-F Liu, Y Yang, Z-W Luo, J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, R-L Qi, T-H Yang, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, D W-C Li
Since the discovery of SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers) over 20 years ago, sumoylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification involved in almost all aspects of cellular physiology. In neurons, sumoylation dynamically modulates protein function and consequently plays an important role in neuronal maturation, synapse formation and plasticity. Thus, the dysfunction of sumoylation pathway is associated with many different neurological disorders. Hundreds of different proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders are SUMO-modified, indicating the importance of sumoylation involved in the neurological diseases...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017136/regulation-of-creb-functions-by-phosphorylation-and-sumoylation-in-nervous-and-visual-systems
#13
L Wang, X-H Hu, Z-X Huang, Q Nie, Z-G Chen, J-W Xiang, R-L Qi, T-H Yang, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, G Gigantelli, Q D Nguyen, D W-C Li
CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor regulating diverse cellular responses. Its phosphorylation at S133 is an essential event for its activation in both nervous and visual systems. The activated CREB is implicated in the regulation of development, protection, learning, memory and plasticity in the nerve system. Moreover, sumoylation, an important post-translational modification of protein, plays a key role in sustaining CREB activation in the rat hippocampus in order to enhance the long-term memory and other aspects...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017135/role-of-sumoylation-in-heart-development-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
L Zhang, T-H Yang, D W-C Li
Heart is an extremely important organ, and cardiovascular disorders emerge as primary life-threatening disease in human life. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTMs) on cardiac proteins are closely correlated with pathological abnormalities in heart. SUMOylation, one of the most prevalent PTMs with thousands of substrates throughout the cell including critical subcellular organelles, has been shown to precisely fine-tune the cell survival and proliferation during heart development, and delicately control the function of mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum in physiological heart functioning...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017134/contrast-functions-of-%C3%AE-a-and-%C3%AE-b-crystallins-in-cancer-development
#15
Z Wang, L Wang, Z-X Huang, X Hu, J Liu, W Hu, W Ji, Q Nie, J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, Y Xiao, W-J Qiang, J Zhu, J W Gigantelli, Q D Nguyen, D W-C Li
α-Crystallins, initially identified as the structural proteins of the ocular lens, belong to the small heat shock protein family. They play significant roles in maintaining the lens transparency and preventing protein aggregation. α-Crystallins exist in two isoforms: αA and αB, and they display differential tissue distribution. Their mutations are implicated in several human diseases including cardiac myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases, cataracts and various types of cancers. Increased αB expression was detected in retinoblastoma, breast cancer, glioblastoma, prostate and renal cell carcinomas, indicating its role in promoting tumor growth...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017139/sumoylation-in-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#16
L Gong, Q Sun, D W-C Li
Sumoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that conjugates small peptide SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) to a target protein. Global protein sumoylation and expression of components in sumoylation pathway were recently found to be altered in the process of organismal aging. In addition, key factors controlling cellular senescence are known to be sumoylated. This review will summarize current information on the function of sumoylation in cellular senescence and aging.
December 22, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017138/sumoylation-pathway-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer
#17
L Gong, R Qi, D W-C Li
Sumoylation is a covalent protein posttranslational modification that conjugates the small ubiquitin-like peptide SUMO to substrate. Sumoylation is critically implicated in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis, etc. Therefore, it is not surprising that dysregulation of sumoylation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and different types of cancer were found to be addicted to functional sumoylation pathway. The potential role for sumoylation as a therapeutic target in caner is emerging...
December 22, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017137/effects-of-crosstalk-between-sumoylation-and-phosphorylation-in-normal-cellular-physiology-and-human-diseases
#18
Q Nie, X-D Gong, M Liu, D W-C Li
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, sumoylation are important mechanisms to regulate the functions of different proteins. Among various PTMs, phosphorylation, discovered about 60 years ago, is probably the most common modification. In contrast, sumoylation, identified about two decades is emerging as a key regulatory mechanism modulating protein functions. Although studies on protein phosphorylation and sumoylation have been extensively reviewed, much less attention has been paid to their cross-talk and their co-regulation of the same protein target...
December 22, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894243/spinal-muscular-atrophy-more-than-a-disease-of-motor-neurons
#19
L A Nash, J K Burns, J W Chardon, R Kothary, R J Parks
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disease resulting in infant mortality. SMA is caused by genetic deletion or mutation in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which results in reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN protein deficiency preferentially affects α- motor neurons, leading to their degeneration and subsequent atrophy of limb and trunk muscles, progressing to death in severe forms of the disease. More recent studies have shown that SMN protein depletion is detrimental to the functioning of other tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, autonomic and enteric nervous systems, metabolic/endocrine (e...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894242/indazolo-3-2-b-quinazolinones-attack-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hep3b-cells-by-inducing-mitochondrial-dependent-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#20
Y Zhang, R Qiao, D He, Z Zhao, S Yang, H Zou, X Zhang, M Wu, J Chen, P Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Genotoxic stress resistance in patients often contributes to poor clinical outcomes, and is intensively associated to the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the connection between the anti-cancer activity of two novel indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinone (IQ) derivatives, IQ-7 and IQ-12, and their effect on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. The two compounds were shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in Hep3B cells (human hepatoma cell line)...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
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