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Current Molecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894243/spinal-muscular-atrophy-more-than-a-disease-of-motor-neurons
#1
L A Nash, J K Burns, J W Chardon, R Kothary, R J Parks
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disease resulting in infant mortality. SMA is caused by genetic deletion or mutation in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which results in reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN protein deficiency preferentially affects α- motor neurons, leading to their degeneration and subsequent atrophy of limb and trunk muscles, progressing to death in severe forms of the disease. More recent studies have shown that SMN protein depletion is detrimental to the functioning of other tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, autonomic and enteric nervous systems, metabolic/endocrine (e...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894242/indazolo-3-2-b-quinazolinones-attack-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hep3b-cells-by-inducing-mitochondrial-dependent-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#2
Y Zhang, R Qiao, D He, Z Zhao, S Yang, H Zou, X Zhang, M Wu, J Chen, P Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Genotoxic stress resistance in patients often contributes to poor clinical outcomes, and is intensively associated to the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the connection between the anti-cancer activity of two novel indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinone (IQ) derivatives, IQ-7 and IQ-12, and their effect on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. The two compounds were shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in Hep3B cells (human hepatoma cell line)...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894241/a-novel-relationship-for-schizophrenia-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorder-part-6-a-hint-from-chromosome-6-high-density-association-screen
#3
X Chen, F Long, B Cai, X Chen, G Chen
Convergent evidence from genetics, symptomatology and psychopharmacology imply that there are intrinsic connections between schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), for example, any two or even three of these disorders could co-exist in some families. A total of 56.400 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on chromosome 6 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 on 119 SCZ, 253 BPD (type-I), 177 MDD patients and 1000 controls. Associated SNP loci on chromosome 6 were comprehensively revealed and outstanding susceptibility genes were identified including JARID2 (Homo sapiens jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) which plays an essential role in embryonic development and neural tube fusion process...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894240/sumoylation-regulation-of-retina-development-and-functions
#4
L Zhang, D W-C Li
The structure and developmental mechanisms of vertebrate retina are highly conserved. One of the most distinctive events during retinogenesis is the temporally and spatially generation of seven types of retinal cells from the multipotent retinal progenitor cells. The importance and prevalence of SUMOylation in regulation of this process through modulation of gene expression and protein function diversity have been increasingly appreciated. Here, we review the biological significance of SUMOylation in retina development, examine how SUMOylation balances the proliferation and cell cycle exit of retinal progenitor cells, and finally discuss the molecular mechanisms mediating the specification of different retina neurons and photoreceptors through modulation of various transcription factors...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889996/elevated-microsatellite-alterations-at-selected-tetranucleotide-repeats-emast-and-microsatellite-instability-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-and-its-clinical-features
#5
H S Lee, K U Park, D-W Kim, M H Ihn, W H Kim, A N Seo, H E Chang, S K Nam, S Y Lee, H-K Oh, S-B Kang
PURPOSE: Recently, a different type of microsatellite instability (MSI) instability designated 'elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats' (EMAST) has been reported in several neoplasms, but its clinical implications remain unclear. We aimed to determine the relationships among EMAST, MSI and clinicopathologic characteristics, including oncologic outcomes, in colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 100 sporadic CRC cases subjected to surgery using five markers (MYCL1, D9S242, D20S85, D8S321, and D20S82) for EMAST and the Bethesda panel for MSI status...
November 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889995/the-roles-of-the-unique-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-cancer-related-viral-and-bacterial-infections
#6
J Wang, X-H Liao, M Zheng, D Yang, X Z Zhou, H Liu, K P Lu
Infection is the process of pathogen invasion, as well as the host reaction to the foreign agents. Proline-directed phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism that regulates the function of fundamental proteins involved in infection and infection-induced cancer. Recently, the identification of the phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerase Pin1 has uncovered a unique regulatory signaling mechanism controlling protein conformation and function after phosphorylation. Pin1 is the only proline isomerase that specifically recognizes certain Pro-directed Ser/Thr phosphorylation motifs...
November 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804861/the-duality-of-kupffer-cell-responses-in-liver-metabolic-states
#7
X Liu, L Yu, W Hassan, L Sun, L Zhang, Z Jiang
Kupffer cells (KCs) are vital innate immune system cells in the liver that participate in various metabolic states. Although several studies have directly evaluated the role of KCs in different metabolic situations in the liver, the definite characteristics of KCs remain unknown. KC depletion techniques are used determine the functions of KCs under metabolic challenges; however, there is debate about their precise role even after successful ablation. While some KC ablation studies showed improvement in insulin resistance, fatty liver and metabolic parameters, other reports, under the similar conditions, have not...
October 31, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774883/novel-aspects-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
A Gentilini, A Caligiuri, A Provenzano, F Marra
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrogenesis. Overall mortality, and liver-related mortality, are both increased in NASH patients. Considering that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent hepatic abnormality in the Western world, understanding the mechanisms leading to NASH and its progression to cirrhosis is critical for a better management of these patients. Moreover, a more detailed knowledge of this condition may be helpful to identify those subjects which are more susceptible to develop progressive liver disease...
October 21, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758712/stip-regulates-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-involved-in-interaction-with-pp1%C3%AE-in-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
S Sun, Y Wang, H Chen, L Fang, Y Cui, X Han, D Wu, H Li, M Ye, X Zhao, J Liu
BACKGROUND: Sip1/Tuftelin Interacting Protein (STIP) is highly conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens and has essential biological functions. However, its function in leukemia remains unknown. METHODS: Clinic Samples and cell model were used in this article to investigate the expression of STIP in lymphoblastic leukemia. The functional research of STIP was performed in ARH-77 by siRNA transfection, Immunofluorescence, cell count, cell cycle analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Sub-cellular Fractionation assays, Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting...
October 18, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739366/clinical-experience-of-non-invasive-prenatal-chromosomal-aneuploidy-testing-in-190-277-patient-samples
#10
H Hu, H Liu, C Peng, T Deng, X Fu, C Chung, E Zhang, C Lu, K Zhang, Z Liang, Y Yang
OBJECTIVES: To detect trisomy 21, 18, and 13 in 190,277 clinical samples from the medical diagnostic laboratories of ten hospitals. METHODS: The study assessed the clinical performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 in 190,277 clinical samples using semiconductor sequencing technology. RESULTS: NIPT participants were at a mean gestation of 17.79 weeks (range, 9-36) and age of 31.12 years (range, 18-46) at the time of testing in average...
October 13, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719652/non-invasive-assessment-of-liver-injury-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-review-of-literature
#11
M Maida, F S Macaluso, F Salomone, S Petta
NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) is an increasingly significant public health issue, regarded as the most relevant liver disease of the twenty-first century. Approximately 20%-30% of NAFLD subjects develop a NASH (Non-Alcoholic Steato-Hepatitis), a condition which can potentially evolve to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. For these reasons a proper evaluation of liver damage is a key point for diagnosis and prognosis and liver biopsy still remains the "gold standard" procedure both for discrimination between steatosis and steatohepatitis and assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis...
October 4, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686798/long-non-coding-rna-an-emerging-paradigm-of-pancreatic-cancer
#12
T Han, H Hu, M Zhuo, L Wang, J-J Cui, F Jiao, L-W Wang
Pancreatic cancer remains a worldwide issue and burden that is hard to resolve given its low resection rate and chemo-resistance. Early diagnosis and early treatment are critical for conquering pancreatic cancer. Therefore, new biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis are urgently needed. Previously, researchers mainly focused on protein-coding genetic and epigenetic changes in many types of cancers, and regarded the non-coding part as waste. Recently, however, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has emerged as a major participant in carcinogenesis, as it regulates cell proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, chemo-resistance, etc...
September 26, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658467/calcitriol-reduces-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-and-glucose-output-through-ca2-camkk%C3%AE-ampk-activation-under-insulin-resistant-conditions-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
S Cheng, W Y So, D Zhang, Q Cheng, B J Boucher, P S Leung
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of calcitriol (the active hormonal metabolite of vitamin D) on hepatic metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic db/db mice were used to investigate the effects of calcitriol on hepatic and systemic metabolic disorders. HepG2 cells cultured in insulin-resistant conditions were used to examine the potential mechanisms for calcitriol-induced changes in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism...
September 20, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573195/reprogramming-of-molecular-switching-events-in-upr-driven-er-stress-scope-for-development-of-anticancer-therapeutics
#14
D Nayak, R Rasool, S Chakraborty, A Katoch, H Amin, B Rah, A Goswami
The incitement of unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by diverse intracellular (hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, etc.) or extracellular (environmental or drug induced) stimuli is considered a major threat for perturbing cellular homeostasis leading to gathering of unfolded proteins inside the cell. The catastrophic UPR events emerge as a foremost cellular adaptation by remodeling cancer cell signaling and restoring ER homeostasis in favor of tumor growth. The transient ER stress protects cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis, whereas the prolonged stress response further activates a number of cell death pathways...
August 29, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573194/cxcr7-participates-in-cxcl12-mediated-cell-cycle-and-proliferation-regulation-in-mouse-neural-progenitor-cells
#15
Y Wang, P Xu, L Qiu, M Zhang, Y Huang, J C Zheng
Cell cycle regulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is an essential process for neurogenesis, neural development, and repair after brain trauma. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, CXCL12) with its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 are well known in regulating the proliferation and survival of NPCs. The effects of CXCL12 on NPCs cell cycle and its associated signaling pathways remain unclear. The cell cycle regulation protein, Cyclin D1, a downstream target of β-catenin, is critical for cell cycle control and may play an important role in NPCs proliferation...
August 29, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558071/the-male-abnormal-gene-family-21-mab21-members-regulate-eye-development
#16
Z Huang, J-W Xiang, L Zhou, Q Nie, L Wang, Z Chen, X-H Hu, Y Xiao, W-J Qing, Y-F Liu, Q Sun, X-C Tang, F-Y Liu, Z-W Luo, W-B Liu, D W-C Li
The male abnormal gene family contains 3 members, named mab21l1, mab21l2 and mab21l3. Since their first discovery in C. elegans, homologues of mab21l1 and mab21l2 have been found in Drosophila, Zebrafish, Xenopus, chicken, mouse and human. A number of studies have revealed that mab21 gene family members, mab21l1 and mab21l2, play important roles in regulating eye development. Here, we review the functions of the mab genes in regulating ocular development.
August 24, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494703/current-progress-of-reelin-in-development-inflammation-and-tissue-remodeling-from-nervous-to-visual-systems
#17
A Micera, B O Balzamino, F Biamonte, G Esposito, R Marino, F Fanelli, F Keller
Reelin is a matrix glycoprotein that plays a pivotal role for the positioning of neurons throughout brain development. In the early developing cortex Reelin regulates radial migration of cortical neurons while later in development, Reelin promotes maturation of dendrites and dendritic spines. Low Reelin levels characterize healthy adult brain while increased Reelin levels have been associated with cellular events underlying response to injury. Reelin has been detected in structural and immune cells outside brain (liver, gut/colon tracts, kidney, testis, ovary, lung, retina and cornea)...
August 5, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494032/putative-mechanisms-of-viral-transmission-and-molecular-dysregulation-of-mammary-epithelial-cells-by-human-papillomavirus-implications-for-breast-cancer
#18
E G de Lima, C M M do Amaral, F C Q Peixe, A P A D Gurgel, J da Costa Silva Neto, A C de Freitas
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in breast cancer samples. However, the role of HPV in breast carcinogenesis is not clear, and the interaction mechanisms between this infectious agent and the breast cancer cell need to be more fully clarified. In this article, we discuss the putative roles of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis.
August 5, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492801/resistin-like-molecule-%C3%AE-causes-lung-injury-in-rats-with-acute-pancreatitis-by-activating-the-pi-3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-promoting-inflammatory-cytokine-release
#19
W-Y Wang, Y Chen, X Su, D Tang, Q-W Ben, W-Y Yao, P Chen, Y-Z Yuan
BACKGROUND: Resistin-like molecule-α (RELMα) has diverse regulatory functions in inflammation, but its role in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and acute pancreatitis associated lung injury (APALI) remains unclear. METHODS: SAP was induced in rats. RELMα protein expression was detected in lung tissue of rats to determine the relationship between APALI and RELMα. To investigate the effect of RELMα overexpression or knockdown on APALI, rats were given an intravenous injection of adenovirus vector before SAP induction...
August 2, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492800/endogenous-factors-in-the-recovery-of-reproductive-function-after-testicular-injury-and-cancer
#20
A M S Silva, S Correia, S Socorro, C J Maia
The testes are one of the most delicate organs in the male body and highly susceptible to the exogenous influences capable of inducing cell damage. Cancer therapies are well known to negatively affect the male reproductive tract with a severe impairment of spermatogenesis and infertility. The present work aimed to systematically review the available information about the different endogenous factors (hormonal and non-hormonal) that may have protective or advantageous properties on the recovery of male reproductive function after gonadal injury...
August 2, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
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