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Current Molecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663886/microrna-regulation-along-the-course-of-cellular-reprogramming-to-pluripotency
#1
M Ishtiaq, M Waseem, R Mehmood
Generation of patient-specific stem cells has been a long-held aim of many developmental biologists. Apart from providing a source for stem cell therapies, these cells have the potential to be utilized in a number of scenarios like disease modeling, drug screening and studying normal development. Various approaches have been used to reprogram terminally differentiated cells to a pluripotent state with varying efficiencies and limitations. The nuclear transfer had been the most successful method for reprogramming until recently...
April 15, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663885/liposomes-as-a-promising-uultrasound-triggered-drug-delivery-system-in-cancer-treatment
#2
N M Salkho, R Z Turki, O Guessoum, A M Martins, R F Vitor, G A Husseini
The initial uses of ultrasound waves in the medical field were limited to the thermal ablation of solid tumors and as a diagnostic tool. Recent advances at the preclinical stage have allowed the use of ultrasound as a powerful tool to improve drug delivery when the agent is administered encapsulated inside a nanoparticle. This spatial and temporal control of drug release, using a non-invasive modality, is a promising approach to decrease the side effects of conventional chemotherapy in cancer treatments, as it reduces the interaction of the anti-neoplastic agent with healthy tissues...
April 15, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663884/advances-in-tumor-targeted-liposomes
#3
A Jain, S K Jain
Cancer remains a deadly disease for effective treatment. Although anomalous tumor microenvironment is now widely exploited for targeted chemotherapy, safe and efficacious drug delivery to tumor cells is not still warranted. Liposomes are promising biodegradable and biocompatible nanocarriers having potential amenability for surface and internal modifications, and extraordinary capability to carry both hydrophilic as well as hydrophobhic drugs. Meticulous fabrication of liposomes with tumor selective ligand(s) and PEGylation reduces immunogenicity and increase target-specificity...
April 15, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577859/update-on-asthma-genetics-results-from-meta-analyses-of-candidate-gene-association-studies
#4
K Tizaoui, K Hamzaoui, A Hamzaoui
Several studies have investigated the risk factors associated with asthma. Both genetic and environmental factors are considered to contribute to asthma susceptibility. Individual genetic association studies usually suffer from small sample size leading to biased results. Meta-analysis is a powerful tool that has the potential to resolve this limitation by increasing the statistical power of analyses. The current review summarizes the recent knowledge concerning genetic factors involved in asthma predisposition based on meta-analyses...
March 22, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577858/expression-and-prognostic-relevance-of-gage1-and-xage1-cancer-testis-antigens-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
B T R Karia, F T Zamuner, V Carlin, C Z de Oliveira, A L Carvalho, A L Vettore
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, survival rates in Head and Neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have not changed, with a five-year survival of only 50%. Thus, there is a great need for the identification of new molecular targets and development of novel therapeutic strategies. Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in various types of tumor but rarely in healthy normal tissues. Therefore, they appear as ideal targets for immunotherapy approaches, as well as, unique markers for cancer diagnosis/prognosis...
March 22, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577857/erythropoietin-protects-retina-against-ceramide-2-induced-damage-in-rat
#6
H Lou, D Kang, Q Yang, C Lian, C Zhang, Z Li, H Tian, L Lu, G-T Xu, G Xu, J Zhang
Ceramide plays critical roles in cell proliferation, senescence and apoptosis, and is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, etc. To clarify if ceramide plays some roles in retinal diseases, we established in vivo and in vitro retinal injury models with ceramide 2 (C2) treatment. In addition, Erythropoietin (EPO), which showed protective effects on retinal cells and blood-retinal barrier (BRB), was also tested for its protection and possible mechanism(s) in these models. The results showed that intravitreal C2-treatment caused significant vision loss in rats, as reflected by reduced b-wave amplitude, and increased TUNEL positive cells and GFAP immunostaining in retina...
March 22, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577856/blood-flow-regulates-zebrafish-caudal-vein-plexus-angiogenesis-by-erk5-klf2a-nos2b-signaling
#7
X Xie, T Zhou, Y Wang, H Chen, D Lei, L Huang, Y Wang, X Jin, T Sun, J Tan, T Yin, J Huang, H Gregersen, G Wang
Vascular network formation induced by angiogenesis plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of blood flow and underlying mechanisms in vascular network formation, for example for the development of the caudal vein plexus (CVP), is poorly understood. In this study on tnnt2a-MO injection and chemical blood flow modulator treatment in zebrafish embryos, we demonstrated that decreased blood flow disrupted CVP formation. The hemodynamic force was quantitatively analyzed...
March 22, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437010/neuronal-expression-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-c-is-essential-for-retinal-thickness-and-photoreceptor-survival
#8
Y Li, F Zhang, W Lu, X Li
BACKGROUND: Photoreceptor cell death is a key pathology of retinal degeneration diseases. To date, the molecular mechanisms for this pathological process remain largely unclear. Junctional adhesion molecule-c (Jam-c) has been shown to play important roles in different biological events. However, its effect on retinal neuronal cells is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Jam-c on adult mouse eyes, particularly, on retinal structure, vasculature and photoreceptor cells, in order to explore potential important target molecules for ocular diseases...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437009/the-bhlh-protein-nulp1-is-essential-for-femur-development-via-acting-as-a-cofactor-in-wnt-signaling-in-drosophila
#9
Q Zeng, Y Wan, P Zhu, M Zhao, F Jiang, J Chen, M Tang, X Zhu, Y Li, H Zha, Y Wang, M Hu, X Mo, Y Zhang, Y Chen, Y Chen, X Ye, R Bodmer, K Ocorr, Z Jiang, J Zhuang, W Yuan, X Wu
BACKGROUND: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein families are a large class of transcription factors, which are associated with cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, and other important development processes. We reported that the Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) might act as a novel bHLH transcriptional factor to mediate cellular functions. However, its role in development in vivo remains unknown. METHODS: Nulp1 (dNulp1) mutants are generated by CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the Domain of Unknown Function (DUF654) in its C terminal...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437008/identification-of-a-good-prognosis-idh-mutant-like-population-of-patients-with-diffuse-gliomas
#10
Z Wang, X Liu, Z Wang, Z Bao, W Zhang, C Zhang, T Jiang
BACKGROUND: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is the initiating event that defines major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas, but the potential mechanisms have not been well interpreted yet. The main objective of the current study was to better understand the underlying biology of IDH mutant gliomas as captured by gene expression profiles. METHODS: RNA sequencing data of WHO grade II-IV gliomas from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA, N=325) were used to assess differentially expressed genes between IDH mutant and wild type gliomas and to construct a gene expression-based classifier to detect IDH mutant samples with high sensitivity and specificity...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424313/mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibited-dendritic-cells-via-the-regulation-of-stat1-and-stat6-phosphorylation-in-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis
#11
L Dong, X Chen, H Shao, L Bai, X Li, X Zhang
PURPOSE: We have previously reported that MSCs inhibited experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in rodent models induced by either uveitogenic antigens or antigen-specific T cells. In this study, we explored the inhibitory mechanisms of MSCs on dendritic cells (DCs) in EAU. METHODS: We collected the DCs from the lymph nodes of MSC treated or untreated EAU rats, as well as bone marrow derived DCs cultured in vitro with or without MSC treatment. The levels of costimulatory molecules of CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1, SOCS2, and SOCS3) on these DCs were analyzed by flow Cytometry...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424312/association-of-il33-and-il1rap-polymorphisms-with-acute-anterior-uveitis
#12
X-F Huang, W Chi, D Lin, M-L Dai, Y-L Wang, Y-M Yang, Z-B Jin, Y Wang
BACKGROUND: AAU (acute anterior uveitis) is the most common entity of uveitis characterized by acute vision loss and violent sore eyes. IL-33 and IL-1RacP have been found to play crucial roles in the innate immune system. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the association of IL33 and IL1RAP genes with AAU. METHOD: A total of 549 AAU patients and 1080 unrelated healthy controls were recruited for this study. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Sequenom Mass ARRAY technology...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424311/how-to-deal-with-uveitis-patients
#13
P Yang, L Du, Z Ye
During the past nine years, our center has grown into the largest uveitis referral center in China. To deal with this increasing stream of patients we have developed a management system to coordinate communication with our patients, their referring ophthalmologists, consultations with other medical specialties and worldrenowned foreign uveitis specialists. We have established the biggest database of uveitis patients records allowing continuous analysis of clinical features and response to treatment of patients with various uveitis entities as well as the evaluation of the relevance of various ancillary tests performed in this patient group...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424310/elevated-interleukin-37-expression-associated-with-disease-activity-in-hla-b27-associated-anterior-uveitis-and-idiopathic-anterior-uveitis
#14
B Zhao, S Zhang, W Chen, R Zhang, R Jiang, R Zhang, L Chen
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is an important regulator of the anti-inflammatory T-cell response. In this study, we investigated its expression and function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with HLA-B27 associated acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and idiopathic AAU. METHODS: 15 patients with HLA-B27-associated AAU, 10 patients with idiopathic AAU and 22 controls were recruited to this study from August 2013 to December 2016...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424309/editorial-uveitis-pathology-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapy
#15
EDITORIAL
Peizeng Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256352/puerarin-stimulates-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-formation-through-the-erk1-2-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways
#16
X Yang, Y Yang, S Zhou, X Gong, Q Dai, P Zhang, L Jiang
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a world-wide health problem, which leads to decreased bone strength and increased susceptibility to fractures. Puerarin, a phytoestrogen extracted from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, has been identified as a promising intervention for preventing bone loss and promoting bone regeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms for its anabolic action are still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of puerarin on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and the possible molecular mechanism mediating its action...
March 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231802/editorial-view-of-cellular-biology-through-the-eye
#17
EDITORIAL
Fu Shang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110609/bmp3-is-required-for-integrity-of-blood-brain-barrier-by-promoting-pericyte-coverage-in-zebrafish-embryos
#18
D Lei, X Jin, L Wen, H Dai, Z Ye, G Wang
BACKGROUND: The compromise of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity is often associated with human hemorrhage stroke and neurodegeneration diseases, including retina diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Brain pericytes play pivotal roles in regulation and maintenance of BBB integrity. However, the mechanisms underlying brain pericyte development to establish BBB integrity remain unclear. METHODS: Zebrafish transgenic lines Tg(flk1:GFP; gata1:dsRed), Tg(flk1:GFP), Tg(fli1:GFP) and Tg(BRE:GFP) were used in this work...
December 7, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110611/curcumin-inhibits-proliferation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-via-multiple-pathways
#19
X Zhou, X Kuang, C Long, W Liu, Y Tang, L Liu, H Liu, J He, Z Huang, Y Fan, Q Zhang, H Shen
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a disease caused by de-differentiation, translocation and proliferation of several types of local cells. These cells form fibrocellular membranes resulting in detachment of retinal and vision loss. PVR occurs in 8%-10% of patients undergoing primary retinal detachment (RD) surgery and becomes a major obstacle for successful RD repair. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are among the major cells which consist of fibrocellular membranes. Re-proliferation and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are the primary pathological alteration of RPE cells in PVR...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110610/vegfr1-signaling-regulates-il-4-mediated-arginase-1-expression-in-macrophages
#20
Y Zou, Q Chen, Z Ye, X Li, R Ju
Macrophages undergo polarization or activation in response to environmental stimuli, an essential process for proper immune response. Meanwhile, excessive activation of macrophages causes autoimmune diseases. It is therefore crucial to prevent over-activation of macrophage in order to maintain the proper immune response. Arginase 1 plays a critical role in coordinating the immune response by regulating availability of arginine. However, the mechanism of Arginase 1 regulation is poorly understood. In this study, we discovered the VEGFR1-mediated signaling suppressed IL-4-induced Arginase 1 expression...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
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