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Current Molecular Medicine

P Zhang, Q Dai, S Zhou, B Fang, L Jiang
Osteoporosis is a world-wide health problem, which leads to decreased bone strength and increased susceptibility to fractures. Puerarin, a phytoestrogen extracted from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, has been identified as a promising intervention for preventing bone loss and promoting bone regeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms for its anabolic action are still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of puerarin on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and the possible molecular mechanism mediating its action...
December 18, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
J Kountouras, M Boziki, S A Polyzos, P Katsinelos, E Gavalas, C Zeglinas, D Tzivras, I Romiopoulos, N Giorgakis, K Anastasiadou, E Vardaka, C Kountouras, E Kazakos, E Giartza-Taxidou, G Deretzi, E Dardiotis, G Kotronis, M Doulberis
Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-I) is a prevalent disorder identified in the majority of the population in many countries around the world and is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity. Likewise, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, multiple sclerosis or glaucoma defined as ocular Alzheimer's disease, are associated with a large public health burden and are among the leading causes of disability. Emerging evidences suggest that Hp-I may be associated with neurodegenerative conditions...
December 18, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
A Giudice, M Montella, M Boccellino, A Crispo, G D'Arena, S Bimonte, G Facchini, G Ciliberto, G Botti, L Quagliuolo, M Caraglia, M Capunzo
Prostate cancer is one of the most difficult cancers to treat especially when it becomes hormone resistant such as castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and subsequent metastatic CRPC. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetic modifications also play an important role in the development and neoplastic progression of this disease. These include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding microRNAs. miRNAs are a novel class of small endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that typically silence gene expression...
December 18, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
S Wu, S Saxena, M L Varney, R K Singh
Cancer-related inflammation is recognized as a driver for tumor progression and chemokines are important players in both inflammation and progression of many cancer types. CXC chemokines, especially CXCL8, have been implicated in melanoma growth and metastasis, while less is known for their roles in drug resistance. Here, we report chemotherapies induced upregulation of a variety of chemokines in the CXCR1/CXCR2 network by an NF-B-dependent mechanism. Notably, analysis of the drug-resistant melanoma cell line selected after prolonged exposure to chemotherapeutic drug dacarbazine revealed higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCR2 compared with parent cells as a signature of drug resistance...
December 18, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
L Wang, P Li, Y Tian, Z Li, C Lian, Q Ou, C Jin, F Gao, J-Y Xu, J Wang, F Wang, J Zhang, J Zhang, W Li, H Tian, L Lu, G-T Xu
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are potential candidates for treating retinal degeneration (RD). To further study the biology and therapeutic effects of these cells, two hUC-MSC subpopulations, termed hUC-MSC1 and hUC-MSC2, were isolated by single-cell cloning method and their therapeutic functions were compared in RCS rat, a RD model. Although both subsets satisfied the basic requirements for hUC-MSCs, they were significantly different in morphology, proliferation rate, differentiation capacity, phenotype and gene expression...
December 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
F Zhu, Y Guan, R Zhang
RATIONALE: Studies have implied the positive association of JAK2/STAT3 signaling with the onset and severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, definitive functional study of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in vivo is missing and its potential as a therapeutic target and the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the role of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia-intensified caerulin-induced AP and its potential as a therapeutic target...
December 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
J Zhang, J Wang, L Zheng, M Wang, Y Lu, Z Li, C Lian, S Mao, X Hou, S Li, J Xu, H Tian, C Jin, F Gao, J Zhang, F Wang, W Li, L Lu, G-T Xu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is deemed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AMD. miR-25 functions as an essential modulator in response to oxidative-stress in several cell types, but its function in RPE cells is poorly understood. Here, we reported that, in a rat model of retinal degeneration induced by sodium iodate (SI), oxidative stress up-regulated miR-25 in RPE cells in very early stage, accompanied by decreased phagocytosis and reduced growth factor secretion in those cells...
December 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
J Zhang, Q Chen, S Wang, T Li, Z Xiao, W Lan, G Huang, X Cai
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with the characteristics of progressive joint destruction, deformity and disability. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of a set of natural products, including α-mangostin on MH7A cells, human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes and to explore the underlying mechanisms. MH7A cells were treated with natural products to evaluate the effects on MH7A cell viability and α-mangostin was proven to be the most effective one to inhibit cell viability...
December 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
Y Xu, X Zhou, M Mei, Y Ren
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated fibroblasts during development of several cancer types, and therefore emerge as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Drugs such as PT-100 and sibrotuzumab that block the functions of CAFs have already been in clinical trials. However, these drugs exhibit limited efficacy in patients, partially due to the fact that currently used biomarkers for determining efficacy are not CAF-specific. Furthermore, depletion of CAFs may promote carcinogenesis and accelerate cancer progression by inducing immunosuppression and hypoxia, leading to reduced survival...
December 4, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
P Chen, S Yang, C Hu, Z Zhao, J Liu, Y Cheng, S Wang, Q Chen, P Yu, X Zhang, M Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Aging can result in a progressive decline in cellular protection and physiological function. The physiological status and microbiota of the intestine are intensively linked to the aging process. Numerous studies have suggested that Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides possess antioxidant and anti-aging activities. However, it remains unclear as to whether S. fusiforme polysaccharides can prevent the insult of oxidant and aging through modulating the physiological status and microbiota of the intestine...
December 4, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
A Jain, A Tiwari, A Verma, S K Jain
Over a few decades a strong interlink between oxidative damage and cancer has been investigated by various scientists across the world on the basis of epidemiological observations of the effects of fruits and vegetables used in the diet for cancer patients. Primarily, Vitamin C, Vitamin D and Vitamin E are reported to be involved in the amelioration of side effects which occur in chemotherapy and radiation therapy of lungs, stomach, prostate, colorectal, gastric head and neck cancers. The vitamins acting as antioxidant adjuvants are found to have apoptotic and anti-angiogenesis potential as well as inhibitory effects against metastasis in cancer cells...
December 4, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
X Zhou, X Kuang, C Long, W Liu, Y Tang, L Liu, H Liu, J He, Z Huang, Y Fan, Q Zhang, H Shen
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a disease caused by de-differentiation, translocation and proliferation of several types of local cells. These cells form fibrocellular membranes resulting in detachment of retinal and vision loss. PVR occurs in 8%-10% of patients undergoing primary retinal detachment (RD) surgery and becomes a major obstacle for successful RD repair. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are among the major cells which consist of fibrocellular membranes. Re-proliferation and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are the primary pathological alteration of RPE cells in PVR...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
Y Zou, Q Chen, Z Ye, X Li, R Ju
Macrophages undergo polarization or activation in response to environmental stimuli, an essential process for proper immune response. Meanwhile, excessive activation of macrophages causes autoimmune diseases. It is therefore crucial to prevent over-activation of macrophage in order to maintain the proper immune response. Arginase 1 plays a critical role in coordinating the immune response by regulating availability of arginine. However, the mechanism of Arginase 1 regulation is poorly understood. In this study, we discovered the VEGFR1-mediated signaling suppressed IL-4-induced Arginase 1 expression...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
D Lei, X Jin, L Wen, H Dai, Z Ye, G Wang
BACKGROUND: The compromise of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity is often associated with human hemorrhage stroke and neurodegeneration diseases, including retina diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Brain pericytes play pivotal roles in regulation and maintenance of BBB integrity. However, the mechanisms underlying brain pericyte development to establish BBB integrity remain unclear. METHODS: zebrafish transgenic lines Tg(flk1:GFP; gata1:dsRed), Tg(flk1:GFP), Tg(fli1:GFP) and Tg(BRE:GFP) were used in this work...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
Y Yu, J Zhang, R Zhu, R Zhao, J Chen, J Jin, Y Tian, S B Su
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression profile of angiogenic factors associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Undiluted vitreous humor samples were obtained from 10 diabetic patients with PDR (10 eyes) and 9 non-diabtic patients (9 eyes). The concentrations of 60 angiogenic factors in the vitreous humor samples were measured by RayBio Angiogenic Cytokine Antibody Array. Some differentially expressed factors were further confirmed in vitreous humor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
C She, F Shang, K Zhou, N Liu
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are associated with oxidative stress and carotenoids have antioxidant properties. This study aimed to test the relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and the risk for DM and DR. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of the Chinese urban population. A total of 747 subjects, consisting of 272 DR patients, 190 diabetic patients without retinopathy, and 285 non-diabetes mellitus healthy controls, were recruited to this study...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
X Tan, Z Liu, Y Zhu, C Chen, S Huang, B Chen, Z Lin, J Chen, X Tang, B Qu, X Liu, L Luo, J Deng, F Shang, M Wu, W Chen, H Lin, Y Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lens regeneration is an optimal strategy for cataract patients to regain visual acuity with accommodation. We recently designed a novel, minimally invasive capsulorhexis surgical method for cataract removal that achieved functional lens regeneration in human infants. However, small anterior capsulorhexis requires advanced surgical expertise. To know whether the quality of the regenerated lens can be maintained with enlarged anterior capsulorhexis, we investigated the shape and transparency of the regenerated lenses with different anterior capsulorhexis diameters (ACDs)...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
F Shang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
X Zhang, A Taylor, Y Liu, F Shang
Glutathione is a small antioxidant peptide in cells and it plays an important role in maintaining a reducing intracellular environment. Glutathione is also involved in the dynamic regulation of specific protein functions by reversible glutathiolation of certain proteins in response to oxidative stress. The purpose of this work is to mechanistically investigate the effects of glutathiolation on the susceptibility of proteins to degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). The data show that γC-crystallin and carbonic anhydrase III were barely degraded by the UPP without modifications, but both were rapidly degraded by the UPP after glutathiolation...
November 1, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
Q Yang, X Liu, Z Song, L Lin, K Wu
This study evaluated the utility of polyethersulfone membranes (PESms) for tear collection and compared it with two frequently employed approaches: the use of Schirmer test paper (STP) and capillary tube (CaT). STP and PESms of 0.45 and 0.65 μm (PESm65) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), applied to soak up water and cellular lysates, and employed to collect tear fluid (TF) from rabbits. The proteins in the cellular lysates and TF were characterized through band profiling of SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis (PAGE) gels and Western blot analyzing...
November 1, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
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