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International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Dimitrios Vlachakis, Nikolaos E Labrou, Costas Iliopoulos, John Hardy, Patrick A Lewis, Hardy Rideout, Daniah Trabzuni
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large protein of unclear function. Rare mutations in the LRRK2 gene cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and inflammatory bowel disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed significant association of the abovementioned diseases at the LRRK2 locus. Cell and systems biology research has led to potential roles that LRRK2 may have in PD pathogenesis, especially the kinase domain (KIN). Previous human expression studies showed evidence of mRNA expression and splicing patterns that may contribute to our understanding of the function of LRRK2...
September 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luyao Ma, Zhenghai Sun, Yawen Zeng, Mingcan Luo, Jiazhen Yang
Functional ingredients in blueberry have the best health benefits. To obtain a better understanding of the health role of blueberry in chronic disease, we conducted systematic preventive strategies for functional ingredients in blueberry, based on comprehensive databases, especially PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2008⁻2018. Blueberry is rich in flavonoids (mainly anthocyanidins), polyphenols (procyanidin), phenolic acids, pyruvic acid, chlorogenic acid, and others, which have anticancer, anti-obesity, prevent degenerative diseases, anti-inflammation, protective properties for vision and liver, prevent heart diseases, antidiabetes, improve brain function, protective lung properties, strong bones, enhance immunity, prevent cardiovascular diseases, and improve cognitive decline...
September 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arianna Scuteri, Marianna Monfrini
Diabetes is a worldwide disease which actually includes different disorders related to glucose metabolism. According to different epidemiological studies, patients affected by diabetes present a higher risk to develop both acute and chronic pancreatitis, clinical situations which, in turn, increase the risk to develop pancreatic cancer. Current therapies are able to adjust insulin levels according to blood glucose peak, but they only partly reach the goal to abrogate the consequent inflammatory milieu responsible for diabetes-related diseases...
September 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fan-Yen Lee, Pei-Lin Shao, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Sarah Chua, Pei-Hsun Sung, Sheung-Fat Ko, Han-Tan Chai, Sheng-Ying Chung, Kuan-Hung Chen, Hung-I Lu, Yi-Ling Chen, Tien-Hung Huang, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Hon-Kan Yip
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury contributes to adverse cardiac outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery, or circulatory arrest. In this study, we evaluated the ability of combined SS31-mitochondria (Mito) therapy to protect heart cells from myocardial IR injury. Adult male SD rats ( n = 8/each group) were randomized: group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 (IR, 30-min ischemia/72 h reperfusion), group 3 (IR-SS31 (2 mg intra-peritoneal injection at 30 min/24 h/48 h after IR)), group 4 (IR-mitochondria (2 mg/derived from donor liver/intra-venous administration/30 min after IR procedure)), and group 5 (IR-SS31-mitochondria)...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eckhard Klieser, Romana Urbas, Stefan Swierczynski, Stefan Stättner, Florian Primavesi, Tarkan Jäger, Christian Mayr, Tobias Kiesslich, Pietro Di Fazio, Katharina Helm, Daniel Neureiter
Epigenetic factors are essentially involved in carcinogenesis, tumor promotion, and chemoresistance. Two epigenetic key players are miRNAs and histone deacetylases (HDACs). As previously shown by own theoretical databank analysis, the crosstalk between miRNAs and HDACs is relevant in different human chronic diseases and cancerogenic pathways. We aimed to investigate a potential connection between the expression of a well-defined subset of "proliferation-associated" miRNAs and the expression of HDACs as well as clinical parameters in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs)...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ken Howick, Shauna E Wallace-Fitzsimons, Dalia Kandil, Barbara Chruścicka, Mert Calis, Eoin Murphy, Brian A Murray, Ayoa Fernandez, Kate M Barry, Phil M Kelly, Aoife M Ryan, John F Cryan, Brendan T Griffin, Harriët Schellekens
Recent times have seen an increasing move towards harnessing the health-promoting benefits of food and dietary constituents while providing scientific evidence to substantiate their claims. In particular, the potential for bioactive protein hydrolysates and peptides to enhance health in conjunction with conventional pharmaceutical therapy is being investigated. Dairy-derived proteins have been shown to contain bioactive peptide sequences with various purported health benefits, with effects ranging from the digestive system to cardiovascular circulation, the immune system and the central nervous system...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrzej Miskiewicz, Piotr Ceranowicz, Mateusz Szymczak, Krzysztof Bartuś, Paweł Kowalczyk
This review deals with various microbiological activities of ionic liquids, which constitute the first anti-infective defense against multi-drug-resistant bacteria-with a particular emphasis placed on medicine and pharmacology. The quoted data on the biological activity of ionic liquids including their antimicrobial properties (depending on the type of a cation or an anion) and are discussed in view of possible applications in nosocomial infections. Dedicated attention is given to finding infections with the Klebsiella pneumoniae New Delhi strain, Acinetobacter baumannii , and Enterococcus species, which are responsible for the induction of antibiotic resistance in intensive care units...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexandre Pinel, Jean-Paul Rigaudière, Chrystèle Jouve, Frédéric Capel
The cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is involved in the development of insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle, leading to the decrease in the anabolic effect of insulin. We investigated if the long chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA), eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids (EPA and DPA, respectively) could (1) regulate the development of IR in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 muscle cells and (2) inhibit IR in muscle cells exposed to conditioned media (CM) from insulin-resistant adipocytes...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fumitaka Koga, Kosuke Takemura, Hiroshi Fukushima
Chemoradiation-based bladder preservation therapy (BPT) is currently a curative option for non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients at favorable risk or an alternative to radical cystectomy (RC) for those who are unfit for RC. In BPT, only patients who achieve complete response (CR) after chemoradiation have a favorable prognosis and quality of life with a preserved functional bladder. Thus, predicting CR and favorable prognosis is important for optimal patient selection for BPT. We reviewed biomarkers for predicting the clinical outcomes of chemoradiation-based BPT...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Olesya V Stepanenko, Olga V Stepanenko, Irina M Kuznetsova, Konstantin K Turoverov
Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) based on the complexes of bacterial phytochromes with their natural biliverdin chromophore are widely used as genetically encoded optical probes for visualization of cellular processes and deep-tissue imaging of cells and organs in living animals. In this work, we show that the steady-state and kinetic dependencies of the various spectral characteristics of iRFP713, developed from the bacterial phytochrome Rp BphP2 and recorded at protein unfolding induced by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), guanidine thiocyanate (GTC), and urea, differ substantially...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bjoern Titz, Raffaella M Gadaleta, Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Ashraf Elamin, Kim Ekroos, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a group of progressive disorders characterized by recurrent chronic inflammation of the gut. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the major manifestations of IBD. While our understanding of IBD has progressed in recent years, its etiology is far from being fully understood, resulting in suboptimal treatment options. Complementing other biological endpoints, bioanalytical "omics" methods that quantify many biomolecules simultaneously have great potential in the dissection of the complex pathogenesis of IBD...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Moon Ho Do, Jinyoung Hur, Jiwon Choi, Yoonsook Kim, Ho-Young Park, Sang Keun Ha
Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia to treat anemia, menoxenia and rheumatism. However, its effect of diabetes-induced renal damage and mechanisms of action against advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SS on diabetes-induced renal damage and explored the possible underlying mechanisms using db/db type 2 diabetes mice. db/db mice were administered SS extract (50 mg/kg) orally for 6 weeks. SS-treated group did not change body weight, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sheng Lu, Feng Zhao, Qiuxin Zhang, P Chen
Despite the great progress in the field of drug delivery systems for cancer treatment over the last decade, many challenges still lie ahead, such as low drug loading, deep penetration of tumors, side effects, and the development of drug resistance. A class of cationic membrane lytic peptides has shown potential as an anticancer agent by inducing cancer cell death via membrane disruption; meanwhile, their intrinsic selectivity renders them as having low cytotoxicity towards noncancerous cells. Here, we report the use of a cationic peptide amphiphile (PA), named PAH6, to load doxorubicin (Dox) that is intercalated in an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA scaffold...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luciana S Amaral, Jainne Martins Ferreira, Danilo Predes, José Garcia Abreu, François Noël, Luis Eduardo M Quintas
Bufadienolides are cardiotonic steroids (CTS) identified in mammals. Besides Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase inhibition, they activate signal transduction via protein⁻protein interactions. Diversity of endogenous bufadienolides and mechanisms of action may indicate the presence of functional selectivity and unique cellular outcomes. We evaluated whether the bufadienolides telocinobufagin and marinobufagin induce changes in proliferation or viability of pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cells and the mechanisms involved in these changes...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yoo Jin Cho, Hwan Hee Lee, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
HCV genotype 2a strain JFH-1 replicates and produces viral particles efficiently in human hepatocellular carcinoma (huh) 7.5 cells, which provide a stable in vitro cell infection system for the hepatitis C virus (HCVcc system). Natural killer (NK) cells are large lymphoid cells that recognize and kill virus-infected cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction between NK cells and the HCVcc system. IL-10 is a typical immune regulatory cytokine that is produced mostly by NK cells and macrophages. IL-21 is one of the main cytokines that stimulate the activation of NK cells...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jean Marc Crowet, Mehmet Nail Nasir, Nicolas Dony, Antoine Deschamps, Vincent Stroobant, Pierre Morsomme, Magali Deleu, Patrice Soumillion, Laurence Lins
By manipulating the various physicochemical properties of amino acids, the design of peptides with specific self-assembling properties has been emerging for more than a decade. In this context, short peptides possessing detergent properties (so-called "peptergents") have been developed to self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures that can stabilize membrane proteins for crystallization. In this study, the peptide with "peptergency" properties, called ADA8 and extensively described by Tao et al...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jung-Il Kang, Hoon-Seok Yoon, Sung Min Kim, Jeong Eon Park, Yu Jae Hyun, Ara Ko, Yong-Seok Ahn, Young Sang Koh, Jin Won Hyun, Eun-Sook Yoo, Hee-Kyoung Kang
Hair growth is regulated by the interaction between dermal papilla cells (DPC) and other cells inside the hair follicle. Here, we show the effect and action mechanism of mackerel-derived fermented fish oil (FFO) extract and its component docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the control of hair growth. The hair growth effect of FFO extract was evaluated by the culture method of vibrissa follicles and in vivo dotmatrix planimetry method. FFO extract increased the length of hair-fibers and enabled stimulated initiation into the anagen phase of the hair cycle...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Corinna Seliger, Peter Hau
Gliomas are highly invasive brain tumors with short patient survival. One major pathogenic factor is aberrant tumor metabolism, which may be targeted with different specific and unspecific agents. Drug repurposing is of increasing interest in glioma research. Drugs interfering with the patient's metabolism may also influence glioma metabolism. In this review, we outline definitions and methods for drug repurposing. Furthermore, we give insights into important candidates for a metabolic drug repurposing, namely metformin, statins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disulfiram and lonidamine...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lucia Ansani, Jlenia Marchesini, Gabriele Pestelli, Giovanni Andrea Luisi, Giulia Scillitani, Giovanna Longo, Daniela Milani, Maria Luisa Serino, Veronica Tisato, Donato Gemmati
Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA) levels are independent predictors of early prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the Valine-to-Leucine (V34L) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) seems associated with lower AMI risk. Since the long-term AMI prognosis merits deeper investigation, we performed an observational study evaluating relationships between FXIIIA residual levels, cardiovascular risk-factors, and inherited genetic predispositions. FXIIIA V34L was genotyped in 333 AMI patients and a five-year follow-up was performed...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Enrico Solcia, Vittorio Necchi, Patrizia Sommi, Vittorio Ricci
In this article, we outline and discuss available information on the cellular site and mechanism of proteasome interaction with cytosolic polyubiquitinated proteins and heat-shock molecules. The particulate cytoplasmic structure (PaCS) formed by barrel-like particles, closely reproducing in vivo the high-resolution structure of 26S proteasome as isolated in vitro, has been detected in a variety of fetal and neoplastic cells, from living tissue or cultured cell lines. Specific trophic factors and interleukins were found to induce PaCS during in vitro differentiation of dendritic, natural killer (NK), or megakaryoblastic cells, apparently through activation of the MAPK-ERK pathway...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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