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International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Domenico Ribatti, Angelo Vacca
Angiogenesis is a constant hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM) progression and involves direct production of angiogenic cytokines by plasma cells and their induction within the bone marrow microenvironment. This article summarizes the more recent literature data concerning the employment of anti-angiogenic therapeutic agents actually used in preclinical models and clinical settings for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shana J Cameron, Farah Hosseinian, William G Willmore
Nanosilver plays an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and is becoming increasingly used for applications in nanomedicine. Nanosilver ranges from 1 to 100 nanometers in diameter. Smaller particles more readily enter cells and interact with the cellular components. The exposure dose, particle size, coating, and aggregation state of the nanosilver, as well as the cell type or organism on which it is tested, are all large determining factors on the effect and potential toxicity of nanosilver. A high exposure dose to nanosilver alters the cellular stress responses and initiates cascades of signalling that can eventually trigger organelle autophagy and apoptosis...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaoqi Zhang, Hao Feng, Ziyu Li, Jie Guo, Minqi Li
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In China, its 5-year survival rate is roughly 50%, owing to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that aspirin (ASA) acts as a preventive or therapeutic agent in multiple cancers; however, anti-tumor activities induced by aspirin are unclear in OSCC. To investigate the possible role of aspirin in OSCC development, we first employed bioinformatics to analyze the anti-OSCC effects of aspirin...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shujuan Wang, Wenju Liu, Xunsheng Pang, Sifa Dai, Guodong Liu
Ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) are a critical approach to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation during folliculogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of MT2 in bovine GCs, and assess whether MT2 silencing affected GCs response to melatonin. We found that MT2 silencing significantly decreased the secretion of progesterone and estradiol, and increased the concentration of inhibin B and activin B. To further reveal the regulatory mechanism of MT2 silencing on steroids synthesis, it was found that the expression of CYP19A1 and CYP11A1 enzymes (steroid hormone synthesis) were down-regulated, while genes related to hormonal synthesis ( StAR , RUNX2 , INHA and INHBB ) were up-regulated without affecting the expression of INHBA , suggesting that MT2 silencing may regulate hormone abundance...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jingyu He, Xianyuan Lu, Ting Wei, Yaqian Dong, Zheng Cai, Lan Tang, Menghua Liu
Hedyotis diffusa is a folk herb that is used for treating inflammation-related diseases in Asia. Previous studies have found that iridoids in H. diffusa play an important role in its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and potential mechanism of five iridoids (asperuloside (ASP), asperulosidic acid (ASPA), desacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA), scandoside methyl ester (SME), and E -6- O - p -coumaroyl scandoside methyl ester (CSME)) that are presented in H. diffusa using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Prasoon Agarwal, Laura K Cole, Abin Chandrakumar, Kristin D Hauff, Amir Ravandi, Vernon W Dolinsky, Grant M Hatch
Barth Syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked genetic disease in which the specific biochemical deficit is a reduction in the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) as a result of a mutation in the CL transacylase tafazzin. We compared the phosphokinome profile in Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed lymphoblasts prepared from a BTHS patient with that of an age-matched control individual. As expected, mass spectrometry analysis revealed a significant (>90%) reduction in CL in BTHS lymphoblasts compared to controls...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Min Woo Kim, Seungho Choi, Sun Yeou Kim, Yeo Sung Yoon, Ju-Hee Kang, Seung Hyun Oh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic or recurrent inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Even though the current strategies to treat IBD include anti-inflammatory drugs and immune modulators, these treatments have side-effects. New strategies are, therefore, required to overcome the limitations of the therapies. In this study, we investigated the anti-colitic effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is an active ingredient present in Wasabia japonica . The DSS-induced colitis model in the mouse was used to mimic human IBD and we observed that AITC treatment ameliorated the severity of colitis...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ahmad Alkhatib, Catherine Tsang, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Lifestyle is the primary prevention of diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nutritional intake of olive oil (OO), the key Mediterranean diet component has been associated with the prevention and management of many chronic diseases including T2D. Several OO bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids, and key biophenols including hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have been associated with preventing inflammation and cytokine-induced oxidative damage, glucose lowering, reducing carbohydrate absorption, and increasing insulin sensitivity and related gene expression...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Israel de Jesus Sampaio Filho, Kolby Jeremiah Jardine, Rosilena Conceição Azevedo de Oliveira, Bruno Oliva Gimenez, Leticia Oliveira Cobello, Luani Rosa de Oliveira Piva, Luiz Antonio Candido, Niro Higuchi, Jeffrey Quintin Chambers
Warming surface temperatures and increasing frequency and duration of widespread droughts threaten the health of natural forests and agricultural crops. High temperatures (HT) and intense droughts can lead to the excessive plant water loss and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in extensive physical and oxidative damage to sensitive plant components including photosynthetic membranes. ROS signaling is tightly integrated with signaling mechanisms of the potent phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which stimulates stomatal closure leading to a reduction in transpiration and net photosynthesis, alters hydraulic conductivities, and activates defense gene expression including antioxidant systems...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marco Spreafico, Barbara Grillo, Francesco Rusconi, Elena Battaglioli, Marco Venturin
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 ( CDK5R1 ) gene encodes for p35, the main activator of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5). The active p35/CDK5 complex is involved in numerous aspects of brain development and function, and its deregulation is closely associated to Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset and progression. We recently showed that miR-15/107 family can negatively regulate CDK5R1 expression modifying mRNA stability. Interestingly, miRNAs belonging to miR-15/107 family are downregulated in AD brain while CDK5R1 is upregulated...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jin-Ho Lee, Hyeon-Yeol Cho, Hye Kyu Choi, Ji-Young Lee, Jeong-Woo Choi
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been widely utilized to develop various biosensors for molecular diagnosis, as they can be easily functionalized and exhibit unique optical properties explained by plasmonic effects. These unique optical properties of GNPs allow the expression of an intense color under light that can be tuned by altering their size, shape, composition, and coupling with other plasmonic nanoparticles. Additionally, they can also enhance other optical signals, such as fluorescence and Raman scattering, making them suitable for biosensor development...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Steven Marston
The discovery that mutations in myosin and actin genes, together with mutations in the other components of the muscle sarcomere, are responsible for a range of inherited muscle diseases (myopathies) has revolutionized the study of muscle, converting it from a subject of basic science to a relevant subject for clinical study and has been responsible for a great increase of interest in muscle studies. Myopathies are linked to mutations in five of the myosin heavy chain genes, three of the myosin light chain genes, and three of the actin genes...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
In-Ae Choi, Cheol Soon Lee, Hahn Young Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Jongmin Lee
To develop new rehabilitation therapies for chronic stroke, this study examined the effectiveness of task-specific training (TST) and TST combined with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in chronic stroke recovery. Eight weeks after photothrombotic stroke, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) infusion was done on the contralesional cortex for four weeks, with and without TST. Functional recovery was assessed using the staircase test, the cylinder test, and the modified neurological severity score (mNSS). Axonal plasticity and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in the contralateral motor cortex...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elena Romano, Megi Vllahu, Valentina Bizzarro, Raffaella Belvedere, Roberta Esposito, Antonello Petrella, Alessandra Tosco
Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a small secreted protein expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where, together with the other two members of its family, it plays an essential role in mucosal protection and repair against injury. The molecular mechanisms involved in the protective function of all three TFF proteins are not fully elucidated. In this paper, we investigated the role of TFF1 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) events. The effects of TFF1 on cellular models in normoxia and/or hypoxia were evaluated by western blot, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and trans-well invasion assays...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Soumaya Kouidhi, Marie-Stéphanie Clerget-Froidevaux
The obesity epidemic is well recognized as a significant global health issue. A better understanding of the energy homeostasis mechanisms could help to identify promising anti-obesity therapeutic strategies. It is well established that the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role governing energy balance. The hypothalamus consists of tightly interconnected and specialized neurons that permit the sensing and integration of several peripheral inputs, including metabolic and hormonal signals for an appropriate physiological response...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kumar Abhiram Jha, Mickey Pentecost, Raji Lenin, Lada Klaic, Sally L Elshaer, Jordy Gentry, John M Russell, Alex Beland, Anton Reiner, Veronique Jotterand, Nicolas Sohl, Rajashekhar Gangaraju
Blast concussions are a common injury sustained in military combat today. Inflammation due to microglial polarization can drive the development of visual defects following blast injuries. In this study, we assessed whether anti-inflammatory factors released by the mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (adipose stem cells, ASC) can limit retinal tissue damage and improve visual function in a mouse model of visual deficits following mild traumatic brain injury. We show that intravitreal injection of 1 μL of ASC concentrated conditioned medium from cells pre-stimulated with inflammatory cytokines (ASC-CCM) mitigates loss of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity four weeks post blast injury...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Steve Harvey, Carlos G Martinez-Moreno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zlatko Kopecki, Natalie E Stevens, Gink N Yang, Elizabeth Melville, Allison J Cowin
Wound healing is an increasing clinical problem involving substantial morbidity, mortality, and rising health care costs. Leucine-rich repeat flightless-interacting protein-1 (LRRFIP-1) regulates toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammation, suggesting a potential role in the healing of wounds. We sought to determine the role of LRRFIP-1 in wound repair and whether the exogenous addition of recombinant LRRFIP-1 (rLRRFIP-1) affected healing responses. Using a model of full-thickness incisional acute wounds in BALB/c mice, we investigated the effect of wounding on LRRFIP-1 expression...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ajit Magadum, Felix B Engel
In contrast to the general belief that regeneration is a rare event, mainly occurring in simple organisms, the ability of regeneration is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. Yet, the efficiency and extent of regeneration varies greatly. Humans can recover from blood loss as well as damage to tissues like bone and liver. Yet damage to the heart and brain cannot be reversed, resulting in scaring. Thus, there is a great interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms of naturally occurring regeneration and to apply this knowledge to repair human organs...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Iona J MacDonald, Shan-Chi Liu, Chen-Ming Su, Yu-Han Wang, Chun-Hao Tsai, Chih-Hsin Tang
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is essential in the pathogenesis of joint inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), facilitating the invasion of inflammatory cells and increase in local pain receptors that contribute to structural damage and pain. The angiogenic process is perpetuated by various mediators such as growth factors, primarily vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), as well as proinflammatory cytokines, various chemokines, matrix components, cell adhesion molecules, proteases, and others...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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