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International Journal of Molecular Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937654/genome-wide-analysis-of-cca1-like-proteins-in-soybean-and-functional-characterization-of-gmmyb138a
#1
Shaomin Bian, Donghao Jin, Ruihua Li, Xin Xie, Guoli Gao, Weikang Sun, Yuejia Li, Lulu Zhai, Xuyan Li
Plant CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)-like proteins are a class of single-repeat MYELOBLASTOSIS ONCOGENE (MYB) transcription factors generally featured by a highly conserved motif SHAQK(Y/F)F, which play important roles in multiple biological processes. Soybean is an important grain legume for seed protein and edible vegetable oil. However, essential understandings regarding CCA1-like proteins are very limited in soybean. In this study, 54 CCA1-like proteins were identified by data mining of soybean genome...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937653/differential-functional-roles-of-aldh1a1-and-aldh1a3-in-mediating-metastatic-behavior-and-therapy-resistance-of-human-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Alysha K Croker, Mauricio Rodriguez-Torres, Ying Xia, Siddika Pardhan, Hon Sing Leong, John D Lewis, Alison L Allan
Previous studies indicate that breast cancer cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and CD44 expression (ALDH(hi)CD44⁺) contribute to metastasis and therapy resistance, and that ALDH1 correlates with poor outcome in breast cancer patients. The current study hypothesized that ALDH1 functionally contributes to breast cancer metastatic behavior and therapy resistance. Expression of ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3 was knocked down in MDA-MB-468 and SUM159 human breast cancer cells using siRNA. Resulting impacts on ALDH activity (Aldefluor(®) assay); metastatic behavior and therapy response in vitro (proliferation/adhesion/migration/colony formation/chemotherapy and radiation) and extravasation/metastasis in vivo (chick choroiallantoic membrane assay) was assessed...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937652/new-insights-into-the-role-of-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Meng-Yu Wu, Chia-Jung Li, Ming-Feng Hou, Pei-Yi Chu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, smooth muscle cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, necrosis, fibrosis, and local inflammation. Immune and inflammatory responses have significant effects on every phase of atherosclerosis, and increasing evidence shows that immunity plays a more important role in atherosclerosis by tightly regulating its progression. Therefore, understanding the relationship between immune responses and the atherosclerotic microenvironment is extremely important...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937650/explaining-the-microtubule-energy-balance-contributions-due-to-dipole-moments-charges-van-der-waals-and-solvation-energy
#4
Ahmed Taha Ayoub, Michael Staelens, Alessio Prunotto, Marco A Deriu, Andrea Danani, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack Adam Tuszynski
Microtubules are the main components of mitotic spindles, and are the pillars of the cellular cytoskeleton. They perform most of their cellular functions by virtue of their unique dynamic instability processes which alternate between polymerization and depolymerization phases. This in turn is driven by a precise balance between attraction and repulsion forces between the constituents of microtubules (MTs)-tubulin dimers. Therefore, it is critically important to know what contributions result in a balance of the interaction energy among tubulin dimers that make up microtubules and what interactions may tip this balance toward or away from a stable polymerized state of tubulin...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937620/dysbindin-1-involvement-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that afflicts about 1% of the world's population, falling into the top 10 medical disorders causing disability. Existing therapeutic strategies have had limited success on cognitive impairment and long-term disability and are burdened by side effects. Although new antipsychotic medications have been launched in the past decades, there has been a general lack of significant innovation. This lack of significant progress in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia is a reflection of the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937614/a-novel-vav3-homolog-identified-in-lamprey-lampetra-japonica-with-roles-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-immune-response
#6
Yanqi Shen, Yishan Zhang, Yinglun Han, Peng Su, Meng Gou, Yue Pang, Qingwei Li, Xin Liu
Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (Vav3), a Rho family GTPase, regulates multiple cell signaling pathways including those of T- and B-cell receptors in vertebrates through mediating the activities of the Rho family members. Whether the lamprey possesses Vav3 homolog and what role it plays in immune response remain unknown. Gene cloning, recombinant expression, antibody production and expression pattern analyses were performed to characterize the lamprey Vav3 in the current study. The lamprey Vav3 is closer to jawed vertebrates' Vav3 molecules (about 53% identities in general) than to Vav2 molecules of jawless and jawed vertebrates (about 51% identities in general) in sequence similarity...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937611/hcg-biological-functions-and-clinical-applications
#7
REVIEW
Chinedu Nwabuobi, Sefa Arlier, Frederick Schatz, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, and represents a key embryonic signal that is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. hCG can activate various signaling cascades including mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2), protein kinase C (PKC), and/or protein kinase A (PKA) in several cells types by binding to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) or potentially by direct/indirect interaction with transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFβR)...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937603/proteome-stability-as-a-key-factor-of-genome-integrity
#8
REVIEW
Sentiljana Gumeni, Zoi Evangelakou, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Ioannis P Trougakos
DNA damage is constantly produced by both endogenous and exogenous factors; DNA lesions then trigger the so-called DNA damaged response (DDR). This is a highly synchronized pathway that involves recognition, signaling and repair of the damage. Failure to eliminate DNA lesions is associated with genome instability, a driving force in tumorigenesis. Proteins carry out the vast majority of cellular functions and thus proteome quality control (PQC) is critical for the maintenance of cellular functionality. PQC is assured by the proteostasis network (PN), which under conditions of proteome instability address the triage decision of protein fold, hold, or degrade...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937602/licochalcone-a-prevents-the-loss-of-dopaminergic-neurons-by-inhibiting-microglial-activation-in-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-parkinson-s-disease-models
#9
Bingxu Huang, Juxiong Liu, Chen Ju, Dongxue Yang, Guangxin Chen, Shiyao Xu, Yalong Zeng, Xuan Yan, Wei Wang, Dianfeng Liu, Shoupeng Fu
The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A), a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia in dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been validated. In this study, we explore the therapeutic effects of Lico.A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lico.A significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial activation by blocking the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 in BV-2 cells...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937595/the-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-utility-of-molecular-testing-in-a-patient-with-waldenstrom-s-macroglobulinemia
#10
Collin K Chin, Connull Leslie, Carolyn S Grove, Chris Van Vliet, Chan Yoon Cheah
The application of molecular genomics and our understanding of its clinical implications in the diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders has rapidly evolved over the past few years. Of particular importance are indolent B-cell malignancies where tumour cell survival and proliferation are commonly driven by mutations involving the B-cell receptor and downstream signalling pathways. In addition, the increasing number of novel therapies and targeted agents have provided clinicians with new therapeutic options with the aim of exploiting such mutations...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937594/molecular-tools-for-the-detection-and-the-identification-of-hymenoptera-parasitoids-in-tortricid-fruit-pests
#11
Pierre Franck, Mariline Maalouly-Matar, Jérôme Olivares
Biological control requires specific tools for the accurate detection and identification of natural enemies in order to estimate variations in their abundance and their impact according to changes in environmental conditions or agricultural practices. Here, we developed two molecular methods of detection based on PCR-RFLP with universal primers and on PCR with specific primers to identify commonly occurring larval parasitoids of the tortricid fruit pests and to estimate parasitism in the codling moth. Both methods were designed based on DNA sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene for a range of parasitoids that emerged from Cydia pomonella and Grapholitamolesta caterpillars (102 parasitoids; nine species) and a range of potential tortricid hosts (40 moths; five species) damaging fruits...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937592/spatiotemporal-control-of-doxorubicin-delivery-from-stealth-like-prodrug-micelles
#12
Li Kong, Dimitrios Poulcharidis, Gregory F Schneider, Frederick Campbell, Alexander Kros
In the treatment of cancer, targeting of anticancer drugs to the tumor microenvironment is highly desirable. Not only does this imply accurate tumor targeting but also minimal drug release en route to the tumor and maximal drug release once there. Here we describe high-loading, "stealth-like" doxorubicin micelles as a pro-drug delivery system, which upon light activation, leads to burst-like doxorbicin release. Through this approach, we show precise spatiotemporal control of doxorubicin delivery to cells in vitro...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937589/viral-cellular-dna-junctions-as-molecular-markers-for-assessing-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-cervical-cancer-and-for-the-detection-of-circulating-tumor-dna
#13
Katrin Carow, Mandy Gölitz, Maria Wolf, Norman Häfner, Lars Jansen, Heike Hoyer, Elisabeth Schwarz, Ingo B Runnebaum, Matthias Dürst
The development of cervical cancer is frequently accompanied by the integration of human papillomaviruses (HPV) DNA into the host genome. Viral-cellular junction sequences, which arise in consequence, are highly tumor specific. By using these fragments as markers for tumor cell origin, we examined cervical cancer clonality in the context of intra-tumor heterogeneity. Moreover, we assessed the potential of these fragments as molecular tumor markers and analyzed their suitability for the detection of circulating tumor DNA in sera of cervical cancer patients...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937584/targeted-delivery-of-sirna-with-ph-responsive-hybrid-gold-nanostars-for-cancer-treatment
#14
Hongyan Zhu, Wanwan Liu, Ziting Cheng, Ke Yao, Yu Yang, Bohui Xu, Gaoxing Su
In this work, we report the engineering of gold nanostars (GNS) to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) into HepG2 cells. The ligand DG-PEG-Lipoic acid (LA)-Lys-9R (hydrazone) was designed to functionalize GNS, and create the nanoparticles named as 9R/DG-GNS (hydrazone). In the ligand, 2-deoxyglucose (DG) is the targeting molecule, polyethylene glycol (PEG) helps to improve the dispersity and biocompatibility, 9-poly-d-arginine (9R) is employed to provide a positive surface charge and adsorb negative siRNA, and hydrazone bonds are pH-responsive and can avoid receptor-mediated endosomal recycling...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937583/infectious-bronchitis-virus-variants-molecular-analysis-and-pathogenicity-investigation
#15
REVIEW
Shu-Yi Lin, Hui-Wen Chen
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants constantly emerge and pose economic threats to poultry farms worldwide. Numerous studies on the molecular and pathogenic characterization of IBV variants have been performed between 2007 and 2017, which we have reviewed herein. We noted that viral genetic mutations and recombination events commonly gave rise to distinct IBV genotypes, serotypes and pathotypes. In addition to characterizing the S1 genes, full viral genomic sequencing, comprehensive antigenicity, and pathogenicity studies on emerging variants have advanced our understanding of IBV infections, which is valuable for developing countermeasures against IBV field outbreaks...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934168/role-of-the-genes-of-type-vi-secretion-system-in-virulence-of-rice-bacterial-brown-stripe-pathogen-acidovorax-avenae-subsp-avenae-strain-rs-2
#16
Md Mahidul Islam Masum, Yingzi Yang, Bin Li, Ogunyemi Solabomi Olaitan, Jie Chen, Yang Zhang, Yushi Fang, Wen Qiu, Yanli Wang, Guochang Sun
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934165/salmonella-o48-serum-resistance-is-connected-with-the-elongation-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-containing-sialic-acid
#17
Aleksandra Pawlak, Jacek Rybka, Bartłomiej Dudek, Eva Krzyżewska, Wojciech Rybka, Anna Kędziora, Elżbieta Klausa, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska
Complement is one of the most important parts of the innate immune system. Some bacteria can gain resistance against the bactericidal action of complement by decorating their outer cell surface with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) containing a very long O-antigen or with specific outer membrane proteins. Additionally, the presence of sialic acid in the LPS molecules can provide a level of protection for bacteria, likening them to human cells, a phenomenon known as molecular mimicry. Salmonella O48, which contains sialic acid in the O-antigen, is the major cause of reptile-associated salmonellosis, a worldwide public health problem...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934131/tissue-based-micrornas-as-predictors-of-biochemical-recurrence-after-radical-prostatectomy-what-can-we-learn-from-past-studies
#18
REVIEW
Zhongwei Zhao, Carsten Stephan, Sabine Weickmann, Monika Jung, Glen Kristiansen, Klaus Jung
With the increasing understanding of the molecular mechanism of the microRNAs (miRNAs) in prostate cancer (PCa), the predictive potential of miRNAs has received more attention by clinicians and laboratory scientists. Compared with the traditional prognostic tools based on clinicopathological variables, including the prostate-specific antigen, miRNAs may be helpful novel molecular biomarkers of biochemical recurrence for a more accurate risk stratification of PCa patients after radical prostatectomy and may contribute to personalized treatment...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934130/isoliquiritigenin-induces-autophagy-and-inhibits-ovarian-cancer-cell-growth
#19
Hsin-Yuan Chen, Tsui-Chin Huang, Tzong-Ming Shieh, Chi-Hao Wu, Li-Chun Lin, Shih-Min Hsia
Ovarian cancer is one of the commonest gynecologic malignancies, which has a poor prognosis for patients at the advanced stage. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), an active flavonoid component of the licorice plant, previously demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor suppressive effects. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ISL on human ovarian cancer in vitro using the human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR5 and ES-2, as model systems. Our results show that ISL significantly inhibited the viability of cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934129/a-comprehensive-survey-of-the-roles-of-highly-disordered-proteins-in-type-2-diabetes
#20
Zhihua Du, Vladimir N Uversky
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) related to either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. Among the various molecular events and players implicated in the manifestation and development of diabetes mellitus, proteins play several important roles. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database has information on 34 human proteins experimentally shown to be related to the T2DM pathogenesis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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