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International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Karina Beatriz Acosta, Melina Noelia Lorenzini Campos, Susana Beatriz Etcheverry, Pedro Dario Zapata
The α6β4 integrin is composed of the α6 and β4 subunits that are encoded by the ITGα6 and the ITGβ4 genes, respectively. The α6β4 main function is to intervene in lamination and epithelia integrity maintenance by cell-matrix interactions. This integrin appears to have importance in breast cancer malignancy, as well as other epithelial carcinomas. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential role of ITGα6 (A380T) and ITGβ4 (R1281W) genetic variations in breast cancer susceptibility, in a female population from the northeast region of Argentina (Misiones)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tian-Hao Dai, Ali Sserwadda, Kun Song, Ya-Nan Zang, Huai-Shun Shen
Ecdysone receptor and retinoid X receptor are key regulators in molting. Here, full length ecdysone receptor (PcEcR) and retinoid X receptor (PcRXR) cDNAs from Procambarus clarkii were cloned. Full length cDNA of PcEcR has 2500 bp, encoding 576 amino acid proteins, and full length cDNA of PcRXR has 2593 bp, in which a 15 bp and a 204 bp insert/deletion splice variant regions in DNA binding domain and hinge domain were identified. The two splice variant regions in PcRXR result four isoforms: PcRXR1-4, encoding 525, 520, 457 and 452 amino acids respectively...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jeanne Durendale Chiadak, Tatjana Arsenijevic, Francoise Gregoire, Nargis Bolaky, Valerie Delforge, Jason Perret, Christine Delporte
Aquaglyceroporins, belonging to the family of aquaporins (AQPs), are integral plasma membrane proteins permeable to water and glycerol that have emerged as key players in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of AQPs in undifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and to investigate the changes in expression of aquaglyceroporins in 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into adipocytes and subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking inflammation occurring during obesity. Furthermore, the study aimed at identifying the signaling cascade involved in the regulation of aquaglyceroporins expression upon LPS stimulation...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jacek Dygut, Barbara Kalinowska, Mateusz Banach, Monika Piwowar, Leszek Konieczny, Irena Roterman
The presented analysis concerns the inter-domain and inter-protein interface in protein complexes. We propose extending the traditional understanding of the protein domain as a function of local compactness with an additional criterion which refers to the presence of a well-defined hydrophobic core. Interface areas in selected homodimers vary with respect to their contribution to share as well as individual (domain-specific) hydrophobic cores. The basic definition of a protein domain, i.e., a structural unit characterized by tighter packing than its immediate environment, is extended in order to acknowledge the role of a structured hydrophobic core, which includes the interface area...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qingsong Liu, Eric Hallerman, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaoli Wang, Xiaofeng Cai, Chenxi Xu, Quanhua Wang, Shaojun Dai
Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Voon Kin Chin, Tze Yan Lee, Basir Rusliza, Pei Pei Chong
Candida bloodstream infections remain the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease, with Candida albicans accounting for 70% to 80% of the Candida isolates recovered from infected patients. In nature, Candida species are part of the normal commensal flora in mammalian hosts. However, they can transform into pathogens once the host immune system is weakened or breached. More recently, mortality attributed to Candida infections has continued to increase due to both inherent and acquired drug resistance in Candida, the inefficacy of the available antifungal drugs, tedious diagnostic procedures, and a rising number of immunocompromised patients...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Al-Abboodi Shakir Ashwaq, Mothanna Sadiq Al-Qubaisi, Abdullah Rasedee, Ahmad Bustamam Abdul, Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap, Swee Keong Yeap
Dentatin (DEN), purified from the roots of Clausena excavata Burm f., has poor aqueous solubility that reduces its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DEN-HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) complex as an anticancer agent in HT29 cancer cell line and compare with a crystal DEN in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The exposure of the cancer cells to DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex leads to cell growth inhibition as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthias Boentert, Hélène Prigent, Katalin Várdi, Harrison N Jones, Uwe Mellies, Anita K Simonds, Stephan Wenninger, Emilia Barrot Cortés, Marco Confalonieri
Pompe disease is an autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive myopathy with proximal muscle weakness, respiratory muscle dysfunction, and cardiomyopathy (in infants only). In patients with juvenile or adult disease onset, respiratory muscle weakness may decline more rapidly than overall neurological disability. Sleep-disordered breathing, daytime hypercapnia, and the need for nocturnal ventilation eventually evolve in most patients. Additionally, respiratory muscle weakness leads to decreased cough and impaired airway clearance, increasing the risk of acute respiratory illness...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emanuele D'Amico, Francesco Patti, Aurora Zanghì, Mario Zappia
Using the term of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), we considered a combined population of persons with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). These forms of MS cannot be challenged with efficacy by the licensed therapy. In the last years, several measures of risk estimation were developed for predicting clinical course in MS, but none is specific for the PMS forms. Personalized medicine is a therapeutic approach, based on identifying what might be the best therapy for an individual patient, taking into account the risk profile...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Juan Feng, Wanli Xing, Lan Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes, have been recognized as significant regulators of gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. To date, >2000 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome, and they orchestrate a variety of biological and pathological processes. Disruption of miRNA levels correlates with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder affecting >400 million people worldwide. miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus by affecting pancreatic β-cell functions, insulin resistance, or both...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Satoshi Okuyama, Tomoki Semba, Nobuki Toyoda, Francesco Epifano, Salvatore Genovese, Serena Fiorito, Vito Alessandro Taddeo, Atsushi Sawamoto, Mitsunari Nakajima, Yoshiko Furukawa
In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), hyperactivated inflammation in the brain, particularly microglial hyperactivation in the substantia nigra (SN), is reported to be one of the triggers for the delayed loss of dopaminergic neurons and sequential motor functional impairments. We previously reported that (1) auraptene (AUR), a natural prenyloxycoumain, suppressed inflammatory responses including the hyperactivation of microglia in the ischemic brain and inflamed brain, thereby inhibiting neuronal cell death; (2) 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), another natural prenyloxycoumain, exerted anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity; and (3) 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), a natural prenyloxycinnamic acid, also exerted anti-inflammatory effects...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Domenico Russo, Seetharaman Parashuraman, Giovanni D'Angelo
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are a class of ceramide-based glycolipids essential for embryo development in mammals. The synthesis of specific GSLs depends on the expression of distinctive sets of GSL synthesizing enzymes that is tightly regulated during development. Several reports have described how cell surface receptors can be kept in a resting state or activate alternative signalling events as a consequence of their interaction with GSLs. Specific GSLs, indeed, interface with specific protein domains that are found in signalling molecules and which act as GSL sensors to modify signalling responses...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luca Villa, Roberta Buono, Mara Ferrandi, Isabella Molinari, Fabio Benigni, Arianna Bettiga, Giorgia Colciago, Masami Ikehata, Elisabetta Messaggio, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia, Paolo Manunta
Warm renal ischemia performed during partial nephrectomy has been found to be associated with kidney disease. Since endogenous ouabain (EO) is a neuro-endocrine hormone involved in renal damage, we evaluated the role of EO in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We measured plasma and renal EO variations and markers of glomerular and tubular damage (nephrin, KIM-1, Kidney-Injury-Molecule-1, α1 Na-K ATPase) and the protective effect of the ouabain inhibitor, rostafuroxin. We studied five groups of rats: (1) normal; (2) infused for eight weeks with ouabain (30 µg/kg/day, OHR) or (3) saline; (4) ouabain; or (5) saline-infused rats orally treated with 100 µg/kg/day rostafuroxin for four weeks...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Masahiro Ono, Atsumi Baden, Hiroyuki Okudaira, Masato Kobayashi, Keiichi Kawai, Shuntaro Oka, Hirokatsu Yoshimura
[(18)F]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-[(18)F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid; anti-[(18)F]FACBC), a positron emission tomography tracer used for the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer, is transported via amino acid transporters (AATs) with high affinity (Km: 97-230 μM). However, the mechanism underlying urinary excretion is unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of AATs and drug transporters in renal [(18)F]fluciclovine reuptake. [(14)C]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-(14)C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid) was used because of its long half-life...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Warispreet Singh, Gregg B Fields, Christo Z Christov, Tatyana G Karabencheva-Christova
Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX) domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT) domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zoraida Verde, Catalina Santiago, Luis Miguel Chicharro, Luis Reinoso-Barbero, Alejandro Tejerina, Fernando Bandrés, Félix Gómez-Gallego
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke contains many potentially harmful compounds that may act differently and at different stages in breast cancer development. The focus of this work was to assess the possible role of cigarette smoking (status, dose, duration or age at initiation) and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in tobacco carcinogen metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP2A6) or in DNA repair (XRCC1, APEX1, XRCC3 and XPD) in breast cancer development. METHODS: We designed a case control study with 297 patients, 217 histologically verified breast cancers (141 smokers and 76 non-smokers) and 80 healthy smokers in a cohort of Spanish women...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Susann Pankratz, Stefan Bittner, Beate E Kehrel, Harald F Langer, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Sven G Meuth, Kerstin Göbel
Beyond their indispensable role in hemostasis, platelets have shown to affect the development of inflammatory disorders, as they have been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to diseases featuring an inflammatory reaction in inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disorders. The identification of novel molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and to platelets has highlighted them as new targets for therapeutic interventions. In particular, genetic and pharmacological studies have identified an important role for platelets in neuroinflammation...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Khosrow Rezvani
The UBXD family is a diverse group of UBX (ubiquitin-regulatory X) domain-containing proteins in mammalian cells. Members of this family contain a UBX domain typically located at the carboxyl-terminal of the protein. In contrast to the UBX domain shared by all members of UBXD family, the amino-terminal domains are diverse and appear to carry out different roles in a subcellular localization-dependent manner. UBXD proteins are principally associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they positively or negatively regulate the ER-associated degradation machinery (ERAD)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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