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International Journal of Molecular Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726766/the-alternaria-alternata-mycotoxin-alternariol-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation
#1
Shivani Grover, Christopher B Lawrence
The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) were investigated. During these studies, it was discovered that AOH and to a lesser extent AME potently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with AOH resulted in morphological changes including a detached pattern of growth as well as elongated arms...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726765/oleic-acid-uptake-reveals-the-rescued-enterocyte-phenotype-of-colon-cancer-caco-2-by-ht29-mtx-cells-in-co-culture-mode
#2
Emmanuelle Berger, Merian Nassra, Claude Atgié, Pascale Plaisancié, Alain Géloën
Gastrointestinal epithelium is the unique route for nutrients and for many pharmaceuticals to enter the body. The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. Differentiated Caco-2 cells gene datasets were compared first to intestinal or cancer phenotypes and second to signaling pathway gene datasets...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726756/functional-implications-of-micrornas-in-crohn-s-disease-revealed-by-integrating-microrna-and-messenger-rna-expression-profiling
#3
Orazio Palmieri, Teresa Maria Creanza, Fabrizio Bossa, Tiziana Latiano, Giuseppe Corritore, Orazio Palumbo, Giuseppina Martino, Giuseppe Biscaglia, Daniela Scimeca, Massimo Carella, Nicola Ancona, Angelo Andriulli, Anna Latiano
Crohn's disease (CD) is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that emerges due to the influence of genetic and environmental factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in the tissue and sera of IBD patients and may play an important role in the induction of IBD. Our study aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and miRNAs with the ability to alter transcriptome activity by comparing inflamed tissue samples with their non-inflamed counterparts. We studied changes in miRNA-mRNA interactions associated with CD by examining their differential co-expression relative to normal mucosa from the same patients...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726743/the-effect-of-n-terminal-cyclization-on-the-function-of-the-hiv-entry-inhibitor-5p12-rantes
#4
Anna F Nguyen, Megan S Schill, Mike Jian, Patricia J LiWang
Despite effective treatment for those living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), there are still two million new infections each year. Protein-based HIV entry inhibitors, being highly effective and specific, could be used to protect people from initial infection. One of the most promising of these for clinical use is 5P12-RANTES, a variant of the chemokine RANTES/CCL5. The N-terminal amino acid of 5P12-RANTES is glutamine (Gln; called Q0), a residue that is prone to spontaneous cyclization when at the N-terminus of a protein...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726733/interaction-of-mitochondria-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-plasma-membrane-in-calcium-homeostasis-lipid-trafficking-and-mitochondrial-structure
#5
REVIEW
Jędrzej Szymański, Justyna Janikiewicz, Bernadeta Michalska, Paulina Patalas-Krawczyk, Mariasole Perrone, Wiesław Ziółkowski, Jerzy Duszyński, Paolo Pinton, Agnieszka Dobrzyń, Mariusz R Więckowski
Studying organelles in isolation has been proven to be indispensable for deciphering the underlying mechanisms of molecular cell biology. However, observing organelles in intact cells with the use of microscopic techniques reveals a new set of different junctions and contact sites between them that contribute to the control and regulation of various cellular processes, such as calcium and lipid exchange or structural reorganization of the mitochondrial network. In recent years, many studies focused their attention on the structure and function of contacts between mitochondria and other organelles...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726732/characterization-of-the-dioscorin-gene-family-in-dioscorea-alata-reveals-a-role-in-tuber-development-and-environmental-response
#6
Linya Liu, Yacheng Huang, Xiaolong Huang, Jianghua Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Yun Xu, Ziwen Cong, Jun Xie, Wei Xia, Dongyi Huang
Dioscorin is one of the major soluble proteins in yam tubers. Unlike other well-known plant storage proteins, such as patatin and sporamin, dioscorin is argued for its function as storage proteins, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its expressional complexity are little understood. In this study, we isolated five dioscorin genes from Dioscorea alata L., comprising three class A (Da-dio1, -3 and -4) and two class B (Da-dio2 and -5) isoforms. Expressions of all dioscorin genes gradually decreased in mother tubers during yam sprouting and regrowth...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726721/identification-and-validation-of-new-alleles-of-falsiflora-and-compound-inflorescence-genes-controlling-the-number-of-branches-in-tomato-inflorescence
#7
Huan Zheng, Saneyuki Kawabata
The architecture of inflorescences shows extensive diversity in both branching frequency and flower number, which eventually, determines agricultural productivity. In this study, F₂ (second filial) populations derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 10AS111A (highly-branched inflorescence) and the S. pimpinellifolium PI124039 (inflorescence having a single branch) were used to decipher the genetic control of branch number (BN) of inflorescence in plants bearing small-sized tomato fruits. The segregation ratio of single- and moderately-branched types to the highly-branched type was significantly different from 3:1 but not different from 15:1 at p < 0...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726720/tgf-%C3%AE-dependent-growth-arrest-and-cell-migration-in-benign-and-malignant-breast-epithelial-cells-are-antagonistically-controlled-by-rac1-and-rac1b
#8
Catharina Melzer, Juliane von der Ohe, Ralf Hass, Hendrik Ungefroren
Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer is still the most common cancer type among non-smoking females. TGF-β can inhibit breast cancer development by inducing cell cycle arrest in both, cancer cells and, as part of a senescence program in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Moreover, TGF-β also drives cell migration and invasion, in part through the small GTPases Rac1 and Rac1b. Depletion of Rac1b or Rac1 and Rac1b in MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells by RNA interference enhanced or suppressed, respectively, TGF-β1-induced migration/invasion...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726718/inhibitory-effects-of-trapping-agents-of-sulfur-drug-reactive-intermediates-against-major-human-cytochrome-p450-isoforms
#9
Jasleen K Sodhi, Erlie Marie Delarosa, Jason S Halladay, James P Driscoll, Teresa Mulder, Patrick M Dansette, S Cyrus Khojasteh
In some cases, the formation of reactive species from the metabolism of xenobiotics has been linked to toxicity and therefore it is imperative to detect potential bioactivation for candidate drugs during drug discovery. Reactive species can covalently bind to trapping agents in in vitro incubations of compound with human liver microsomes (HLM) fortified with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), resulting in a stable conjugate of trapping agent and reactive species, thereby facilitating analytical detection and providing evidence of short-lived reactive metabolites...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726716/new-insights-into-the-role-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-preeclampsia
#10
REVIEW
Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Arturo Flores-Pliego, Aurora Espejel-Nuñez, Diana Medina-Bastidas, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
Preeclampsia is a severe pregnancy complication globally, characterized by poor placentation triggering vascular dysfunction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exhibit proteolytic activity implicated in the efficiency of trophoblast invasion to the uterine wall, and a dysregulation of these enzymes has been linked to preeclampsia. A decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 interferes with the normal remodeling of spiral arteries at early pregnancy stages, leading to the initial pathophysiological changes observed in preeclampsia...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718842/secreted-protein-acidic-and-rich-in-cysteine-sparc-enhances-cell-proliferation-migration-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-sparc-expression-is-associated-with-tumor-grade-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Chih-Hau Chang, Meng-Chi Yen, Ssu-Hui Liao, Yu-Ling Hsu, Chung-Sheng Lai, Kao-Ping Chang, Ya-Ling Hsu
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a secreted protein which is involved in various biological processes. SPARC expression is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, the SPARC-induced signaling pathway was not fully understood in head and neck cancer. In this study, our results showed that SPARC treatment promoted cell proliferation and migration in head and neck cancer cell lines FaDu and Detroit 562. In addition, SPARC induced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators, including Slug, Snail, and Twist in Detroit 562...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718833/coconut-oil-aggravates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyopathy-without-inducing-obesity-systemic-insulin-resistance-or-cardiac-steatosis
#12
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Olivier Gheysens, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Bart De Geest
Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718825/olive-mill-waste-enhances-%C3%AE-glucan-content-in-the-edible-mushroom-pleurotus-eryngii
#13
Sharon Avni, Nirit Ezove, Hilla Hanani, Itamar Yadid, Michal Karpovsky, Hilla Hayby, Ofer Gover, Yitzhak Hadar, Betty Schwartz, Ofer Danay
Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe) of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718823/surface-chemistry-interactions-of-cationorm-with-films-by-human-meibum-and-tear-film-compounds
#14
Georgi As Georgiev, Norihiko Yokoi, Yana Nencheva, Nikola Peev, Philippe Daull
Cationorm(®) (CN) cationic nanoemulsion was demonstrated to enhance tear film (TF) stability in vivo possibly via effects on tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Therefore the interactions of CN with human meibum (MGS) and TFLL in vitro and in vivo deserve special study. MGS and CN were spread at the air/water interface of a Langmuir surface balance to ensure a range of MGS/CN oil phase ratios: 20/1, 10/1, 5/1, 3/1, 2/1 and 1/1. The films capability to reorganize during dynamic area changes was evaluated via the surface pressure-area compression isotherms and step/relaxation dilatational rheology studies...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718821/tick-haller-s-organ-a-new-paradigm-for-arthropod-olfaction-how-ticks-differ-from-insects
#15
Ann L Carr, Robert D Mitchell Iii, Anirudh Dhammi, Brooke W Bissinger, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
Ticks are the vector of many human and animal diseases; and host detection is critical to this process. Ticks have a unique sensory structure located exclusively on the 1st pairs of legs; the fore-tarsal Haller's organ, not found in any other animals, presumed to function like the insect antennae in chemosensation but morphologically very different. The mechanism of tick chemoreception is unknown. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the 1st and 4th legs (the latter without the Haller's organ), we characterized 1st leg specific and putative Haller's organ specific transcripts from adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718812/therapeutic-efficacy-of-the-novel-stimuli-sensitive-nano-ferritins-containing-doxorubicin-in-a-head-and-neck-cancer-model
#16
Verena Damiani, Elisabetta Falvo, Giulio Fracasso, Luca Federici, Martina Pitea, Vincenzo De Laurenzi, Gianluca Sala, Pierpaolo Ceci
Doxorubicin is employed alone or in combination for the treatment of several hematological and solid malignancies; despite its efficacy, there are associated cardiotoxicity limits both in its application in patients with heart disease risk factors and also in its long-term use. HFt-MP-PAS40 is a genetically engineered human ferritin heavy chain (HFt)-based construct able to efficiently entrap and deliver doxorubicin to cancer cells. HF-MP-PAS contains a short motif sequence (defined as MP) responsive to proteolytic cleavage by tumor matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), located between each HFt subunit and a masking polypeptide sequence rich in proline (P), alanine (A), and serine (S) residues (PAS)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718810/dna2-an-important-player-in-dna-damage-response-or-just-another-dna-maintenance-protein
#17
REVIEW
Elzbieta Pawłowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Janusz Blasiak
The human DNA2 (DNA replication helicase/nuclease 2) protein is expressed in both the nucleus and mitochondria, where it displays ATPase-dependent nuclease and helicase activities. DNA2 plays an important role in the removing of long flaps in DNA replication and long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER), interacting with the replication protein A (RPA) and the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). DNA2 can promote the restart of arrested replication fork along with Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718807/melanin-and-melanin-related-polymers-as-materials-with-biomedical-and-biotechnological-applications-cuttlefish-ink-and-mussel-foot-proteins-as-inspired-biomolecules
#18
REVIEW
Francisco Solano
The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#19
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718800/enriching-diet-with-n-3-pufas-to-help-prevent-cardiovascular-diseases-in-healthy-adults-results-from-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Matteo Manuelli, Lucio Della Guardia, Hellas Cena
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are believed to be important for cardiovascular health. Many investigations have been carried out in an attempt to examine the effect of n-3 PUFAs intake, in the form of supplementation or fortified foods, for the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors for CVD, whereas less is known about the effect on healthy individuals. The present study reviews the available literature in order to examine the relationship between n-3 PUFAs intake, either via supplementation or enriched food, and the prevention of CVD among healthy adults...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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