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Respiratory Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545517/evaluation-of-two-strategies-for-the-interpretation-of-tumour-markers-in-pleural-effusions
#1
Jaume Trapé, Francesc Sant, Josefina Franquesa, Jesús Montesinos, Anna Arnau, Maria Sala, Oscar Bernadich, Esperanza Martín, Damià Perich, Concha Pérez, Joan Lopez, Sandra Ros, Enrique Esteve, Rafael Pérez, Jordi Aligué, Gabriel Gurt, Silvia Catot, Montserrat Domenech, Joan Bosch, Josep Miquel Badal, Mariona Bonet, Rafael Molina, Josep Ordeig
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusions present a diagnostic challenge. Approximately 20% are associated with cancer and some 50% require invasive procedures to perform diagnosis. Determination of tumour markers may help to identify patients with malignant effusions. Two strategies are used to obtain high specificity in the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions: a) high cut-off, and b) fluid/serum (F/S) ratio and low cut-off. The aim of this study is to compare these two strategies and to establish whether the identification of possible false positives using benign biomarkers - ADA, CRP and % of polymorphonuclear cells - improves diagnostic accuracy...
May 25, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535788/endexpiratory-lung-volume-measurement-correlates-with-the-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-in-lung-injured-pigs
#2
Jens Kamuf, Andreas Garcia-Bardon, Bastian Duenges, Tanghua Liu, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher, Florian Heid, Matthias David, Erik K Hartmann
BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) a sustained mismatch of alveolar ventilation and perfusion (VA/Q) impairs the pulmonary gas exchange. Measurement of endexpiratory lung volume (EELV) by multiple breath-nitrogen washout/washin is a non-invasive, bedside technology to assess pulmonary function in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study examines the association between EELV changes and VA/Q distribution and the possibility to predict VA/Q normalization by means of EELV in a porcine model...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535764/in-smokers-sonic-hedgehog-modulates-pulmonary-endothelial-function-through-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#3
Priscilla Henno, Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Emeline Belle, Marion Brollo, Emmanuel Naline, Edouard Sage, Philippe Devillier, Dominique Israël-Biet
BACKGROUND: Tobacco-induced pulmonary vascular disease is partly driven by endothelial dysfunction. The Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is involved in vascular physiology. We sought to establish whether the SHH pathway has a role in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers. METHODS: The ex vivo endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach) was compared in 34 current or ex-smokers and 8 never-smokers. The results were expressed as a percentage of the contraction with phenylephrine...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532454/proteomic-profiling-of-peripheral-blood-neutrophils-identifies-two-inflammatory-phenotypes-in-stable-copd-patients
#4
Adèle Lo Tam Loi, Susan Hoonhorst, Corneli van Aalst, Jeroen Langereis, Vera Kamp, Simone Sluis-Eising, Nick Ten Hacken, Jan-Willem Lammers, Leo Koenderman
BACKGROUND: COPD is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and it is well accepted that the GOLD classification does not fully represent the complex clinical manifestations of COPD and this classification therefore is not well suited for phenotyping of individual patients with COPD. Besides the chronic inflammation in the lung compartment, there is also a systemic inflammation present in COPD patients. This systemic inflammation is associated with elevated levels of cytokines in the peripheral blood, but the precise composition is unknown...
May 22, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526090/reduced-hdac2-in-skeletal-muscle-of-copd-patients
#5
Masako To, Elisabeth B Swallow, Kenich Akashi, Kosuke Haruki, S Amanda Natanek, Michael I Polkey, Kazuhiro Ito, Peter J Barnes
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important predictor of poor prognosis, but the molecular mechanisms of muscle weakness in COPD have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases(HDAC) in skeletal muscle weakness in COPD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve COPD patients, 8 smokers without COPD (SM) and 4 healthy non-smokers (NS) were recruited to the study. HDAC2 protein expression in quadriceps muscle biopsies of COPD patients (HDAC2/β-actin: 0...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526018/infection-mediated-asthma-etiology-mechanisms-and-treatment-options-with-focus-on-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-macrolides
#6
REVIEW
Wilmore C Webley, David L Hahn
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521775/genome-wide-association-study-of-subclinical-interstitial-lung-disease-in-mesa
#7
Ani Manichaikul, Xin-Qun Wang, Li Sun, Josée Dupuis, Alain C Borczuk, Jennifer N Nguyen, Ganesh Raghu, Eric A Hoffman, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Emily A Farber, Joel D Kaufman, Dan Rabinowitz, Karen D Hinckley Stukovsky, Steven M Kawut, Gary M Hunninghake, George R Washko, George T O'Connor, Stephen S Rich, R Graham Barr, David J Lederer
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD), defined as high attenuation areas (HAA) on CT, in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Study. METHODS: We measured the percentage of high attenuation areas (HAA) in the lung fields on cardiac CT scan defined as voxels with CT attenuation values between -600 and -250 HU. Genetic analyses were performed in MESA combined across race/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 2,434), African American (n = 2,470), Hispanic (n = 2,065) and Chinese (n = 702), as well as stratified by race/ethnicity...
May 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514950/lung-function-imaging-methods-in-cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-disease
#8
REVIEW
Magdalena Kołodziej, Michael J de Veer, Marian Cholewa, Gary F Egan, Bruce R Thompson
Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis...
May 17, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511697/immunohistology-and-remodeling-in-fatal-pediatric-and-adolescent-asthma
#9
Kristiina Malmström, Jouko Lohi, Antti Sajantila, Frode L Jahnsen, Merja Kajosaari, Seppo Sarna, Mika J Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: Thickening of reticular basement membrane, increased airway smooth muscle mass and eosinophilic inflammation are found in adult fatal asthma. At the present study the histopathology of fatal paediatric and adolescent asthma is evaluated. METHODS: Post-mortem lung autopsies from 12 fatal asthma cases and 8 non-asthmatic control subjects were examined. Thickness of reticular basement membrane (RBM) and percentage of airway smooth muscle (ASM%) mass area were measured and inflammatory cells were counted...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511651/high-resolution-mucociliary-transport-measurement-in-live-excised-large-animal-trachea-using-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging
#10
Martin Donnelley, Kaye S Morgan, Maged Awadalla, Nigel R Farrow, Chris Hall, David W Parsons
BACKGROUND: The Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) was designed as the world's widest synchrotron X-ray beam, enabling both clinical imaging and therapeutic applications for humans as well as the imaging of large animal models. Our group is developing methods for imaging the airways of newly developed CF animal models that display human-like lung disease, such as the CF pig, and we expect that the IMBL can be utilised to image airways in animals of this size. METHODS: This study utilised samples of excised tracheal tissue to assess the feasibility, logistics and protocols required for airway imaging in large animal models such as pigs and sheep at the IMBL...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506308/attenuating-immune-pathology-using-a-microbial-based-intervention-in-a-mouse-model-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-lung-inflammation
#11
Mark Bazett, Agnieszka Biala, Ryan D Huff, Matthew R Zeglinksi, Philip M Hansbro, Momir Bosiljcic, Hal Gunn, Shirin Kalyan, Jeremy A Hirota
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke exposure is the major risk factor for developing COPD. Presently, available COPD treatments focus on suppressing inflammation and providing bronchodilation. However, these options have varying efficacy in controlling symptoms and do not reverse or limit the progression of COPD. Treatments strategies using bacterial-derived products have shown promise in diseases characterized by inflammation and immune dysfunction. This study investigated for the first time whether a novel immunotherapy produced from inactivated Klebsiella (hereafter referred to as KB) containing all the major Klebsiella macromolecules, could attenuate cigarette smoke exposure-induced immune responses...
May 15, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506264/an-association-between-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-infections-and-biomarkers-of-th2-type-inflammation
#12
Paul E Pfeffer, Susan Hopkins, Ian Cropley, David M Lowe, Marc Lipman
BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAI) infection is unexplained but parallels the growing world-wide epidemic of allergic disease. We hypothesized an association between pulmonary MAI infection and Th2-type immune responses as seen in allergy. METHODS: Biomarkers of patient Th2-type immune responses (peripheral blood eosinophil counts and serum IgE levels) were compared between patients with positive pulmonary samples for tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection...
May 15, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499430/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-in-lung-fibroblasts-co-cultured-with-silica-exposed-alveolar-macrophages
#13
Juan Li, Wu Yao, Lin Zhang, Lei Bao, Huiting Chen, Di Wang, Zhongzheng Yue, Yiping Li, Miao Zhang, Changfu Hao
BACKGROUND: Exposure to crystalline silica is considered to increase the risk of lung fibrosis. The primary effector cell, the myofibroblast, plays an important role in the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). DNA methylation change is considered to have a potential effect on myofibroblast differentiation. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of lung fibroblasts co-cultured with alveolar macrophages exposed to crystalline silica in vitro...
May 12, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494757/copd-monocytes-demonstrate-impaired-migratory-ability
#14
Arjun K Ravi, Jonathan Plumb, Rosemary Gaskell, Sarah Mason, Caroline S Broome, George Booth, Matthew Catley, Jørgen Vestbo, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Increased lung macrophage numbers in COPD may arise from upregulation of blood monocyte recruitment into the lungs. CCR5 is a monocyte chemokine receptor regulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6); the concentration of CCR5 ligands are known to be elevated in COPD lungs. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms of monocyte recruitment to the lung in COPD, including the role of CCR5 signalling. METHODS: Ninety one COPD patients, 29 smokers (S) and 37 non-smokers (NS) underwent sputum induction, plasma sampling (to measure IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor [sIL-6R] by immunoassay), monocyte characterization (by flow cytometry) and monocyte isolation for cell migration and quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies...
May 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486961/role-of-heparin-in-pulmonary-cell-populations-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#15
Marta Camprubí-Rimblas, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Thomas Lebouvier, Josep Bringué, Laura Chimenti, Manuela Iglesias, Carme Obiols, Jessica Tijero, Lluís Blanch, Antonio Artigas
BACKGROUND: In the early stages of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pro-inflammatory mediators inhibit natural anticoagulant factors and initiate an increase in procoagulant activity. Previous studies proved the beneficial effects of heparin in pulmonary coagulopathy, which derive from its anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, although it is uncertain whether heparin works. Understanding the specific effect of unfractioned heparin on cell lung populations would be of interest to increase our knowledge about heparin pathways and to treat ARDS...
May 10, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482883/rescue-medication-use-as-a-patient-reported-outcome-in-copd-a-systematic-review-and-regression-analysis
#16
Yogesh Suresh Punekar, Sheetal Sharma, Ankit Pahwa, Jitender Takyar, Ian Naya, Paul W Jones
BACKGROUND: Reducing rescue medication use is a guideline-defined goal of asthma treatment, however, little is known about the validity of rescue medicine use as a marker of symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To improve patient outcomes, greater insight is needed into the relationship between rescue medication use and alternative COPD outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases (Embase®, MEDLINE® and Cochrane CENTRAL) was conducted from database start to 26 May, 2015...
May 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482840/blood-and-sputum-eosinophils-in-copd-relationship-with-bacterial-load
#17
Umme Kolsum, Gavin C Donaldson, Richa Singh, Bethan L Barker, Vandana Gupta, Leena George, Adam J Webb, Sarah Thurston, Anthony J Brookes, Timothy D McHugh, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Christopher E Brightling, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Sputum and blood eosinophil counts predict corticosteroid effects in COPD patients. Bacterial infection causes increased airway neutrophilic inflammation. The relationship of eosinophil counts with airway bacterial load in COPD patients is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that bacterial load and eosinophil counts are inversely related. METHODS: COPD patients were seen at stable state and exacerbation onset. Sputum was processed for quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of the potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPM) H...
May 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482837/selective-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-neuroepithelial-body-microenvironment-in-postnatal-lungs-with-special-interest-for-potential-stem-cell-characteristics
#18
Line Verckist, Robrecht Lembrechts, Sofie Thys, Isabel Pintelon, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Inge Brouns, Dirk Adriaensen
BACKGROUND: The pulmonary neuroepithelial body (NEB) microenvironment (ME) consists of innervated cell clusters that occur sparsely distributed in the airway epithelium, an organization that has so far hampered reliable selective gene expression analysis. Although the NEB ME has been suggested to be important for airway epithelial repair after ablation, little is known about their potential stem cell characteristics in healthy postnatal lungs. Here we report on a large-scale selective gene expression analysis of the NEB ME...
May 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477618/pulmonary-arterial-wall-disease-in-copd-and-interstitial-lung-diseases-candidates-for-lung-transplantation
#19
Enric Domingo, Juan C Grignola, Rio Aguilar, Manuel López Messeguer, Antonio Roman
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with lung disease has the worst prognosis of all types of PH. Pulmonary arterial vasculopathy is an early event in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). The present study characterized the alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary arterial (PA) wall of COPD and ILD candidates for lung transplantation (LTx). METHODS: A cohort of 73 patients, 63 pre-LTx (30 COPD, 33 ILD), and ten controls underwent simultaneous right heart catheterisation and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)...
May 6, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472984/rhinovirus-c-targets-ciliated-airway-epithelial-cells
#20
Theodor F Griggs, Yury A Bochkov, Sarmila Basnet, Thomas R Pasic, Rebecca A Brockman-Schneider, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern
BACKGROUND: The Rhinovirus C (RV-C), first identified in 2006, produce high symptom burdens in children and asthmatics, however, their primary target host cell in the airways remains unknown. Our primary hypotheses were that RV-C target ciliated airway epithelial cells (AECs), and that cell specificity is determined by restricted and high expression of the only known RV-C cell-entry factor, cadherin related family member 3 (CDHR3). METHODS: RV-C15 (C15) infection in differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) cultures was assessed using immunofluorescent and time-lapse epifluorescent imaging...
May 4, 2017: Respiratory Research
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