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Respiratory Research

Kartiga Natarajan, Koteswara R Gottipati, Kiflu Berhane, Buka Samten, Usha Pendurthi, Vijay Boggaram
BACKGROUND: Persistant inflammatory responses to infectious agents and other components in organic dust underlie lung injury and development of respiratory diseases. Organic dust components responsible for eliciting inflammation and the mechanisms by which they cause lung inflammation are not fully understood. We studied the mechanisms by which protease activities in poultry dust extracts and intracellular oxidant stress induce inflammatory gene expression in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial cells...
October 22, 2016: Respiratory Research
Greg Hodge, Eugene Roscioli, Hubertus Jersmann, Hai B Tran, Mark Holmes, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to effective treatment of COPD. We have shown that the resistance is associated with decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) by senescent CD28nullCD8+ pro-inflammatory lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COPD patients. GCR must be bound to molecular chaperones heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 to acquire a high-affinity steroid binding conformation, and traffic to the nucleus. We hypothesized a loss of Hsp70/90 from these lymphocytes may further contribute to steroid resistance in COPD...
October 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
Shan-Shan Meng, Rong Gao, Bing-di Yan, Jin Ren, Fei Wu, Peng Chen, Jie Zhang, Li-Fang Wang, Yuan-Ming Xiao, Jing Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
YanRui Wang, ShaoJie Yue, ZiQiang Luo, ChuanDing Cao, XiaoHe Yu, ZhengChang Liao, MingJie Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that endogenous glutamate and its N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important roles in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in newborn rats. We hypothesized that NMDAR activation also participates in the development of chronic lung injury after withdrawal of hyperoxic conditions. METHODS: In order to rule out the anti-inflammatory effects of NMDAR inhibitor on acute lung injury, the efficacy of MK-801 was evaluated in vivo using newborn Sprague-Dawley rats treated starting 4 days after cessation of hyperoxia exposure (on postnatal day 8)...
October 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
Leslie A Blair, April K Haven, Natalie N Bauer
BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs) stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles, but not the microcirculation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether circulating MPs from PAH stimulate pulmonary artery endothelial cell-selective ICAM-1 expression...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Hitendra S Chand, Yohannes A Mebratu, Marena Montera, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the resolution process required a period of 40 d for the inflammation to subside and the lung epithelia to resemble the non-exposed condition...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Sang Hoon Lee, Song Yee Kim, Dong Soon Kim, Young Whan Kim, Man Pyo Chung, Soo Taek Uh, Choon Sik Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Yong Bum Park, Hong Lyeol Lee, Jong Wook Shin, Eun Joo Lee, Jin Hwa Lee, Yangin Jegal, Hyun Kyung Lee, Yong Hyun Kim, Jin Woo Song, Sung Woo Park, Moo Suk Park
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) varies widely. Although the GAP model is useful for predicting mortality, survivals have not yet been validated for each GAP score. We aimed to elucidate how prognosis is related to GAP score and GAP stage in IPF patients. METHODS: The Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group conducted a national survey to evaluate various characteristics in IPF patients from 2003 to 2007. Patients were diagnosed according to the 2002 criteria of the ATS/ERS...
October 18, 2016: Respiratory Research
Össur Ingi Emilsson, Bryndís Benediktsdóttir, Ísleifur Ólafsson, Elizabeth Cook, Sigurður Júlíusson, Einar Stefán Björnsson, Sunna Guðlaugsdóttir, Anna Soffía Guðmundsdóttir, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Evert Ljungström, Erna Sif Arnardóttir, Þórarinn Gíslason, Christer Janson, Anna-Carin Olin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Respiratory Research
Rachel Boxio, Julien Wartelle, Béatrice Nawrocki-Raby, Brice Lagrange, Laurette Malleret, Timothee Hirche, Clifford Taggart, Yves Pacheco, Gilles Devouassoux, Abderrazzaq Bentaher
BACKGROUND: In acutely injured lungs, massively recruited polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) secrete abnormally neutrophil elastase (NE). Active NE creates a localized proteolytic environment where various host molecules are degraded leading to impairment of tissue homeostasis. Among the hallmarks of neutrophil-rich pathologies is a disrupted epithelium characterized by the loss of cell-cell adhesion and integrity. Epithelial-cadherin (E-cad) represents one of the most important intercellular junction proteins...
October 17, 2016: Respiratory Research
Camille Taillé, Sabine Grootenboer-Mignot, Candice Estellat, Carine Roy, Sophie Ly Ka So, Marina Pretolani, Michel Aubier, Bruno Crestani, Sylvie Chollet-Martin
The role of autoimmunity targeting epithelial antigens in asthma has been suggested, in particular in non-atopic and severe asthma. Periplakin, a desmosomal component, is involved in epithelial cohesion and intracellular signaling. We detected anti-periplakin IgG antibodies in 47/260 (18 %) patients with asthma, with no association with severity or atopy. In addition, anti-periplakin IgE antibodies were detected in 12 of 138 tested patients (8.7 %) and were more frequently observed in patients with than without nasal polyposis...
October 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
Pieter S Hiemstra, Robert Bals
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the nicotine-containing cartridge fluid have been incompletely studied. Marketing targets diverse groups including older smokers but also young people...
October 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
Guowei Li, Deborah J Cook, Lehana Thabane, Jan O Friedrich, Tim M Crozier, John Muscedere, John Granton, Sangeeta Mehta, Steven C Reynolds, Renato D Lopes, Francois Lauzier, Andreas P Freitag, Mitchell A H Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
Jannie M B Sand, Diana J Leeming, Inger Byrjalsen, Asger R Bihlet, Peter Lange, Ruth Tal-Singer, Bruce E Miller, Morten A Karsdal, Jørgen Vestbo
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify individuals with COPD at risk for disease progression and mortality. Lung tissue remodeling is associated with the release of extracellular matrix (ECM) fragments into the peripheral circulation. We hypothesized that ECM remodeling was associated with mortality in COPD and measured neo-epitopes originating from ECM proteins associated with lung tissue remodeling. METHODS: Biomarkers of ECM remodeling were assessed in a subpopulation (n = 1000) of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) cohort...
October 4, 2016: Respiratory Research
Thomas Southworth, Jonathan Plumb, Vandana Gupta, James Pearson, Isabel Ramis, Martin D Lehner, Montserrat Miralpeix, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) and Janus-activated kinases (JAK) are both novel anti-inflammatory targets in asthma that affect lymphocyte activation. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PI3Kδ and JAK inhibition on cytokine release from asthma bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and T-cell activation, and measured lung PI3Kδ and JAK signalling pathway expression. METHOD: Cells isolated from asthma patients and healthy subjects were treated with PI3Kδ or JAK inhibitors, and/or dexamethasone, before T-cell receptor stimulation...
October 4, 2016: Respiratory Research
Adelaida Lamas, Jamie Marshburn, Vandy P Stober, Scott H Donaldson, Stavros Garantziotis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is affecting thousands of patients worldwide. Adjuvant anti-inflammatory treatment is an important component of cystic fibrosis treatment, and has shown promise in preserving lung function and prolonging life expectancy. Inhaled high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is reported to improve tolerability of hypertonic saline and thus increase compliance, and has been approved in some European countries for use as an adjunct to hypertonic saline treatment in cystic fibrosis...
October 3, 2016: Respiratory Research
Dan Xu, Yingshuo Wang, Zhimin Chen, Shuxian Li, Yungai Cheng, Li Zhang, Lingzhi Zhao
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a global problem. Prevalence varies among different countries and cities. We aimed to obtain the prevalence, describe the characteristics, and discover factors that may relate to asthma in Hangzhou. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou. The subjects were children aged 14 years and younger. A control group of non-asthma children that matched in age and sex with each asthmatic patient was also randomly selected and interviewed...
September 27, 2016: Respiratory Research
Yutaka Shishikura, Akira Koarai, Hiroyuki Aizawa, Mutsuo Yamaya, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Mika Watanabe, Yuichiro Hashimoto, Tadahisa Numakura, Tomonori Makiguti, Kyoko Abe, Mituhiro Yamada, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Yoshinori Okada, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: In response to tissue damage or inflammation, adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released into the extracellular compartment and has been demonstrated to augment inflammation via purinergic P2 receptors (P2Rs). Recently, ATP has been shown to be increased in the airways of COPD patients. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of extracellular ATP in airway mucus hypersecretion during viral-induced COPD exacerbations. METHODS: The involvement of extracellular ATP in the release of a major airway mucin, MUC5AC, and its signal pathway was examined after stimulation with polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a synthetic analog of dsRNA to mimic viral infection, and rhinovirus (RV) infection in NCI-H292 cells and differentiated airway epithelial cells from COPD patients...
September 27, 2016: Respiratory Research
Shan-Shan Meng, Rong Gao, Bing-di Yan, Jin Ren, Fei Wu, Peng Chen, Jie Zhang, Li-Fang Wang, Yuan-Ming Xiao, Jing Liu
BACKGROUND: Maternal allergic disease history and impaired regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are critical risk factors for allergy development in children. However, the mechanisms that underlie these risk factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether maternal allergies affect the Tregs of offspring and lead to allergy development in childhood. METHODS: A total of 332 mothers of healthy newborns (234 from no allergic mothers, 98 from allergic mothers) were recruited to this study...
September 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Marc Miravitlles, Anthony D'Urzo, Dave Singh, Vladimir Koblizek
Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an initial strategy to reduce exacerbation risk irrespective of patient phenotype. Therefore, in patients assessed as frequent exacerbators (>1 exacerbation/year) we propose initial bronchodilator treatment with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/ long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)...
September 10, 2016: Respiratory Research
John Zagorski, Jeffrey A Kline
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a common diagnosis and a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A growing literature has associated PE with systemic inflammation, and global hyper-coagulability, which contribute to lung remodeling and clot recurrence. The source and mechanism of inflammation remains unstudied. In humans, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with statins decreases biomarkers of inflammation. We test the differential effect of pulmonary vascular occlusion during mild and severe pulmonary embolism on the lung transcriptome...
July 19, 2016: Respiratory Research
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