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Respiratory Research

Sissel Kronborg-White, Claudia Ravaglia, Alessandra Dubini, Sara Piciucchi, Sara Tomassetti, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Venerino Poletti
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibroelastosis (iPPFE) is a rare lung lesion characterized by pleural and subpleural parenchymal thickening due to accumulation of fibroelastotic tissue. Only recently, a few cases with a peribronchiolar distribution of fibroelastotic tissue have been reported. These lesions are more prominent in the upper lobes. Even though high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan features are considered characteristic, a histological confirmation is suggested, mainly when the clinical setting is not clearly defined...
July 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
Sun Hye Shin, Hye Yun Park, Danbee Kang, Juhee Cho, Sung Ok Kwon, Joo Hun Park, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Don D Sin, Woo Jin Kim, Sang-Do Lee
BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophils have been suggested as a potential biomarker in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and their stability over time has been investigated in a few studies. However, the association between the stability of blood eosinophils and long-term clinical outcomes in COPD patients has yet to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the stability of blood eosinophils and its association with clinical outcomes in COPD patients. METHODS: In total, 299 COPD patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort with at least two blood eosinophil measurements were included...
July 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
George Bardsley, Peter Daley-Yates, Amanda Baines, Rodger Kempsford, Mathew Williams, Tony Mallon, Irene Braithwaite, Kylie Riddell, Shashidhar Joshi, Philippe Bareille, Richard Beasley, James Fingleton
BACKGROUND: Fluticasone furoate/Vilanterol trifenatate (FF/VI) is an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-agonist combination with a prolonged bronchodilator duration of action. We characterised the time-course of onset and offset of airway anti-inflammatory action of FF/VI, as assessed by fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and compared this to the bronchodilator duration of action. METHODS: A single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period, crossover study was undertaken in 28 steroid-naïve adults with asthma...
July 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
John E McDonough, Dries S Martens, Naoya Tanabe, Farida Ahangari, Stijn E Verleden, Karen Maes, Geert M Verleden, Naftali Kaminski, James C Hogg, Tim S Nawrot, Wim A Wuyts, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal lung disease characterized by a progressive formation of fibroblastic foci in the interstitium. This disease is strongly associated with telomere dysfunction but the extent of telomere shortening and consequent chromosomal damage within IPF lungs and with regional disease severity remains unknown. METHODS: Explanted IPF lungs (n = 10) were collected from transplant surgeries with six samples per lung analysed to capture the regional heterogeneity ranging from mild to severe disease...
July 9, 2018: Respiratory Research
Maude Talbot, Mélanie Hamel-Auger, Marie-Josée Beaulieu, Morgan Gazzola, Ariane Lechasseur, Sophie Aubin, Marie-Ève Paré, David Marsolais, Ynuk Bossé, Mathieu C Morissette
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke exposure can affect pulmonary lipid homeostasis and cause a progressive increase in pulmonary antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL). Similarly, increased anti-OxLDL antibodies are observed in atherosclerosis, a pathology also tightly associated with smoking and lipid homeostasis disruption. Several immunization strategies against oxidized lipid species to help with their clearance have been shown to reduce the formation of atherosclerotic lesions...
July 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Pierre-Régis Burgel, Caroline Laurendeau, Chantal Raherison, Claire Fuhrman, Nicolas Roche
BACKGROUND: Anticipating the future burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is required to develop adequate public health policies. METHODS: A dynamic population model was built to estimate COPD prevalence by 2025 using data collected during the most recent large general population study on COPD prevalence in France (2005) as baseline values. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the effect of variations in key input variables. RESULTS: The model predicted a steady increase in crude COPD prevalence among subjects aged≥45 years from 2005 (prevalence estimate: 84...
June 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Carl M Philpott, Sally Erskine, Claire Hopkins, Nirmal Kumar, Shahram Anari, Naveed Kara, Sankalp Sunkaraneni, Jaydip Ray, Allan Clark, Andrew Wilson, Sally Erskine, Carl Philpott, Allan Clark, Claire Hopkins, Alasdair Robertson, Shahzada Ahmed, Naveed Kara, Sean Carrie, Vishnu Sunkaraneni, Jaydip Ray, Shahram Anari, Paul Jervis, Jaan Panesaar, Amir Farboud, Nirmal Kumar, Russell Cathcart, Robert Almeyda, Hisham Khalil, Peter Prinsley, Nicolas Mansell, Mahmoud Salam, Jonathan Hobson, Jane Woods, Emma Coombes
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disorder associated with other respiratory tract diseases such as asthma and inhalant allergy. However, the prevalence of these co-morbidities varies considerably in the existing medical literature and by phenotype of CRS studied. The study objective was to identify the prevalence of asthma, inhalant allergy and aspirin sensitivity in CRS patients referred to secondary care and establish any differences between CRS phenotypes. METHODS: All participants were diagnosed in secondary care according to international guidelines and invited to complete a questionnaire including details of co-morbidities and allergies...
June 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Alvin T Kho, Michael J McGeachie, Kip G Moore, Jody M Sylvia, Scott T Weiss, Kelan G Tantisira
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs have shown promise as non-invasive biomarkers and predictors of disease activity. Prior asthma studies using clinical, biochemical and genomic data have not shown excellent prediction of exacerbation. We hypothesized that a panel of circulating microRNAs in a pediatric asthma cohort combined with an exacerbation clinical score might predict exacerbation better than the latter alone. METHODS: Serum samples from 153 children at randomization in the Childhood Asthma Management Program were profiled for 754 microRNAs...
June 26, 2018: Respiratory Research
Shinpei Kato, Naoki Inui, Akio Hakamata, Yuzo Suzuki, Noriyuki Enomoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yutaro Nakamura, Hiroshi Watanabe, Takafumi Suda
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal disease characterized by damage to the lung parenchyma with excess extracellular matrix deposition. The involvement of endothelial cells in fibrosis development is unclear. METHODS: We isolated pulmonary endothelial cells, using a magnetic-activated cell sorting system, from mice with pulmonary fibrosis induced by intratracheal bleomycin. We characterized endothelial cells isolated at various times in the course of pulmonary fibrosis development...
June 26, 2018: Respiratory Research
Tong Xin, Mo Chen, Liwei Duan, Yanling Xu, Peng Gao
Interleukin (IL)-32, also named natural killer cell transcript 4 (NK4), has increasingly been described as an immunoregulator that controls cell differentiation and cell death and is involved in the stimulation of anti-/pro-inflammatory cytokines. Abnormal presence of IL-32 has been repeatedly noticed during the pathogenesis of allergic, infectious, cancerous, and inflammatory diseases. Of particular note was the observation of the anti-inflammatory property of IL-32 in a murine ovalbumin model of allergic asthma...
June 25, 2018: Respiratory Research
Chris O'Callaghan, Andrew Rutman, Gwyneth Williams, Neeta Kulkarni, Joseph Hayes, Robert A Hirst
BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia can result from a number of different ciliary defects that adversely affect ciliary function resulting markedly reduced or absent mucociliary clearance. Improvement in diagnostic testing is an area of current research. During diagnostic evaluation of PCD we observed ciliated conical protrusions from part of the apical surface of ciliated cells in those diagnosed with PCD. The aim of this study was to investigate if this abnormality was specific to PCD...
June 25, 2018: Respiratory Research
Reem Al Mubarak, Nicole Roberts, Robert J Mason, Scott Alper, Hong Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the first line of defense in the lung during infection. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been extensively used to define the regulation of inflammation in these cells. However, previous studies were performed in non-paired airway epithelial cells and AMs. The major goal of our study was to compare the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of paired human primary airway epithelial cells and AMs to TLR3 and TLR4 agonists...
June 25, 2018: Respiratory Research
Rob Lambkin-Williams, Nicolas Noulin, Alex Mann, Andrew Catchpole, Anthony S Gilbert
The Human Viral Challenge (HVC) model has, for many decades, helped in the understanding of respiratory viruses and their role in disease pathogenesis. In a controlled setting using small numbers of volunteers removed from community exposure to other infections, this experimental model enables proof of concept work to be undertaken on novel therapeutics, including vaccines, immunomodulators and antivirals, as well as new diagnostics.Crucially, unlike conventional phase 1 studies, challenge studies include evaluable efficacy endpoints that then guide decisions on how to optimise subsequent field studies, as recommended by the FDA and thus licensing studies that follow...
June 22, 2018: Respiratory Research
Lu Wang, Nannan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Jingen Xia, Qingyuan Zhan, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and lung fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. RNA sequencing is a powerful means for detecting vitally important protein-coding transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on a genome-wide scale, which may be helpful for reducing this knowledge gap. METHODS: Ninety C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either high tidal volume ventilation or sham operation, and then mice with ventilation were randomly allocated to periods of recovery for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days...
June 22, 2018: Respiratory Research
Antonio R Anzueto, Konstantinos Kostikas, Karen Mezzi, Steven Shen, Michael Larbig, Francesco Patalano, Robert Fogel, Donald Banerji, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease and a composite endpoint could be an indicator of treatment effect on disease worsening. This post-hoc analysis assessed whether indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg once daily reduced the risk of clinically important deterioration (CID) versus salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) 50/500 μg twice daily in moderate-to-very severe COPD patients from the FLAME study. METHODS: CID was defined as ≥100 mL decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) or ≥ 4-unit increase in St...
June 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
Annette D Rieg, Said Suleiman, Carolin Anker, Eva Verjans, Rolf Rossaint, Stefan Uhlig, Christian Martin
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and its receptor PDGFR are highly expressed in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and mediate proliferation. Recently, we showed that PDGF-BB contracts pulmonary veins (PVs) and that this contraction is prevented by inhibition of PDGFR-β (imatinib/SU6668). Here, we studied PDGF-BB-induced contraction and downstream-signalling in isolated perfused lungs (IPL) and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) of guinea pigs (GPs). METHODS: In IPLs, PDGF-BB was perfused after or without pre-treatment with imatinib (perfused/nebulised), the effects on the pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA ), the left atrial pressure (PLA ) and the capillary pressure (Pcap ) were studied and the precapillary (Rpre ) and postcapillary resistance (Rpost ) were calculated...
June 19, 2018: Respiratory Research
Cristina Estirado, Adrian Ceccato, Monica Guerrero, Arturo Huerta, Catia Cilloniz, Olivia Vilaró, Albert Gabarrús, Joaquim Gea, Ernesto Crisafulli, Nestor Soler, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) remains controversial. In some cases AECOPD are caused by microorganisms that are resistant to treatments recommended by guidelines. Our aims were: 1) identify the risk factors associated with infection by microorganisms resistant to conventional treatment (MRCT), 2) Compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with AECOPD resulting from MRCT against those with AECOPD from other causes...
June 15, 2018: Respiratory Research
Nuria Toledo-Pons, Guillaume Noell, Andreas Jahn, Amanda Iglesias, Maria Antonia Duran, Julio Iglesias, Angel Rios, Sergio Scrimini, Rosa Faner, Orlando Gigirey, Alvar Agustí, Borja G Cosío
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow (BM) produces hematopoietic and progenitor cells that contribute to distant organ inflammation and repair. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by defective lung repair. Yet, BM composition has not been previously characterized in COPD patients. METHODS: In this prospective and controlled study, BM was obtained by sternum fine-needle aspiration in 35 COPD patients and 25 healthy controls (10 smokers and 15 never-smokers)...
June 15, 2018: Respiratory Research
Stella Xu, Emily A Vucic, Tawimas Shaipanich, Stephen Lam, Wan Lam, Julio S Montaner, Don D Sin, S F Paul Man, Janice M Leung
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) independent of cigarette smoke exposure. Previous studies have demonstrated that decreased peripheral leukocyte telomere length is associated with HIV, suggesting an accelerated aging phenomenon. We demonstrate that this process of telomere shortening also occurs in the lungs, with significant decreases in telomere length observed in small airway epithelial cells collected during bronchoscopy...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
Hiroyuki Aizawa, Akira Koarai, Yutaka Shishikura, Satoru Yanagisawa, Mutsuo Yamaya, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Tadahisa Numakura, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Naoya Fujino, Masafumi Noda, Yoshinori Okada, Masakazu Ichinose
Figure 2 of this original publication was incorrectly formatted. The updated Fig. 2 is published in this correction article [1].
June 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
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