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Respiratory Research

Shengtian Mu, Yina Liu, Jing Jiang, Renyu Ding, Xu Li, Xin Li, Xiaochun Ma
BACKGROUND: Endothelial barrier dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI). Microtubule (MT) dynamics in vascular endothelium are crucial for the regulation of endothelial barrier function. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) possesses various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory activity and endothelial barrier protection during sepsis. METHODS: Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of UFH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction...
November 15, 2018: Respiratory Research
Pere Soler-Palacín, Javier de Gracia, Luis Ignacio González-Granado, Carlos Martín, Carlos Rodríguez-Gallego, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Lung Id-Signal Group
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are common in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) and contribute to morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, their varied presentation and a general lack of awareness of PID in this setting make early diagnosis and treatment difficult. The aim of this study was to define the warning signs of PID in patients with respiratory manifestations, the necessary diagnostic tests, and the therapeutic management of both children and adults. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed, and 43 PID interdisciplinary specialists were consulted...
November 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
Jing Yang, Jian Luo, Ling Yang, Dan Yang, Dan Wang, Bicui Liu, Tingxuan Huang, Xiaohu Wang, Binmiao Liang, Chuntao Liu
BACKGROUND: Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) antagonists are novel agents for asthma but with controversial efficacies in clinical trials. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the roles of CRTH2 antagonists in asthma. METHODS: We searched in major databases for RCTs comparing CRTH2 antagonists with placebo in asthma. Fixed- or random-effects model was performed to calculate mean differences (MD), risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
November 9, 2018: Respiratory Research
Arezoo Mohammadipoor, Ben Antebi, Andriy I Batchinsky, Leopoldo C Cancio
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) possess robust self-renewal characteristics and the ability to differentiate into tissue-specific cells. Their therapeutic potential appears promising as evident from their efficacy in several animal models of pulmonary disorders as well as early-phase clinical trials of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Such therapeutic efficacy might be attributed to MSC-derived products (the "secretome"), namely conditioned media (CM) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have been shown to play pivotal roles in the regenerative function of MSCs...
November 9, 2018: Respiratory Research
Carlos Machahua, Ana Montes-Worboys, Lurdes Planas-Cerezales, Raquel Buendia-Flores, Maria Molina-Molina, Vanesa Vicens-Zygmunt
BACKGROUND: The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) has been suggested that it acts as a decoy for capturing advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and inhibits the activation of the oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways. Lung AGEs/sRAGE is increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The objective of the study was to evaluate the AGEs and sRAGE levels in serum as a potential biomarker in IPF. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from adult patients: 62 IPF, 22 chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP), 20 fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (fNSIP); and 12 healthy controls...
November 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
Lukas Fischer, Nicola Benjamin, Norbert Blank, Benjamin Egenlauf, Christine Fischer, Satenik Harutyunova, Maria Koegler, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Alberto M Marra, Christian Nagel, Panagiota Xanthouli, Eduardo Bossone, Ekkehard Grünig
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess, whether right atrial (RA) and ventricular (RV) size is related to RV pump function at rest and during exercise in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: We included 54 patients with invasively diagnosed PAH that had been stable on targeted medication. All patients underwent clinical assessments including right heart catheterization and echocardiography at rest and during exercise. RV output reserve was defined as increase of cardiac index (CI) from rest to peak exercise (∆CIexercise )...
November 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
J Clukers, M Lanclus, B Mignot, C Van Holsbeke, J Roseman, S Porter, E Gorina, E Kouchakji, K E Lipson, W De Backer, J De Backer
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is chronic fibrosing pneumonia with an unpredictable natural disease history. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI) has potential to better characterize this disease. The aim of this study was to identify FRI parameters, which predict FVC decline in patients with IPF. METHODS: An IPF-cohort (treated with pamrevlumab for 48 weeks) was retrospectively studied using FRI. Serial CT's were compared from 66 subjects. Post-hoc analysis was performed using FRI, FVC and mixed effects models...
November 6, 2018: Respiratory Research
Bin Wang, Yun Zhou, Lili Xiao, Yanjun Guo, Jixuan Ma, Min Zhou, Tingming Shi, Aijun Tan, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: The potential effects of pulmonary dysfunction on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are receiving attention. We aimed to investigate and quantify the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between lung function and overall cardiovascular risk among Chinese general population. METHODS: We studied 4019 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort, with a follow-up of 3 years. A multivariable risk algorithm generated from the Framingham study was used to calculate individuals' overall cardiovascular risk i...
November 6, 2018: Respiratory Research
Maaike de Vries, Diana A van der Plaat, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Rikst Nynke Verkaik-Schakel, Wierd Kooistra, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M van Duijn, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Cleo C van Diemen, Judith M Vonk, H Marike Boezen
BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of COPD. The epigenome, and more specifically DNA methylation, is recognized as important link between these factors. We postulate that DNA methylation is one of the routes by which cigarette smoke influences the development of COPD. In this study, we aim to identify CpG-sites that are associated with cigarette smoke exposure and lung function levels in whole blood and validate these CpG-sites in lung tissue...
November 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Sandra Rutting, Michael Papanicolaou, Dia Xenaki, Lisa G Wood, Alexander M Mullin, Philip M Hansbro, Brian G Oliver
BACKGROUND: The obesity paradox in COPD describes protective effects of obesity on lung pathology and inflammation. However, the underlying relationships between obesity, diet and disease outcomes in COPD are not fully understood. In this study we measured the response to dietary fatty acids upon markers of inflammation and remodelling in human lung cells from people with and without COPD. METHODS: Pulmonary fibroblasts were challenged with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-6 PUFAs, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or the obesity-associated cytokine TNFα...
November 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Suzy A A Comhair, Grazyna Bochenek, Sara Baicker-McKee, Zeneng Wang, Tomasz Stachura, Marek Sanak, Jeffrey P Hammel, Stanley L Hazen, Serpil C Erzurum, Ewa Nizankowska-Mogilnicka
BACKGROUND: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a distinct eosinophilic phenotype of severe asthma with accompanying chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and hypersensitivity to aspirin. Urinary 3-bromotyrosine (uBrTyr) is a noninvasive marker of eosinophil-catalyzed protein oxidation. The lack of in vitro diagnostic test makes the diagnosis of AERD difficult. We aimed to determine uBrTyr levels in patients with AERD (n = 240) and aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) (n = 226) and to assess whether its addition to urinary leukotriene E4 (uLTE4 ) levels and blood eosinophilia can improve the prediction of AERD diagnosis...
October 30, 2018: Respiratory Research
Lystra P Hayden, Michael H Cho, Benjamin A Raby, Terri H Beaty, Edwin K Silverman, Craig P Hersh
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is strongly influenced by genetics and is a risk factor for reduced lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. This study investigates self-reported childhood asthma in adult smokers from the COPDGene Study. We hypothesize that childhood asthma is associated with decreased lung function, increased risk for COPD, and that a genome-wide association study (GWAS) will show association with established asthma variants. METHODS: We evaluated current and former smokers ages 45-80 of non-Hispanic white (NHW) or African American (AA) race...
October 29, 2018: Respiratory Research
Dennis Lo, Joshua L Kennedy, Richard C Kurten, Reynold A Panettieri, Cynthia J Koziol-White
Rhinovirus (RV) exposure has been implicated in childhood development of wheeze evoking asthma and exacerbations of underlying airways disease. Studies such as the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) and Childhood Origins of ASThma (COAST) have identified RV as a pathogen inducing severe respiratory disease. RVs also modulate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a key characteristic of such diseases. Although potential factors underlying mechanisms by which RV induces AHR have been postulated, the precise mechanisms of AHR following RV exposure remain elusive...
October 29, 2018: Respiratory Research
Line Verckist, Isabel Pintelon, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Inge Brouns, Dirk Adriaensen
BACKGROUND: The microenvironment (ME) of neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) harbors densely innervated groups of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells that are covered by Clara-like cells (CLCs) and is believed to be important during development and for adult airway epithelial repair after severe injury. Yet, little is known about its potential stem cell characteristics in healthy postnatal lungs. METHODS: Transient mild lung inflammation was induced in mice via a single low-dose intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 26, 2018: Respiratory Research
Tomeka L Suber, Ina Nikolli, Michael E O'Brien, James Londino, Jing Zhao, Kong Chen, Rama K Mallampalli, Yutong Zhao
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, mediated in part, by ubiquitin E3 ligases, is critical in regulating cellular processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. FBXO17 was recently identified as an F-box protein that targets glycogen synthase kinase-3β to the E3 ubiquitin ligase protein complex for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we identified that in several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, FBXO17 cellular protein was detected at relatively high levels, as was expression in a subset of lung cancers...
October 25, 2018: Respiratory Research
Giovanni Sotgiu, Stefano Aliberti, Andrea Gramegna, Marco Mantero, Marta Di Pasquale, Federica Trogu, Laura Saderi, Francesco Blasi
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a relevant clinical and public health issue worldwide frequently associated with infections caused by Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogens. Ceftaroline fosamil is a promising new antibiotics with broad-spectrum bacterial activity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and the effectiveness of ceftaroline fosamil in community-acquired (CAP), hospital-acquired (HAP), healthcare-associated (HCAP) and ventilator-associated (VAP) pneumonia...
October 23, 2018: Respiratory Research
Hee-Young Yoon, Sojung Park, Dong Soon Kim, Jin Woo Song
BACKGROUND: Phase 3 trials have shown that nintedanib reduces the decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with acceptable safety profiles; however, its effects on advanced IPF are unclear. We investigated the efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients with advanced IPF. METHODS: Prospective data were obtained from 108 IPF patients administered at least one dose of nintedanib. Of these patients, 47...
October 19, 2018: Respiratory Research
Petra Khan, Kleanthis Fytianos, Luca Tamò, Michael Roth, Michael Tamm, Thomas Geiser, Amiq Gazdhar, Katrin E Hostettler
BACKGROUND: Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT2) play a pivotal role in maintaining the integrity and function of the alveoli. Only recently, the role of impaired epithelial repair mechanisms after injury in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been demonstrated, and has shifted the AT2 cell in the focus of interest. Therefore, using primary human AT2 cells instead of cell lines for in vitro experiments has become desirable. Several groups have developed methods to isolate human AT2 cells applying tissue digestion and consecutive filtration in their protocols...
October 19, 2018: Respiratory Research
Zhiheng Xu, Yimin Li, Jianmeng Zhou, Xi Li, Yongbo Huang, Xiaoqing Liu, Karen E A Burns, Nanshan Zhong, Haibo Zhang
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) can be used as an initial support strategy for patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and after extubation. However, no clear evidence exists to support or oppose HFNC use in clinical practice. We summarized the effects of HFNC, compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV), on important outcomes including treatment failure and intubation/reintubation rates in adult patients with ARF and after extubation...
October 16, 2018: Respiratory Research
Lihui Zou, Junhua Zhang, Jingli Han, Wenqing Li, Fei Su, Xiaomao Xu, Zhenguo Zhai, Fei Xiao
BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-sGC-cGMP) signaling pathway, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, its exact molecular mechanism remains undefined. METHODS: Biotin-cGMP pull-down assay was performed to search for proteins regulated by cGMP. The interaction between cGMP and tropomyosin was analyzed with antibody dependent pull-down in vivo. Tropomyosin fragments were constructed to explore the tropomyosin-cGMP binding sites...
October 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
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