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Respiratory Research

Bruce J Kirenga, Levicatus Mugenyi, Corina de Jong, J Lucian Davis, Winceslaus Katagira, Thys van der Molen, Moses R Kamya, Marike Boezen
BACKGROUND: HIV and asthma are highly prevalent diseases in Africa but few studies have assessed the impact of HIV on asthma prevalence in high HIV burden settings. The objective of this analysis was to compare the prevalence of asthma among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) and those without HIV participating in the Uganda National Asthma Survey (UNAS). METHODS: UNAS was a population-based survey of persons aged ≥12 years. Asthma was diagnosed based on either self-reported current wheeze concurrently or within the prior 12 months; physician diagnosis; or use of asthma medication...
September 21, 2018: Respiratory Research
Alexandra Stroda, Vincent Brandenburg, Ayham Daher, Christian Cornelissen, Claudia Goettsch, András Keszei, Michael Dreher
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate metabolism by increasing renal phosphate excretion and decreasing 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis. Reports about hypophosphatemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suggest altered phosphate metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that disturbances in phosphate-regulatory hormones such as FGF23 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are present in COPD patients. METHODS: We investigated 40 COPD patients (63...
September 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
Joanna C Grogono, Clare Butler, Hooshang Izadi, Shakeeb H Moosavi
BACKGROUND: Inhaled furosemide offers a potentially novel treatment for dyspnoea, which may reflect modulation of pulmonary stretch receptor feedback to the brain. Specificity of relief is unclear because different neural pathways may account for different components of clinical dyspnoea. Our objective was to evaluate if inhaled furosemide relieves the air hunger component (uncomfortable urge to breathe) but not the sense of breathing work/effort of dyspnoea. METHODS: A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 16 healthy volunteers studied in a university research laboratory...
September 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
Silvia Perez-Bogerd, Wim Wuyts, Veronica Barbier, Heleen Demeyer, Alain Van Muylem, Wim Janssens, Thierry Troosters
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the long-term effect of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and on long PR programs in interstitial lung diseases (ILD). We aimed to evaluate the effects of PR on exercise capacity (6-Minute Walking Distance, 6MWD; Peak Work Rate, Wmax ), quality of life (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), quadriceps force (QF) and objectively measured physical activity in ILD after the 6-month PR-program and after 1 year. METHODS: 60 patients (64 ± 11 years; 62% males; 23% with IPF) were randomly assigned to receive a 6 month-PR program or usual medical care...
September 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
Helena Crisford, Elizabeth Sapey, Robert A Stockley
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common, multifactorial lung disease which results in significant impairment of patients' health and a large impact on society and health care burden. It is believed to be the result of prolonged, destructive neutrophilic inflammation which results in progressive damage to lung structures. During this process, large quantities of neutrophil serine proteinases (NSPs) are released which initiate the damage and contribute towards driving a persistent inflammatory state...
September 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
Ali H Ziyab, Nandini Mukherjee, Ramesh J Kurukulaaratchy, Hongmei Zhang, Susan Ewart, Hasan Arshad, Wilfried Karmaus
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between acetaminophen use and asthma. This investigation sought to determine whether sex modifies the acetaminophen-asthma association and whether leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphisms modulate the sex-specific associations. METHODS: Data from the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOW; n = 1456, aged 18 years) and Kuwait University Allergy (KUA; n = 1154, aged 18-26 years) studies were analyzed...
September 19, 2018: Respiratory Research
Babak Haghighi, Sanghun Choi, Jiwoong Choi, Eric A Hoffman, Alejandro P Comellas, John D Newell, R Graham Barr, Eugene Bleecker, Christopher B Cooper, David Couper, Mei Lan Han, Nadia N Hansel, Richard E Kanner, Ella A Kazerooni, Eric A C Kleerup, Fernando J Martinez, Wanda O'Neal, Stephen I Rennard, Prescott G Woodruff, Ching-Long Lin
BACKGROUND: Classification of COPD is usually based on the severity of airflow, which may not sensitively differentiate subpopulations. Using a multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA), we aim to identify subpopulations for current smokers with COPD. METHODS: Among the SPIROMICS subjects, we analyzed computed tomography images at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) of 284 current smokers. Functional variables were derived from registration of TLC and RV images, e...
September 18, 2018: Respiratory Research
K O Tonga, G G King, C S Farah, C Thamrin, F S Tang, J Santos, P Sharma, D G Chapman, B G Oliver
There is limited evidence linking airway inflammation and lung function impairment in older non-smoking asthmatics with fixed airflow obstruction (FAO), which can develop despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). We assessed lung function (spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT)), lung elastic recoil and airway inflammation using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in non-smoking adult asthmatics with FAO, following 2 months treatment with high-dose ICS/long-acting beta-agonist. Subjects demonstrated moderate FAO, abnormal FOT indices and loss of lung elastic recoil...
September 17, 2018: Respiratory Research
Miriam Barrecheguren, Cruz González, Marc Miravitlles
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is well established that patients with mild to moderate disease represent the majority of patients with COPD, and patients with mild COPD already have measurable physiological impairment with increased morbidity and a higher risk of mortality compared with healthy non-smoking individuals. However, this subpopulation is both underdiagnosed and undertreated. In addition, most clinical trials include cohorts of patients with worse lung function and quality of life, which are very different from the milder patients usually seen in primary care...
September 17, 2018: Respiratory Research
Mareike Lehmann, Lara Buhl, Hani N Alsafadi, Stephan Klee, Sarah Hermann, Kathrin Mutze, Chiharu Ota, Michael Lindner, Jürgen Behr, Anne Hilgendorff, Darcy E Wagner, Melanie Königshoff
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease. Repetitive injury and reprogramming of the lung epithelium are thought to be critical drivers of disease progression, contributing to fibroblast activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and subsequently loss of lung architecture and function. To date, Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are the only approved drugs known to decelerate disease progression, however, if and how these drugs affect lung epithelial cell function, remains largely unexplored...
September 15, 2018: Respiratory Research
Jorge Luiz Dantas de Medeiros, Bruno Carneiro Bezerra, Thiago Anderson Brito de Araújo, Aquiles Sales Craveiro Sarmento, Lázaro Batista de Azevedo Medeiros, Lucien Peroni Gualdi, Maria do Socorro Luna Cruz, Thaiza Teixeira Xavier Nobre, Josivan Gomes Lima, Julliane Tamara Araújo de Melo Campos
BACKGROUND: Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy (BSCL) is an ultra-rare metabolic disease characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hypoleptinemia, and diabetes mellitus. Although cardiovascular disturbances have been observed in BSCL patients, there are no studies regarding the Respiratory Muscle Strength (RMS) in this type of lipodystrophy. This study aimed to evaluate RMS in BSCL subjects compared with healthy subjects. METHODS: Eleven individuals with BSCL and 11 healthy subjects matched for age and gender were included in this study...
September 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
Ann C Gregory, Matthew B Sullivan, Leopoldo N Segal, Brian C Keller
BACKGROUND: The role of commensal viruses in humans is poorly understood, and the impact of the virome on lung health and smoking-related disease is particularly understudied. METHODS: Genetic material from acellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was sequenced to identify and quantify viral members of the lower respiratory tract which were compared against concurrent bronchoalveolar lavage bacterial, metabolite, cytokine and cellular profiles, and clinical data. Twenty smoker and 10 nonsmoker participants with no significant comorbidities were studied...
September 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
Anna Winkler, Kathrin Kahnert, Jürgen Behr, Claus Neurohr, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Rudolf Hatz, Holger Dressel, Thomas Radtke, Rudolf A Jörres
BACKGROUND: There is a need for non-invasive parameters that are sensitive to the development of the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in lung transplantation (LTx) patients. We studied whether the pulmonary diffusing capacity for inhaled nitric oxide is capable of detecting BOS stages. METHODS: Sixty-one LTx patients were included into this cross-sectional study (19/29/7/3/3 in BOS stages 0/0-p/1/2/3). For analysis stages 0/0-p versus 1/2/3 ("BOS binary-early"), and stages 0/0-p/1 versus 2/3 ("BOS binary-late") were summarized...
September 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
Christer Janson, Gunnar Johansson, Björn Ställberg, Karin Lisspers, Petter Olsson, Dorothy L Keininger, Milica Uhde, Florian S Gutzwiller, Leif Jörgensen, Kjell Larsson
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Other factors such as severity of airflow limitation and concurrent asthma may further raise the possibility of developing pneumonia. This study assessed the risk of pneumonia associated with ICS in patients with COPD. METHODS: Electronic Medical Record data linked to National Health Registries were collected from COPD patients and matched reference controls in 52 Swedish primary care centers (2000-2014)...
September 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
Lei Zhang, Yi Wang, Guorao Wu, Weining Xiong, Weikuan Gu, Cong-Yi Wang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a prototype of lethal, chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology. Over the past decade, macrophage has been recognized to play a significant role in IPF pathogenesis. Depending on the local microenvironments, macrophages can be polarized to either classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) phenotypes. In general, M1 macrophages are responsible for wound healing after alveolar epithelial injury, while M2 macrophages are designated to resolve wound healing processes or terminate inflammatory responses in the lung...
September 6, 2018: Respiratory Research
Tricia D LeVan, Debra J Romberger, Mohammad Siahpush, Brandon L Grimm, Athena K Ramos, Patrik L Johansson, Tzeyu L Michaud, Art J Heires, Todd A Wyatt, Jill A Poole
BACKGROUND: Agriculture workers are exposed to microbial component- and particulate matter-enriched organic dust aerosols. Whereas it is clear that exposure to these aerosols can lead to lung inflammation, it is not known how inflammatory responses are resolved in some individuals while others develop chronic lung disease. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an immunomodulatory cytokine that is recognized as a potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving factor. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship of systemic IL-10 and proinflammatory responses and/or respiratory health effects in humans with prior agriculture exposure...
September 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Ulrich Costabel, Jürgen Behr, Bruno Crestani, Wibke Stansen, Rozsa Schlenker-Herceg, Susanne Stowasser, Ganesh Raghu
BACKGROUND: The benefits and risks of anti-acid medication in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remain a topic of debate. We investigated whether use of anti-acid medication at baseline was associated with differences in the natural course of disease or influenced the treatment effect of nintedanib in patients with IPF. METHODS: Post-hoc analyses of outcomes in patients receiving versus not receiving anti-acid medication (proton pump or histamine-2 receptor inhibitor) at baseline using pooled data from the two Phase III randomized placebo-controlled INPULSIS® trials of nintedanib in patients with IPF...
September 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Masato Watanabe, Keitaro Nakamoto, Toshiya Inui, Mitsuru Sada, Kojiro Honda, Masaki Tamura, Yukari Ogawa, Takuma Yokoyama, Takeshi Saraya, Daisuke Kurai, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND: Neutrophilic inflammation is associated with poorly controlled asthma. Serum levels of sST2, a soluble IL-33 receptor, increase in neutrophilic lung diseases. We hypothesized that high serum sST2 levels in stable asthmatics are a predictor for exacerbation within a short duration. METHODS: This prospective observational study evaluated the serum sST2 levels of 104 asthmatic patients who were treated by a lung disease specialist with follow-ups for 3 months...
September 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Christer Janson, Karin Lisspers, Björn Ställberg, Gunnar Johansson, Gunilla Telg, Marcus Thuresson, Helene Nordahl Christensen, Kjell Larsson
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe uncontrolled asthma may receive oral corticosteroid (OCS) treatment regularly. The present study investigated the health care resource utilization and cost in regularly OCS treated Swedish asthma patients. METHODS: Primary care medical records data were linked to data from Swedish national health registries. Patients ≥18 years with a drug claim for obstructive pulmonary diseases during 2007-2009 (index date) and a prior asthma diagnosis, were classified by their OCS claims during the 12-months' post index period: regular OCS equals ≥5 mg per day; periodic OCS less than 5 mg per day; or non-OCS users...
September 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Pedro Ayala, Raúl Vivar, Rebeca Montalva, Pablo Olmos, Manuel Meneses, Gisella R Borzone
BACKGROUND: Gastric contents aspiration is a high-risk condition for acute lung injury (ALI). Consequences range from subclinical pneumonitis to respiratory failure, depending on the volume of aspirate. A large increment in inflammatory cells, an important source of elastase, potentially capable of damaging lung tissue, has been described in experimental models of aspiration. We hypothesized that in early stages of aspiration-induced ALI, there is proteolytic degradation of elastin, preceding collagen deposition...
August 31, 2018: Respiratory Research
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