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Eating Behaviors

Amrik Singh Khalsa, Jessica G Woo, Roohi Y Kharofa, Sheela R Geraghty, Thomas G DeWitt, Kristen A Copeland
INTRODUCTION: Feeding styles, the attitudes and behaviors parents use to direct their child's eating, shape a child's ability to self-regulate food intake and affects their future risk of obesity. This study examined how parental intuitive eating, where parents follow their own hunger and satiety cues, relates to infant feeding styles in a low-income, predominately Black population. METHODS: Parents of healthy infants aged 5.5-12.5 months were recruited during well-child visits at two urban primary care clinics...
January 11, 2019: Eating Behaviors
Therese E Kenny, Christopher Singleton, Jacqueline C Carter
OBJECTIVE: While research suggests a positive association between negative urgency (NU) and binge eating, the association between positive urgency (PU) and binge eating has been less well studied. Moreover, few studies have examined NU and PU in binge eating disorder (BED). The present study examined Whiteside and Lynam's (2001) five facets of impulsivity (including NU and PU) in individuals with BED and a control group with no history of an eating disorder (NED). METHOD: Community samples of adults with BED (n = 72) and NED (n = 79) completed self-report measures of impulsivity, eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, and symptoms of depression and anxiety...
December 28, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Lindsay P Bodell, Carolyn M Pearson, Kathryn E Smith, Li Cao, Ross D Crosby, Carol B Peterson, Scott J Crow, Kelly C Berg
OBJECTIVE: Although deficits in emotion regulation have been implicated in the maintenance of binge eating, few prospective studies have examined longitudinal associations between emotion regulation and eating disorder symptoms, which are needed to test these theoretical models. METHOD: Using a naturalistic design, the current study utilized longitudinal multilevel analyses to examine whether improvements in emotion regulation during treatment are associated with decreased binge eating frequency and eating disorder cognitions in a heterogeneous sample of adults with binge eating (N = 97)...
December 28, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Rachel F Rodgers, Tania E Nichols, Stephanie R Damiano, Eleanor H Wertheim, Susan J Paxton
Body image concerns and dietary restraint have been shown to emerge among young children (aged 5 to 8 years). However, to date, little is known regarding the way in which individual characteristics and endorsement of sociocultural appearance ideals are associated with these concerns and behaviors in this age group. The aim of the current study was to examine perceived rewards of thinness and muscularity as a mediator of the relationships between personality traits (perfectionism and self-esteem), and body esteem and dietary restraint among 7-year-old children...
December 20, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Haans Drieberg, Peter M McEvoy, Kimberley J Hoiles, Chloe Y Shu, Sarah J Egan
OBJECTIVE: Perfectionism is a transdiagnostic factor across eating disorders, anxiety, and depression. Previous research has shown anxiety mediates the relationship between perfectionism and eating disorders in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between anxiety/depression, perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with eating disorders. METHOD: Structural equation modeling was used to investigate three models in a clinical sample of children and adolescents (N = 231, M age = 14...
December 19, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Leah Keating, Jennifer S Mills, Jennine S Rawana
INTRODUCTION: According to attachment theory, individuals who are preoccupied with the possibility of rejection are prone to emotion dysregulation, which research has found to be related to disordered eating. The current study examined naturalistic momentary relationships between binge eating, depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and attachment anxiety. METHOD: Participants were 55 undergraduate women who owned a mobile phone and who had binge eaten at least once during the past 28 days...
December 19, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Yuko Yamamiya, Hemal Shroff, Lauren M Schaefer, J Kevin Thompson, Satoshi Shimai, D Luis Ordaz
Research among Western adult and adolescent males suggests that sociocultural influences are implicated in the drive for muscularity and weight-change behaviors. However, few studies have examined these relationships among adolescent boys from non-Western backgrounds. The current study sought to assess the psychometric properties of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4), a 22-item, 5-factor measure of sociocultural influence on appearance ideals, among Japanese (n = 984) adolescent boys...
December 6, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Amanda Dibb-Smith, Janine Chapman, Emily Brindal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential for an email-based, mindful eating exercise to improve unwanted snacking habits. METHOD: Australian participants (N = 78, 86% female) with unwanted snacking habits engaged in a mindful eating email-based intervention, over a practice period of two weeks. All measures were completed using an online survey. Habit strength was measured using the Self-Report Habit Index (SHRI). Mindful eating was measured using the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) and self-compassion was measured using the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS)...
November 30, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Michael R Lowe, C Nathan Marti, Elin Lantz Lesser, Eric Stice
Identifying predictors of increases in weight (or in fat mass) is important for understanding the genesis of obesity and for the design of prevention programs. We examined the predictive utility of 6 variables that have been predictive of weight gain in past research: depression, disinhibition, family history of overweight, body dissatisfaction, self-reported dieting and weight suppression (the difference between highest past and current weight). Percentage fat gain was evaluated with DEXA. We tested these variables as predictors of fat gain two years later in 294 female first-year students who were selected to have characteristics associated with future weight gain...
November 29, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Zhen Hadassah Cheng, Victoria L Perko, Leada Fuller-Marashi, Jeff M Gau, Eric Stice
Findings regarding ethnic differences in eating disorder diagnoses and risk factors have been mixed. This study evaluated whether there are ethnic differences in eating disorder prevalence, risk factors, and the predictive relations of the risk factors to future eating disorder onset. We used a large sample of young women followed longitudinally over three years to increase sensitivity to detect differences and to provide the first test of ethnic differences in the relation of risk factors to future onset of eating disorders...
November 23, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Leah N Tobin, Emilie Lacroix, Kristin M von Ranson
A brief, three-factor structure for the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) has been identified that has stronger psychometric properties than the original four-factor EDE-Q structure. However, there is a need for independent replication of the brief version in different samples, and examination of how comparable the brief version is in women and men of diverse ages. This study compared factor structure fit and other psychometric properties between the original and brief versions in three independent samples of adults to evaluate the reliability and validity of this brief version...
November 14, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Cláudia Ferreira, Bernardo Dias, Sara Oliveira
PURPOSE: Recent studies seem to support that being open to compassion from self and others is key for psychological and social well-being. In particular, findings indicated that fears of affiliative emotions are associated with negative affect and difficulties in threat regulation. The current study examined a path model which tested the direct and indirect effect of fears of compassion on both externalized and internalized body image-related shame, and the potential mediator role of self-criticism on these relationships...
November 7, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Jake Linardon, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Xochitl de la Piedad Garcia, Mariel Messer, Leah Brennan
Body checking and body avoidance, considered to be behavioural manifestations of core attitudinal disturbances of body image, are theorized to be important contributors to the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms. Currently, however, it is unclear whether body checking and body avoidance accounts for variance in disordered eating behaviours beyond core attitudinal components of body image (i.e., over-evaluation, preoccupation, dissatisfaction). This was the objective of the present study...
November 7, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Haley J Webb, Emma Haycraft
The aim of the present study was to examine whether parents' reported use of controlling feeding practices (restrictive feeding and pressure to eat) change over 6 months, and whether parents' concerns about their own weight and shape are prospectively associated with increasing use of controlling feeding practices. Participants were 48 Australian parents (92% female; Mage  = 37.8 years) who completed questionnaires twice, with a 6-month time lag, regarding a target child aged 7.6 years on average (52% female)...
October 28, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Kathryn E Smith, Tyler B Mason, Carol B Peterson, Carolyn M Pearson
Although relationships between negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and binge eating have been well-established, the mechanisms and individual risk factors that account for this relationship have yet to be elucidated. In addition to emotion dysregulation, altered reward functioning and negative affect eating expectancies (i.e., the expectancy that eating will relieve negative affect) are factors that have been previously linked to binge eating, though theoretical frameworks have not provided an integrated conceptualization of relationships between these domains...
December 2018: Eating Behaviors
Maryam A Al-Thani, Salma M Khaled
University years are a critical period in which young people establish independence and adopt lasting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations between eating out, psychological distress, and disordered eating behaviors among young Arab females in Qatar a rapidly developing small nation. A cross-sectional probability-based survey of 1615 Qatar University's female students assessed the frequency of eating out (main independent variable) and other eating behaviors in relation to two main dependent variables, disordered eating and psychological distress, which were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, respectively...
December 2018: Eating Behaviors
Lauren E Blau, Natalia C Orloff, Amy Flammer, Carolyn Slatch, Julia M Hormes
An estimated 50% of pregnancies in the U.S. are associated with maternal weight gain that exceeds Institute of Medicine recommendations. The numerous adverse consequences of obesity in gestation, delivery and the postpartum have been widely documented. The role of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) as a predictor of lifetime obesity risk in mothers and their children is also increasingly recognized. Cravings and negative affect are commonly cited triggers of overconsumption in pregnant women. We sought to examine the role of food craving frequency as a mediator in the relation between emotional eating and excess GWG...
December 2018: Eating Behaviors
Emily M Choquette, D Luis Ordaz, Tiffany Melioli, Beatrice Delage, Henri Chabrol, Rachel Rodgers, J Kevin Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Food and Alcohol Disturbance (FAD), colloquially coined "drunkorexia," is a set of behaviors that encompasses restriction of calories, over-exercise, and other compensatory behaviors before, during, or after alcohol use to offset caloric intake or maximize intoxication. To date, this phenomenon has not been compared in a cross-cultural sample. METHOD: The Compensatory Eating and Behaviors Related to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS), Eating Disorder Inventory - Drive for Thinness Subscale (EDI-DT) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test of Consumption (AUDIT-C) were completed by 502 American (73% female) and 365 French (68% female) college students...
December 2018: Eating Behaviors
Nathalie Kliemann, Helen Croker, Fiona Johnson, Rebecca J Beeken
BACKGROUND: There is consistent evidence that suggests first year students are at risk of weight gain, but the reasons for this vulnerability are still unclear. This study aimed to explore whether the ability to regulate eating behaviours is a predictor of weight and dietary changes in first year undergraduate students. METHODS: First year undergraduate students from universities situated in London were invited to complete a survey at the beginning of the academic year and at 6-month follow-up...
December 2018: Eating Behaviors
Jennifer C Veilleux, Kayla D Skinner, Garrett A Pollert
The current study extends cue-reactivity research by evaluating impulsive valuation as an outcome of exposure to food cues. This study also separates introspection after viewing cues (e.g., responding to questions about craving and affect) from mere cue exposure, to examine if introspection changes self-regulation behaviors in response to food cues. Finally, we compared restrained and unrestrained eaters to ascertain the influence of motivation toward food on how cue-reactivity influences impulsive behavior...
December 2018: Eating Behaviors
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