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Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877099/asthma-review-for-pharmacists-providing-asthma-education
#1
Stacie J Lampkin, Cheryl A Maslouski, William A Maish, Barnabas M John
Asthma is the most common pediatric illness affecting more than 6 million children in the United States. Children with asthma have more frequent office visits and hospitalizations compared with adults. Despite advances in therapies, asthma still has a significant effect on the health care system. Regardless of the setting, pharmacists are uniquely equipped with an intimate knowledge of medications. With this knowledge, they can provide education to patients at various points throughout the health care system, from hospitalization to office visits to point of pick up at the pharmacy...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877098/accidental-epidural-injection-of-rocuronium-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Ting-Ting Wu, David S Hoff
Accidental administration of non-epidural drugs into the epidural or subarachnoid spaces may be associated with unexpected pain, morbidity, adverse effects, increased level of care, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality. We describe a 12-month-old admitted for secondary-stage hypospadias reconstruction. General anesthesia was induced with sevofiurane and a peripheral catheter was placed. Instead of ropivacaine, rocuronium (80 mg; 6.3 mg/kg) was injected into the epidural space by the caudal route. Surgery was uneventful and was completed 160 minutes after rocuronium was given...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877097/preoperative-antibiotic-orders-protocol-initiated-pharmacist-order-entry
#3
Ben B Hyde, Richard K Ogden, Ron D Berger, Brad W VanBrimmer, Leslie M Stach
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibiotic selection of preoperative orders before and after a pharmacist order entry protocol for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of orthopedic surgery procedures on patients with MRSA colonization at a free-standing, academic pediatric hospital, between February 2010 and February 2012. RESULTS: Procedures that were performed pre protocol (n = 27) implementation had a 63% rate of appropriate antibiotic selection compared to 81% in the postprotocol group (n = 32; p = 0...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877096/a-prospective-pilot-study-on-the-systemic-absorption-of-oral-vancomycin-in-children-with-colitis
#4
James W Antoon, Margaret Hall, Diana Metropulos, Michael J Steiner, Ravi Jhaveri, Jacob A Lohr
BACKGROUND: Oral vancomycin is used to treat refractory colitis due to Clostridium dificile infection. Traditionally, oral vancomycin was thought to not be absorbed systemically, but recent adult studies have demonstrated detectable serum levels in over half of patients with severe colitis. This has not been studied in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the absorption of oral vancomycin and the renal safety profile of oral vancomycin in children hospitalized with colitis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, pilot proof of principle study at the North Carolina Children's Hospital in patients 2 years to 18 years of age receiving oral vancomycin for the treatment of C dificile colitis...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877095/evaluation-of-the-tolerability-of-intermittent-intravenous-sildenafil-in-pediatric-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#5
Robyn A Fender, Ty E Hasselman, Yanzhi Wang, Aaron A Harthan
OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the tolerability of intermittent intravenous (IV) sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in pediatric patients. Secondary objectives were to evaluate parameters related to efficacy. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review from January 2013 to August 2014 of pediatric patients under age 18 years treated with intermittent doses of IV sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension. Patients were excluded if they were over age 18 years or received sildenafil for other indications...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877094/raman-spectroscopy-a-sensitive-and-specific-technique-for-determining-the-accuracy-of-compounded-pharmaceutical-formulations
#6
Claudia Meek, Jihye Hoe, Jason Evans, Rosanne Thurman, Lisa Ashworth, Richard Leff
OBJECTIVES: Raman spectroscopy is a widely used technology to identify chemical unknowns or confirm chemical identity. We have tested Raman spectrometry to identify compounded pharmaceutical formulations. In contrast to the commonly used application mentioned above, compounded pharmaceutical formulations contain a mixture of ingredients, and the Raman spectrometer is being used to correctly identify the composition of the complete pharmaceutical formulation, including the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s)...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877093/adolescent-clinical-development-of-ezogabine-retigabine-as-adjunctive-therapy-for-partial-onset-seizures-pharmacokinetics-and-tolerability
#7
Debra J Tompson, Mauro Buraglio, Susan M Andrews, James W Wheless
OBJECTIVES: To explore the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and safety of ezogabine (EZG)/retigabine (RTG) as adjunctive therapy for uncontrolled partial-onset seizures (POS) in adolescents. METHODS: In this multiple-dose study (NCT01494584), adolescents with POS received EZG/RTG immediate-release tablets three times daily (TID) as adjunctive therapy to 1 to 3 concurrent antiepileptic drugs. The study comprised a screening phase, and a 5- to 8-week treatment phase starting with 100 mg TID up-titrated once weekly by ≤50 mg TID to a maximum dosage of 300 mg TID...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877092/pediatric-statin-administration-navigating-a-frontier-with-limited-data
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Wagner, Susan M Abdel-Rahman
Increasingly, children and adolescents with dyslipidemia qualify for pharmacologic intervention. As they are for adults, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are the mainstay of pediatric dyslipidemia treatment when lifestyle modifications have failed. Despite the overall success of these drugs, the magnitude of variability in dose-exposure-response profiles contributes to adverse events and treatment failure. In children, the cause of treatment failures remains unclear. This review describes the updated guidelines for screening and management of pediatric dyslipidemia and statin disposition pathway to assist the provider in recognizing scenarios where alterations in dosage may be warranted to meet patients' specific needs...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713679/ppag-inducts-new-fellows
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713678/correspondence
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713677/intraoperative-anaphylactic-reaction-is-it-the-floseal
#11
Brianne Bordes, David Martin, Brian Schloss, Allan Beebe, Walter Samora, Jan Klamar, David Stukus, Joseph D Tobias
When hemodynamic or respiratory instability occurs intraoperatively, the inciting event must be determined so that a therapeutic plan can be provided to ensure patient safety. Although generally uncommon, one cause of cardiorespiratory instability is anaphylactic reactions. During anesthetic care, these most commonly involve neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, or latex. Floseal is a topical hemostatic agent that is frequently used during orthopedic surgical procedures to augment local coagulation function and limit intraoperative blood loss...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713676/meropenem-induced-neutropenia-in-a-neonate
#12
Joseph S Van Tuyl, Aubrey N Jones, Peter N Johnson
Postmarketing surveillance has associated meropenem with the development of hematologic abnormalities, including agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and leukopenia, but the exact incidence in children is unknown. The case describes a full-term, 26-day-old neonate admitted for a sepsis workup. She was found to have a blood culture positive for Enterobacter cloacae and suspected meningitis and was initiated on meropenem 40 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours. On day 14 of antibiotic treatment, the patient developed an isolated neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count of 288 cells/mm(3)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713675/pharmacist-led-model-to-reduce-hospital-readmissions-in-medically-complex-children
#13
Alison M DaCosta, Courtney B Sweet, Lisa R Garavaglia, Francis L Casey, Jeffrey D Lancaster
OBJECTIVES: This pilot study investigated the feasibility and effect on health care utilization of medically complex children participating in a pharmacist-led model for care coordination. Quality of life and satisfaction with care were secondarily assessed for each patient. METHODS: Four medically complex children were enrolled and contacted by the pharmacist weekly for 5 consecutive months. Time for each encounter with a patient was collected. Each patient's hospital admissions, days of stay, emergency department visits, and clinic visits were recorded...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713674/impact-of-computerized-provider-order-entry-on-total-parenteral-nutrition-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#14
Kyle A Franco, Keliana O'Mara
OBJECTIVES: To determine if computerized provider order entry (CPOE) implementation impacts the time it takes for preterm neonates to reach their parenteral macronutrient goals. METHODS: Retrospective review of neonates <1750 g receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) before and after the implementation of CPOE. Primary outcome was the attainment of parenteral macronutrient goals. Secondary outcomes included time to attainment, the frequency of electrolyte abnormalities, and the incidence of required adjustments made to PN orders by verification pharmacists...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713673/does-combination-therapy-with-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-increase-the-risk-of-nephrotoxicity-versus-vancomycin-alone-in-pediatric-patients
#15
Katherine E McQueen, Dana W Clark
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the incidence of nephrotoxicity is higher in pediatric patients treated with the combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam, compared to patients treated with vancomycin alone. Secondary objectives were to determine if admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), higher serum vancomycin trough concentrations (>15 mg/L), or receipt of other nephrotoxic agents were related to the development of nephrotoxicity. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study of 79 patients treated with vancomycin and 106 patients treated with vancomycin and pipracillin/tazobacatam (TZP)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713672/outcomes-in-postoperative-pediatric-cardiac-surgical-patients-who-received-an-antiepileptic-drug
#16
Mindl M Messinger, Kimberly L Dinh, Erin J McDade, Brady S Moffett, Angus A Wilfong, Antonio G Cabrera
BACKGROUND: Advances in cardiac operations over the last few decades, including corrective operations in early life, have dramatically increased the survival of children with congenital heart disease. However, postoperative care has been associated with neurologic complications, with seizures being the most common manifestation. The primary objective of this study is to describe the outcomes in pediatric patients who received an antiepileptic drug (AED) post-cardiac surgery. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was performed in all patients less than 18 years of age who received an AED in the cardiovascular intensive care unit at Texas Children's Hospital from June 2002 until June 2012...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713671/stability-and-sterility-of-enoxaparin-8-mg-ml-subcutaneous-injectable-solution
#17
Brady S Moffett, Kimberly Dinh, Jennifer Placencia, Gregory Pelkey, Shiu-Ki Rocky Hui, Jun Teruya
BACKGROUND: Enoxaparin is often diluted to accurately deliver doses to neonatal and infant patients. Current recommendations for dilutions may not be adequate for the smallest patients. METHODS: Review of dosing at our institution occurred, and an 8 mg/mL concentration of enoxaparin was chosen. A concentration of 8 mg/mL was compounded by diluting 0.4 mL of enoxaparin (100 mg/mL) into 4.6 mL of sterile water for injection into an empty sterile vial. Four syringes of the 8 mg/mL concentration were prepared by 5 technicians (20 total syringes)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713670/calprotectin-clinical-applications-in-pediatrics
#18
Oscar R Herrera, Michael L Christensen, Richard A Helms
As seen over the past 20 years, calprotectin has evolved as a novel, non-invasive biomarker of gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. We present this review of calprotectin in pediatrics. This article will focus on studies using calprotectin concentrations from different body fluids to monitor inflammation in different disease states and conditions. The ultimate goal of our group is to lay down a foundation as we consider using calprotectin prospectively as a marker of intestinal inflammation that could lead to further testing and possibly a marker of preparedness for feeding...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453706/-es-omeprazole-and-discoloration-of-regurgitated-gastric-contents-in-infants-worrying-for-care-takers-and-a-sign-of-a-reduced-bioavailability
#19
Florence van Hunsel, Loek de Jong, Tjalling de Vries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453705/metabolic-acidosis-with-ophthalmic-dorzolamide-in-a-neonate
#20
Amanda C Capino, Douglas C Dannaway, Jamie L Miller
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a common cause of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis; however, development is less commonly associated with ophthalmic administration of these agents. We report a case of a premature neonate who was being treated at our institution with betaxolol, dorzolamide, and latanoprost ophthalmic products for suspected bilateral congenital glaucoma. In addition, the patient was also receiving caffeine, ursodiol, and acidified liquid human milk fortifier. The patient developed a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, and both dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the acidified human milk fortifier were considered potential causes...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
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