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Cerebellum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766459/cognitive-functioning-in-chiari-malformation-type-i-without-posterior-fossa-surgery
#1
Maitane García, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Imanol Amayra
Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a neurological disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. Most research has focused on physical symptomatology but few studies include neuropsychological examinations. Moreover, although current research highlights the involvement of the cerebellum on higher cognitive functions, little is known about cognitive consequences associated with CM-I. The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive functioning between 39 CM-I patients and 39 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766458/cerebellar-stimulation-evoked-prefrontal-electrical-synchrony-is-modulated-by-gaba
#2
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Fow-Sen Choa, George F Wittenberg, Krista Wisner, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
Cerebellar-prefrontal connectivity has been recognized as important for behaviors ranging from motor coordination to cognition. Many of these behaviors are known to involve excitatory or inhibitory modulations from the prefrontal cortex. We used cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) to probe cerebellar-evoked electrical activity in prefrontal cortical areas and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels to determine if they are correlated with those potentials...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730789/the-impact-of-stimulation-intensity-and-coil-type-on-reliability-and-tolerability-of-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-cbi-via-dual-coil-tms
#3
Lara Fernandez, Brendan P Major, Wei-Peng Teo, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) describes the inhibitory tone the cerebellum exerts on the primary motor cortex (M1). CBI can be indexed via a dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol, whereby a conditioning stimulus (CS) is delivered to the cerebellum in advance of a test stimulus (TS) to M1. The CS is typically delivered at intensities over 60% maximum stimulus output (MSO) via a double-cone coil. This is reportedly uncomfortable for participants, reducing the reliability and validity of outcomes...
May 5, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725949/far-infrared-radiation-improves-motor-dysfunction-and-neuropathology-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-mice
#4
Shin-Wu Liu, Jui-Chih Chang, Sheng-Fei Chuang, Ko-Hung Liu, Wen-Ling Cheng, Hui-Ju Chang, Huei-Shin Chang, Ta-Tsung Lin, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Wei-Yong Lin, Mingli Hsieh, Shou-Jen Kuo, Chin-San Liu
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a polyglutamine neurodegenerative disease resulting from the misfolding and accumulation of a pathogenic protein, causing cerebellar dysfunction, and this disease currently has no effective treatments. Far-infrared radiation (FIR) has been found to protect the viability of SCA3 cells by preventing mutant ataxin-3 protein aggregation and promoting autophagy. However, this possible treatment still lacks in vivo evidence. This study assessed the effect of FIR therapy on SCA3 in vivo by using a mouse model over 28 weeks...
May 3, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725948/neuromagnetic-cerebellar-activity-entrains-to-the-kinematics-of-executed-finger-movements
#5
Brice Marty, V Wens, M Bourguignon, G Naeije, S Goldman, V Jousmäki, X De Tiège
This magnetoencephalography (MEG) study aims at characterizing the coupling between cerebellar activity and the kinematics of repetitive self-paced finger movements. Neuromagnetic signals were recorded in 11 right-handed healthy adults while they performed repetitive flexion-extensions of right-hand fingers at three different movement rates: slow (~ 1 Hz), medium (~ 2 Hz), and fast (~ 3 Hz). Right index finger acceleration was monitored with an accelerometer. Coherence analysis was used to index the coupling between right index finger acceleration and neuromagnetic signals...
May 3, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687291/a-japanese-family-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-21-clinical-and-neuropathological-studies
#6
Hiroyuki Yahikozawa, Satoko Miyatake, Toshiaki Sakai, Takeshi Uehara, Mitsunori Yamada, Norinao Hanyu, Yasuhiro Futatsugi, Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Fumiaki Tanaka, Atsushi Suzuki, Naomichi Matsumoto, Kunihiro Yoshida
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 21 (SCA21) is a rare subtype of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, which was first identified in a French family and has been reported almost exclusively in French ancestry so far. We here report the first Japanese family with SCA21, in which all affected members examined carried a heterozygous c.509C > T:p.Pro170Leu variant in TMEM240. Their clinical features were summarized as a slowly progressive ataxia of young-adult onset (5-48 years) associated with various degree of psychomotor retardation or cognitive impairment...
April 23, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663194/centrosome-inheritance-does-not-regulate-cell-fate-in-granule-neuron-progenitors-of-the-developing-cerebellum
#7
Anindo Chatterjee, Kaviya Chinnappa, Narendrakumar Ramanan, Shyamala Mani
An inherent asymmetry exists between the two centrosomes of a dividing cell. One centrosome is structurally more mature (mother centrosome) than the other (daughter centrosome). Post division, one daughter cell inherits the mother centrosome while the other daughter cell inherits the daughter centrosome. Remarkably, the kind of centrosome inherited is associated with cell fate in several developmental contexts such as in radial glial progenitors in the developing mouse cortex, Drosophila neuroblast divisions and in Drosophila male germline stem cells...
April 16, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656311/consensus-paper-neurophysiological-assessments-of-ataxias-in-daily-practice
#8
REVIEW
W Ilg, M Branscheidt, A Butala, P Celnik, L de Paola, F B Horak, L Schöls, H A G Teive, A P Vogel, D S Zee, D Timmann
The purpose of this consensus paper is to review electrophysiological abnormalities and to provide a guideline of neurophysiological assessments in cerebellar ataxias. All authors agree that standard electrophysiological methods should be systematically applied in all cases of ataxia to reveal accompanying peripheral neuropathy, the involvement of the dorsal columns, pyramidal tracts and the brainstem. Electroencephalography should also be considered, although findings are frequently non-specific. Electrophysiology helps define the neuronal systems affected by the disease in an individual patient and to understand the phenotypes of the different types of ataxia on a more general level...
April 14, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637507/the-cerebello-hypothalamic-and-hypothalamo-cerebellar-pathways-via-superior-and-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-in-the-rat
#9
Safiye Çavdar, Merve Özgur, Yasemin Kuvvet, Husniye Hacıoğlu Bay
The connections between the cerebellum and the hypothalamus have been well documented. However, the specific cerebellar peduncle through which the hypothalamo-cerebellar and cerebello-hypothalamic connections pass has not been demonstrated. The present study aims to define the specific cerebellar peduncle through which connects the cerebellum to specific hypothalamic nuclei. Seventeen male albino rats received 20-50-nl pressure injections of either Fluoro-Gold (FG) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) tracer into the superior (SCP), middle (MCP), and inferior (ICP) cerebellar peduncle...
April 10, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574551/the-dysfunction-of-the-cerebellum-and-its-cerebellum-reward-sensorimotor-loops-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#10
Yuming Wang, Jiliang Fang, Ping Song, Yan Bao, Wenwen Song, Jiao Liu, Courtney Lang, Kristen Jorgenson, Minyoung Jung, Dong Shen, Shasha Li, Ruirui Sun, Xu Ding, Jiao Yang, Xiao Meng, Ning Wang, Zhifang Yan, Yuhe Yan, Qian Kong, Ying Dong, Fangyuan Cui, Yiheng Tu, Bingnan Cui, Jian Kong
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common itchy skin disease. Despite its prevalence, the neuropathology of CSU is uncertain. In this study, we explored resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) changes in CSU, as well as how the symptom changes following intervention can modulate rs-FC. Forty patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Following an intervention, 32 patients participated in a second scan approximately 6 weeks after the first scan. Compared with healthy controls, CSU subjects exhibited higher regional homogeneity (ReHo) values in the cerebellum, which were positively associated with urticaria activity scores over 7 days (UAS7) at baseline...
March 24, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556966/inhibition-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-attenuates-deficits-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-brain-functions-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Bo Wang, Shuangshuang Han
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting from external force on the head, usually leads to long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated excessive inflammation could exacerbate brain damage after TBI. The present study therefore investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of iNOS inhibition after TBI. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury and then treated with high selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W. Expression of iNOS mRNA was determined by quantitative RT-PCR...
March 20, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527639/novel-features-and-abnormal-pattern-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-19
#12
Martin Paucar, Åsa Bergendal, Peter Gustavsson, Magnus Nordenskjöld, José Laffita-Mesa, Irina Savitcheva, Per Svenningsson
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 19 (SCA19), allelic with spinocerebellar ataxia type 22 (SCA22), is a rare syndrome caused by mutations in the KCND3 gene which encodes the potassium channel Kv4.3. Only 18 SCA19/22 families and sporadic cases of different ethnic backgrounds have been previously reported. As in other SCAs, the SCA19/22 phenotype is variable and usually consists of adult-onset slowly progressive ataxia and cognitive impairment; myoclonus and seizures; mild Parkinsonism occurs in some cases. Here we describe a Swedish SCA19/22 family spanning five generations and harboring the T377M mutation in KCND3...
March 12, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497979/a-novel-frameshift-cacna1a-mutation-causing-episodic-ataxia-type-2
#13
EDITORIAL
Alexander Balck, Sinem Tunc, Johanna Schmitz, Ronja Hollstein, Frank J Kaiser, Norbert Brüggemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488162/vincenzo-malacarne-1744-1816-and-the-first-description-of-the-human-cerebellum
#14
Alberto Zanatta, Céline Cherici, Alessandro Bargoni, Serena Buzzi, Valentina Cani, Paolo Mazzarello, Fabio Zampieri
Vincenzo Malacarne, professor of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in Turin, Pavia, and Padua, Italy, represented a perfect example of an eighteenth century "letterato", combining interests in humanities, sciences, and politics, embodying the ideal of an encyclopedic and universal culture. He made important contributions in anatomy and surgery, teratology, obstetrics, neurology, and history of medicine, adopting a interdisciplinary approach based on the correlation between anatomy, surgery, and clinics...
February 27, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480507/pain-experience-is-somatotopically-organized-and-overlaps-with-pain-anticipation-in-the-human-cerebellum
#15
F H S Michelle Welman, Albertine E Smit, Joost L M Jongen, Dick Tibboel, Jos N van der Geest, Jan C Holstege
Many fMRI studies have shown activity in the cerebellum after peripheral nociceptive stimulation. We investigated whether the areas in the cerebellum that were activated after nociceptive thumb stimulation were separate from those after nociceptive toe stimulation. In an additional experiment, we investigated the same for the anticipation of a nociceptive stimulation on the thumb or toe. For his purpose, we used fMRI after an electrical stimulation of the thumb and toe in 19 adult healthy volunteers. Following nociceptive stimulation, different areas were activated by stimulation on the thumb (lobule VI ipsilaterally and Crus II mainly contralaterally) and toe (lobules VIII-IX and IV-V bilaterally and lobule VI contralaterally), i...
February 26, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134361/sonic-hedgehog-agonist-protects-against-complex-neonatal-cerebellar-injury
#16
Vien Nguyen, Khalida Sabeur, Emin Maltepe, Kurosh Ameri, Omer Bayraktar, David H Rowitch
The cerebellum undergoes rapid growth during the third trimester and is vulnerable to injury and deficient growth in infants born prematurely. Factors associated with preterm cerebellar hypoplasia include chronic lung disease and postnatal glucocorticoid administration. We modeled chronic hypoxemia and glucocorticoid administration in neonatal mice to study whole cerebellar and cell type-specific effects of dual exposure. Chronic neonatal hypoxia resulted in permanent cerebellar hypoplasia. This was compounded by administration of prednisolone as shown by greater volume loss and Purkinje cell death...
April 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086357/personality-and-neuropsychological-profiles-in-friedreich-ataxia
#17
Sabrina Sayah, Jean-Yves Rotgé, Hélène Francisque, Marcela Gargiulo, Virginie Czernecki, Damian Justo, Khadija Lahlou-Laforet, Valérie Hahn, Massimo Pandolfo, Antoine Pelissolo, Philippe Fossati, Alexandra Durr
Friedreich ataxia, an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease, is the most frequent inherited ataxia. Many studies have attempted to identify cognitive and affective changes associated with the disease, but conflicting results have been obtained, depending on the tests used and because many of the samples studied were very small. We investigated personality and neuropsychological characteristics in a cohort of 47 patients with genetically confirmed disease. The neuropsychological battery assessed multiple cognition domains: processing speed, attention, working memory, executive functions, verbal memory, vocabulary, visual reasoning, emotional recognition, and social cognition...
April 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071518/cerebellum-as-a-master-piece-for-linguistic-predictability
#18
EDITORIAL
Peter Mariën, Mario Manto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063351/cerebellar-asymmetry-and-cortical-connectivity-in-monozygotic-twins-with-discordant-handedness
#19
R E Rosch, P E Cowell, J M Gurd
Handedness differentiates patterns of neural asymmetry and interhemispheric connectivity in cortical systems that underpin manual and language functions. Contemporary models of cerebellar function incorporate complex motor behaviour and higher-order cognition, expanding upon earlier, traditional associations between the cerebellum and motor control. Structural MRI defined cerebellar volume asymmetries and correlations with corpus callosum (CC) size were compared in 19 pairs of adult female monozygotic twins strongly discordant for handedness (MZHd)...
April 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043563/malformation-of-the-posterior-cerebellar-vermis-is-a-common-neuroanatomical-phenotype-of-genetically-engineered-mice-on-the-c57bl-6-background
#20
Joshua A Cuoco, Anthony W Esposito, Shannon Moriarty, Ying Tang, Sonika Seth, Alyssa R Toia, Elias B Kampton, Yevgeniy Mayr, Mussarah Khan, Mohammad B Khan, Brian R Mullen, James B Ackman, Faez Siddiqi, John H Wolfe, Olga V Savinova, Raddy L Ramos
C57BL/6 mice exhibit spontaneous cerebellar malformations consisting of heterotopic neurons and glia in the molecular layer of the posterior vermis, indicative of neuronal migration defect during cerebellar development. Recognizing that many genetically engineered (GE) mouse lines are produced from C57BL/6 ES cells or backcrossed to this strain, we performed histological analyses and found that cerebellar heterotopia were a common feature present in the majority of GE lines on this background. Furthermore, we identify GE mouse lines that will be valuable in the study of cerebellar malformations including diverse driver, reporter, and optogenetic lines...
April 2018: Cerebellum
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