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Cerebellum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924492/progression-of-gait-ataxia-in-patients-with-degenerative-cerebellar-disorders-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#1
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Carlo Casali, Carmela Conte, Martina Rinaldi, Alberto Ranavolo, Christian Marcotulli, Luca Leonardi, Gaia Fragiotta, Fabiano Bini, Gianluca Coppola, Francesco Pierelli
In the present study, the progression of gait impairment in a group of patients with primary degenerative cerebellar ataxias was observed over a period of 4 years. A total of 30 patients underwent an initial gait analysis study, and thereafter only 12 were evaluated because they completed the 2- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Time-distance parameters, trunk and joint range of motion (RoM), and variability parameters (e.g., coefficients of variation) were measured at the baseline and at each follow-up evaluation...
December 6, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858255/cerebellum-from-j-e-purkyn%C3%A4-up-to-contemporary-research
#2
REVIEW
František Vožeh
Jan. Evangelista Purkyně, the most famous among Czech physiologists, was the first who identified and described the largest nerve cells in the cerebellum. The most distinguished researchers of the nervous system then recommended naming these neurons Purkinje cells in his honor. Through experiments by Purkinje and his followers, the function of the cerebellum was properly attributed to the precision of motor movements and skills. This traditional concept was valid until early 1990s, when it was readjusted and replenished with new and important findings...
November 17, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853938/differential-pattern-of-cerebellar-atrophy-in-tremor-predominant-and-akinetic-rigidity-predominant-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Camila Callegari Piccinin, Lidiane Soares Campos, Rachel Paes Guimarães, Luiza Gonzaga Piovesana, Maria Cristina Arci Dos Santos, Paula Christina Azevedo, Brunno Machado Campos, Thiago Junqueira Ribeiro de Rezende, Augusto Amato-Filho, Fernando Cendes, Anelyssa D'Abreu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an akinetic-rigid disorder characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction and a possible cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit involvement. This study aims to investigate the pattern of cerebellar involvement in PD and to assess whether it correlates with clinical parameters. MRI scans were acquired from 50 healthy controls (HC) and 63 patients; 44 were classified as tremor-predominant-PD (PDT) and 19 as akinetic/rigidity-predominant-PD (PDAR). We designed an analysis of covariance including the three groups and contrasted as follows: (1) all 63 PD vs HC, (2) PDT vs HC, (3) PDAR vs HC, and (4) PDT vs PDAR...
November 16, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848087/the-initial-symptom-and-motor-progression-in-spinocerebellar-ataxias
#4
Lan Luo, Jie Wang, Raymond Y Lo, Karla P Figueroa, Stefan M Pulst, Pei-Hsin Kuo, Susan Perlman, George Wilmot, Christopher M Gomez, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Henry Paulson, Vikram G Shakkottai, Sarah H Ying, Theresa Zesiewicz, Khalaf Bushara, Michael Geschwind, Guangbin Xia, S H Subramony, Tetsuo Ashizawa, Sheng-Han Kuo
The aim of this study is to determine whether the initial symptom associates with motor progression in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). SCAs are clinically heterogeneous and the initial presentation may represent different subtypes of SCA with different motor progression. We studied 317 participants with SCAs1, 2, 3, and 6 from the Clinical Research Consortium for SCAs (CRC-SCA) and repeatedly measured the severity of ataxia for 2 years. SCA patients were divided into gait-onset and non-gait-onset (speech, vision, and hand dexterity) groups based on the initial presentation...
November 15, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830516/natural-history-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-31-a-4-year-prospective-study
#5
Katsuya Nakamura, Kunihiro Yoshida, Akira Matsushima, Yusaku Shimizu, Shunichi Sato, Hiroyuki Yahikozawa, Shinji Ohara, Masanobu Yazawa, Masao Ushiyama, Mitsuto Sato, Hiroshi Morita, Atsushi Inoue, Shu-Ichi Ikeda
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) is known as a late-onset, relatively pure cerebellar form of ataxia, but a longitudinal prospective study on the natural history of SCA31 has not been done yet. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled 44 patients (mean ± standard deviation 73.6 ± 8.5 years) with genetically confirmed SCA31 from 10 ataxia referral centers in the Nagano area, Japan. Patients were evaluated every year for 4 years using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Barthel Index (BI)...
November 9, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815857/cerebellar-assessment-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Amandine Moroso, Aurélie Ruet, Mathilde Deloire, Delphine Lamargue-Hamel, Stéphanie Cubizolle, Julie Charré-Morin, Aurore Saubusse, Bruno Brochet
Cerebellar impairment is frequent and predictive of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT) is commonly used to assess cerebellar symptoms despite its lack of specificity for cerebellar ataxia. Eye-tracking is a reliable test for identifying subtle cerebellar symptoms and could be used in clinical trials, including those involving early MS patients. To evaluate, by the use of eye-tracking, the accuracy of the NHPT in detecting subtle cerebellar symptoms in patients with clinically isolated syndrome with a high risk of conversion to MS (HR-CIS)...
November 4, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797090/altered-cerebellar-activity-in-visceral-pain-related-fear-conditioning-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
J Claassen, F Labrenz, T M Ernst, A Icenhour, J Langhorst, M Forsting, D Timmann, S Elsenbruch
There is evidence to support a role of the cerebellum in emotional learning processes, which are demonstrably altered in patients with chronic pain. We tested if cerebellar activation is altered during visceral pain-related fear conditioning and extinction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Cerebellar blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) data from N = 17 IBS patients and N = 21 healthy controls, collected as part of a previous fMRI study, was reanalyzed utilizing an advanced normalizing method of the cerebellum...
October 28, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785760/dyslexic-children-show-atypical-cerebellar-activation-and-cerebro-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-orthographic-and-phonological-processing
#8
Xiaoxia Feng, Le Li, Manli Zhang, Xiujie Yang, Mengyu Tian, Weiyi Xie, Yao Lu, Li Liu, Nathalie N Bélanger, Xiangzhi Meng, Guosheng Ding
Previous neuroimaging studies have found atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia in either motor-related tasks or language tasks. However, studies investigating atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia have mostly used tasks tapping phonological processing. A question that is yet unanswered is whether the cerebellum in individuals with dyslexia functions properly during orthographic processing of words, as growing evidence shows that the cerebellum is also involved in visual and spatial processing...
October 27, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774574/constrained-spherical-deconvolution-tractography-reveals-cerebello-mammillary-connections-in-humans
#9
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Pietro Ciolli, Margherita Russo, Daniele Bruschetta, Antonio Duca, Fabio Trimarchi, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Anastasi
According to the classical view, the cerebellum has long been confined to motor control physiology; however, it has now become evident that it exerts several non-somatic features other than the coordination of movement and is engaged also in the regulation of cognition and emotion. In a previous diffusion-weighted imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography study, we demonstrated the existence of a direct cerebellum-hippocampal pathway, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of the cerebellar role in non-motor domains...
October 24, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766499/arteries-and-veins-of-the-cerebellum
#10
Matthieu Delion, Mickael Dinomais, Philippe Mercier
Surgery of the posterior fossa represents a technical challenge because of the proximity of the vessels of the cerebellum. If the arterial vascularization of the cerebellum is well known, the main arterial variations and the whole venous vascularization are probably under recognized. We describe the vascular organization and the main variations through photographs of colored latex perfused brains, obtained with a surgical microscope. The arterial vascularization of the cerebellum is based on three arteries which all originate from the vertebrobasilar system: the superior cerebellar artery (SCA), the anterior and inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), and the posterior and inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)...
October 20, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734238/current-opinions-and-areas-of-consensus-on-the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-dystonia
#11
Vikram G Shakkottai, Amit Batla, Kailash Bhatia, William T Dauer, Christian Dresel, Martin Niethammer, David Eidelberg, Robert S Raike, Yoland Smith, H A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess, Sabine Meunier, Mark Hallett, Rachel Fremont, Kamran Khodakhah, Mark S LeDoux, Traian Popa, Cécile Gallea, Stéphane Lehericy, Andreea C Bostan, Peter L Strick
A role for the cerebellum in causing ataxia, a disorder characterized by uncoordinated movement, is widely accepted. Recent work has suggested that alterations in activity, connectivity, and structure of the cerebellum are also associated with dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and sustained muscle contractions often leading to abnormal maintained postures. In this manuscript, the authors discuss their views on how the cerebellum may play a role in dystonia. The following topics are discussed: The relationships between neuronal/network dysfunctions and motor abnormalities in rodent models of dystonia...
October 12, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730516/corticomuscular-coherence-a-novel-tool-to-assess-the-pyramidal-tract-dysfunction-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#12
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Johannes Tünnerhoff, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Paolo Belardinelli, Jacqueline Medrano-Montero, Arnoy Peña-Acosta, Nalia Canales-Ochoa, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Yanetza González-Zaldivar, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
Clinical signs of corticospinal tract dysfunction are a common feature of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) patients. The objective of this study is to assess dysfunction of the corticospinal tract in SCA2 using corticomuscular coherence. Testing corticomuscular coherence and rating of ataxia severity and non-ataxia symptoms were performed in 19 SCA2 patients and 24 age-matched controls. Central motor conduction times (CMCT) to upper and lower right limbs were obtained for the SCA2 group using Transcraneal magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
October 11, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726094/cerebellar-pathology-in-early-onset-and-late-onset-essential-tremor
#13
Sheng-Han Kuo, Jie Wang, William J Tate, Ming-Kai Pan, Geoffrey C Kelly, Jesus Gutierrez, Etty P Cortes, Jean-Paul G Vonsattel, Elan D Louis, Phyllis L Faust
Early onset and late onset essential tremor (ET) cases differ in several respects. Whether they differ with respect to cerebellar pathologic changes remains to be determined. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell (PC) counts, PC axonal torpedoes and associated axonal changes, heterotopic PCs, and hairy basket ratings) in 30 ET cases with age of tremor onset <50 years, 30 ET cases with age of tremor onset ≥50 years, and 30 controls (total n = 90). We also used two alternative age of onset cut-points (<40 vs...
October 10, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709457/defining-trends-in-global-gene-expression-in-arabian-horses-with-cerebellar-abiotrophy
#14
E Y Scott, M C T Penedo, J D Murray, C J Finno
Equine cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease that affects the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum and causes ataxia in Arabian foals. Signs of CA are typically first recognized either at birth to any time up to 6 months of age. CA is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on equine chromosome 2 (13074277G>A), located in the fourth exon of TOE1 and in proximity to MUTYH on the antisense strand. We hypothesize that unraveling the functional consequences of the CA SNP using RNA-seq will elucidate the molecular pathways underlying the CA phenotype...
October 5, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696290/years-of-drinking-but-not-the-amount-of-alcohol-intake-contribute-to-the-association-between-alcoholic-cerebellar-degeneration-and-worse-cognitive-performance-a-population-based-study
#15
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Nathan R King, Mauricio Zambrano, Lauren J Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687732/late-onset-friedreich-s-ataxia-lofa-mimicking-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-2-what-is-similar-and-what-is-different
#16
Rubens Paulo A Salomão, Maria Thereza Drumond Gama, Flávio Moura Rezende Filho, Fernanda Maggi, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando G P Barsottini
Herein, we report a patient that presented with late-onset progressive steppage gait, neuropathy and pes cavus, suggesting Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Subsequent genetic investigation confirmed Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). We demonstrate that late-onset Friedreich's ataxia (LOFA) may be a CMT mimicker. This case reinforces that other genetic conditions may clinically resemble CMT. The clinical similarities between CMT and FRDA include a symmetrical neuropathy (axonal in FRDA), steppage gait, and eventually scoliosis...
September 29, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26589810/volumetric-differences-in-cerebellar-lobes-in-individuals-from-multiplex-alcohol-dependence-families-and-controls-their-relationship-to-externalizing-and-internalizing-disorders-and-working-memory
#17
Shirley Y Hill, Sarah D Lichenstein, Shuhui Wang, Jessica O'Brien
Offspring from families with multiple cases of alcohol dependence have a greater likelihood of developing alcohol dependence and related substance use disorders. Greater susceptibility for these disorders may be related to cerebellar morphology. Because posterior regions of the cerebellum are associated with cognitive abilities, we investigated whether high-risk offspring would display regionally specific differences in cerebellar morphology and whether these would be related to working memory performance. The relationship to externalizing and internalizing psychopathology was of interest because cerebellar morphology has previously been associated with a cognitive affective syndrome...
December 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26585120/cerebellar-contribution-to-social-cognition
#18
Franziska Hoche, Xavier Guell, Janet C Sherman, Mark G Vangel, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Emotion attribution (EA) from faces is key to social cognition, and deficits in perception of emotions from faces underlie neuropsychiatric disorders in which cerebellar pathology is reported. Here, we test the hypothesis that the cerebellum contributes to social cognition through EA from faces. We examined 57 patients with cerebellar disorders and 57 healthy controls. Thirty-one patients had complex cerebrocerebellar disease (complex cerebrocerebellar disease group (CD)); 26 had disease isolated to cerebellum (isolated cerebellar disease group (ID))...
December 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26563297/mapping-purkinje-cell-placement-along-the-purkinje-cell-layer-an-analysis-of-postmortem-tissue-from-essential-tremor-patients-vs-controls
#19
Elan D Louis, Daniel Rabinowitz, Matthew Choe, William J Tate, Geoffrey C Kelly, Sheng-Han Kuo, Phyllis L Faust
Postmortem studies have reported Purkinje cell loss in essential tremor (ET), and we recently demonstrated a significant increase in the mean distance between Purkinje cell bodies (i.e., a larger gap length distance) in ET cases vs. controls, likely reflecting a disease-associated reduction in Purkinje cells. We now analyze the regularity of distribution of Purkinje cells along the Purkinje cell layer to determine whether there is greater disorganization in ET cases than in age-matched controls. A standard parasagittal, formalin-fixed, tissue block was harvested from the neocerebellum of 50 ET cases and 25 age-matched controls...
December 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26519379/cerebellar-atrophy-in-cortical-myoclonic-tremor-and-not-in-hereditary-essential-tremor-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#20
A W G Buijink, M Broersma, A M M van der Stouwe, S Sharifi, M A J Tijssen, J D Speelman, N M Maurits, A F van Rootselaar
Essential tremor (ET) presumably has a cerebellar origin. Imaging studies showed various cerebellar and also cortical structural changes. A number of pathology studies indicated cerebellar Purkinje cell pathology. ET is a heterogeneous disorder, possibly indicating different underlying disease mechanisms. Familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy (FCMTE), with evident Purkinje cell degeneration, can be an ET mimic. Here, we investigate whole brain and, more specifically, cerebellar morphological changes in hereditary ET, FCMTE, and healthy controls...
December 2016: Cerebellum
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