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Cerebellum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229372/measuring-inhibition-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-friedreich-ataxia
#1
Louise A Corben, Felicity Klopper, Monique Stagnitti, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, John L Bradshaw, Gary Rance, Martin B Delatycki
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with subtle impact on cognition. Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility were examined in FRDA by assessing the ability to suppress a predictable verbal response. We administered the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Trail Making Test, and the Stroop Test to 43 individuals with FRDA and 42 gender- and age-matched control participants. There were no significant group differences in performance on the Stroop or Trail Making Test whereas significant impairment in cognitive flexibility including the ability to predict and inhibit a pre-potent response as measured in the HSCT was evident in individuals with FRDA...
February 22, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224454/effects-of-sustained-otolith-only-stimulation-on-post-rotational-nystagmus
#2
Aasef G Shaikh, David Solomon
Constant velocity rotations in darkness evoke vestibulo-ocular reflex in form of pre- and post-rotational nystagmus under cerebellar supervision. Reorientation of the head with respect to gravity, stimulating otolith and semicircular canal, during post-rotational phase rapidly suppresses the post-rotational nystagmus. We asked if pure otolith stimulation without semicircular canal signal is sufficient for the suppression of post-rotational nystagmus. The experimental paradigm comprised of on-axis rotations in the horizontal plane when the subject was sitting upright, followed by a novel stimulus that combined off-axis centrifugation in the horizontal plane with amplitude matched, yet out-of-phase, on-axis horizontal rotation-double centrifugation...
February 21, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215041/the-known-and-missing-links-between-the-cerebellum-basal-ganglia-and-cerebral-cortex
#3
LETTER
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Paolo Livrea, Paolo Flace, Giuseppe Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155138/cerebellar-neural-circuits-involving-executive-control-network-predict-response-to-group-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#4
MinlanYuan, Yajing Meng, Yan Zhang, Xiaojing Nie, Zhengjia Ren, Hongru Zhu, Yuchen Li, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong, Changjian Qiu, Wei Zhang
Some intrinsic connectivity networks including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN) may underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SAD and several networks relevant to higher-order cognition, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas involved in DMN and ECN exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with cortical networks in SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD and 64 healthy controls (HC) were included and submitted to the baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 2, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150130/three-year-follow-up-of-high-dose-ubiquinol-supplementation-in-a-case-of-familial-multiple-system-atrophy-with-compound-heterozygous-coq2-mutations
#5
Jun Mitsui, Ken Koguchi, Toshimitsu Momose, Miwako Takahashi, Takashi Matsukawa, Tsutomu Yasuda, Shin-Ichi Tokushige, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Goto, Shigeaki Nakazaki, Tomoyoshi Kondo, Hidefumi Ito, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Shoji Tsuji
We report a 3-year follow-up of high-dose ubiquinol supplementation in a case of familial multiple system atrophy (MSA) with compound heterozygous nonsense (R387X) and missense (V393A) mutations in COQ2. A high-dose ubiquinol supplementation substantially increased total coenzyme Q10 levels in cerebrospinal fluid as well as in plasma. The patient was at the advanced stage of MSA, and the various scores of clinical rating scales remained stable without changes during the 3 years. The cerebral metabolic ratio of oxygen measured by (15)O2 PET, however, increased by approximately 30% after administration of ubiquinol, suggesting that ubiquinol can improve mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the brain...
February 1, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127679/motion-illusion-evidence-towards-human-vestibulo-thalamic-projections
#6
Aasef G Shaikh, Dominik Straumann, Antonella Palla
Contemporary studies speculated that cerebellar network responsible for motion perception projects to the cerebral cortex via vestibulo-thalamus. Here, we sought for the physiological properties of vestibulo-thalamic pathway responsible for the motion perception. Healthy subjects and the patient with focal vestibulo-thalamic lacunar stroke spun a hand-held rheostat to approximate the value of perceived angular velocity during whole-body passive earth-vertical axis rotations in yaw plane. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was simultaneously measured with high-resolution search coils (paradigm 1)...
January 27, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102462/cerebellar-pathways-in-mouse-model-of-purkinje-cell-degeneration-detected-by-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#7
Yuri Kanamaru, Jianxue Li, Natalie Stewart, Richard L Sidman, Emi Takahashi
Cerebellar MR imaging has several challenging aspects, due to the fine, repetitive layered structure of cortical folia with underlying axonal pathways. In this MR study, we imaged with high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) abnormal cerebellar cortical structure (gray matter) and myelinated axonal pathways (white matter) of a mouse spontaneous mutation, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), in which almost all Purkinje neurons degenerate, mainly between postnatal days 20 and 35. Mouse brains at postnatal day 20 (P20) and at 8 months were scanned, and known or expected abnormalities, such as reduction of the white matter volume, disorganized pathways likely linked to parallel fibers, mossy fibers, and other fibers running from/to the cerebellar cortex were observed in mutant mice...
January 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091863/fast-progression-of-cerebellar-atrophy-in-pla2g6-associated-infantile-neuronal-axonal-dystrophy
#8
Mario Mascalchi, Francesco Mari, Beatrice Berti, Emanuele Bartolini, Matteo Lenge, Andrea Bianchi, Laura Antonucci, Filippo M Santorelli, Barbara Garavaglia, Renzo Guerrini
Infantile neuronal axonal dystrophy (INAD) is characterized by progressive cerebellar atrophy. MRI has been recommended as a marker of disease progression in cerebellar diseases. We performed a longitudinal brain volumetry study in a couple of bicorial twins with PLA2G6-positive INAD. Brain volumetry was calculated with FreeSurfer software on 3T T1-weighted images acquired at age 28 (t 0) and 36 months (t 1) in patient 1 and at age 22 (t 0) and 31 months (t 1) in patient 2. Data at t 0 were compared to those obtained in 18 control children aged 14-44 months with normal MRI...
January 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054224/commentary-on-the-paper-progression-of-gait-ataxia-in-patients-with-degenerative-cerebellar-disorders-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#9
LETTER
Mariano Serrao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032321/targeting-the-cerebellum-by-noninvasive-neurostimulation-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Kim van Dun, Florian Bodranghien, Mario Manto, Peter Mariën
Transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation of the brain are novel and highly promising techniques currently employed in both research and clinical practice. Improving or rehabilitating brain functions by modulating excitability with these noninvasive tools is an exciting new area in neuroscience. Since the cerebellum is closely connected with the cerebral regions subserving motor, associative, and affective functions, the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways are an interesting target for these new techniques...
December 28, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032320/no-medium-term-spinocerebellar-input-plasticity-in-deep-cerebellar-nuclear-neurons-in-vivo
#11
Hannes Mogensen, Fredrik Bengtsson, Henrik Jörntell
The existence of input plasticity in the deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) cells of the adult cerebellum could have profound implications for our understanding of cerebellar function. Whereas the existence of plastic changes in mossy fiber (mf) synaptic responses in DCN neurons has been demonstrated in juvenile slices, there has so far been no direct demonstration of this form of plasticity in the adult cerebellum in vivo. In the present paper, we recorded from neurons in the anterior interposed nucleus (AIN) and stimulated the spinocerebellar tracts (SCT) directly or via the skin to obtain mf activation and the inferior olive to activate climbing fibers (cfs) in the nonanesthetized, adult, decerebrated cat...
December 28, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966098/selective-transgenic-expression-of-mutant-ubiquitin-in-purkinje-cell-stripes-in-the-cerebellum
#12
Bert M Verheijen, Romina J G Gentier, Denise J H P Hermes, Fred W van Leeuwen, David A Hopkins
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the major mechanisms for protein breakdown in cells, targeting proteins for degradation by enzymatically conjugating them to ubiquitin molecules. Intracellular accumulation of ubiquitin-B(+1) (UBB(+1)), a frameshift mutant of ubiquitin-B, is indicative of a dysfunctional UPS and has been implicated in several disorders, including neurodegenerative disease. UBB(+1)-expressing transgenic mice display widespread labeling for UBB(+1) in brain and exhibit behavioral deficits...
December 13, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924492/progression-of-gait-ataxia-in-patients-with-degenerative-cerebellar-disorders-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#13
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Carlo Casali, Carmela Conte, Martina Rinaldi, Alberto Ranavolo, Christian Marcotulli, Luca Leonardi, Gaia Fragiotta, Fabiano Bini, Gianluca Coppola, Francesco Pierelli
In the present study, the progression of gait impairment in a group of patients with primary degenerative cerebellar ataxias was observed over a period of 4 years. A total of 30 patients underwent an initial gait analysis study, and thereafter only 12 were evaluated because they completed the 2- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Time-distance parameters, trunk and joint range of motion (RoM), and variability parameters (e.g., coefficients of variation) were measured at the baseline and at each follow-up evaluation...
December 6, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193702/the-roles-of-the-olivocerebellar-pathway-in-motor-learning-and-motor-control-a-consensus-paper
#14
Eric J Lang, Richard Apps, Fredrik Bengtsson, Nadia L Cerminara, Chris I De Zeeuw, Timothy J Ebner, Detlef H Heck, Dieter Jaeger, Henrik Jörntell, Mitsuo Kawato, Thomas S Otis, Ozgecan Ozyildirim, Laurentiu S Popa, Alexander M B Reeves, Nicolas Schweighofer, Izumi Sugihara, Jianqiang Xiao
For many decades, the predominant view in the cerebellar field has been that the olivocerebellar system's primary function is to induce plasticity in the cerebellar cortex, specifically, at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. However, it has also long been proposed that the olivocerebellar system participates directly in motor control by helping to shape ongoing motor commands being issued by the cerebellum. Evidence consistent with both hypotheses exists; however, they are often investigated as mutually exclusive alternatives...
February 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189071/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-to-the-right-cerebellar-hemisphere-affects-motor-adaptation-during-gait
#15
Lara Fernandez, Natalia Albein-Urios, Melissa Kirkovski, Jennifer L McGinley, Anna T Murphy, Christian Hyde, Mark A Stokes, Nicole J Rinehart, Peter G Enticott
The cerebellum appears to play a key role in the development of internal rules that allow fast, predictive adjustments to novel stimuli. This is crucial for adaptive motor processes, such as those involved in walking, where cerebellar dysfunction has been found to increase variability in gait parameters. Motor adaptation is a process that results in a progressive reduction in errors as movements are adjusted to meet demands, and within the cerebellum, this seems to be localised primarily within the right hemisphere...
February 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165045/pnkp-mutations-identified-by-whole-exome-sequencing-in-a-norwegian-patient-with-sporadic-ataxia-and-edema
#16
C Tzoulis, Paweł Sztromwasser, Stefan Johansson, Ivar Otto Gjerde, Per Knappskog, L A Bindoff
We identified PNKP mutations in a Norwegian woman with AOA. This patient had the typical findings with cognitive dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar dysarthria, horizontal nystagmus, oculomotor apraxia, and severe truncal and appendicular ataxia. In addition, she had hypoalbuminemia and massive lower limb edema which showed some improvement with treatment. Exome sequencing identified two heterozygous mutations, one in exon 14 (c.1196T>C, p.Leu399Pro) and one in exon 16 (c.1393_1396del, p.Glu465*)...
February 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165044/a-novel-ttbk2-de-novo-mutation-in-a-danish-family-with-early-onset-spinocerebellar-ataxia
#17
Suzanne Granhøj Lindquist, Lisbeth Birk Møller, Christine I Dali, Lisbeth Marner, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Lena Elisabeth Hjermind
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 11 (SCA11) is rare and has previously been described in four families worldwide. We report a Danish family with onset of symptoms in early childhood and affected family members in two generations. The proband, a Danish female born in 1968, and family members were examined. Exome sequencing was performed and a "movement disorders" gene panel consisting of approximately 200 genes was used for filtering, while Sanger sequencing was used for subsequent testing for the mutation in the family...
February 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165043/impaired-motor-learning-in-a-disorder-of-the-inferior-olive-is-the-cerebellum-confused
#18
Aasef G Shaikh, Aaron L Wong, Lance M Optican, David S Zee
An attractive hypothesis about how the brain learns to keep its motor commands accurate is centered on the idea that the cerebellar cortex associates error signals carried by climbing fibers with simultaneous activity in parallel fibers. Motor learning can be impaired if the error signals are not transmitted, are incorrect, or are misinterpreted by the cerebellar cortex. Learning might also be impaired if the brain is overwhelmed with a sustained barrage of meaningless information unrelated to simultaneously appearing error signals about incorrect performance...
February 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138531/differentiating-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-from-normal-controls-using-gray-matter-in-the-cerebellum
#19
Ling-Li Zeng, Liang Xie, Hui Shen, Zhiguo Luo, Peng Fang, Yanan Hou, Beisha Tang, Tao Wu, Dewen Hu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in the world. Previous studies have focused on the basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. To date, the cerebellum has not been systematically investigated in patients with PD. In the current study, 45 probable PD patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, and we used support vector machines combining with voxel-based morphometry to explore the cerebellar structural changes in the probable PD patients relative to healthy controls...
February 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113349/effects-of-melatonin-on-the-cerebellum-of-infant-rat-following-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus-a-histochemical-and-immunohistochemical-study
#20
Yiğit Uyanıkgil, Mehmet Turgut, Meral Baka
Hydrocephalus is a developmental disorder causing abnormally collected cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles. It leads to bigger skulls and many dysfunctions related to the nervous system. Here, we addressed whether exogenous melatonin administration could reverse the clinical features of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in infantile rats. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in 2-week-old 45 Wistar albino rats, which were divided into three groups: Group A, the control group, received intracisternal sham injection with solely the needle insertion; group B, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with isotonic NaCl after kaolin injection; and group C, the hydrocephalus + melatonin group, was given i...
February 2017: Cerebellum
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