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BMC Physiology

Hiromitsu Miyazaki, Philine Wangemann, Daniel C Marcus
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of acid-base balance in the inner ear is known to be associated with hearing loss in a number of conditions including genetic mutations and pharmacologic interventions. Several previous physiologic and immunohistochemical observations lead to proposals of the involvement of acid-base transporters in stria vascularis. RESULTS: We directly measured acid flux in vitro from the apical side of isolated stria vascularis from adult C57Bl/6 mice with a novel constant-perfusion pH-selective self-referencing probe...
2016: BMC Physiology
Ryan P Goff, Brian T Howard, Stephen G Quallich, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo
BACKGROUND: In vitro isolated heart preparations are valuable tools for the study of cardiac anatomy and physiology, as well as for preclinical device testing. Such preparations afford investigators a high level of hemodynamic control, independent of host or systemic interactions. Here we hypothesize that recovered human and swine heart-lung blocs can be reanimated using a clear perfusate and elicit viable cardiodynamic and pulmonic function. Further, this approach will facilitate multimodal imaging, which is particularly valuable for the study of both functional anatomy and device-tissue interactions...
2016: BMC Physiology
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a critical role for the renin-angiotensin system in regulating renal function during postnatal development. However, the physiological relevance of a highly elevated renin-angiotensin system early in life is not well understood, nor which angiotensin receptors might be involved. This study was designed to investigate the roles of angiotensin receptors type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) in regulating glomerular and tubular function during postnatal development...
2016: BMC Physiology
Caroline Mwendwa Kijogi, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Keita Sasaki, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Hiroshi Kurosu, Hayato Matsunaga, Hiroshi Ueda
BACKGROUND: The cell type, cell status and specific localization of Prothymosin α (PTMA) within cells seemingly determine its function. PTMA undergoes 2 types of protease proteolytic modifications that are useful in elucidating its interactions with other molecules; a factor that typifies its roles. Preferably a nuclear protein, PTMA has been shown to function in the cytoplasm and extracellularly with much evidence leaning on pathognomonic status. As such, determination of its cellular distribution under normal physiological context while utilizing varied techniques is key to illuminating prospective validation of its distinct functions in different tissues...
2016: BMC Physiology
Karoline Koether, Carla Maria Vela Ulian, Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço, Renato Souza Gonçalves, Mateus José Sudano, Raíssa Karolliny Salgueiro Cruz, Naiana da Silva Branchini, Angélica Alfonso, Simone Biagio Chiacchio
BACKGROUND: Veterinary cardiology, especially electrocardiography, has shown major advancements for all animal species. Consequently, the number of ovine species used as experimental animals has increased to date. Few studies have been published on ovine systematic electrocardiography, particularly with respect to lamb physiology and neonatology. This study aimed to standardize the values of normal waves, complexes, and intervals of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in clinically Bergamasca healthy neonatal lambs, used as experimental animals...
2016: BMC Physiology
Zhiheng Li, Julia A Clarke, Richard A Ketcham, Matthew W Colbert, Fei Yan
BACKGROUND: Iodine-based solutions have long been known to be effective in aiding the differentiation among soft tissues in both fundamental anatomical research and for clinical diagnoses. Recently the combination of this particular contrasting agent with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has resulted in an array of high-quality image data, in which anatomical structures not visible in conventional CT can be identified and quantified. However, there has been only limited data available to inform detailed protocols for staining large specimens...
2015: BMC Physiology
Shadi Khademi, Melinda A Frye, Kimberly M Jeckel, Thies Schroeder, Eric Monnet, Dave C Irwin, Patricia A Cole, Christopher Bell, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a non-cardiogenic form of pulmonary edema that can occur consequent to central neurologic insults including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure. NPE is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality, yet the mechanism(s) are unknown. We hypothesized that NPE, evoked by cerebral hypoxia in the presence of systemic normoxia, would be accompanied by sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, and compensatory antioxidant mechanisms...
2015: BMC Physiology
Erica E Alexeev, Bo Lönnerdal, Ian J Griffin
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that poor growth of preterm infants is a risk factor for poor long-term development, while the effects of early postnatal growth restriction are not well known. We utilized a rat model to examine the consequences of different patterns of postnatal growth and hypothesized that early growth failure leads to impaired development and insulin resistance. Rat pups were separated at birth into normal (N, n = 10) or restricted intake (R, n = 16) litters...
2015: BMC Physiology
Ravi Goyal, Jonathan Van-Wickle, Dipali Goyal, Lawrence D Longo
Elevated blood pressure is an important global health problem, and in-utero under-nutrition may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antenatal maternal low protein diet (MLPD) leads to sexually dimorphic developmental programming of the components of the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system. This may be important in the antenatal MLPD-associated development of hypertension. In pregnant mice, we administered normal (control) and isocaloric 50% protein restricted diet, commencing one week before mating and continuing until delivery of the pups...
2015: BMC Physiology
Bernardo A Petriz, Jeeser A Almeida, Clarissa P C Gomes, Carlos Ernesto, Rinaldo W Pereira, Octavio L Franco
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a non-pharmacologic agent widely used for hypertension control, where low intensity is often associated with blood pressure reduction. Maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) was recently identified in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as an important step in establishing secure intensities for prescribing exercise for hypertensive phenotypes. Here we verified the effects of training around MLSS, 20% below MLSS, and 15% above MLSS on aerobic fitness and blood pressure status of SHR...
2015: BMC Physiology
Danielle L Ippolito, John A Lewis, Chenggang Yu, Lisa R Leon, Jonathan D Stallings
BackgroundHeat illness is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition. Limited data are available to identify individuals with heat illness at greatest risk for organ damage. We recently described the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to heat injury and recovery in multiple organs in an in vivo model of conscious rats heated to a maximum core temperature of 41.8°C (Tc,Max). In this companion study, we examined changes in plasma metabolic networks at Tc,Max, 24, or 48 hours after the heat stress stimulus...
December 24, 2014: BMC Physiology
Danielle L Ippolito, John A Lewis, Chenggang Yu, Lisa R Leon, Jonathan D Stallings
BACKGROUND: Heat illness is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition. Limited data are available to identify individuals with heat illness at greatest risk for organ damage. We recently described the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to heat injury and recovery in multiple organs in an in vivo model of conscious rats heated to a maximum core temperature of 41.8°C (Tc,Max). In this study, we examined changes in plasma metabolic networks at Tc,Max, 24, or 48 hours after the heat stress stimulus...
2014: BMC Physiology
Wouter Eilers, Richard T Jaspers, Arnold de Haan, Céline Ferrié, Paola Valdivieso, Martin Flück
BACKGROUND: The multi-meric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is the main CaMK in skeletal muscle and its expression increases with endurance training. CaMK family members are implicated in contraction-induced regulation of calcium handling, fast myosin type IIA expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of an increased CaMKII content for the expression of the contractile and mitochondrial phenotype in vivo. Towards this end we attempted to co-express alpha- and beta-CaMKII isoforms in skeletal muscle and characterised the effect on the contractile and mitochondrial phenotype...
2014: BMC Physiology
Timothy G Laske, David L Garshelis, Paul A Iaizzo
BACKGROUND: Numerous innovations for the management and collection of "big data" have arisen in the field of medicine, including implantable computers and sensors, wireless data transmission, and web-based repositories for collecting and organizing information. Recently, human clinical devices have been deployed in captive and free-ranging wildlife to aid in the characterization of both normal physiology and the interaction of animals with their environment, including reactions to humans...
2014: BMC Physiology
James F Schooley, Aryan M A Namboodiri, Rachel T Cox, Rolf Bünger, Thomas P Flagg
BACKGROUND: There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart...
2014: BMC Physiology
Peter Joseph Durcan, Johannes D Conradie, Mari Van deVyver, Kathryn Helen Myburgh
BACKGROUND: Multiple cell types including trophoblasts, osteoclasts and myoblasts require somatic cell fusion events as part of their physiological functions. In Drosophila Melanogaster the paralogus type 1 transmembrane receptors and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily Kin of Irre (Kirre) and roughest (Rst) regulate myoblast fusion during embryonic development. Present within the human genome are three homologs to Kirre termed Kin of Irre like (Kirrel) 1, 2 and 3. Currently it is unknown if Kirrel3 is expressed in adult human skeletal muscle...
2014: BMC Physiology
Michelle L Verant, Carol U Meteyer, John R Speakman, Paul M Cryan, Jeffrey M Lorch, David S Blehert
BACKGROUND: The physiological effects of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and ultimate causes of mortality from infection with Pseudogymnoascus (formerly Geomyces) destructans are not fully understood. Increased frequency of arousal from torpor described among hibernating bats with late-stage WNS is thought to accelerate depletion of fat reserves, but the physiological mechanisms that lead to these alterations in hibernation behavior have not been elucidated. We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and clinical chemistry to evaluate energy use, body composition changes, and blood chemistry perturbations in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally infected with P...
2014: BMC Physiology
Barbara Serrano-Flores, Edith Garay, Francisco G Vázquez-Cuevas, Rogelio O Arellano
BACKGROUND: The Xenopus oocyte is a useful cell model to study Ca2+ homeostasis and cell cycle regulation, two highly interrelated processes. Here, we used antisense oligonucleotides to investigate the role in the oocyte of stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins that are fundamental elements of the store-operated calcium-entry (SOCE) phenomenon, as they are both sensors for Ca2+ concentration in the intracellular reservoirs as well as activators of the membrane channels that allow Ca2+ influx...
2014: BMC Physiology
Anke Schwarzenberger, Mark Christjani, Alexander Wacker
BACKGROUND: The widespread occurrence of melatonin in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes indicates that this indoleamine is considerably old. This high evolutionary age has led to the development of diverse functions of melatonin in different organisms, such as the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and anti-stress effects. In insects, i.e. Drosophila, the addition of melatonin has also been shown to increase the life span of this arthropod, probably by reducing age-related increasing oxidative stress...
2014: BMC Physiology
Hernan P Fainberg, Kayleigh L Almond, Dongfang Li, Cyril Rauch, Paul Bikker, Michael E Symonds, Alison Mostyn
BACKGROUND: Maternal diet during pregnancy can modulate skeletal muscle development of the offspring. Previous studies in pigs have indicated that a fat supplemented diet during pregnancy can improve piglet outcome, however, this is in contrast to human studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated fats during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a fat supplemented (palm oil) "high fat" diet on skeletal muscle development in a porcine model. Histological and metabolic features of the biceps femoris muscle obtained from 7-day-old piglets born to sows assigned to either a commercial (C, n = 7) or to an isocaloric fat supplementation diet ("high fat" HF, n = 7) during pregnancy were assessed...
2014: BMC Physiology
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