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BMC Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058611/adiponectin-is-required-for-maintaining-normal-body-temperature-in-a-cold-environment
#1
Qiong Wei, Jong Han Lee, Hongying Wang, Odelia Y N Bongmba, Chia-Shan Wu, Geetali Pradhan, Zilin Sun, Lindsey Chew, Mandeep Bajaj, Lawrence Chan, Robert S Chapkin, Miao-Hsueh Chen, Yuxiang Sun
BACKGROUND: Thermogenic impairment promotes obesity and insulin resistance. Adiponectin is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. While many beneficial metabolic effects of adiponectin resemble that of activated thermogenesis, the role of adiponectin in thermogenesis is not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of adiponectin in thermogenesis using adiponectin-null mice (Adipoq -/-). METHODS: Body composition was measured using EchoMRI. Metabolic parameters were determined by indirect calorimetry...
October 23, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806941/androgen-receptor-is-expressed-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes-at-prenatal-and-early-postnatal-developmental-stages
#2
Enrique Pedernera, María José Gómora, Iván Meneses, Marlon De Ita, Carmen Méndez
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show that androgens are involved in hypertrophy and excitability of cardiomyocytes and that their effects are mediated through their receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of androgen receptor (AR) in mouse heart during prenatal and early postnatal stages. RESULTS: The expression of AR and related genes, alpha myosin heavy chain -Myh6-, beta myosin heavy chain -Myh7- and atrial natriuretic factor -Nppa- was simultaneously evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR...
August 14, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545586/disulfide-high-mobility-group-box-1-causes-bladder-pain-through-bladder-toll-like-receptor-4
#3
Fei Ma, Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Katherine L Meyer-Siegler, Karin N Westlund, David E Hunt, Pedro L Vera
BACKGROUND: Bladder pain is a prominent symptom in several urological conditions (e.g. infection, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, cancer). Understanding the mechanism of bladder pain is important, particularly when the pain is not accompanied by bladder pathology. Stimulation of protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) in the urothelium results in bladder pain through release of urothelial high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). HGMB1 has two functionally active redox states (disulfide and all-thiol) and it is not known which form elicits bladder pain...
May 25, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356151/endothelial-dysfunction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pre-eclampsia-in-ghanaian-women
#4
Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh, Daniel Ansong Antwi, Ben Gyan, Samuel Amenyi Obed
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) remains a disease of theories despite extensive research into its etiology. Alteration in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, is associated with pre-eclampsia although conflicting reports have been reported. The aim of the study was to determine and compare maternal serum levels of VEGF among pre-eclamptics, normotensive non pregnant and pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study involving 100 women with pre-eclampsia, 102 women with normotensive pregnancy and 75 normotensives who were not pregnant...
March 29, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327129/short-term-overfeeding-of-zebrafish-with-normal-or-high-fat-diet-as-a-model-for-the-development-of-metabolically-healthy-versus-unhealthy-obesity
#5
Kathrin Landgraf, Susanne Schuster, Andrej Meusel, Antje Garten, Thomas Riemer, Dorit Schleinitz, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals differ in their risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular complications depending on fat distribution (subcutaneous versus visceral) and adipose tissue (AT) phenotype (hyperplasic versus hypertrophic). However, the exact mechanisms which determine whether an obese individual is metabolically healthy or unhealthy are not clear, and analyses of the underlying pathomechanisms are limited by the lack of suitable in vivo models in which metabolically healthy versus metabolically unhealthy AT accumulation can be specifically induced...
March 21, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302152/myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischaemia-reperfusion-in-obesity-a-re-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-age
#6
I Webster, R Salie, E Marais, W-J Fan, G Maarman, B Huisamen, A Lochner
BACKGROUND: Reports on the effect of age and obesity on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and ischaemic preconditioning are contradictory. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of age and diet-induced obesity (DIO) on myocardial I/R injury and preconditioning potential. METHODS: Four groups of Wistar male rats were used: age-matched controls (AMC) receiving standard rat chow for (i) 16 weeks and (ii) 16 months respectively; DIO rats receiving a sucrose-supplemented diet for (iii) 16 weeks and (iv) 16 months respectively...
March 17, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100217/variation-in-branchial-expression-among-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-proteins-igfbps-during-atlantic-salmon-smoltification-and-seawater-exposure
#7
Jason P Breves, Chelsea K Fujimoto, Silas K Phipps-Costin, Ingibjörg E Einarsdottir, Björn Thrandur Björnsson, Stephen D McCormick
BACKGROUND: In preparation for migration from freshwater to marine habitats, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergo smoltification, a transformation that includes the acquisition of hyposmoregulatory capacity. The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) axis promotes the development of branchial ionoregulatory functions that underlie ion secretion. Igfs interact with a suite of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) that modulate hormone activity. In Atlantic salmon smolts, igfbp4,-5a,-5b1,-5b2,-6b1 and-6b2 transcripts are highly expressed in gill...
January 18, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031043/small-interfering-rna-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#8
Ning Li, Yuanbin Song, Wei Zhao, Tingting Han, Shuhui Lin, Oscar Ramirez, Li Liang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of specific small interfering RNA targeting NF-κB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. METHOD: Acute lung injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with LPS (5 mg/kg), followed by immediate intratracheal instillation of siRNA targeting NF-κB p65 (40 μg/ml). Animals in each group were sacrificed at 1 h or 8 h after the instillation. Pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining...
December 28, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806708/ryanodine-induced-vasoconstriction-of-the-gerbil-spiral-modiolar-artery-depends-on-the-ca-2-sensitivity-but-not-on-ca-2-sparks-or-bk-channels
#9
Gayathri Krishnamoorthy, Katrin Reimann, Philine Wangemann
BACKGROUND: In many vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) sparks activate large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels leading to lowered SMC [Ca(2+)]i and vasodilation. Here we investigated whether Ca(2+) sparks regulate SMC global [Ca(2+)]i and diameter in the spiral modiolar artery (SMA) by activating BK channels. METHODS: SMAs were isolated from adult female gerbils, loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive flourescent dye fluo-4 and pressurized using a concentric double-pipette system...
November 2, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795209/trimester-specific-thyroid-hormone-reference-ranges-in-sudanese-women
#10
Enaam T Elhaj, Ishag Adam, Mohamed A Ahmed, Mohamed F Lutfi
BACKGROUND: Trimester-specific reference ranges for T3, T4, and TSH need to be established in different communities. Neither Sudan nor other African countries have established trimester-specific reference ranges for TSH, free T3 (FT3), and free T4 (FT4) in healthy pregnant women. This study aimed to establish trimester-specific reference ranges for TSH, FT3, and FT4 in healthy pregnant Sudanese women. RESULTS: We performed a longitudinal study, which included 63 women with singleton pregnancies who were followed since early pregnancy until the third trimester...
October 31, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515813/the-gastric-h-k-atpase-in-stria-vascularis-contributes-to-ph-regulation-of-cochlear-endolymph-but-not-to-k-secretion
#11
Hiromitsu Miyazaki, Philine Wangemann, Daniel C Marcus
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of acid-base balance in the inner ear is known to be associated with hearing loss in a number of conditions including genetic mutations and pharmacologic interventions. Several previous physiologic and immunohistochemical observations lead to proposals of the involvement of acid-base transporters in stria vascularis. RESULTS: We directly measured acid flux in vitro from the apical side of isolated stria vascularis from adult C57Bl/6 mice with a novel constant-perfusion pH-selective self-referencing probe...
August 11, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259478/the-novel-in-vitro-reanimation-of-isolated-human-and-large-mammalian-heart-lung-blocs
#12
Ryan P Goff, Brian T Howard, Stephen G Quallich, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo
BACKGROUND: In vitro isolated heart preparations are valuable tools for the study of cardiac anatomy and physiology, as well as for preclinical device testing. Such preparations afford investigators a high level of hemodynamic control, independent of host or systemic interactions. Here we hypothesize that recovered human and swine heart-lung blocs can be reanimated using a clear perfusate and elicit viable cardiodynamic and pulmonic function. Further, this approach will facilitate multimodal imaging, which is particularly valuable for the study of both functional anatomy and device-tissue interactions...
June 4, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090941/renal-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-in-the-newborn-period-role-of-type-1-and-type-2-receptors
#13
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a critical role for the renin-angiotensin system in regulating renal function during postnatal development. However, the physiological relevance of a highly elevated renin-angiotensin system early in life is not well understood, nor which angiotensin receptors might be involved. This study was designed to investigate the roles of angiotensin receptors type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) in regulating glomerular and tubular function during postnatal development...
April 18, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932824/subcellular-dissemination-of-prothymosin-alpha-at-normal-physiology-immunohistochemical-vis-a-vis-western-blotting-perspective
#14
Caroline Mwendwa Kijogi, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Keita Sasaki, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Hiroshi Kurosu, Hayato Matsunaga, Hiroshi Ueda
BACKGROUND: The cell type, cell status and specific localization of Prothymosin α (PTMA) within cells seemingly determine its function. PTMA undergoes 2 types of protease proteolytic modifications that are useful in elucidating its interactions with other molecules; a factor that typifies its roles. Preferably a nuclear protein, PTMA has been shown to function in the cytoplasm and extracellularly with much evidence leaning on pathognomonic status. As such, determination of its cellular distribution under normal physiological context while utilizing varied techniques is key to illuminating prospective validation of its distinct functions in different tissues...
March 1, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26786197/the-normal-electrocardiograms-in-the-conscious-newborn-lambs-in-neonatal-period-and-its-progression
#15
Karoline Koether, Carla Maria Vela Ulian, Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço, Renato Souza Gonçalves, Mateus José Sudano, Raíssa Karolliny Salgueiro Cruz, Naiana da Silva Branchini, Angélica Alfonso, Simone Biagio Chiacchio
BACKGROUND: Veterinary cardiology, especially electrocardiography, has shown major advancements for all animal species. Consequently, the number of ovine species used as experimental animals has increased to date. Few studies have been published on ovine systematic electrocardiography, particularly with respect to lamb physiology and neonatology. This study aimed to standardize the values of normal waves, complexes, and intervals of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in clinically Bergamasca healthy neonatal lambs, used as experimental animals...
January 19, 2016: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691327/an-investigation-of-the-efficacy-and-mechanism-of-contrast-enhanced-x-ray-computed-tomography-utilizing-iodine-for-large-specimens-through-experimental-and-simulation-approaches
#16
Zhiheng Li, Julia A Clarke, Richard A Ketcham, Matthew W Colbert, Fei Yan
BACKGROUND: Iodine-based solutions have long been known to be effective in aiding the differentiation among soft tissues in both fundamental anatomical research and for clinical diagnoses. Recently the combination of this particular contrasting agent with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has resulted in an array of high-quality image data, in which anatomical structures not visible in conventional CT can be identified and quantified. However, there has been only limited data available to inform detailed protocols for staining large specimens...
December 21, 2015: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449218/hypoxia-mediated-pulmonary-edema-potential-influence-of-oxidative-stress-sympathetic-activation-and-cerebral-blood-flow
#17
Shadi Khademi, Melinda A Frye, Kimberly M Jeckel, Thies Schroeder, Eric Monnet, Dave C Irwin, Patricia A Cole, Christopher Bell, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a non-cardiogenic form of pulmonary edema that can occur consequent to central neurologic insults including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure. NPE is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality, yet the mechanism(s) are unknown. We hypothesized that NPE, evoked by cerebral hypoxia in the presence of systemic normoxia, would be accompanied by sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, and compensatory antioxidant mechanisms...
October 9, 2015: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26040642/effects-of-postnatal-growth-restriction-and-subsequent-catch-up-growth-on-neurodevelopment-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-rats
#18
Erica E Alexeev, Bo Lönnerdal, Ian J Griffin
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that poor growth of preterm infants is a risk factor for poor long-term development, while the effects of early postnatal growth restriction are not well known. We utilized a rat model to examine the consequences of different patterns of postnatal growth and hypothesized that early growth failure leads to impaired development and insulin resistance. Rat pups were separated at birth into normal (N, n = 10) or restricted intake (R, n = 16) litters...
2015: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25971747/antenatal-maternal-low-protein-diet-ace-2-in-the-mouse-lung-and-sexually-dimorphic-programming-of-hypertension
#19
Ravi Goyal, Jonathan Van-Wickle, Dipali Goyal, Lawrence D Longo
Elevated blood pressure is an important global health problem, and in-utero under-nutrition may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antenatal maternal low protein diet (MLPD) leads to sexually dimorphic developmental programming of the components of the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system. This may be important in the antenatal MLPD-associated development of hypertension. In pregnant mice, we administered normal (control) and isocaloric 50% protein restricted diet, commencing one week before mating and continuing until delivery of the pups...
2015: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25888441/exercise-performed-around-mlss-decreases-systolic-blood-pressure-and-increases-aerobic-fitness-in-hypertensive-rats
#20
Bernardo A Petriz, Jeeser A Almeida, Clarissa P C Gomes, Carlos Ernesto, Rinaldo W Pereira, Octavio L Franco
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a non-pharmacologic agent widely used for hypertension control, where low intensity is often associated with blood pressure reduction. Maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) was recently identified in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as an important step in establishing secure intensities for prescribing exercise for hypertensive phenotypes. Here we verified the effects of training around MLSS, 20% below MLSS, and 15% above MLSS on aerobic fitness and blood pressure status of SHR...
2015: BMC Physiology
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