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BMC Medical Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792193/research-ethics-review-at-university-eduardo-mondlane-uem-maputo-central-hospital-mozambique-2013-2016-a-descriptive-analysis-of-the-start-up-of-a-new-research-ethics-committee-rec
#1
Jahit Sacarlal, Vasco Muchanga, Carlos Mabutana, Matilde Mabui, Arlete Mariamo, Assa Júlio Cuamba, Leida Artur Fumo, Jacinta Silveira, Elizabeth Heitman, Troy D Moon
BACKGROUND: Mozambique has seen remarkable growth in biomedical research over the last decade. To meet a growing need, the National Committee for Bioethics in Health of Mozambique (CNBS) encouraged the development of ethical review processes at institutions that regularly conduct medical and social science research. In 2012, the Faculty of Medicine (FM) of University Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) and the Maputo Central Hospital (MCH) established a joint Institutional Committee on Bioethics for Health (CIBS FM & MCH)...
May 23, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764456/a-scoping-review-of-reporting-ethical-research-practices-in-research-conducted-among-refugees-and-war-affected-populations-in-the-arab-world
#2
Jihad Makhoul, Rana F Chehab, Zahraa Shaito, Abla M Sibai
BACKGROUND: Ethical research conduct is a cornerstone of research practice particularly when research participants include vulnerable populations. This study mapped the extent of reporting ethical research practices in studies conducted among refugees and war-affected populations in the Arab World, and assessed variations by time, country of study, and study characteristics. METHODS: An electronic search of eight databases resulted in 5668 unique records published between 2000 and 2013...
May 15, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747639/translating-and-culturally-adapting-the-shortened-version-of-the-hospital-ethical-climate-survey-hecs-s-retaining-or-modifying-validated-instruments
#3
Pernilla Pergert, Cecilia Bartholdson, Marika Wenemark, Kim Lützén, Margareta Af Sandeberg
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Ethical Climate Survey (HECS) was developed in the USA and later shortened (HECS-S). HECS has previously been translated into Swedish and the aim of this study was to describe a process of translating and culturally adapting HECS-S and to develop a Swedish multi-professional version, relevant for paediatrics. Another aim was to describe decisions about retaining versus modifying the questionnaire in order to keep the Swedish version as close as possible to the original while achieving a good functional level and trustworthiness...
May 10, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739393/involvement-in-decisions-about-intravenous-treatment-for-nursing-home-patients-nursing-homes-versus-hospital-wards
#4
Kristin Klomstad, Reidar Pedersen, Reidun Førde, Maria Romøren
BACKGROUND: Many of the elderly in nursing homes are very ill and have a reduced quality of life. Life expectancy is often hard to predict. Decisions about life-prolonging treatment should be based on a professional assessment of the patient's best interest, assessment of capacity to consent, and on the patient's own wishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare how these types of decisions were made in nursing homes and in hospital wards. METHODS: Using a questionnaire, we studied the decision-making process for 299 nursing home patients who were treated for dehydration using intravenous fluids, or for bacterial infections using intravenous antibiotics...
May 8, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720150/complexity-of-consenting-for-medical-termination-of-pregnancy-prospective-and-longitudinal-study-in-paris
#5
Georges Abi Tayeh, Jean-Marie Jouannic, Fersan Mansour, Assaad Kesrouani, Elie Attieh
BACKGROUND: We analyzed the patients' perception of prenatal diagnosis of fetal cardiac pathology, and the reasons for choosing to continue with pregnancy despite being eligible to receive a medical termination of pregnancy. We also identified the challenges, the motives interfering in decision-making, and the consequences of the decisions on pregnancy, child and mother. METHODS: This descriptive, prospective and longitudinal study was conducted in France, amongst pregnant women who wished to continue their pregnancy despite an unfavorable medical advice (incurable fetal cardiac pathologies)...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716594/the-involvement-of-canadian-physicians-in-promoting-and-providing-unproven-and-unapproved-stem-cell-interventions
#6
Ubaka Ogbogu, Jenny Du, Yonida Koukio
BACKGROUND: Direct to consumer offerings of unproven stem cell interventions (SCIs) is a pressing scientific and policy issue. According to media reports, providers of SCIs have emerged in Canada. This study provides the first systematic scan of Canadian providers and associated trends and claims. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 15 websites retrieved from a Google™ keyword search. The websites were assessed by a rater using a peer-reviewed coding frame that queried treatment location, stem cell offerings, treatment claims, supporting evidence, and legal and regulatory compliance...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703258/conscientious-objection-to-participation-in-abortion-by-midwives-and-nurses-a-systematic-review-of-reasons
#7
Valerie Fleming, Lucy Frith, Ans Luyben, Beate Ramsayer
BACKGROUND: Freedom of conscience is a core element of human rights respected by most European countries. It allows abortion through the inclusion of a conscience clause, which permits opting out of providing such services. However, the grounds for invoking conscientious objection lack clarity. Our aim in this paper is to take a step in this direction by carrying out a systematic review of reasons by midwives and nurses for declining, on conscience grounds, to participate in abortion...
April 27, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699559/-screening-audit-as-a-quality-assurance-tool-in-good-clinical-practice-compliant-research-environments
#8
Sinyoung Park, Chung Mo Nam, Sejung Park, Yang Hee Noh, Cho Rong Ahn, Wan Sun Yu, Bo Kyung Kim, Seung Min Kim, Jin Seok Kim, Sun Young Rha
BACKGROUND: With the growing amount of clinical research, regulations and research ethics are becoming more stringent. This trend introduces a need for quality assurance measures for ensuring adherence to research ethics and human research protection beyond Institutional Review Board approval. Audits, one of the most effective tools for assessing quality assurance, are measures used to evaluate Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and protocol compliance in clinical research. However, they are laborious, time consuming, and require expertise...
April 25, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699570/patenting-human-genes-chinese-academic-articles-portrayal-of-gene-patents
#9
Li Du
BACKGROUND: The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. METHODS: A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699552/rationing-elective-surgery-for-smokers-and-obese-patients-responsibility-or-prognosis
#10
Virimchi Pillutla, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom (UK), a number of National Health Service (NHS) Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG) have proposed controversial measures to restrict elective surgery for patients who either smoke or are obese. Whilst the nature of these measures varies between NHS authorities, typically, patients above a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and smokers are required to lose weight and quit smoking prior to being considered eligible for elective surgery. Patients will be supported and monitored throughout this mandatory period to ensure their clinical needs are appropriately met...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661182/women-s-perspectives-on-the-ethical-implications-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-a-qualitative-analysis-to-inform-health-policy-decisions
#11
Meredith Vanstone, Alexandra Cernat, Jeff Nisker, Lisa Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) is a technology which provides information about fetal genetic characteristics (including sex) very early in pregnancy by examining fetal DNA obtained from a sample of maternal blood. NIPT is a morally complex technology that has advanced quickly to market with a strong push from industry developers, leaving many areas of uncertainty still to be resolved, and creating a strong need for health policy that reflects women's social and ethical values...
April 16, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636102/forensic-psychiatry-one-subspecialty-with-two-ethics-a-systematic-review
#12
Gérard Niveau, Ida Welle
BACKGROUND: Forensic psychiatry is a particular subspecialty within psychiatry, dedicated in applying psychiatric knowledge and psychiatric training for particular legal purposes. Given that within the scope of forensic psychiatry, a third party usually intervenes in the patient-doctor relationship, an amendment of the traditional ethical principles seems justified. RESULTS: Thus, 47 articles, two book chapters and the guidelines produced by the World Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Psychiatry and the Law, as well as by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of psychiatrists, were analyzed...
April 10, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636033/skepticism-towards-the-swedish-vision-zero-for-suicide-interviews-with-12-psychiatrists
#13
Petter Karlsson, Gert Helgesson, David Titelman, Manne Sjöstrand, Niklas Juth
BACKGROUND: The main causes of suicide and how suicide could and should be prevented are ongoing controversies in the scientific literature as well as in public media. In the bill on public health from 2008 (Prop 2007/08:110), the Swedish Parliament adopted an overarching "Vision Zero for Suicide" (VZ) and nine strategies for suicide prevention. However, how the VZ should be interpreted in healthcare is unclear. The VZ has been criticized both from a philosophical perspective and against the background of clinical experience and alleged empirical claims regarding the consequences of regulating suicide prevention...
April 10, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544543/ethical-principles-and-placebo-controlled-trials-interpretation-and-implementation-of-the-declaration-of-helsinki-s-placebo-paragraph-in-medical-research
#14
Antonia-Sophie Skierka, Karin B Michels
BACKGROUND: In October 2013, the Declaration of Helsinki was revised a seventh time in its 50 year history. While it is the most widely accepted set of ethical principles for the protection of patients participating in medical research, the Declaration of Helsinki has also been subject of constant controversy. In particular, its paragraph on the use of placebo controls in clinical trials divides the research community into active-control and placebo orthodox proponents, both continuously demanding revisions of the Declaration of Helsinki in favour of their position...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523198/compassionate-use-programs-in-italy-ethical-guidelines
#15
Ludovica De Panfilis, Roberto Satolli, Massimo Costantini
BACKGROUND: This article proposes a retrospective analysis of a compassionate use (CU), using a case study of request for Avelumab for a patient suffering from Merkel Cell Carcinoma. The study is the result of a discussion within a Provincial Ethics Committee (EC) following the finding of a high number of requests for CU program. The primary objective of the study is to illustrate the specific ethical and clinical profiles that emerge from the compassionate use program (CUP) issue. The secondary goals are: a) to promote a moral reflection among physicians who require approval for the CUP and b) provide the basis for recommendations on how to request CUP...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523129/educational-video-assisted-versus-conventional-informed-consent-for-trauma-related-debridement-surgery-a-parallel-group-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Yen-Ko Lin, Chao-Wen Chen, Wei-Che Lee, Yuan-Chia Cheng, Tsung-Ying Lin, Chia-Ju Lin, Leiyu Shi, Yin-Chun Tien, Liang-Chi Kuo
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether, in the emergency department (ED), educational video-assisted informed consent is superior to the conventional consent process, to inform trauma patients undergoing surgery about the procedure, benefits, risks, alternatives, and postoperative care. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial, with superiority study design. All trauma patients scheduled to receive trauma-related debridement surgery in the ED of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were included...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514635/patient-data-and-patient-rights-swiss-healthcare-stakeholders-ethical-awareness-regarding-large-patient-data-sets-a-qualitative-study
#17
Corine Mouton Dorey, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in aggregating more biomedical and patient data into large health data sets for research and public benefits. However, collecting and processing patient data raises new ethical issues regarding patient's rights, social justice and trust in public institutions. The aim of this empirical study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the awareness of possible ethical risks and corresponding obligations among those who are involved in projects using patient data, i...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514618/early-career-researchers-views-on-ethical-dimensions-of-patient-engagement-in-research
#18
Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon, Geneviève Rouleau, Stanislav Birko
BACKGROUND: Increasing attention and efforts are being put towards engaging patients in health research, and some have even argued that patient engagement in research (PER) is an ethical imperative. Yet there is relatively little empirical data on ethical issues associated with PER. METHODS: A three-round Delphi survey was conducted with a panel of early-career researchers (ECRs) involved in PER. One of the objectives was to examine the ethical dimensions of PER as well as ECRs' self-perceived level of preparedness to conduct PER ethically...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510750/leaving-patients-to-their-own-devices-smart-technology-safety-and-therapeutic-relationships
#19
Anita Ho, Oliver Quick
BACKGROUND: This debate article explores how smart technologies may create a double-edged sword for patient safety and effective therapeutic relationships. Increasing utilization of health monitoring devices by patients will likely become an important aspect of self-care and preventive medicine. It may also help to enhance accurate symptom reports, diagnoses, and prompt referral to specialist care where appropriate. However, the development, marketing, and use of such technology raise significant ethical implications for therapeutic relationships and patient safety...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510711/the-ethics-of-using-placebo-in-randomised-controlled-trials-a-case-study-of-a-plasmodium-vivax-antirelapse-trial
#20
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Norbert Steinkamp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: The use of placebos in randomised controlled trials is a subject of considerable ethical debate. In this paper we present a set of considerations to evaluate the ethics of placebo controlled trials that includes: social value of the study; need for a randomised controlled trial and placebo; standards of care; risks of harm due to administration of placebo and the harm benefit balance; clinical equipoise; and double standards. We illustrate the application of these considerations using a case study of a large ongoing multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial to determine primaquine anti-relapse efficacy in vivax malaria...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
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