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BMC Medical Education

Yuko Fujita, Kenshi Maki
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, mental stress leads to smoking in dental students. We believe that dentists, as health professionals, should set an example for the public. Therefore, this study determined the prevalence of and factors associated with regular smoking among Japanese dental students. We also surveyed their attitudes regarding smoking cessation and how to counsel smokers about quitting. METHODS: We collected demographic and behavioral data from 453 students at Kyushu Dental University, and evaluated their mental health with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12)...
November 16, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Philippe J Domeyer, Vasiliki Katsari, Pavlos Sarafis, Vassilis Aletras, Dimitris Niakas
BACKGROUND: The penetration of generic medicines in the pharmaceutical market is influenced, among others, by the consumer's attitude upon them. The attitude of students in health management and recent alumni is particularly important, as they constitute tomorrow's policymakers. The aim of our study was to assess their attitude, perception and knowledge towards generic medicines. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, involving students in Health Management and recent alumni...
November 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Annette Burgess, Deborah McGregor
BACKGROUND: Skills in peer teaching, assessment and feedback are documented internationally as required graduate attributes for health professional students, placing emphasis on universities to prepare health professional graduates with teaching skills. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the rational, design, content and evaluation of student peer teacher training skills programs across the health professions. METHODS: In October 2017, a search was conducted of five databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC and Cochrane Collection) using combinations of key search terms: 'Student as teacher', 'near-peer teaching', 'student teacher', 'peer teacher', 'peer-to-peer', 'undergraduate', 'medical education', 'curriculum', 'program', 'training', 'allied health', 'health science', 'pharmacy', 'nurse', and 'medicine', with results restricted to articles published in English within the decade...
November 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Cindy Kin, Rachel Yang, Pooja Desai, Claudia Mueller, Sabine Girod
BACKGROUND: Medical training occurs during peak childbearing years. However, the intense workload, long work hours, and limited financial compensation are potential barriers to having children during this time. Here, we aimed to identify gender-based differences in beliefs and experiences of having children during graduate medical education. We hypothesized that both genders face significant challenges, but women are more likely to experience stressors related to work-family conflicts...
November 13, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Sarah Larkins, Karen Johnston, John C Hogenbirk, Sara Willems, Salwa Elsanousi, Marykutty Mammen, Kaatje Van Roy, Jehu Iputo, Fortunato L Cristobal, Jennene Greenhill, Charlie Labarda, Andre-Jacques Neusy
BACKGROUND: Understanding the impact of selection and medical education on practice intentions and eventual practice is an essential component of training a fit-for-purpose health workforce distributed according to population need. Existing evidence comes largely from high-income settings and neglects contextual factors. This paper describes the practice intentions of entry and exit cohorts of medical students across low and high income settings and the correlation of student characteristics with these intentions...
November 13, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Hadil Ali-Masri, Sahar Hassan, Erik Fosse, Kaled M Zimmo, Mohammed Zimmo, Khaled M K Ismail, Åse Vikanes, Katariina Laine
BACKGROUND: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are associated with anal incontinence, dyspareunia and perineal pain. Bimanual perineal support technique (bPST) prevents OASIS. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two different bPST training-methods on OASIS incidence. METHODS: This is a prospective-interventional quality improvement study conducted in two Palestinian maternity units between June 1 2015 and December 31 2016. Women having spontaneous or operative vaginal-delivery at ≥24 gestational-weeks or a birthweight of ≥1000 g (n = 1694) were recruited and examined vaginally and rectally immediately after vaginal birth by a trained assessor...
November 12, 2018: BMC Medical Education
S Wentzell, L Moran, J Dobranowski, A Levinson, A Hannigan, C P Dunne, D McGrath
BACKGROUND: Radiology is an important aspect of medicine to which medical students often do not receive sufficient exposure. The aim of this project was to determine whether the integration of an innovative e-learning module on chest x-ray interpretation of the heart would enhance the radiological interpretive skills, and improve the confidence, of first year graduate entry medical students. METHODS: All first-year graduate entry (all students had a prior university degree) medical students at the University of Limerick (n = 152) during academic year 2015-16 were invited to participate in this study...
November 12, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Hyung-Joo Chang, Hyun Jung Kim, Im Joo Rhyu, Young-Mee Lee, Chang-Sub Uhm
BACKGROUND: It has been well reported that the emotional experiences of medical students in the gross anatomy laboratory could have significant impacts on their professional identity formation. This qualitative study aimed to investigate students' emotions towards cadaver dissection and the educational role of memorial ceremonies. METHODS: A total of 37 students from eight teams were recruited in the team-based dissection course during two consecutive academic years (2016 and 2017) at one medical school...
November 12, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Inge J van Wijk, Hester E M Daelmans, Anouk Wouters, Gerda Croiset, Rashmi A Kusurkar
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal positioning of the research internship, either before clinical clerkships, at the beginning of the medical Master's programme, or at the end. METHODS: A mixed methods study was carried out. We compared characteristics such as duration, location and grades for internships performed and students' motives for choosing to perform their research internship before or after clinical clerkships. We analysed students' answers to open-ended questions about the reasons for their choices, using the Self-Determination Theory of motivation...
November 12, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Till Johannes Bugaj, Christoph Nikendei, Jan Benedikt Groener, Jan Stiepak, Julia Huber, Andreas Möltner, Wolfgang Herzog, Ansgar Koechel
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that clinical tasks only represent a small percentage in the scope of final-year medical students' activities and often lack sufficient supervision. It appears that final-year medical students are frequently deployed to perform "routine tasks" and show deficits in the performance of more complex activities. This study aimed to evaluate final-year students' clinical performance in multiple impromptu clinical scenarios using video-based assessment...
November 12, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Kamran Ali, Josephine Cockerill, Daniel Zahra, Christopher Tredwin, Colin Ferguson
AIMS: To investigate the impact of progress testing on the learning experiences of undergraduate students in three programs namely, medicine, dentistry and dental therapy. METHODS: Participants were invited to respond to an online questionnaire to share their perceptions and experiences of progress testing. Responses were recorded anonymously, but data on their program, year of study, age, gender, and ethnicity were also captured on a voluntary basis. RESULTS: A total of 167 participants completed the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 27...
November 9, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Nicolas Rousselot, Thomas Tombrey, Drissa Zongo, Evelyne Mouillet, Jean-Philippe Joseph, Bernard Gay, Louis Rachid Salmi
BACKGROUND: There is currently an absence of valid and relevant instruments to evaluate how Evidence-based Practice (EBP) training improves, beyond knowledge, physicians' skills. Our aim was to develop and test a tool to assess physicians' EBP skills. METHODS: The tool we developed includes four parts to assess the necessary skills for applying EBP steps: clinical question formulation; literature search; critical appraisal of literature; synthesis and decision making...
November 9, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Nicolette Fozzard, Andrew Pearson, Eugene du Toit, Helen Naug, William Wen, Ian R Peak
BACKGROUND: Multiple choice questions are commonly used in summative assessment. It is still common practice for tertiary institutions and accrediting bodies to use five-option single best answer multiple choice questions, despite a substantial body of evidence showing that multiple choice questions with only three or four options provide effective and discriminatory assessment. METHODS: In this study we investigated the distribution of distractor efficacy in exams from four large first-year undergraduate courses in chemistry and in anatomy and physiology in a Health Faculty; assessed the impact on overall student score after changing from five-option to four-option single best answer multiple choice questions; and assessed the impact of changing from five options to four options on item difficulty and discrimination...
November 7, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Isabel C Green, Alessandra J Ainsworth, Julia Riddle, Dawn M Finnie, Betty Chou
BACKGROUND: In 2005, in response to a decline in residency applications in obstetrics and gynecology (OB GYN), the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology Presidential Task Force outlined strategies for attracting medical students to OB GYN. Application rates have increased since then, but little is known about which interventions are effective. We aimed to identify modifiable and nonmodifiable variables that may contribute to students choosing OB GYN for their careers; this information could be used to inform curriculum design, faculty development, and innovative exposures to women's health...
November 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Paul Garrud, I C McManus
BACKGROUND: Little research has compared the profile, success, or specialty destinations of graduates entering UK medical schools via accelerated, 4-yr, standard 5-yr and 6-yr programmes. Four research questions directed this investigation:- What are the success rates for graduates entering graduate-entry vs. undergraduate medicine courses? How does the sociodemographic and educational profile differ between these two groups? Is success - in medical school and foundation training - dependent on prior degree, demographic factors, or aptitude test performance at selection? What specialty do graduate entry medicine students subsequently enter? METHODS: The data from two cohorts of graduates entering medical school in 2007 and 2008 (n = 2761) in the UKMED (UK Medical Education Database) database were studied: 1445 taking 4-yr and 1150 taking 5-yr medicine courses, with smaller numbers following other programmes...
November 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Nicholas A Rattray, Patricia Ebright, Mindy E Flanagan, Laura G Militello, Paul Barach, Zamal Franks, Shakaib U Rehman, Howard S Gordon, Richard M Frankel
BACKGROUND: Handoff education is both formal and informal and varies widely across medical school and residency training programs. Despite many efforts to improve clinical handoffs, little evidence has shown meaningful improvement. The objective of this study was to identify residents' perspectives and develop a deeper understanding on the necessary training to conduct safe and effective patient handoffs. METHODS: A qualitative study focused on the analysis of cognitive task interviews targeting end-of-shift handoff experiences with 35 residents from three geographically dispersed VA facilities...
November 3, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Jed D Gonzalo, Daniel Wolpaw, Deanna Graaf, Britta M Thompson
BACKGROUND: Medical schools have a critical need to develop roles for students that are "value-added," defined as "…experiential roles that can positively impact health outcomes while also enhancing student knowledge, attitudes, and skills in Clinical or Health Systems Science." Following implementation of value-added clinical systems learning roles for all first-year students, authors investigated student perceptions of the educational value from these patient-centered experiences...
November 1, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Ann Downer, Anna Shapoval, Olga Vysotska, Iryna Yuryeva, Tetiana Bairachna
BACKGROUND: Access to continuing education opportunities is limited for Ukrainian healthcare workers, and the need is acute in order to support healthcare reform efforts currently underway in Ukraine. Online learning is a cost-effective mechanism for continuing education since healthcare workers can remain on the job during training. It also provides a means of keeping health professionals up to date on their knowledge and skills in rapidly changing and increasingly complex healthcare environments...
November 1, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Jonathan Huntington, John F Dick, Hilary F Ryder
BACKGROUND: Achieving an academic section's educational mission and vision is difficult, particularly when individual faculty contributions may be self-directed and uncoordinated. Balanced scorecards have been used in other environments; however, a process for developing one focusing on the educational mission of an academic medical section has not previously been described. We aimed to develop and use an educational scorecard to help our academic clinical section achieve its educational mission and vision...
October 29, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Manuel Burggraf, Julia Kristin, Alexander Wegner, Sascha Beck, Stephanie Herbstreit, Marcel Dudda, Marcus Jäger, Max Daniel Kauther
BACKGROUND: Physical examination courses are an essential part of the education of medical students. The aim of this study was to ascertain the factors influencing students' motivation and willingness to participate in a physical examination course. METHODS: Students were asked to complete a questionnaire subdivided into five domains: anthropometric data, religiousness, motivation to take part in physical examination courses, willingness to be physically examined at 11 different body regions by peers or a professional tutor and a field for free text...
October 29, 2018: BMC Medical Education
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