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BMC International Health and Human Rights

Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Transgender community is marginalized and under-researched. Analysis of peer-reviewed literature in transgender health is needed to better understand health needs and human rights of transgender people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze global research activity in transgender health published in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS: Peer-reviewed documents in transgender health were retrieved using Scopus database. VOSviewer was used to map frequently encountered author keywords while ArcGIS 10...
March 21, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
George Odwe, Chi-Chi Undie, Francis Obare
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda...
March 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Girma Temam Shifa, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew
BACKGROUND: Despite global declaration of the right to life as a fundamental human right and substantial progress in reducing childhood mortality, unacceptably high number of children still die before their fifth birthday every day. Different factors have been studied and implicated for under-five mortality with mixed results. Mortality studies in the current study sites were lacking. Therefore, this study examined environmental and socioeconomic determinants of under-five mortality. METHODS: The study applied a matched case control study design on 381 cases of children who died before their fifth birthday and 762 controls born within 1 month in the same locality as the cases...
February 27, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Ernest Darkwah, Marguerite Daniel, Joana Salifu Yendork
BACKGROUND: This study explored how employed caregivers experience the interface between child care, parental control and child rights in the context of Children's Homes in Ghana. The focus was on investigating caregiver perceptions of proper child care, their experiences with having to work with child rights principles and the implication of these for their relationships with the children and the care services they deliver. METHODS: Adopting a qualitative approach with phenomenological design, data were collected from 41 caregivers in two children's homes in Ghana using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews...
February 20, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Kelly E Jensen, Nehal N Naik, Christina O'Neal, Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich, Amy R Riley-Powell, Gwenyth O Lee, Stella M Hartinger, Daniel G Bausch, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
BACKGROUND: Madre de Dios, a southern state in the Peruvian Amazon basin, has experienced rapid development as well as an influx of migrants since the construction of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) connecting Brazil, Bolivia, and the Peruvian coast. We explored perceptions of migration and development in up to eight communities along the IOH in Madre de Dios following construction of the highway. METHODS: We conducted a multiple methods study involving focus group (FG) discussions and interviews with key informants (KIs) in eight communities in Madre de Dios...
February 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Christos Lionis, Elena Petelos, Enkeleint-Aggelos Mechili, Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla, Vasiliki-Eirini Chatzea, Agapi Angelaki, Imre Rurik, Danica Rotar Pavlic, Christopher Dowrick, Michel Dückers, Dean Ajdukovic, Helena Bakic, Elena Jirovsky, Elisabeth Sophie Mayrhuber, Maria van den Muijsenbergh, Kathryn Hoffmann
The current political crisis, conflicts and riots in many Middle Eastern and African countries have led to massive migration waves towards Europe. European countries, receiving these migratory waves as first port of entry (POE) over the past few years, were confronted with several challenges as a result of the sheer volume of newly arriving refugees. This humanitarian refugee crisis represents the biggest displacement crisis of a generation. Although the refugee crisis created significant challenges for all national healthcare systems across Europe, limited attention has been given to the role of primary health care (PHC) to facilitate an integrated delivery of care by enhancing care provision to refugees upon arrival, on transit or even for longer periods...
February 8, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Abraar Karan, Nathan Hansen
Female sex workers are subjected to intense physical, sexual, and mental abuses that are well documented in the medical and public health literature. However, less well-studied are the mental coping mechanisms that are employed by women in this population to survive. The Stockholm Syndrome has been discussed in the news media as a potential phenomenon in this vulnerable population, but has not been formally studied. From a previous retrospective qualitative analysis reviewing interviews with women in sex work throughout India, we found that the four main criteria for Stockholm Syndrome (perceived threat to survival; showing of kindness from a captor; isolation from other perspectives; perceived inability to escape) are present in narrative accounts from this population...
February 6, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Shira M Goldenberg, Teresita Rocha Jiménez, Kimberly C Brouwer, Sonia Morales Miranda, Jay G Silverman
BACKGROUND: Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational sex work interventions situated in labour rights frameworks, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers' needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America. This study investigated migrant sex workers' narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border...
February 2, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Katrina Perehudoff, Lucía Berro Pizzarossa, Jelle Stekelenburg
BACKGROUND: WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs were considered 'complementary' and qualified for use when in line with national legislation and where 'culturally acceptable'. DISCUSSION: This article argues that these qualifications, while perhaps appropriate at the time, must now be removed...
February 1, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Ali Safarnejad, Wim Groot, Milena Pavlova
BACKGROUND: Estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV is a key activity in the surveillance of the HIV epidemic. The existing framework for considering future research needs may provide decision-makers with a basis for a fair process of deciding on the methods of the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV. This study explores the extent to which stakeholders involved with population size estimation agree with this framework, and thus, the study updates the framework...
January 30, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Joseph Maaminu Kyilleh, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Benson Boinkum Konlaan
BACKGROUND: In Ghana, adolescents constitute about a quarter of the total population. These adolescents make reproductive health decisions and choices based on their knowledge and the availability of such choices. These reproductive health decisions and choices can either negatively or positively affect their lives. This study therefore explored adolescents' reproductive health knowledge and choices, the type of choices they make and the factors that affect these choices. METHODS: This qualitative study adopted a narrative approach to qualitative enquiry...
January 24, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Padam Simkhada, Edwin van Teijlingen, Manju Gurung, Sharada P Wasti
BACKGROUND: Nepal is a key supplier of labour for countries in the Middle East, India and Malaysia. As many more men than women leave Nepal to work abroad, female migrant workers are a minority and very much under-researched. The aim of the study was to explore the health problems of female Nepalese migrants working in the Middle-East and Malaysia. METHODS: The study was conducted among 1010 women who were registered as migrant returnees at an organisation called Pourakhi Nepal...
January 18, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Marilou Gagnon, Martin French, Yamilee Hébert
BACKGROUND: Emphasis on HIV testing as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care has grown tremendously over the past decade. In turn, this emphasis on testing has created a demand for new policies, programs, and technologies that can potentially increase access to and uptake of HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HST) technologies have gained important momentum following the approval of the over-the-counter self-tests in the United States, the UK, and France. While the renewed interest in HST has given rise to a number of high quality reviews of empirical studies conducted on this topic, we have yet to find an article that captures the extent of the debate on HST...
January 18, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J S M Krumeich, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Slum dwellers display specific traits when it comes to disclosing their illnesses to professionals. The resulting actions lead to poor health-seeking behaviour and underutilisation of existing formal health facilities. The ways that slum people use to communicate their feelings about illness, the type of confidants that they choose, and the supportive and unsupportive social and cultural interactions to which they are exposed have not yet been studied in the Indian context, which constitutes an important knowledge gap for Indian policymakers and practitioners alike...
January 16, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Anita Franklin, Patricia Lund, Caroline Bradbury-Jones, Julie Taylor
BACKGROUND: Albinism is an inherited condition with a relatively high prevalence in populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. People with oculocutaneous albinism have little or no pigment in their hair, skin and eyes; thus they are visually impaired and extremely sensitive to the damaging effect of the sun on their skin. Aside from the health implications of oculocutaneous albinism, there are also significant sociocultural risks. The impacts of albinism are particularly serious in areas that associate albinism with legend and folklore, leading to stigmatisation and discrimination...
January 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Bola Lukman Solanke
BACKGROUND: Exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) has been identified as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). However, studies in Nigeria have rarely and specifically examined exposure to interparental violence as a predictor of IPV. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between exposure to interparental violence and women's experience of intimate partner violence. METHODS: The 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) women recode dataset was analysed...
January 11, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Claudia Mora, Simone Monteiro, Carlos Otávio Fiúza Moreira
BACKGROUND: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is an HIV prevention strategy that promotes the principles of confidentiality and informed consent. International research has highlighted VCT counselors' isolation from service planning and the contradictions they negotiate between local values and global testing recommendations. In Brazil, studies have identified many limitations, including counselors' difficulties to implement a vulnerability approach to HIV prevention as recommended in the country's national guidelines...
December 4, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Sima Barmania, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
BACKGROUND: Globally, one of the key groups considered to be at high risk of acquiring HIV are transgender women, often a marginalised group. In the Malaysian context there has been a scarcity of published research relating to transgender women, a sensitive issue in a Muslim majority country, where Islam plays an influential role in society. Furthermore, there has been a paucity of research relating to how such issues relate to HIV prevention in transgender women in Malaysia. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore the attitudes of stakeholders involved in HIV prevention policy in Malaysia towards transgender women, given the Islamic context...
October 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Jason Bantjes, Leslie Swartz, Pieter Niewoudt
BACKGROUND: During the era of apartheid in South Africa, a number of mental health professionals were vocal about the need for socio-economic and political reform. They described the deleterious psychological and social impact of the oppressive and discriminatory Nationalist state policies. However, they remained optimistic that democracy would usher in positive changes. In this article, we consider how mental health professionals working in post-apartheid South Africa experience their work...
October 12, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Anne Gatuguta, Barbra Katusiime, Janet Seeley, Manuela Colombini, Isaac Mwanzo, Karen Devries
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is widespread, yet relatively few survivors receive healthcare or complete treatment. In low and middle-income countries, community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to provide support services to large numbers of survivors. The aim of this review was to document the role of CHWs in sexual violence services. We aimed to: 1) describe existing models of CHWs services including characteristics of CHWs, services delivered and populations served; 2) explore acceptability of CHWs' services to survivors and feasibility of delivering such services; and 3) document the benefits and challenges of CHW-provided sexual violence services...
October 12, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
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