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BMC International Health and Human Rights

Rezwanul Hasan Rana, Khorshed Alam, Jeff Gow
BACKGROUND: This paper provides empirical evidence on how the relationship between health expenditure and health outcomes varies across countries at different income levels. METHOD: Heterogeneity and cross-section dependence were controlled for in the panel data which consist of 161 countries over the period 1995-2014. Infant, under-five and maternal mortality along with life expectancy at birth were selected as health outcome measures. Cross-sectional augmented IPS unit root, panel autoregressive distributed lag, Dumitrescu-Hurlin and Toda-Yamamoto approach to Granger causality tests were used to investigate the relationship across four income groups...
July 16, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Marwan Mosleh, Koustuv Dalal, Yousef Aljeesh, Leif Svanström
BACKGROUND: War-related injury is a major public health concern, and a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries such as Palestine. Little is known about the burden of war-related injury in the Palestinian context. The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence and pattern of injuries, associated with war in Gaza Strip, from July 8 to August 26, 2014. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on an injury registry at hospital facilities in the Gaza Strip...
June 28, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Meseret Delesa Anatea, Tesfaye Hambisa Mekonnen, Berihun Assefa Dachew
BACKGROUND: Maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) is still the major public health problem in about 25 countries, mainly in Africa and Asia. However, the utilization of intervention strategies, like tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization remains low in these countries. In Ethiopia, only 49% of the pregnant mothers received TT2+ in 2016. This study was designed to evaluate perceptions and factors affecting the utilization of TT immunization among reproductive-age women in Dukem town, Eastern Ethiopia, 2016...
June 28, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Arne H Eide, Karin Dyrstad, Alister Munthali, Gert Van Rooy, Stine H Braathen, Thomas Halvorsen, Frans Persendt, Peter Mvula, Jan Ketil Rød
BACKGROUND: Equitable access to health services is a key ingredient in reaching health for persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups. So far, research on access to health services in low- and middle-income countries has largely relied on self-reported survey data. Realizing that there may be substantial discrepancies between perceived and actual access, other methods are needed for more precise knowledge to guide health policy and planning. The objective of this article is to describe and discuss an innovative methodological triangulation where statistical and spatial analysis of perceived distance and objective measures of access is combined with qualitative evidence...
June 26, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Fidelia A A Dake, Kamil Fuseini
BACKGROUND: The birth of a child is a vital event that needs to be registered but this is not always the case as an estimated 40 million births go unregistered annually. Birth registration safeguards the basic rights of children and gives them an identity, citizenship/nationality and legal protection against violence, abuse and human rights violations. It is therefore necessary that all births are registered and even more critical that the registration of a birth is followed by the issuance of a birth certificate...
June 13, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
August Eubanks, Marie Claire Parriault, Astrid Van Melle, Célia Basurko, Leila Adriouch, Claire Cropet, Mathieu Nacher
BACKGROUND: French Guiana is highly affected by HIV. The migrant population is particularly susceptible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of risk of HIV transmission and its perception among migrants in French Guiana and to identify predictive factors. METHODS: An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Practices study was conducted in 2012 among migrants living in precarious neighborhoods of French Guiana. RESULTS: Of the 1039 participants surveyed, 893 were analyzed, of which 35...
June 8, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Christina Lundin, Emina Hadziabdic, Katarina Hjelm
BACKGROUND: With an increasing migrant population globally the need to organize interpreting service arises in emergency healthcare to deliver equitable high-quality care. The aims of this study were to describe interpretation practices in multilingual emergency health service institutions and to explore the impact of the organizational and institutional context and possible consequences of different approaches to interpretation. No previous studies on these issues in multilingual emergency care have been found...
June 5, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Manuela Colombini, Susannah H Mayhew, Ragnhild Lund, Navpreet Singh, Katarina Swahnberg, Jennifer Infanti, Berit Schei, Kumudu Wijewardene
BACKGROUND: Although violence against women (VAW) is a global public health issue, its importance as a health issue is often unrecognized in legal and health policy documents. This paper uses Sri Lanka as a case study to explore the factors influencing the national policy response to VAW, particularly by the health sector. METHODS: A document based health policy analysis was conducted to examine current policy responses to VAW in Sri Lanka using the Shiffman and Smith (2007) policy analysis framework...
May 25, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Aziiza Nahalomo, Per Ole Iversen, Peter Milton Rukundo, Archileo Kaaya, Joyce Kikafunda, Wenche Barth Eide, Maritha Marais, Edward Wamala, Margaret Kabahenda
BACKGROUND: In developing countries like Uganda, the human right to adequate food (RtAF) is inextricably linked to access to land for households to feed themselves directly through production or means for its procurement. Whether RtAF is enjoyed among Ugandan land evictees, is unknown. We therefore explored this among land evictees (rights-holders) in Wakiso and Mpigi districts in rural Central Uganda. We assessed food accessibility and related coping strategies, diet quality and nutritional status of children 6-59 months old, and their caregivers...
May 24, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
James Akazili, Samuel Chatio, John Ele-Ojo Ataguba, Isaiah Agorinya, Edmund Wedam Kanmiki, Osman Sankoh, Abraham Oduro
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, employment in the informal sector has grown rapidly in all regions including low and middle-income countries. In the developing countries, between 50 and 75% of workers are employed in the informal sector. In Ghana, more than 80% of the total working population is working in the informal sector. They are largely self-employed persons such as farmers, traders, food processors, artisans, craft-workers among others. The persistent problem in advancing efforts to address health vulnerabilities of informal workers is lack of systematic data...
May 16, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Lonnie Embleton, David Ayuku, Dominic Makori, Allan Kamanda, Paula Braitstein
BACKGROUND: Street-connected young people carry a disproportionate burden of morbidities, and engage in a variety of practices that may heighten their risk of premature mortality, yet there are currently no reports in the literature on the rates or risk factors for mortality among them, nor on their causes of death. In low- and middle-income countries they are frequently in situations that violate their human rights, likely contributing to their increased burden of morbidities and vulnerability to mortality...
May 15, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Joseph K Gona, Charles R Newton, Sally Hartley, Karen Bunning
BACKGROUND: The last decade has seen improved public awareness of disability in sub-Saharan Africa. However, negative and stereotypical views of disability still persist in many communities. We conducted a study to promote awareness of disability in rural Kenya, using a process of reflection and education. This paper reports on the second aspect - education. The research question was: How can personal narratives of living with disability affect community attitudes and responses to disability? METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was adopted...
May 8, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Monica Olafsen, Archangel Byaruhanga Rukooko, Per Ole Iversen, Bård A Andreassen
BACKGROUND: The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem...
April 17, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Transgender community is marginalized and under-researched. Analysis of peer-reviewed literature in transgender health is needed to better understand health needs and human rights of transgender people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze global research activity in transgender health published in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS: Peer-reviewed documents in transgender health were retrieved using Scopus database. VOSviewer was used to map frequently encountered author keywords while ArcGIS 10...
March 21, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
George Odwe, Chi-Chi Undie, Francis Obare
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda...
March 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Girma Temam Shifa, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew
BACKGROUND: Despite global declaration of the right to life as a fundamental human right and substantial progress in reducing childhood mortality, unacceptably high number of children still die before their fifth birthday every day. Different factors have been studied and implicated for under-five mortality with mixed results. Mortality studies in the current study sites were lacking. Therefore, this study examined environmental and socioeconomic determinants of under-five mortality. METHODS: The study applied a matched case control study design on 381 cases of children who died before their fifth birthday and 762 controls born within 1 month in the same locality as the cases...
February 27, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Ernest Darkwah, Marguerite Daniel, Joana Salifu Yendork
BACKGROUND: This study explored how employed caregivers experience the interface between child care, parental control and child rights in the context of Children's Homes in Ghana. The focus was on investigating caregiver perceptions of proper child care, their experiences with having to work with child rights principles and the implication of these for their relationships with the children and the care services they deliver. METHODS: Adopting a qualitative approach with phenomenological design, data were collected from 41 caregivers in two children's homes in Ghana using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews...
February 20, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Kelly E Jensen, Nehal N Naik, Christina O'Neal, Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich, Amy R Riley-Powell, Gwenyth O Lee, Stella M Hartinger, Daniel G Bausch, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
BACKGROUND: Madre de Dios, a southern state in the Peruvian Amazon basin, has experienced rapid development as well as an influx of migrants since the construction of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) connecting Brazil, Bolivia, and the Peruvian coast. We explored perceptions of migration and development in up to eight communities along the IOH in Madre de Dios following construction of the highway. METHODS: We conducted a multiple methods study involving focus group (FG) discussions and interviews with key informants (KIs) in eight communities in Madre de Dios...
February 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Christos Lionis, Elena Petelos, Enkeleint-Aggelos Mechili, Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla, Vasiliki-Eirini Chatzea, Agapi Angelaki, Imre Rurik, Danica Rotar Pavlic, Christopher Dowrick, Michel Dückers, Dean Ajdukovic, Helena Bakic, Elena Jirovsky, Elisabeth Sophie Mayrhuber, Maria van den Muijsenbergh, Kathryn Hoffmann
The current political crisis, conflicts and riots in many Middle Eastern and African countries have led to massive migration waves towards Europe. European countries, receiving these migratory waves as first port of entry (POE) over the past few years, were confronted with several challenges as a result of the sheer volume of newly arriving refugees. This humanitarian refugee crisis represents the biggest displacement crisis of a generation. Although the refugee crisis created significant challenges for all national healthcare systems across Europe, limited attention has been given to the role of primary health care (PHC) to facilitate an integrated delivery of care by enhancing care provision to refugees upon arrival, on transit or even for longer periods...
February 8, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Abraar Karan, Nathan Hansen
Female sex workers are subjected to intense physical, sexual, and mental abuses that are well documented in the medical and public health literature. However, less well-studied are the mental coping mechanisms that are employed by women in this population to survive. The Stockholm Syndrome has been discussed in the news media as a potential phenomenon in this vulnerable population, but has not been formally studied. From a previous retrospective qualitative analysis reviewing interviews with women in sex work throughout India, we found that the four main criteria for Stockholm Syndrome (perceived threat to survival; showing of kindness from a captor; isolation from other perspectives; perceived inability to escape) are present in narrative accounts from this population...
February 6, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
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