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BMC Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650003/judging-a-salmon-by-its-spots-environmental-variation-is-the-primary-determinant-of-spot-patterns-in-salmo-salar
#1
Katarina M Jørgensen, Monica F Solberg, Francois Besnier, Anders Thorsen, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Øystein Skaala, Ketil Malde, Kevin A Glover
BACKGROUND: In fish, morphological colour changes occur from variations in pigment concentrations and in the morphology, density, and distribution of chromatophores in the skin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved in most species. Here, we describe the first investigation into the genetic and environmental basis of spot pattern development in one of the world's most studied fishes, the Atlantic salmon. We reared 920 salmon from 64 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid and wild origin in two contrasting environments (Hatchery; tanks for the freshwater stage and sea cages for the marine stage, and River; a natural river for the freshwater stage and tanks for the marine stage)...
April 12, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615023/conserved-community-structure-and-simultaneous-divergence-events-in-the-fig-wasps-associated-with-ficus-benjamina-in-australia-and-china
#2
Clive T Darwell, Simon T Segar, James M Cook
BACKGROUND: Localised patterns of species diversity can be influenced by many factors, including regional species pools, biogeographic features and interspecific interactions. Despite recognition of these issues, we still know surprisingly little about how invertebrate biodiversity is structured across geographic scales. In particular, there have been few studies of how insect communities vary geographically while using the same plant host. We compared the composition (species, genera) and functional structure (guilds) of the chalcid wasp communities associated with the widespread fig tree, Ficus benjamina, towards the northern (Hainan province, China) and southern (Queensland, Australia) edges of its natural range...
April 3, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576018/the-ctenophore-mnemiopsis-leidyi-regulates-egg-production-via-conspecific-communication
#3
Daniel A Sasson, Anya A Jacquez, Joseph F Ryan
BACKGROUND: Communication between individuals of the same species is an important aspect of mating and reproduction in most animals. In simultaneously hermaphroditic species with the ability to self-fertilize, communication with conspecifics can be essential to avoid inbreeding depression. One such behavioral adaptation observed in some simultaneous hermaphrodites is gamete trading. This behavior involves individual hermaphrodites in pairs alternating between reproducing as the male and female, and, as such, necessarily requires communication and coordination between mates...
March 26, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558936/effect-of-grazing-on-methane-uptake-from-eurasian-steppe-of-china
#4
Shiming Tang, Yujuan Zhang, Xiajie Zhai, Andreas Wilkes, Chengjie Wang, Kun Wang
BACKGROUND: The effects of grazing on soil methane (CH4 ) uptake in steppe ecosystems are important for understanding carbon sequestration and cycling because the role of grassland soil for CH4 uptake can have major impacts at the global level. Here, a meta-analysis of 27 individual studies was carried out to assess the response patterns of soil CH4 uptake to grazing in steppe ecosystems of China. The weighted log response ratio was used to assess the effect size. RESULTS: We found that heavy grazing significantly depressed soil CH4 uptake by 36...
March 20, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466976/predicting-the-distribution-of-stipa-purpurea-across-the-tibetan-plateau-via-the-maxent-model
#5
Baibing Ma, Jian Sun
BACKGROUND: The ecosystems across Tibetan Plateau are changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, which has caused substantial changes in spatial and temporal environmental patterns. Stipa purpurea, as a dominant herbsage resource in alpine steppe, has a great influence on animal husbandry in the Tibetan Plateau. Global warming has been forecasted to continue in the future (2050s, 2070s), questioning the future distribution of S. purpurea and its response to climate change...
February 21, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454355/temporal-changes-of-fine-root-overyielding-and-foraging-strategies-in-planted-monoculture-and-mixed-forests
#6
Weiwei Shu, Xiaoxiao Shen, Pifeng Lei, Wenhua Xiang, Shuai Ouyang, Wende Yan
BACKGROUND: Mixed forests are believed to enhance ecosystem functioning and sustainability due to complementary resource use, environmental benefits and improved soil properties. The facilitation between different species may induce overyielding. Meanwhile, the species-specific fine root foraging strategies and tradeoffs would determine the structure and dynamics of plant communities. Here the aim was to investigate the admixing effects of fine-root biomass, vertical distribution and morphology in Pinus massoniana-Cinnamomum camphora mixed plantations and corresponding monocultures at 10-, 24- and 45-year old stands...
February 17, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448932/interference-competition-as-a-key-determinant-for-spatial-distribution-of-mangrove-crabs
#7
Stefano Cannicci, Marco Fusi, Filippo Cimó, Farid Dahdouh-Guebas, Sara Fratini
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of mangrove crabs has been commonly associated with tree zonation and abiotic factors such as ground temperature and soil granulometry. Conversely, no studies were designed to investigate the role of competition for resources and predation in shaping crab distribution in mangroves, despite these biotic factors are recognised as key determinants for spatial patterns observed in the communities colonising rocky and sandy intertidal habitats.We studied floral and faunal assemblages in two zones of a Sri Lankan mangrove, a man-made upper intertidal level and a natural eulittoral, mid-shore one...
February 15, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448923/data-driven-predictions-and-novel-hypotheses-about-zoonotic-tick-vectors-from-the-genus-ixodes
#8
Laura Hyesung Yang, Barbara A Han
BACKGROUND: With the resurgence of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and the emergence of new tick-borne pathogens such as Powassan virus, understanding what distinguishes vectors from non-vectors, and predicting undiscovered tick vectors is a crucial step towards mitigating disease risk in humans. We aimed to identify intrinsic traits that predict which Ixodes tick species are confirmed or strongly suspected to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens. METHODS: We focused on the well-studied tick genus Ixodes from which many species are known to transmit zoonotic diseases to humans...
February 15, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415707/threatened-species-richness-along-a-himalayan-elevational-gradient-quantifying-the-influences-of-human-population-density-range-size-and-geometric-constraints
#9
Prakash Kumar Paudel, Jan Sipos, Jedediah F Brodie
BACKGROUND: A crucial step in conserving biodiversity is to identify the distributions of threatened species and the factors associated with species threat status. In the biodiversity hotspot of the Himalaya, very little is known about which locations harbour the highest diversity of threatened species and whether diversity of such species is related to area, mid-domain effects (MDE), range size, or human density. In this study, we assessed the drivers of variation in richness of threatened birds, mammals, reptiles, actinopterygii, and amphibians along an elevational gradient in Nepal Himalaya...
February 7, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415702/eco-physiological-basis-of-shade-adaptation-of-camellia-nitidissima-a-rare-and-endangered-forest-understory-plant-of-southeast-asia
#10
Shengfeng Chai, Jianmin Tang, Azim Mallik, Yancai Shi, Rong Zou, Jitao Li, Xiao Wei
BACKGROUND: Camellia nitidissima, a rare and endangered shrub is narrowly distributed in South China and North Vietnam occurring in forest understory. Their light tolerance mechanism is unclear. We measured photosynthesis and related parameters on 2-years-old cuttings growing at 10, 30, 50 and 100% sunlight. Our research question was: At what light level are C. nitidissima cuttings responding most favorably, and what is the eco-physiological basis for their response to light? We hypothesized that as a forest understory growth of C...
February 7, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409472/dietary-flexibility-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-southern-ethiopia-effects-of-habitat-degradation-and-life-in-fragments
#11
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nils Chr Stenseth
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of habitat modification on the feeding strategies of threatened species is essential to designing effective conservation management plans. Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) are endemic to the rapidly shrinking montane forests of the southern Ethiopian Highlands. Most populations inhabit continuous bamboo forest subsisting largely on the young leaves and shoots of a single species of bamboo. Because of habitat disturbance in recent decades, however, there are now also several dozen small populations inhabiting isolated forest fragments where bamboo has been degraded...
February 6, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391060/inferring-ecological-explanations-for-biogeographic-boundaries-of-parapatric-asian-mountain-frogs
#12
Junhua Hu, Jianping Jiang
BACKGROUND: Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that shape barriers to dispersal and resulting biogeographic boundaries has been a longstanding, yet challenging, goal in ecology, evolution and biogeography. Characterized by stable, adjacent ranges, without any intervening physical barriers, and limited, if any, range overlap in a narrow contact zone, parapatric species are an interesting system for studying biogeographic boundaries. The geographic ranges of two parapatric frog species, Feirana quadranus and F...
February 2, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361977/climate-change-jeopardizes-the-persistence-of-freshwater-zooplankton-by-reducing-both-habitat-suitability-and-demographic-resilience
#13
Tom Pinceel, Falko Buschke, Margo Weckx, Luc Brendonck, Bram Vanschoenwinkel
BACKGROUND: Higher temperatures and increased environmental variability under climate change could jeopardize the persistence of species. Organisms that rely on short windows of rainfall to complete their life-cycles, like desert annual plants or temporary pool animals, may be particularly at risk. Although some could tolerate environmental changes by building-up banks of propagules (seeds or eggs) that buffer against catastrophes, climate change will threaten this resilience mechanism if higher temperatures reduce propagule survival...
January 24, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347979/altered-environmental-light-drives-retinal-change-in-the-atlantic-tarpon-megalops-atlanticus-over-timescales-relevant-to-marine-environmental-disturbance
#14
Lorian E Schweikert, Michael S Grace
BACKGROUND: For many fish species, retinal function changes between life history stages as part of an encoded developmental program. Retinal change is also known to exhibit plasticity because retinal form and function can be influenced by light exposure over the course of development. Aside from studies of gene expression, it remains largely unknown whether retinal plasticity can provide functional responses to short-term changes in environmental light quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether the structure and function of the fish retina can change in response to altered light intensity and spectrum-not over the course of a developmental regime, but over shorter time periods relevant to marine habitat disturbance...
January 18, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273049/estimating-species-pools-for-a-single-ecological-assemblage
#15
Tsung-Jen Shen, Youhua Chen, You-Fang Chen
BACKGROUND: The species pool concept was formulated over the past several decades and has since played an important role in explaining multi-scale ecological patterns. Previous statistical methods were developed to identify species pools based on broad-scale species range maps or community similarity computed from data collected from many areas. No statistical method is available for estimating species pools for a single local community (sampling area size may be very small as ≤ 1 km2 )...
December 22, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273026/genetic-diversity-and-structure-related-to-expansion-history-and-habitat-isolation-stone-marten-populating-rural-urban-habitats
#16
Anna Wereszczuk, Raphaël Leblois, Andrzej Zalewski
BACKGROUND: Population genetic diversity and structure are determined by past and current evolutionary processes, among which spatially limited dispersal, genetic drift, and shifts in species distribution boundaries have major effects. In most wildlife species, environmental modifications by humans often lead to contraction of species' ranges and/or limit their dispersal by acting as environmental barriers. However, in species well adapted to anthropogenic habitat or open landscapes, human induced environmental changes may facilitate dispersal and range expansions...
December 22, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258563/complementing-endozoochorous-seed-dispersal-patterns-by-donkeys-and-goats-in-a-semi-natural-island-ecosystem
#17
Julia Tabea Treitler, Tim Drissen, Robin Stadtmann, Stefan Zerbe, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras
BACKGROUND: Endozoochory is, in grazing systems, a substantial vector for seed dispersal. It can play an important role in vegetation dynamics, especially in colonization processes through seed input on the vegetation and on the soil seed bank. We investigated the endozoochorous seed input of donkeys and goats on a semi-natural island ecosystem in the Mediterranean. Through germination experiments, we assessed the viable seed content of the dung of these grazing animals to estimate their suitability and efficiency for seed dispersal of the vegetation types of the island...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258497/non-invasive-genetic-monitoring-involving-citizen-science-enables-reconstruction-of-current-pack-dynamics-in-a-re-establishing-wolf-population
#18
Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Craig Primmer, Meri Lindqvist, Jenni Poutanen, Olaf Thalmann, Jouni Aspi, Jenni Harmoinen, Ilpo Kojola, Toni Laaksonen
BACKGROUND: Carnivores are re-establishing in many human-populated areas, where their presence is often contentious. Reaching consensus on management decisions is often hampered by a dispute over the size of the local carnivore population. Understanding the reproductive dynamics and individual movements of the carnivores can provide support for management decisions, but individual-level information can be difficult to obtain from elusive, wide-ranging species. Non-invasive genetic sampling can yield such information, but makes subsequent reconstruction of population history challenging due to incomplete population coverage and error-prone data...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258487/ephemeral-habitat-colonization-and-neotropical-species-richness-of-caenorhabditis-nematodes
#19
Céline Ferrari, Romain Salle, Nicolas Callemeyn-Torre, Richard Jovelin, Asher D Cutter, Christian Braendle
BACKGROUND: The drivers of species co-existence in local communities are especially enigmatic for assemblages of morphologically cryptic species. Here we characterize the colonization dynamics and abundance of nine species of Caenorhabditis nematodes in neotropical French Guiana, the most speciose known assemblage of this genus, with resource use overlap and notoriously similar external morphology despite deep genomic divergence. METHODS: To characterize the dynamics and specificity of colonization and exploitation of ephemeral resource patches, we conducted manipulative field experiments and the largest sampling effort to date for Caenorhabditis outside of Europe...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258485/diversity-of-root-knot-nematodes-in-moroccan-olive-nurseries-and-orchards-does-meloidogyne-javanica-disperse-according-to-invasion-processes
#20
Mohamed Aït Hamza, Nadine Ali, Johannes Tavoillot, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Hassan Boubaker, Abdelhamid El Mousadik, Thierry Mateille
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major pest of olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea), especially in nurseries and high-density orchards. Soil samples were collected from main olive growing areas of Morocco, to characterize Meloidogyne species and to discuss the contribution of biotic and abiotic factors in their spatial distribution. RESULTS: RKN were found in 159 soil samples out of 305 from nurseries (52.1% occurrence) and in 11 out of 49 soil samples from orchards (23...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ecology
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