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BMC Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427391/fish-with-red-fluorescent-eyes-forage-more-efficiently-under-dim-blue-green-light-conditions
#1
Ulrike Katharina Harant, Nicolaas Karel Michiels
BACKGROUND: Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system...
April 20, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427386/heterogeneous-distributional-responses-to-climate-warming-evidence-from-rodents-along-a-subtropical-elevational-gradient
#2
Zhixin Wen, Yi Wu, Deyan Ge, Jilong Cheng, Yongbin Chang, Zhisong Yang, Lin Xia, Qisen Yang
BACKGROUND: Understanding whether species' elevational range is shifting in response to directional changes in climate and whether there is a predictable pattern in that response is one of the major challenges in ecology. However, so far very little is known about the distributional responses of subtropical species to climate change, especially for small mammals. In this study, we examined the elevational range shifts at three range points (upper and lower range limits and abundance-weighted range centre) of rodents over a 30-year period (1986 to 2014-2015), in a subtropical forest of Southwest China...
April 20, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412938/broad-and-flexible-stable-isotope-niches-in-invasive-non-native-rattus-spp-in-anthropogenic-and-natural-habitats-of-central-eastern-madagascar
#3
Melanie Dammhahn, Toky M Randriamoria, Steven M Goodman
BACKGROUND: Rodents of the genus Rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. A broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of Rattus spp. Here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced Rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of Madagascar. RESULTS: Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured in hair samples of 589 individual rodents, we found that Rattus rattus had an extremely wide foraging niche, encompassing the isotopic space covered by a complete endemic forest-dwelling Malagasy small mammal community...
April 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399832/propagule-pressure-increase-and-phylogenetic-diversity-decrease-community-s-susceptibility-to-invasion
#4
T Ketola, K Saarinen, L Lindström
BACKGROUND: Invasions pose a large threat to native species, but the question of why some species are more invasive, and some communities more prone to invasions than others, is far from solved. Using 10 different three-species bacterial communities, we tested experimentally if the phylogenetic relationships between an invader and a resident community and the propagule pressure affect invasion probability. RESULTS: We found that greater diversity in phylogenetic distances between the members of resident community and the invader lowered invasion success, and higher propagule pressure increased invasion success whereas phylogenetic distance had no clear effect...
April 11, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381278/reciprocal-transplants-support-a-plasticity-first-scenario-during-colonisation-of-a-large-hyposaline-basin-by-a-marine-macro-alga
#5
Daniel Johansson, Ricardo T Pereyra, Marina Rafajlović, Kerstin Johannesson
BACKGROUND: Establishing populations in ecologically marginal habitats may require substantial phenotypic changes that come about through phenotypic plasticity, local adaptation, or both. West-Eberhard's "plasticity-first" model suggests that plasticity allows for rapid colonisation of a new environment, followed by directional selection that develops local adaptation. Two predictions from this model are that (i) individuals of the original population have high enough plasticity to survive and reproduce in the marginal environment, and (ii) individuals of the marginal population show evidence of local adaptation...
April 5, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376915/cold-spell-en-route-delays-spring-arrival-and-decreases-apparent-survival-in-a-long-distance-migratory-songbird
#6
Martins Briedis, Steffen Hahn, Peter Adamík
BACKGROUND: Adjusting the timing of annual events to gradual changes in environmental conditions is necessary for population viability. However, adaptations to weather extremes are poorly documented in migratory species. Due to their vast seasonal movements, long-distance migrants face unique challenges in responding to changes as they rely on an endogenous circannual rhythm to cue the timing of their migration. Furthermore, the exact mechanisms that explain how environmental factors shape the migration schedules of long-distance migrants are often unknown...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376784/transient-recovery-dynamics-of-a-predator-prey-system-under-press-and-pulse-disturbances
#7
Canan Karakoç, Alexander Singer, Karin Johst, Hauke Harms, Antonis Chatzinotas
BACKGROUND: Species recovery after disturbances depends on the strength and duration of disturbance, on the species traits and on the biotic interactions with other species. In order to understand these complex relationships, it is essential to understand mechanistically the transient dynamics of interacting species during and after disturbances. We combined microcosm experiments with simulation modelling and studied the transient recovery dynamics of a simple microbial food web under pulse and press disturbances and under different predator couplings to an alternative resource...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376769/moose-tree-interactions-rebrowsing-is-common-across-tree-species
#8
Karen Marie Mathisen, Jos M Milner, Christina Skarpe
BACKGROUND: Plant strategies to resist herbivory include tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance strategies, such as rapid regrowth which increases the palatability of new shoots, can lead to positive feedback loops between plants and herbivores. An example of such a positive feedback occurs when moose (Alces alces) browse trees in boreal forests. We described the degree of change in tree morphology that accumulated over time in response to repeated browsing by moose, using an index of accumulated browsing...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245831/puumala-hantavirus-infections-in-bank-vole-populations-host-and-virus-dynamics-in-central-europe
#9
Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Christian Imholt, Sabrina Schmidt, Rainer G Ulrich, Jana A Eccard, Jens Jacob
BACKGROUND: In Europe, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) are widely distributed and can transmit Puumala virus (PUUV) to humans, which causes a mild to moderate form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, called nephropathia epidemica. Uncovering the link between host and virus dynamics can help to prevent human PUUV infections in the future. Bank voles were live trapped three times a year in 2010-2013 in three woodland plots in each of four regions in Germany. Bank vole population density was estimated and blood samples collected to detect PUUV specific antibodies...
February 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245824/alternative-reproductive-tactics-and-inverse-size-assortment-in-a-high-density-fish-spawning-aggregation
#10
Rucha Karkarey, Amod Zambre, Kavita Isvaran, Rohan Arthur
BACKGROUND: At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. RESULTS: As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears to culminate in a unique 'school-spawning' tactic...
February 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241803/predator-cues-reduce-intraspecific-trait-variability-in-a-marine-dinoflagellate
#11
Sylke Wohlrab, Erik Selander, U John
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace and enables an organism to respond to variations in the environment. Plastic responses often modify a suite of traits and can be triggered by both abiotic and biotic changes. Here we analysed the plastic response towards a grazer of two genotypes of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, evaluated the similarity of this response and discuss potential strain-specific trade-offs. We compared the expression of the known inducible defensive traits paralytic shellfish toxin content, and chain length...
February 27, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222712/shrubby-cinquefoil-dasiphora-fruticosa-l-rydb-mapping-in-northwestern-estonia-based-upon-site-similarities
#12
Kalle Remm, Liina Remm
BACKGROUND: Different methods have been used to map species and habitat distributions. In this paper, similarity-based reasoning-a methodological approach that has received less attention-was applied to estimate the distribution and coverage of Dasiphora fruticosa for the region in the Baltic states where grows the most abundant population of this species. METHODS: Field observations, after thinning to at least 50 m interval, included 1480 coverage estimations in the species presence locations and 8317 absence locations...
February 21, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222708/wild-pollinators-enhance-oilseed-rape-yield-in-small-holder-farming-systems-in-china
#13
Yi Zou, Haijun Xiao, Felix J J A Bianchi, Frank Jauker, Shudong Luo, Wopke van der Werf
BACKGROUND: Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China...
February 21, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178961/sequential-above-and-belowground-herbivory-modifies-plant-responses-depending-on-herbivore-identity
#14
Dinesh Kafle, Anne Hänel, Tobias Lortzing, Anke Steppuhn, Susanne Wurst
BACKGROUND: Herbivore-induced changes in plant traits can cause indirect interactions between spatially and/or temporally separated herbivores that share the same host plant. Feeding modes of the herbivores is one of the major factors that influence the outcome of such interactions. Here, we tested whether the effects of transient aboveground herbivory for seven days by herbivores of different feeding guilds on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) alters their interaction with spatially as well as temporally separated belowground herbivores...
February 8, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166763/how-anthropogenic-changes-may-affect-soil-borne-parasite-diversity-plant-parasitic-nematode-communities-associated-with-olive-trees-in-morocco-as-a-case-study
#15
Nadine Ali, Johannes Tavoillot, Guillaume Besnard, Bouchaib Khadari, Ewa Dmowska, Grażyna Winiszewska, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Mohammed Ater, Mohamed Aït Hamza, Abdelhamid El Mousadik, Aïcha El Oualkadi, Abdelmajid Moukhli, Laila Essalouh, Ahmed El Bakkali, Elodie Chapuis, Thierry Mateille
BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are major crop pests. On olive (Olea europaea), they significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive producing countries in the world especially in nurseries and under cropping intensification. The diversity and the structure of PPN communities respond to environmental and anthropogenic forces. The olive tree is a good host plant model to understand the impact of such forces on PPN diversity since it grows according to different modalities (wild, feral and cultivated olives)...
February 6, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166755/testing-the-potential-significance-of-different-scion-rootstock-genotype-combinations-on-the-ecology-of-old-cultivated-olive-trees-in-the-southeast-mediterranean-area
#16
Oz Barazani, Yoni Waitz, Yizhar Tugendhaft, Michael Dorman, Arnon Dag, Mohammed Hamidat, Thameen Hijawi, Zohar Kerem, Erik Westberg, Joachim W Kadereit
BACKGROUND: A previous multi-locus lineage (MLL) analysis of SSR-microsatellite data of old olive trees in the southeast Mediterranean area had shown the predominance of the Souri cultivar (MLL1) among grafted trees. The MLL analysis had also identified an MLL (MLL7) that was more common among rootstocks than other MLLs. We here present a comparison of the MLL combinations MLL1 (scion)/MLL7 (rootstock) and MLL1/MLL1 in order to investigate the possible influence of rootstock on scion phenotype...
February 6, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088215/non-associative-versus-associative-learning-by-foraging-predatory-mites
#17
Peter Schausberger, Stefan Peneder
BACKGROUND: Learning processes can be broadly categorized into associative and non-associative. Associative learning occurs through the pairing of two previously unrelated stimuli, whereas non-associative learning occurs in response to a single stimulus. How these two principal processes compare in the same learning task and how they contribute to the overall behavioural changes brought about by experience is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing associative and non-associative learning of prey, Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus...
January 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068963/erratum-to-palaeoenvironmental-drivers-of-vertebrate-community-composition-in-the-belly-river-group-campanian-of-alberta-canada-with-implications-for-dinosaur-biogeography
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927197/erratum-to-feeding-preferences-of-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-in-nepal
#19
Raj Kumar Koirala, David Raubenheimer, Achyut Aryal, Mitra Lal Pathak, Weihong Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#20
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
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