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BMC Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705156/diet-segregation-in-american-bison-bison-bison-of-yellowstone-national-park-wyoming-usa
#1
John L Berini, Catherine Badgley
BACKGROUND: Body size is a major factor in the nutritional ecology of ruminant mammals. Females, due to their smaller size and smaller rumen, have more rapid food-passage times than males and thereby require higher quality forage. Males are more efficient at converting high-fiber forage into usable energy and thus, are more concerned with quantity. American bison are sexually dimorphic and sexually segregate for the majority of their adult lives, and in Yellowstone National Park, they occur in two distinct subpopulations within the Northern and Central ranges...
July 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693550/evidence-of-indirect-symbiont-conferred-protection-against-the-predatory-lady-beetle-harmonia-axyridis-in-the-pea-aphid
#2
Jennifer L Kovacs, Candice Wolf, Dené Voisin, Seth Wolf
BACKGROUND: Defensive symbionts can provide significant fitness advantages to their hosts. Facultative symbionts can protect several species of aphid from fungal pathogens, heat shock, and parasitism by parasitoid wasps. Previous work found that two of these facultative symbionts can also indirectly protect pea aphids from predation by the lady beetle Hippocampus convergens. When aphids reproduce asexually, there is extremely high relatedness among aphid clone-mates and often very limited dispersal...
July 11, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659130/what-makes-a-successful-species-traits-facilitating-survival-in-altered-tropical-forests
#3
Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel
BACKGROUND: Ongoing conversion, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests stress this ecosystem and cause the decline or disappearance of many species. Particular traits have been identified which indicate an increasing extinction risk of a species, but traits facilitating survival in altered habitats have mostly been neglected. Here we search for traits that make a species tolerant to disturbances, thus independent of pristine forests. We identify the fauna that have an increasing effect on the ecosystem and its functioning in our human-dominated landscapes...
June 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651557/amphibian-and-reptile-road-kills-on-tertiary-roads-in-relation-to-landscape-structure-using-a-citizen-science-approach-with-open-access-land-cover-data
#4
Florian Heigl, Kathrin Horvath, Gregor Laaha, Johann G Zaller
BACKGROUND: Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide. However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns. The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads. Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along 97...
June 26, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623883/no-consistent-effect-of-plant-species-richness-on-resistance-to-simulated-climate-change-for-above-or-below-ground-processes-in-managed-grasslands
#5
Carsten F Dormann, Lars von Riedmatten, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen
BACKGROUND: Species richness affects processes and functions in many ecosystems. Since management of temperate grasslands is directly affecting species composition and richness, it can indirectly govern how systems respond to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether species richness in managed grasslands can buffer the effects of drought and warming manipulations and hence increase the resistance to climate change. We established 45 plots in three regions across Germany, each with three different management regimes (pasture, meadow and mown pasture)...
June 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619108/scavenging-on-a-pulsed-resource-quality-matters-for-corvids-but-density-for-mammals
#6
Gjermund Gomo, Jenny Mattisson, Bjørn Roar Hagen, Pål Fossland Moa, Tomas Willebrand
BACKGROUND: Human food subsidies can provide predictable food sources in large quantities for wildlife species worldwide. In the boreal forest of Fennoscandia, gut piles from moose (Alces alces) harvest provide a potentially important food source for a range of opportunistically scavenging predators. Increased populations of predators can negatively affect threatened or important game species. As a response to this, restrictions on field dressing of moose are under consideration in parts of Norway...
June 15, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592264/adaptation-to-new-nutritional-environments-larval-performance-foraging-decisions-and-adult-oviposition-choices-in-drosophila-suzukii
#7
Nuno F Silva-Soares, A Nogueira-Alves, P Beldade, Christen Kerry Mirth
BACKGROUND: Understanding how species adapt to new niches is a central issue in evolutionary ecology. Nutrition is vital for the survival of all organisms and impacts species fitness and distribution. While most Drosophila species exploit rotting plant parts, some species have diversified to use ripe fruit, allowing earlier colonization. The decomposition of plant material is facilitated by yeast colonization and proliferation. These yeasts serve as the main protein source for Drosophila larvae...
June 7, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521755/high-dietary-quality-of-non-toxic-cyanobacteria-for-a-benthic-grazer-and-its-implications-for-the-control-of-cyanobacterial-biofilms
#8
Sophie Groendahl, Patrick Fink
BACKGROUND: Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey...
May 18, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438203/genetic-diversity-of-calcareous-grassland-plant-species-depends-on-historical-landscape-configuration
#9
Christoph Reisch, Sonja Schmidkonz, Katrin Meier, Quirin Schöpplein, Carina Meyer, Christian Hums, Christina Putz, Christoph Schmid
BACKGROUND: Habitat fragmentation is considered to be a main reason for decreasing genetic diversity of plant species. However, the results of many fragmentation studies are inconsistent. This may be due to the influence of habitat conditions, having an indirect effect on genetic variation via reproduction. Consequently we took a comparative approach to analyse the impact of habitat fragmentation and habitat conditions on the genetic diversity of calcareous grassland species in this study...
April 24, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427391/fish-with-red-fluorescent-eyes-forage-more-efficiently-under-dim-blue-green-light-conditions
#10
Ulrike Katharina Harant, Nicolaas Karel Michiels
BACKGROUND: Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system...
April 20, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427386/heterogeneous-distributional-responses-to-climate-warming-evidence-from-rodents-along-a-subtropical-elevational-gradient
#11
Zhixin Wen, Yi Wu, Deyan Ge, Jilong Cheng, Yongbin Chang, Zhisong Yang, Lin Xia, Qisen Yang
BACKGROUND: Understanding whether species' elevational range is shifting in response to directional changes in climate and whether there is a predictable pattern in that response is one of the major challenges in ecology. However, so far very little is known about the distributional responses of subtropical species to climate change, especially for small mammals. In this study, we examined the elevational range shifts at three range points (upper and lower range limits and abundance-weighted range centre) of rodents over a 30-year period (1986 to 2014-2015), in a subtropical forest of Southwest China...
April 20, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412938/broad-and-flexible-stable-isotope-niches-in-invasive-non-native-rattus-spp-in-anthropogenic-and-natural-habitats-of-central-eastern-madagascar
#12
Melanie Dammhahn, Toky M Randriamoria, Steven M Goodman
BACKGROUND: Rodents of the genus Rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. A broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of Rattus spp. Here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced Rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of Madagascar. RESULTS: Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured in hair samples of 589 individual rodents, we found that Rattus rattus had an extremely wide foraging niche, encompassing the isotopic space covered by a complete endemic forest-dwelling Malagasy small mammal community...
April 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399832/propagule-pressure-increase-and-phylogenetic-diversity-decrease-community-s-susceptibility-to-invasion
#13
T Ketola, K Saarinen, L Lindström
BACKGROUND: Invasions pose a large threat to native species, but the question of why some species are more invasive, and some communities more prone to invasions than others, is far from solved. Using 10 different three-species bacterial communities, we tested experimentally if the phylogenetic relationships between an invader and a resident community and the propagule pressure affect invasion probability. RESULTS: We found that greater diversity in phylogenetic distances between the members of resident community and the invader lowered invasion success, and higher propagule pressure increased invasion success whereas phylogenetic distance had no clear effect...
April 11, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381278/reciprocal-transplants-support-a-plasticity-first-scenario-during-colonisation-of-a-large-hyposaline-basin-by-a-marine-macro-alga
#14
Daniel Johansson, Ricardo T Pereyra, Marina Rafajlović, Kerstin Johannesson
BACKGROUND: Establishing populations in ecologically marginal habitats may require substantial phenotypic changes that come about through phenotypic plasticity, local adaptation, or both. West-Eberhard's "plasticity-first" model suggests that plasticity allows for rapid colonisation of a new environment, followed by directional selection that develops local adaptation. Two predictions from this model are that (i) individuals of the original population have high enough plasticity to survive and reproduce in the marginal environment, and (ii) individuals of the marginal population show evidence of local adaptation...
April 5, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376915/cold-spell-en-route-delays-spring-arrival-and-decreases-apparent-survival-in-a-long-distance-migratory-songbird
#15
Martins Briedis, Steffen Hahn, Peter Adamík
BACKGROUND: Adjusting the timing of annual events to gradual changes in environmental conditions is necessary for population viability. However, adaptations to weather extremes are poorly documented in migratory species. Due to their vast seasonal movements, long-distance migrants face unique challenges in responding to changes as they rely on an endogenous circannual rhythm to cue the timing of their migration. Furthermore, the exact mechanisms that explain how environmental factors shape the migration schedules of long-distance migrants are often unknown...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376784/transient-recovery-dynamics-of-a-predator-prey-system-under-press-and-pulse-disturbances
#16
Canan Karakoç, Alexander Singer, Karin Johst, Hauke Harms, Antonis Chatzinotas
BACKGROUND: Species recovery after disturbances depends on the strength and duration of disturbance, on the species traits and on the biotic interactions with other species. In order to understand these complex relationships, it is essential to understand mechanistically the transient dynamics of interacting species during and after disturbances. We combined microcosm experiments with simulation modelling and studied the transient recovery dynamics of a simple microbial food web under pulse and press disturbances and under different predator couplings to an alternative resource...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376769/moose-tree-interactions-rebrowsing-is-common-across-tree-species
#17
Karen Marie Mathisen, Jos M Milner, Christina Skarpe
BACKGROUND: Plant strategies to resist herbivory include tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance strategies, such as rapid regrowth which increases the palatability of new shoots, can lead to positive feedback loops between plants and herbivores. An example of such a positive feedback occurs when moose (Alces alces) browse trees in boreal forests. We described the degree of change in tree morphology that accumulated over time in response to repeated browsing by moose, using an index of accumulated browsing...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245831/puumala-hantavirus-infections-in-bank-vole-populations-host-and-virus-dynamics-in-central-europe
#18
Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Christian Imholt, Sabrina Schmidt, Rainer G Ulrich, Jana A Eccard, Jens Jacob
BACKGROUND: In Europe, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) are widely distributed and can transmit Puumala virus (PUUV) to humans, which causes a mild to moderate form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, called nephropathia epidemica. Uncovering the link between host and virus dynamics can help to prevent human PUUV infections in the future. Bank voles were live trapped three times a year in 2010-2013 in three woodland plots in each of four regions in Germany. Bank vole population density was estimated and blood samples collected to detect PUUV specific antibodies...
February 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245824/alternative-reproductive-tactics-and-inverse-size-assortment-in-a-high-density-fish-spawning-aggregation
#19
Rucha Karkarey, Amod Zambre, Kavita Isvaran, Rohan Arthur
BACKGROUND: At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. RESULTS: As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears to culminate in a unique 'school-spawning' tactic...
February 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241803/predator-cues-reduce-intraspecific-trait-variability-in-a-marine-dinoflagellate
#20
Sylke Wohlrab, Erik Selander, U John
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace and enables an organism to respond to variations in the environment. Plastic responses often modify a suite of traits and can be triggered by both abiotic and biotic changes. Here we analysed the plastic response towards a grazer of two genotypes of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, evaluated the similarity of this response and discuss potential strain-specific trade-offs. We compared the expression of the known inducible defensive traits paralytic shellfish toxin content, and chain length...
February 27, 2017: BMC Ecology
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