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BMC Clinical Pharmacology

Manu Shankar-Hari, Peter S Kruger, Stefania Di Gangi, Damon C Scales, Gavin D Perkins, Danny F McAuley, Marius Terblanche
BACKGROUND: Pleotropic effects of statins on inflammation are hypothesised to attenuate the severity of and possibly prevent the occurrence of the host inflammatory response to pathogen and infection-related acute organ failure. We conducted an international survey of intensive care physicians in Australia, New Zealand (ANZ) and United Kingdom (UK). The aims of the survey were to assess the current prescribing practice patterns, attitudes towards prescribing statin therapy in critically ill patients and opinions on the need for an interventional trial of statin therapy in critically ill patients...
June 28, 2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Roderick Clark, Judith E Fisher, Ingrid S Sketris, Grace M Johnston
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally considered a safe medication, but is associated with hepatotoxicity at doses above doses of 4.0 g/day, and even below this daily dose in certain populations. METHODS: The Nova Scotia Prescription Monitoring Program (NSPMP) in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia is a legislated organization that collects dispensing information on all out-of-hospital prescription controlled drugs dispensed for all Nova Scotia residents...
June 18, 2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Vivienne J Zhu, Anne Belsito, Wanzhu Tu, J Marc Overhage
BACKGROUND: Observational data are increasingly being used for pharmacoepidemiological, health services and clinical effectiveness research. Since pharmacies first introduced low-cost prescription programs (LCPP), researchers have worried that data about the medications provided through these programs might not be available in observational data derived from administrative sources, such as payer claims or pharmacy benefit management (PBM) company transactions. METHOD: We used data from the Indiana Network for Patient Care to estimate the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes to whom an oral hypoglycemic agent was dispensed...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Menna Alene, Michael D Wiese, Mulugeta T Angamo, Beata V Bajorek, Elias A Yesuf, Nasir Tajure Wabe
BACKGROUND: Medication-taking behavior, specifically non-adherence, is significantly associated with treatment outcome and is a major cause of relapse in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Non-adherence can be multifactorial; however, the rates and associated risk factors in an Ethiopian population have not yet been elucidated. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates to antipsychotic medications, and secondarily to identify potential factors associated with non-adherence, among psychotic patients at tertiary care teaching hospital in Southwest Ethiopia...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Lina M Hellström, Åsa Bondesson, Peter Höglund, Tommy Eriksson
BACKGROUND: An accurate medication list at hospital admission is essential for the evaluation and further treatment of patients. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency, type and predictors of errors in medication history, and to evaluate the extent to which standard care corrects these errors. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in two medical wards in a Swedish hospital using Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM)-based medication reconciliation...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Prajakti A Kothare, Mary E Seger, Justin Northrup, Kenneth Mace, Malcolm I Mitchell, Helle Linnebjerg
BACKGROUND: Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum concentration (Cmax). This study evaluated the drug interaction potential of exenatide when administered adjunctively with oral contraceptives, given their potential concomitant use. METHODS: This trial evaluated the effect of exenatide co-administration on single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 30 μg, levonorgestrel [LV] 150 μg [Microgynon 30®])...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
George I Eluwa, Titilope Badru, Kenneth A Agu, Kesiena J Akpoigbe, Otto Chabikuli, Christoph Hamelmann
BACKGROUND: Data on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to antiretroviral (ARV) use in public health practice are few indicating the need for ART safety surveillance in clinical care. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence, type and risk factors associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among patients on antiretroviral drugs (ARV). METHODS: Patients initiated on ARVs between May 2006 and May 2009 were evaluated in a retrospective cohort analysis in three health facilities in Nigeria...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
S M D K Ganga Senarathna, Shalini Sri Ranganathan, Nick Buckley, Rohini Fernandopulle
BACKGROUND: Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Tobias Dreischulte, Aileen M Grant, Colin McCowan, John J McAnaw, Bruce Guthrie
BACKGROUND: Addressing the problem of preventable drug related morbidity (PDRM) in primary care is a challenge for health care systems internationally. The increasing implementation of clinical information systems in the UK and internationally provide new opportunities to systematically identify patients at risk of PDRM for targeted medication review. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a set of explicit medication assessment criteria to identify patients with sub-optimally effective or high-risk medication use from electronic medical records and (2) to identify medication use topics that are perceived by UK primary care clinicians to be priorities for quality and safety improvement initiatives...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Howard A Smithline, Michael Donnino, David J Greenblatt
BACKGROUND: High dose oral thiamine may have a role in treating diabetes, heart failure, and hypermetabolic states. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of oral thiamine hydrochloride at 100 mg, 500 mg and 1500 mg doses in healthy subjects. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, single-dose, 4-way crossover study. Pharmacokinetic measures were calculated. RESULTS: The AUC₀₋₁₀ hr and C(max) values increased nonlinearly between 100 mg and 1500 mg...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Euan A Sandilands, Sharon Cameron, Frances Paterson, Sam Donaldson, Lesley Briody, Jane Crowe, Julie Donnelly, Adrian Thompson, Neil R Johnston, Ivor Mackenzie, Neal Uren, Jane Goddard, David J Webb, Ian L Megson, Nicholas Bateman, Michael Eddleston
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of contrast administration in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes. Its pathophysiology is not well understood; similarly the role of intravenous or oral acetylcysteine is unclear. Randomized controlled trials to date have been conducted without detailed knowledge of the effect of acetylcysteine on renal function. We are conducting a detailed mechanistic study of acetylcysteine on normal and impaired kidneys, both with and without contrast...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Armin Buchwald, Karl Winkler, Thomas Epting
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs in organ-transplanted patients is crucial to prevent intoxication or transplant rejection due to inadequate dosage. The commonly used immunoassays have been gradually undergoing replacement by mass spectrometry, since this physical method offers both a higher sensitivity and specificity. However, a switch should be carefully considered because it is a challenging procedure and needs to be thoroughly validated. From an economic perspective it is reasonable to include mycophenolic acid into the assay, because this saves the necessity for an additional measurement...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Min-Wei Huang, Tsung-Tsair Yang, Po-Ren Ten, Po-Wen Su, Bo-Jian Wu, Chin-Hong Chan, Tsuo-Hung Lan, I-Chao Liu, Wei-Cheh Chiu, Chun-Ying Li, Kuo-Sheng Cheng, Yu-Chi Yeh
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore relations between symptomatic remission and functionality evaluation in schizophrenia patients treated with paliperidone extended-release (ER), as seen in a normal day-to-day practice, using flexible dosing regimens of paliperidone ER. We explored symptomatic remission rate in patients treated with flexibly dosed paliperidone ER by 8 items of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and change of Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale. METHOD: This was a 12-week multicenter, open-label, prospective clinical study conducted in in-patient and out-patient populations...
2012: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Steven T Bird, Salvatore R Pepe, Mahyar Etminan, Xinyue Liu, James M Brophy, Joseph A C Delaney
BACKGROUND: Drospirenone/ethinyl-estradiol is an oral contraceptive (OC) that possesses unique antimineralocorticoid activity. It is conjectured that drospirenone, taken alone or concomitantly with spironolactone, may be associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating women between 18-46 years of age in the Lifelink™ Health Plan Claims Database. The study was restricted to new users of OCs between 1997-2009...
2011: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Antoine J Cherfan, Hani M Tamim, Abdulrahman AlJumah, Asgar H Rishu, Abdulmajeed Al-Abdulkareem, Bandar A Al Knawy, Ali Hajeer, Waleed Tamimi, Riette Brits, Yaseen M Arabi
BACKGROUND: Clinical effects and outcomes of a single dose etomidate prior to intubation in the intensive care setting is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of a single dose effect of etomidate prior to intubation on the mortality of septic cirrhotic patients and the impact of the subsequent use of low dose hydrocortisone. METHODS: This is a nested-cohort study within a randomized double blind placebo controlled study evaluating the use of low dose hydrocortisone in cirrhotic septic patients...
2011: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Stefano Bianchi, Erica Bianchini, Paola Scanavacca
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at describing the type and dosage of psychopharmaceuticals dispensed to patients with psychiatric disorders and to assess the percentage of patients treated with antipsychotics and antidepressants, the associated therapies, treatment adherence, and dosages used in individuals registered at the Psychiatric Disease Center (PDC), Regional Health Service of Ferrara. METHODS: The analysis focused on therapeutic programmes presented to the Department of Pharmacy of the University Hospital of Ferrara of 892 patients treated by the PDC (catchment area of 134605 inhabitants)...
2011: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Reeta Heikkilä, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Riitta Ahonen
BACKGROUND: Mandatory generic substitution (GS) was introduced in Finland at the beginning of April 2003. However, individual patients or physicians may forbid the substitution. GS was a significant change for Finnish medicine users. It was thought it would confuse people when the names, colors, packages, etc., changed. The purpose of this study was to explore what medicine-related factors influence people's choice of prescription drugs five years after generic substitution was introduced in Finland...
2011: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Joyce H You, Fiona Y Wong, Frank W Chan, Eliza L Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
BACKGROUND: The choices for self-medication in Hong Kong are much diversified, including western and Chinese medicines and food supplements. This study was to examine Hong Kong public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding self-medication, self-care and the role of pharmacists in self-care. METHODS: A cross-sectional phone survey was conducted, inviting people aged 18 or older to complete a 37-item questionnaire that was developed based on the Thematic Household surveys in Hong Kong, findings of the health prorfessional focus group discussions on pharmacist-led patient self management and literature...
2011: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Coralith García, Liz P Llamocca, Krystel García, Aimee Jiménez, Frine Samalvides, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Misuse of antimicrobials (AMs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are global concerns. The present study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and practices about AMR and AM prescribing among medical doctors in two large public hospitals in Lima, Peru, a middle-income country. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire RESULTS: A total of 256 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate 82%). Theoretical knowledge was good (mean score of 6 ± 1...
2011: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
Dohan Weeraratne, Alin Chen, Jason J Pennucci, Chi-Yuan Wu, Kathy Zhang, Jacqueline Wright, Juan José Pérez-Ruixo, Bing-Bing Yang, Arunan Kaliyaperumal, Shalini Gupta, Steven J Swanson, Narendra Chirmule, Marta Starcevic
BACKGROUND: Panitumumab is a fully human antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor that is indicated for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) after disease progression on standard chemotherapy. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the immunogenicity of panitumumab and to evaluate the effect of anti-panitumumab antibodies on pharmacokinetic and safety profiles in patients with mCRC receiving panitumumab in combination with oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapies...
2011: BMC Clinical Pharmacology
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