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Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

Kwabena Darkwah, Sue E Nokes, Jeffrey R Seay, Barbara L Knutson
Process simulations of batch fermentations with in situ product separation traditionally decouple these interdependent steps by simulating a separate "steady state" continuous fermentation and separation units. In this study, an integrated batch fermentation and separation process was simulated for a model system of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with in situ gas stripping, such that the fermentation kinetics are linked in real-time to the gas stripping process. A time-dependent cell growth, substrate utilization, and product production is translated to an Aspen Plus batch reactor...
May 22, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Qun Lin, Wen-Hao Zhuo, Xin-Wei Wang, Chang-Ping Chen, Ya-Hui Gao, Jun-Rong Liang
Microalgae are considered as attractive feedstocks for biofuel production nowadays because of their high lipid contents and easy cultivation. In the present study, two diatoms, Thalassiosira weissflogii and Chaetoceros muelleri, were cultured under various nutrient-limitation conditions to explore their comprehensive lipid accumulation profiles for further commercialization. In T. weissflogii, the highest neutral lipid accumulation and highest lipid productivity (14.28 mg L-1  day-1 ) were both recorded under P-limitation...
May 22, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Ludwig Klermund, Kathrin Castiglione
Polymersomes are hollow, spherical vesicles that are surrounded by a polymer membrane. The applied polymer must be amphiphilic to promote self-assembly in aqueous solution. At the same time, the polymer composition is highly versatile, which leads to diverse properties in terms of chemical and mechanical stability, membrane permeability and the ability to functionalize the membrane. By encapsulating chemical or biological substances within the polymersomes, drug delivery systems, cell mimetics or catalytic nanoreactors can be assembled...
May 17, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Burak Adnan Erkorkmaz, Onur Kırtel, Özlem Ateş Duru, Ebru Toksoy Öner
Levan polysaccharide is an industrially important natural polymer with unique properties and diverse high-value applications. However, current bottlenecks associated with its large-scale production need to be overcome by innovative approaches leading to economically viable processes. Besides many mesophilic levan producers, halophilic Halomonas smyrnensis cultures hold distinctive industrial potential and, for the first time with this study, the advantage of halophilicity is used and conditions for non-sterile levan production were optimized...
May 17, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Weifeng Cao, Yujue Wang, Jianquan Luo, Junxiang Yin, Yinhua Wan
α,ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DC) are versatile chemical intermediates with different chain length. For biosynthesis of DC, to obtain the highly pure product via crystallization, it is required to remove pigments and proteins in fermentation broth. However, a trade-off between decolorization/deproteinization ratio and DC recovery during the purification process was found, which impeded DC production by fermentation. When ultrafiltration (UF) was applied to treat α,ω-dodecanedioic acid (DC12 ) broth, 93.4% of DC12 recovery, 80...
May 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Aytekin Celik, Müslün Sara Tunc, Ozge Hanay, Ergin Taskan, Halil Hasar
In the recent years, there has been considerable debate about the potential impacts of antibiotics present in various environments on the public health and ecology. Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of tetracycline antibiotic group used for growth and treatment of animals and humans. In this study, OTC and nitrate (NO3 -N) were simultaneously reduced using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (H2 -MBfR). The system successfully accomplished OTC and nitrate removals. The fluxes of OTC and NO3 -N were 8.96 mg OTC/m2  day and 1100 mg N/m2  day, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Rajendra Singh, Deepak Pandey, Neena Devi, Duni Chand
Butyramide is a commodity chemical having wide range of applications from material science to biological sciences including synthesis of therapeutic drugs, hydroxamic acids, and electrorheological fluids. The nitrile hydratase protein of Bacillus sp. APB-6 was explored to develop an efficient biocatalytic process for the biotransformation of butyronitrile to butyramide using free and immobilized cells. The reaction conditions for nitrile hydratase activity were not affected after immobilization of the free cells and the optimum pH and temperature for both free and immobilized cells were 8...
May 10, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jong-Min Jeon, Hun-Suk Song, Doo-Geun Lee, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Yu-Mi Moon, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Wooseong Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
n-Butanol is considered as the next-generation biofuel, because its physiochemical properties are very similar to fossil fuels and it could be produced by Clostridia under anaerobic culture. Due to the difficulties of strict anaerobic culture, a host which can be used with facultative environment was being searched for n-butanol production. As an alternative, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which is known as facultative bacteria, was selected as a host and studied. A plasmid containing adhE2 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, various CoA transferases (ctfAB, atoAD, pct, and ACT), and acs encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase were introduced and examined to S...
May 8, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Antonio Valle, Maikel Fernández, Martín Ramírez, Roger Rovira, David Gabriel, Domingo Cantero
Biological desulfurization has proven to be a process that is technically and economically feasible on using biotrickling filters that can be performed under aerobic and anoxic conditions. However, microbial communities are different mainly due to the use of different final electron acceptors. The analysis of microbial communities in these systems has not been addressed with regard to the anoxic process. The aim of the work reported here was to analyse the eubacterial community in the two types of bioreactor along the packed bed and during the operation time...
April 27, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
João H C Wancura, Daniela V Rosset, Michel Brondani, Marcio A Mazutti, J Vladimir Oliveira, Marcus V Tres, Sérgio L Jahn
This work investigates the use of blends of edible and nonedible raw materials as an alternative feedstock to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) production through enzymatic catalysis. As biocatalyst, liquid lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Callera™ Trans L), was used. Under reaction conditions of 35 °C, methanol to feedstock molar ratio of 4.5:1 and 1.45% of catalyst load, the best process performance was reached using 9% of water concentration in the medium-yield of 79.9% after 480 min of reaction. In terms of use of tallow mixed with soybean oil, the best yield was obtained when 100% of tallow was used in the process-84...
April 26, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Paola Chaves Martins, Cibele Garcia Bastos, Paulo Afonso Granjeiro, Vilásia Guimarães Martins
Conventional biosurfactants have high production costs. Therefore, the use of low-cost carbon sources for their production is attractive for industry. The ability to remain stable under various environmental conditions further extends industrial application. Here we aimed to evaluate the stability of a new lipopeptide produced by Corynebacterium aquaticum using fish residue as an unconventional energy source. The biosurfactant was produced using 3% fish residue, 2% of the microorganism, and mineral medium. Biosurfactant characterization was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), as well as by testing its infrared, surface tension, emulsifying activity, and ionic character...
April 26, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
A Alhammad, P Adewale, M Kuttiraja, L P Christopher
Addition of surfactants to enzymatic hydrolysis has been reported to enhance the hydrolytic potential of enzymes in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of four non-ionic surfactants (PEG4000, PEG8000, TitronX-100, and Tween80) on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated poplar using a commercial cellulase preparation (Cellic® CTec2). Statistical discriminant analysis at four variable factors (surfactant type, surfactant concentration, hydrolysis time, and substrate consistency) revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis was significantly enhanced in the presence of PEG4000, with 19...
April 26, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
S Kalafatakis, S Braekevelt, A Lymperatou, A Zarebska, C Hélix-Nielsen, L Lange, I V Skiadas, H N Gavala
Forward osmosis (FO) is a low energy-intensive process since the driving force for water transport is the osmotic pressure difference, Δπ, between the feed and draw solutions, separated by the FO membrane, where πdraw  > πfeed . The potential of FO in wastewater treatment and desalination have been extensively studied; however, regeneration of the draw solution (thereby generating clean water) requires application of an energy-intensive process step like reverse osmosis (RO). In this study, the potential of applying FO for direct water recirculation from diluted fermentation effluent to concentrated feedstock, without the need for an energy-intensive regeneration step (e...
April 24, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jian Du, Wenxia Song, Xiu Zhang, Jian Zhao, Guodong Liu, Yinbo Qu
High dosage of enzyme is required to achieve effective lignocellulose hydrolysis, especially at high-solid loadings, which is a significant barrier to large-scale bioconversion of lignocellulose. Here, we screened four chemical additives and three accessory proteins for their effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of various lignocellulosic materials. The effects were found to be highly dependent on the composition and solid loadings of substrates. For xylan-extracted lignin-rich corncob residue, the enhancing effect of PEG 6000 was most pronounced and negligibly affected by solid content, which reduced more than half of enzyme demand at 20% dry matter (DM)...
April 23, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jian-Hua Zhang, Xin Zeng, Xu-Sheng Chen, Zhong-Gui Mao
The glucose-glycerol mixed carbon source remarkably reduced the batch fermentation time of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) production, leading to higher productivity of both biomass and ε-PL, which was of great significance in industrial microbial fermentation. Our previous study confirmed the positive influence of fast cell growth on the ε-PL biosynthesis, while the direct influence of mixed carbon source on ε-PL production was still unknown. In this work, chemostat culture was employed to study the capacity of ε-PL biosynthesis in different carbon sources at a same dilution rate of 0...
April 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Kusum Lata, Manisha Sharma, Satya Narayan Patel, Rajender S Sangwan, Sudhir P Singh
The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L-1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L-1 sucrose and lactose each...
April 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jayita Chopra, Ramkrishna Sen
Lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeast is generally induced by nitrogen starvation, while oxygen saturation can influence biomass growth. Systematic shake flask studies that help in identifying the right nitrogen source and relate its uptake kinetics to lipid biosynthesis under varying oxygen saturation conditions are very essential for addressing the bioprocessing-related issues, which are envisaged to occur in the fermenter scale production. In the present study, lipid bioaccumulation by P. guilliermondii at varying C:N ratios and oxygen transfer conditions (assessed in terms of kL a) was investigated in shake flasks using a pre-optimized N-source and a two-stage inoculum formulated in a hybrid medium...
April 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Bruno Garcia Silva, Márcia Helena Rissato Zamariolli Damianovic, Eugenio Foresti
This study assessed the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes and remaining organic matter removal from anaerobic reactor effluent treating wastewater in a single reactor. A structured-bed reactor, with polyurethane foam as support media, was subjected to intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation. Aerated/non-aerated periods varied in the range of 2/1-1/3 h. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent remained between 26 and 42 mg L-1 throughout all the aeration conditions. Aeration periods of 1/2 h removed 80 and 26% of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Total Nitrogen, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
D Tzimorotas, N K Afseth, D Lindberg, O Kjørlaug, L Axelsson, V Shapaval
Food rest materials have the potential to be used as media components in various types of fermentations. Oleaginous filamentous fungi can utilize those components and generate a high-value lipid-rich biomass, which could be further used for animal and human use. One of the main limitations in this process is the pretreatment of food rest materials, needed to provide homogenization, sterilization and solubilization. In this study, two pretreatment processes-steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis-were evaluated for potato and animal protein-rich food rest materials...
April 13, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Juan Han, Junhui Rong, Yun Wang, Qian Liu, Xu Tang, Cheng Li, Liang Ni
Magnetic double-shell hybrid microspheres (Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @p(NIPAM-co-GMA)) have been developed as a promising supported substrate for the immobilization of cellulase. Since the surface of the magnetic microspheres not only contains an epoxy group from GMA (glycidyl methacrylate) that can covalently bind to the enzyme, but also has an intelligent temperature response property from NIPAM (N-isopropylacrylamide), the cellulase can be covalently bonded to the magnetic microspheres and have a temperature-sensitive capability...
April 13, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
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