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Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594804/taking-stock-of-the-occupational-safety-and-health-challenges-of-nanotechnology-2000-2015
#1
P A Schulte, G Roth, L L Hodson, V Murashov, M D Hoover, R Zumwalde, E D Kuempel, C L Geraci, A B Stefaniak, V Castranova, J Howard
Engineered nanomaterials significantly entered commerce at the beginning of the 21st century. Concerns about serious potential health effects of nanomaterials were widespread. Now, approximately 15 years later, it is worthwhile to take stock of research and efforts to protect nanomaterial workers from potential risks of adverse health effects. This article provides and examines timelines for major functional areas (toxicology, metrology, exposure assessment, engineering controls and personal protective equipment, risk assessment, risk management, medical surveillance, and epidemiology) to identify significant contributions to worker safety and health...
June 2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774037/uptake-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-monocytic-thp-1-cells-depends-on-particle-size-and-presence-of-serum-proteins
#2
Katja Kettler, Christina Giannakou, Wim H de Jong, A Jan Hendriks, Petra Krystek
Human health risks by silver nanoparticle (AgNP) exposure are likely to increase due to the increasing number of NP-containing products and demonstrated adverse effects in various cell lines. Unfortunately, results from (toxicity) studies are often based on exposure dose and are often measured only at a fixed time point. NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Macrophages are the first line of defense against invading foreign agents including NPs. How macrophages deal with the particles is essential for potential toxicity of the NPs...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774036/effect-of-sonication-on-particle-dispersion-administered-dose-and-metal-release-of-non-functionalized-non-inert-metal-nanoparticles
#3
Sulena Pradhan, Jonas Hedberg, Eva Blomberg, Susanna Wold, Inger Odnevall Wallinder
ABSTRACT: In this study, we elucidate the effect of different sonication techniques to efficiently prepare particle dispersions from selected non-functionalized NPs (Cu, Al, Mn, ZnO), and corresponding consequences on the particle dose, surface charge and release of metals. Probe sonication was shown to be the preferred method for dispersing non-inert, non-functionalized metal NPs (Cu, Mn, Al). However, rapid sedimentation during sonication resulted in differences between the real and the administered doses in the order of 30-80 % when sonicating in 1 and 2...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766020/determining-the-composition-of-gold-nanoparticles-a-compilation-of-shapes-sizes-and-calculations-using-geometric-considerations
#4
Taizo Mori, Torsten Hegmann
ABSTRACT: Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656105/graphene-enterprise-mapping-innovation-and-business-development-in-a-strategic-emerging-technology
#5
Philip Shapira, Abdullah Gök, Fatemeh Salehi
This paper explores enterprise development and commercialization in the field of graphene. Firm characteristics and relationships, value chain positioning, and factors associated with product entry are examined for a set of 65 graphene-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises located in 16 different countries. As well as secondary sources and bibliometric methods to profile developments in graphene, we use computerized data mining and analytical techniques, including cluster and regression modeling, to identify patterns from publicly available online information on enterprise web sites...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642258/a-halogen-free-synthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-using-gold-iii-oxide
#6
Volodymyr Sashuk, Konrad Rogaczewski
Gold nanoparticles are one of the most used nanomaterials. They are usually synthesized by the reduction of gold(III) chloride. However, the presence of halide ions in the reaction mixture is not always welcome. In some cases, these ions have detrimental influence on the morphology and structure of resulting nanoparticles. Here, we present a simple and halogen-free procedure to prepare gold nanoparticles by reduction of gold(III) oxide in neat oleylamine. The method provides the particles with an average size below 10 nm and dispersity of tens of percent...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642257/new-rapid-method-to-measure-dissolved-silver-concentration-in-silver-nanoparticle-suspensions-by-aggregation-combined-with-centrifugation
#7
Feng Dong, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Jan-Ulrich Kreft
It is unclear whether the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are exclusively mediated by the release of silver ions (Ag(+)) or, instead, are due to combined nanoparticle and silver ion effects. Therefore, it is essential to quantify dissolved Ag in nanosilver suspensions for investigations of nanoparticle toxicity. We developed a method to measure dissolved Ag in Ag(+)/AgNPs mixtures by combining aggregation of AgNPs with centrifugation. We also describe the reproducible synthesis of stable, uncoated AgNPs...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642256/optimization-of-a-transferred-arc-reactor-for-metal-nanoparticle-synthesis
#8
Matthias Stein, Frank Einar Kruis
The demand for metal nanoparticles is increasing strongly. Transferred arc synthesis is a promising process in this respect, as it shows high production rates, good quality particles and the ability of up-scaling. The influence of several process parameters on the performance of the process in terms of production rate and particle size is investigated. These parameters are the electrode design and adjustment, the gas flow rate and power input. A novel feeding mechanism allows process operation over an extended time period...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642255/advantages-and-limitations-of-classic-and-3d-qsar-approaches-in-nano-qsar-studies-based-on-biological-activity-of-fullerene-derivatives
#9
Karolina Jagiello, Monika Grzonkowska, Marta Swirog, Lucky Ahmed, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, Aggelos Avramopoulos, Manthos G Papadopoulos, Jerzy Leszczynski, Tomasz Puzyn
In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616935/comments-on-the-article-by-a-j-lecloux-j-nanopart-res-2015-17-447-regarding-the-use-of-volume-specific-surface-area-vssa-to-classify-nanomaterials
#10
Neil Gibson, Hubert Rauscher, Gert Roebben
In November 2015, an article by A. J. Lecloux was published in this journal (J Nanopart Res, 17:447, 2015). The article focused on the use of volume-specific surface area (VSSA) for the implementation of the European Commission's recommended definition of "nanomaterial". In that paper, VSSA values were calculated for polydisperse particulate materials using a particle number-based averaging method which do not agree with earlier results of VSSA simulations of polydisperse materials reported in 2014 by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC)...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478406/contact-mechanics-of-highly-porous-oxide-nanoparticle-agglomerates
#11
Andrea Fabre, Samir Salameh, Lucio Colombi Ciacchi, Michiel T Kreutzer, J Ruud van Ommen
Efficient nanopowder processing requires knowledge of the powder's mechanical properties. Due to the large surface area to volume ratio, nanoparticles experience relatively strong attractive interactions, leading to the formation of micron-size porous structures called agglomerates. Significant effort has been directed towards the development of models and experimental procedures to estimate the elasticity of porous objects such as nanoparticle agglomerates; however, none of the existing models has been validated for solid fractions below 0...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471426/can-control-banding-be-useful-for-the-safe-handling-of-nanomaterials-a-systematic-review
#12
Adrienne Eastlake, Ralph Zumwalde, Charles Geraci
OBJECTIVES: Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441027/challenges-in-the-size-analysis-of-a-silica-nanoparticle-mixture-as-candidate-certified-reference-material
#13
Vikram Kestens, Gert Roebben, Jan Herrmann, Åsa Jämting, Victoria Coleman, Caterina Minelli, Charles Clifford, Pieter-Jan De Temmerman, Jan Mast, Liu Junjie, Frank Babick, Helmut Cölfen, Hendrik Emons
A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433139/exploring-the-effect-of-silver-nanoparticle-size-and-medium-composition-on-uptake-into-pulmonary-epithelial-16hbe14o-cells
#14
Katja Kettler, Petra Krystek, Christina Giannakou, A Jan Hendriks, Wim H de Jong
The increasing number of nanotechnology products on the market poses increasing human health risks by particle exposures. Adverse effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various cell lines have been measured based on exposure dose after a fixed time point, but NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Even though knowledge about relevant timescales for NP uptake is essential, e.g. for time- and cost-effective risk assessment through modelling, insufficient data are available...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398066/synthesis-of-compositionally-controllable-cu2-sn1-xgex-s3-nanocrystals-with-tunable-band-gaps
#15
Qingshuang Liang
In this work, we show that compositionally controlled Cu2(Sn1-xGex)S3 nanocrystals can be successfully synthesized by the hot-injection method through careful tuning the Ge/(Sn+Ge) precursor ratio. The band gaps of the resultant nanocrystals are demonstrated to be linearly tuned from 1.45 to 2.33 eV by adjusting the composition parameter x of the Ge/(Sn+Ge) ratio from 0.0 to 1.0. The crystalline structures of the resultant NCs have been studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), select area electron diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectroscopy...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375365/how-reliably-can-a-material-be-classified-as-a-nanomaterial-available-particle-sizing-techniques-at-work
#16
Frank Babick, Johannes Mielke, Wendel Wohlleben, Stefan Weigel, Vasile-Dan Hodoroaba
ABSTRACT: Currently established and projected regulatory frameworks require the classification of materials (whether nano or non-nano) as specified by respective definitions, most of which are based on the size of the constituent particles. This brings up the question if currently available techniques for particle size determination are capable of reliably classifying materials that potentially fall under these definitions. In this study, a wide variety of characterisation techniques, including counting, fractionating, and spectroscopic techniques, has been applied to the same set of materials under harmonised conditions...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358585/in-situ-production-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-molten-salt-phase-for-thermal-energy-storage-and-heat-transfer-fluid-applications
#17
Mathieu Lasfargues, Andrew Bell, Yulong Ding
In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size 16 nm) were successfully produced in molten salt phase and were showed to significantly enhance the specific heat capacity of a binary eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium nitrate (60/40) by 5.4 % at 390 °C and 7.5 % at 445 °C for 3.0 wt% of precursors used. The objective of this research was to develop a cost-effective alternate method of production which is potentially scalable, as current techniques utilized are not economically viable for large quantities...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069402/the-importance-of-particle-support-interaction-on-particle-size-determination-by-gas-chemisorption
#18
L Torrente-Murciano
ABSTRACT: The interaction of the metal-support and particle shape has a key role on the determination of the particle size by gas chemisorption. This paper demonstrates mathematically that, assuming metal particles with hemispherical shapes (a common assumption in this type of characterisation) can provide misleading results of up to one order of magnitude. Thus, the metal particle sizes are underestimated when the metal strongly interacts with the support and overestimated when there is a weak metal-support interaction...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069401/validation-of-an-air-liquid-interface-toxicological-set-up-using-cu-pd-and-ag-well-characterized-nanostructured-aggregates-and-spheres
#19
C R Svensson, S S Ameer, L Ludvigsson, N Ali, A Alhamdow, M E Messing, J Pagels, A Gudmundsson, M Bohgard, E Sanfins, M Kåredal, K Broberg, J Rissler
ABSTRACT: Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air-liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT)...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941564/de-agglomeration-and-homogenisation-of-nanoparticles-in-coal-tar-pitch-based-carbon-materials
#20
Maciej Gubernat, Janusz Tomala, Wilhelm Frohs, Aneta Fraczek-Szczypta, Stanislaw Blazewicz
The aim of the work was to characterise coal tar pitch (CTP) modified with selected nanoparticles as a binder precursor for the manufacture of synthetic carbon materials. Different factors influencing the preliminary preparative steps in the preparation of homogenous nanoparticle/CTP composition were studied. Graphene flakes, carbon black and nano-sized silicon carbide were used to modify CTP. Prior to introducing them into liquid CTP, nanoparticles were subjected to sonication. Various dispersants were used to prepare the suspensions, i...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
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