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So Young An, Eun-Hee Kim, Jeong-Yong Suh
Proteins assemble to form functional complexes via the progressive evolution of nonspecific complexes formed by transient encounters. This target search process generally involves multiple routes that lead the initial encounters to the final complex. In this study, we have employed NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement to visualize the encounter complexes between histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein and the N-terminal domain of enzyme I and demonstrate that protein association can be significantly enhanced by engineering on-pathways...
May 1, 2018: Structure
Alberto Bartesaghi, Cecilia Aguerrebere, Veronica Falconieri, Soojay Banerjee, Lesley A Earl, Xing Zhu, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Jacqueline L S Milne, Guillermo Sapiro, Xiongwu Wu, Sriram Subramaniam
The advent of direct electron detectors has enabled the routine use of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) approaches to determine structures of a variety of protein complexes at near-atomic resolution. Here, we report the development of methods to account for local variations in defocus and beam-induced drift, and the implementation of a data-driven dose compensation scheme that significantly improves the extraction of high-resolution information recorded during exposure of the specimen to the electron beam...
April 30, 2018: Structure
Raffaele Raucci, Elodie Laine, Alessandra Carbone
Several models estimating the strength of the interaction between proteins in a complex have been proposed. By exploring the geometry of contact distribution at protein-protein interfaces, we provide an improved model of binding energy. Local interaction signal analysis (LISA) is a radial function based on terms describing favorable and non-favorable contacts obtained by density functional theory, the support-core-rim interface residue distribution, non-interacting charged residues and secondary structures contribution...
April 28, 2018: Structure
Nicholas P Stone, Brendan J Hilbert, Daniel Hidalgo, Kevin T Halloran, Jooyoung Lee, Erik J Sontheimer, Brian A Kelch
Virus capsids are protein shells that protect the viral genome from environmental assaults, while maintaining the high internal pressure of the tightly packaged genome. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability under harsh conditions, we investigated the capsid components of the hyperthermophilic phage P74-26. We determined the structure of capsid protein gp87 and show that it has the same fold as decoration proteins in many other phages, despite lacking significant sequence homology. We also find that gp87 is significantly more stable than mesophilic homologs...
April 26, 2018: Structure
Roland G Huber, Nils A Berglund, Vasileios Kargas, Jan K Marzinek, Daniel A Holdbrook, Syma Khalid, Thomas J Piggot, Artur Schmidtchen, Peter J Bond
The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharide, which potently stimulates the mammalian innate immune response. This involves a relay of specialized complexes culminating in transfer of lipopolysaccharide from CD14 to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its co-receptor MD-2 on the cell surface, leading to activation of downstream inflammatory responses. In this study we develop computational models to trace the TLR4 cascade in near-atomic detail. We demonstrate through rigorous thermodynamic calculations that lipopolysaccharide molecules traversing the receptor cascade fall into a thermodynamic funnel...
April 25, 2018: Structure
Artem Zhmurov, Anna D Protopopova, Rustem I Litvinov, Pavel Zhukov, John W Weisel, Valeri Barsegov
The space-filling fibrin network is a major part of clots and thrombi formed in blood. Fibrin polymerization starts when fibrinogen, a plasma protein, is proteolytically converted to fibrin, which self-assembles to form double-stranded protofibrils. When reaching a critical length, these intermediate species aggregate laterally to transform into fibers arranged into branched fibrin network. We combined multiscale modeling in silico with atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to reconstruct complete atomic models of double-stranded fibrin protofibrils with γ-γ crosslinking, A:a and B:b knob-hole bonds, and αC regions-all important structural determinants not resolved crystallographically...
April 24, 2018: Structure
Christine S Huang, Nina Oberbeck, Yi-Chun Hsiao, Peter Liu, Adam R Johnson, Vishva M Dixit, Sarah G Hymowitz
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is a highly conserved regulator of epidermal differentiation. Members of the RIPK family possess a common kinase domain as well as unique accessory domains that likely dictate subcellular localization and substrate preferences. Mutations in human RIPK4 manifest as Bartsocas-Papas syndrome (BPS), a genetic disorder characterized by severe craniofacial and limb abnormalities. We describe the structure of the murine Ripk4 (MmRipk4) kinase domain, in ATP- and inhibitor-bound forms...
April 24, 2018: Structure
Leah Gottlieb, Ronen Marmorstein
Co-translational N-terminal protein acetylation regulates many protein functions including degradation, folding, interprotein interactions, and targeting. Human NatA (hNatA), one of six conserved metazoan N-terminal acetyltransferases, contains Naa10 catalytic and Naa15 auxiliary subunits, and associates with the intrinsically disordered Huntingtin yeast two-hybrid protein K (HYPK). We report on the crystal structures of hNatA and hNatA/HYPK, and associated biochemical and enzymatic analyses. We demonstrate that hNatA contains unique features: a stabilizing inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 ) molecule and a metazoan-specific Naa15 domain that mediates high-affinity HYPK binding...
April 23, 2018: Structure
Egor Svidritskiy, Andrei A Korostelev
Translation termination ensures proper lengths of cellular proteins. During termination, release factor (RF) recognizes a stop codon and catalyzes peptide release. Conformational changes in RF are thought to underlie accurate translation termination. However, structural studies of ribosome termination complexes have only captured RFs in a conformation that is consistent with the catalytically active state. Here, we employ a hyper-accurate RF1 variant to obtain crystal structures of 70S termination complexes that suggest a structural pathway for RF1 activation...
April 23, 2018: Structure
Daniel L Hurdiss, Martin Frank, Joseph S Snowden, Andrew Macdonald, Neil A Ranson
BK polyomavirus (BKV) causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis in immunosuppressed patients. These are diseases for which we currently have limited treatment options, but potential therapies could include pre-transplant vaccination with a multivalent BKV vaccine or therapeutics which inhibit capsid assembly or block attachment and entry into target cells. A useful tool in such efforts would be a high-resolution structure of the infectious BKV virion and how this interacts with its full repertoire of cellular receptors...
April 21, 2018: Structure
Jillian A Parker, Alicia Y Volmar, Spiro Pavlopoulos, Carla Mattos
Structures of wild-type K-Ras from crystals obtained in the presence of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) or its analogs have remained elusive. Of the K-Ras mutants, only K-RasG12D and K-RasQ61H are available in the PDB representing the activated form of the GTPase not in complex with other proteins. We present the crystal structure of wild-type K-Ras bound to the GTP analog GppCH2 p, with K-Ras in the state 1 conformation. Signatures of conformational states obtained by one-dimensional proton NMR confirm that K-Ras has a more substantial population of state 1 in solution than H-Ras, which predominantly favors state 2...
April 20, 2018: Structure
Soumya G Remesh, Anthony A Armstrong, Andrew D Mahan, Jinquan Luo, Michal Hammel
Fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody binds to specific Fc receptors (FcγRs) to control antibody effector functions. Currently, engineered specific Fc-FcγR interactions are validated with a static conformation derived from the crystal structure. However, computational evidence suggests that the conformational variability of Fcs plays an important role in receptor recognition. Here we elucidate Fc flexibility of IgG1, IgG2, and IgG1 Fc with mutations (M255Y/S257T/T259E) in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)...
April 18, 2018: Structure
Johan Hattne, Dan Shi, Calina Glynn, Chih-Te Zee, Marcus Gallagher-Jones, Michael W Martynowycz, Jose A Rodriguez, Tamir Gonen
Micro-crystal electron diffraction (MicroED) combines the efficiency of electron scattering with diffraction to allow structure determination from nano-sized crystalline samples in cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM). It has been used to solve structures of a diverse set of biomolecules and materials, in some cases to sub-atomic resolution. However, little is known about the damaging effects of the electron beam on samples during such measurements. We assess global and site-specific damage from electron radiation on nanocrystals of proteinase K and of a prion hepta-peptide and find that the dynamics of electron-induced damage follow well-established trends observed in X-ray crystallography...
April 18, 2018: Structure
Neil R Lloyd, Deborah S Wuttke
Pot1 is the shelterin component responsible for the protection of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang at telomeres in nearly all eukaryotic organisms. The C-terminal domain of the DNA-binding domain, Pot1pC, exhibits non-specific ssDNA recognition, achieved through thermodynamically equivalent alternative binding conformations. Given this flexibility, it is unclear how specificity for ssDNA over RNA, an activity required for biological function, is achieved. Examination of the ribose-position specificity of Pot1pC shows that ssDNA specificity is additive but not uniformly distributed across the ligand...
April 18, 2018: Structure
Patrizia M Spoerri, Hideaki E Kato, Moritz Pfreundschuh, Stefania A Mari, Tetiana Serdiuk, Johannes Thoma, K Tanuj Sapra, Cheng Zhang, Brian K Kobilka, Daniel J Müller
The protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation, is activated by thrombin or other coagulation proteases. This activation is inhibited by the irreversible antagonist vorapaxar used for anti-platelet therapy. Despite detailed structural and functional information, how vorapaxar binding alters the structural properties of PAR1 to prevent activation is hardly known. Here we apply dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to characterize how vorapaxar binding changes the mechanical, kinetic, and energetic properties of human PAR1 under physiologically relevant conditions...
April 17, 2018: Structure
Andrew G Hettle, Chelsea Vickers, Craig S Robb, Feng Liu, Stephen G Withers, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, Alisdair B Boraston
Sulfatases play a biologically important role by cleaving sulfate groups from molecules. They can be identified on the basis of signature sequences within their primary structures, and the largest family, S1, has predictable features that contribute specifically to the recognition and catalytic removal of sulfate groups. However, despite advances in the prediction and understanding of S1 sulfatases, a major question regards the molecular determinants that drive substrate recognition beyond the targeted sulfate group...
April 12, 2018: Structure
Katrine Bugge, Lasse Staby, Katherine R Kemplen, Charlotte O'Shea, Sidsel K Bendsen, Mikael K Jensen, Johan G Olsen, Karen Skriver, Birthe B Kragelund
Communication within cells relies on a few protein nodes called hubs, which organize vast interactomes with many partners. Frequently, hub proteins are intrinsically disordered conferring multi-specificity and dynamic communication. Conversely, folded hub proteins may organize networks using disordered partners. In this work, the structure of the RST domain, a unique folded hub, is solved by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and its complex with a region of the transcription factor DREB2A is provided through data-driven HADDOCK modeling and mutagenesis analysis...
April 12, 2018: Structure
Tanmay A M Bharat, Patrick C Hoffmann, Wanda Kukulski
Electron microscopy imaging of macromolecular complexes in their native cellular context is limited by the inherent difficulty to acquire high-resolution tomographic data from thick cells and to specifically identify elusive structures within crowded cellular environments. Here, we combined cryo-fluorescence microscopy with electron cryo-tomography of vitreous sections into a coherent correlative microscopy workflow, ideal for detection and structural analysis of elusive protein assemblies in situ. We used this workflow to address an open question on BAR-domain coating of yeast plasma membrane compartments known as eisosomes...
April 10, 2018: Structure
David C Briggs, Erhard Hohenester
Proteoglycans (PGs) are essential components of the animal extracellular matrix and are required for cell adhesion, migration, signaling, and immune function. PGs are composed of a core protein and long glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which often specify PG function. GAG biosynthesis is initiated by peptide O-xylosyltransferases, which transfer xylose onto selected serine residues in the core proteins. We have determined crystal structures of human xylosyltransferase 1 (XT1) in complex with the sugar donor, UDP-xylose, and various acceptor peptides...
April 10, 2018: Structure
Brinda Vallat, Benjamin Webb, John D Westbrook, Andrej Sali, Helen M Berman
Essential processes in biology are carried out by large macromolecular assemblies, whose structures are often difficult to determine by traditional methods. Increasingly, researchers combine measured data and computed information from several complementary methods to obtain "hybrid" or "integrative" structural models of macromolecules and their assemblies. These integrative/hybrid (I/H) models are not archived in the PDB because of the absence of standard data representations and processing mechanisms...
April 9, 2018: Structure
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