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Joseph J B Cockburn, Sophie J Hesketh, Peter Mulhair, Maren Thomsen, Mary J O'Connell, Michael Way
Kinesin-1 transports numerous cellular cargoes along microtubules. The kinesin-1 light chain (KLC) mediates cargo binding and regulates kinesin-1 motility. To investigate the molecular basis for kinesin-1 recruitment and activation by cargoes, we solved the crystal structure of the KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain bound to the cargo JIP3. This, combined with biophysical and molecular evolutionary analyses, reveals a kinesin-1 cargo binding site, located on KLC TPR1, which is conserved in homologs from sponges to humans...
August 23, 2018: Structure
Amy L Stiegler, Titus J Boggon
The pseudoGTPases are a rapidly growing and important group of pseudoenzymes. p190RhoGAP proteins are critical regulators of Rho signaling and contain two previously identified pseudoGTPase domains. Here we report that p190RhoGAP proteins contain a third pseudoGTPase domain, termed N-GTPase. We find that GTP constitutively purifies with the N-GTPase domain, and a 2.8-Å crystal structure of p190RhoGAP-A co-purified with GTP reveals an unusual GTP-Mg2+ binding pocket. Six inserts in N-GTPase indicate perturbed catalytic activity and inability to bind to canonical GTPase activating proteins, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and effector proteins...
August 16, 2018: Structure
Meiling Zhang, David A Case, Jeffrey W Peng
Inter-residue interactions stabilize protein folds and facilitate allosteric communication. Predicting which interactions are crucial and understanding why remain challenging. We highlight this through studies of a single peripheral mutation (Q33E) on the surface of the Pin1 WW domain that causes an unexpected loss of thermostability. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies attribute the loss to reorganizations of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, resulting in propagated conformational perturbations. The propagation demonstrates the cooperative response of Pin1 WW to external perturbations, consistent with its allosteric behavior within Pin1...
August 13, 2018: Structure
Agnieszka J Pietrzyk-Brzezinska, Eva Absmeier, Eberhard Klauck, Yanlin Wen, Haike Antelmann, Markus C Wahl
Eukaryotic DExH-box proteins are important post-transcriptional gene regulators, many of which employ RNA-stimulated nucleoside triphosphatase activity to remodel RNAs or ribonucleoprotein complexes. However, bacterial DExH-box proteins are structurally and functionally poorly characterized. We report the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli DExH-box protein HrpB. A globular head is composed of dual RecA, winged-helix, helical bundle and oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domains, resembling a compact version of eukaryotic DExH-box proteins...
August 13, 2018: Structure
Gustavo A Afanador, Diana R Tomchick, Margaret A Phillips
Trypanosoma brucei is a neglected tropical disease endemic to Africa. The polyamine spermidine is essential for post-translational hypusine modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which is catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (TbDHS). In trypanosomatids, deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) activity is dependent on heterotetramer formation between two paralogs, DHSc and DHSp, both with minimal activity on their own due to missing catalytic residues. We determined the X-ray structure of TbDHS showing a single functional shared active site is formed at the DHSc/DHSp heterodimer interface, with deficiencies in one subunit complemented by the other...
August 9, 2018: Structure
Bo Wang, Zhong-Ru Xie, Jiawen Chen, Yinghao Wu
The information of how two proteins interact is embedded in the atomic details of their binding interfaces. These interactions, spatial-temporally coordinating each other as a network in a variable cytoplasmic environment, dominate almost all biological functions. A feasible and reliable computational model is highly demanded to realistically simulate these cellular processes and unravel the complexities beneath them. We therefore present a multiscale framework that integrates simulations on two different scales...
August 8, 2018: Structure
Ashok K Rout, Xufeng Wu, Mary R Starich, Marie-Paule Strub, John A Hammer, Nico Tjandra
Melanoregulin (Mreg) is a small, highly charged, multiply palmitoylated protein present on the membrane of melanosomes. Mreg is implicated in the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes, and in promoting the microtubule minus end-directed transport of these organelles. The possible molecular function of Mreg was identified by solving its structure using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Mreg contains six α helices forming a fishhook-like fold in which positive and negative charges occupy opposite sides of the protein's surface and sandwich a putative, cholesterol recognition sequence (CRAC motif)...
August 8, 2018: Structure
Georg Kempf, Goran Stjepanovic, Jeremy Sloan, Astrid Hendricks, Karine Lapouge, Irmgard Sinning
The Escherichia coli signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor, FtsY, plays a fundamental role in co-translational targeting of membrane proteins via the SRP pathway. Efficient targeting relies on membrane interaction of FtsY and heterodimerization with the SRP protein Ffh, which is driven by detachment of α helix (αN1) in FtsY. Here we show that apart from the heterodimer, FtsY forms a nucleotide-dependent homodimer on the membrane, and upon αN1 removal also in solution. Homodimerization triggers reciprocal stimulation of GTP hydrolysis and occurs in vivo...
August 8, 2018: Structure
Jie Zheng, Cesar Corzo, Mi Ra Chang, Jinsai Shang, Vinh Q Lam, Richard Brust, Anne-Laure Blayo, John B Bruning, Theodore M Kamenecka, Douglas J Kojetin, Patrick R Griffin
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are pharmacological targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Previously, we demonstrated the anti-diabetic effects of SR1664, a PPARγ modulator lacking classical transcriptional agonism, despite its poor pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we report identification of the antagonist SR11023 as a potent insulin sensitizer with significant plasma exposure following oral administration. To determine the structural mechanism of ligand-dependent antagonism of PPARγ, we employed an integrated approach combining solution-phase biophysical techniques to monitor activation helix (helix 12) conformational dynamics...
August 8, 2018: Structure
Ashley N Matthew, Florian Leidner, Alicia Newton, Christos J Petropoulos, Wei Huang, Akbar Ali, Nese KurtYilmaz, Celia A Schiffer
Despite significant progress in hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor (PI) drug design, resistance remains a problem causing treatment failure. Double-substitution variants, notably Y56H/D168A, have emerged in patients who fail therapy with a PI-containing regimen. The resistance conferred by Asp168 substitutions has been well characterized and avoided in newer inhibitors. However, an additional mutation at Tyr56 confers resistance to even the most robust inhibitors. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance for the Y56H/D168A variant against grazoprevir (and four analogs), paritaprevir, and danoprevir through inhibition assays, co-crystal structures, and molecular dynamics simulations...
August 7, 2018: Structure
Kyle M Stiers, Lesa J Beamer
Human phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) plays a central role in cellular glucose homeostasis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. Recently, missense variants of this enzyme were identified as causing an inborn error of metabolism, PGM1 deficiency, with features of a glycogen storage disease and a congenital disorder of glycosylation. Previous studies of selected PGM1 variants have revealed various mechanisms for enzyme dysfunction, including regions of structural disorder and side-chain rearrangements within the active site...
August 7, 2018: Structure
Adeline Y Robin, Sweta Iyer, Richard W Birkinshaw, Jarrod Sandow, Ahmad Wardak, Cindy S Luo, Melissa Shi, Andrew I Webb, Peter E Czabotar, Ruth M Kluck, Peter M Colman
BAX and BAK are essential mediators of intrinsic apoptosis that permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. BAX activation requires its translocation from cytosol to mitochondria where conformational changes cause its oligomerization. To better understand the critical step of translocation, we examined its blockade by mutation near the C terminus (P168G) or by antibody binding near the N terminus. Similarities in the crystal structures of wild-type and BAX P168G but significant other differences suggest that cytosolic BAX exists as an ensemble of conformers, and that the distribution of conformers within the ensemble determines the different functions of wild-type and mutant proteins...
August 4, 2018: Structure
Markus Blaukopf, Liam Worrall, Paul Kosma, Natalie C J Strynadka, Stephen G Withers
Heptosyltransferase I (WaaC) is a highly conserved glycosyltransferase found in Gram-negative bacteria that transfers a heptose residue onto the endotoxin inner core structure (ReLPS) of the outer membrane. Knockouts of WaaC have decreased virulence and increased susceptibility to antibiotics, making WaaC a potential drug target. While previous studies have elucidated the structure of the holoenzyme and a donor analog complex, no information on the binding mode of the acceptor has been available so far. By soaking of a chemically modified functional acceptor, along with a stable donor analog, the crystal structure of a pseudo-ternary complex of WaaC was obtained at 2...
July 23, 2018: Structure
Elif Eren, Norman R Watts, Altaira D Dearborn, Ira W Palmer, Joshua D Kaufman, Alasdair C Steven, Paul T Wingfield
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide. While an adequate vaccine is available, current treatment options are limited, not highly effective, and associated with adverse effects, encouraging the development of alternative therapeutics. The HBV core gene encodes two different proteins: core, which forms the viral nucleocapsid, and pre-core, which serves as an immune modulator with multiple points of action. The two proteins mostly have the same sequence, although they differ at their N and C termini and in their dimeric arrangements...
July 17, 2018: Structure
Ryuji Yamazawa, Chimari Jiko, Saehae Choi, Il Yeong Park, Atsushi Nakagawa, Eiki Yamashita, Soo Jae Lee
In the nucleus, RanGTP binding to importin dissociates the cargo. On the other hand, RanGTP enables exportin to bind export cargo and form the export complex by each exportin's own cargo selection mechanism. Here, we present two X-ray structures for Exportin-5 (Exp-5) alone and Exp-5:RanGTP intermediate complex. The structure of Exp-5 adopts a ring-shaped closed conformation by C-terminal anchor residues 1,167-1,179, interacting with N-terminal heat repeats 4-9. The closed form of Exp-5 is important for the stability of the cargo-free state...
July 16, 2018: Structure
Rakhi Bajaj, Mathieu Bollen, Wolfgang Peti, Rebecca Page
The kinetochore scaffold 1 (KNL1) protein coordinates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a signaling pathway that delays chromosome segregation until all sister chromatids are properly attached to spindle microtubules. Recently, microtubules and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which both bind the N-terminal domain of KNL1, have emerged as regulators of the SAC; however, how these proteins interact to contribute to SAC signaling is unknown. Here, we use X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and biochemical assays to show how KNL1 binds both PP1 and microtubules...
July 13, 2018: Structure
Idit Dahan, Simona Sorrentino, Rajaa Boujemaa-Paterski, Ohad Medalia
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their conjugation to biological samples have numerous potential applications. When combined with cryo-electron microscopy and tomography analysis, AuNPs may provide a versatile and powerful tool to identify and precisely localize proteins even when attached to cellular components. Here, we describe a general and facile approach for the synthesis of homogeneous and stable AuNPs, which can readily be conjugated to a molecule of interest and imaged by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET)...
July 12, 2018: Structure
David Pulido, Urvashi Sharma, Sandrine Vadon-Le Goff, Sadaf-Ahmahni Hussain, Sarah Cordes, Natacha Mariano, Emmanuel Bettler, Catherine Moali, Nushin Aghajari, Erhard Hohenester, David J S Hulmes
Procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 (PCPE-1) is a secreted protein that specifically accelerates proteolytic release of the C-propeptides from fibrillar procollagens, a crucial step in fibril assembly. As such, it is a potential therapeutic target to improve tissue repair and prevent fibrosis, a major cause of mortality worldwide. Here we present the crystal structure of the active CUB1CUB2 fragment of PCPE-1 bound to the C-propeptide trimer of procollagen III (CPIII). This shows that the two CUB domains bind to two different chains of CPIII and that the N-terminal region of one CPIII chain, close to the proteolytic cleavage site, lies in the cleft between CUB1 and CUB2...
July 12, 2018: Structure
Katrien Willegems, Rouslan G Efremov
Understanding gating principles of ion channels at high resolution is of great importance. Here we investigate the conformational transition from closed to open state in ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs. RyR1 is a homotetrameric giant ion channel that couples excitation of muscle cells to fast calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using single-particle cryo-EM we show that RyR1 reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs is stabilized in the open conformation when bound to the plant toxin ryanodine, but not in the presence of its physiological activators, calcium and ATP...
July 12, 2018: Structure
Mizuki Takemoto, Yongchan Lee, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Osamu Nureki
Secondary active transporters translocate their substrates using the electrochemical potentials of other chemicals and undergo large-scale conformational changes. Despite extensive structural studies, the atomic details of the transport mechanism still remain elusive. We performed a series of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the triose-phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT), which exports organic phosphates in the chloroplast stroma in strict counter exchange with inorganic phosphate (Pi ). Biased sampling methods, including the string method and umbrella sampling, successfully reproduced the conformational changes between the inward- and outward-facing states, along with the substrate binding...
September 4, 2018: Structure
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