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FEMS Yeast Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087675/dna-repair-and-mutations-during-quiescence-in-yeast
#1
Serge Gangloff, Benoit Arcangioli
Life is maintained through alternating phases of cell division and quiescence. The causes and consequences of spontaneous mutations have been extensively explored in proliferating cells, and the major sources include errors of DNA replication and DNA repair. The foremost consequences are genetic variations within a cell population that can lead to heritable diseases and drive evolution. While most of our knowledge on DNA damage response and repair has been gained through cells actively dividing, it remains essential to also understand how DNA damage is metabolized in cells which are not dividing...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087674/yeast-as-a-tool-to-express-sugar-acid-transporters-with-biotechnological-interest
#2
David Ribas, Joana Sá-Pessoa, Isabel Soares-Silva, Sandra Paiva, Yvonne Nygård, Laura Ruohonen, Merja Penttilä, Margarida Casal
Sugar acids can be used as platform chemicals to generate primary building blocks of industrially relevant products. Microbial production of these organic compounds at high yields requires the engineering of the enzymatic machinery and the presence of plasma membrane transporters able to export them outside the cells. In this study several yeast carboxylic acid transporters belonging to the Jen family were screened for the transport of biotechnologically relevant sugar acids, namely gluconic, saccharic, mucic, xylaric and xylonic acid, and functionally characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We show that Jen permeases are capable of transporting most of these sugar acids, although with different specificities...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087673/rdna-stability-is-supported-by-many-buffer-genes-introduction-to-the-yeast-rdna-stability-database
#3
Takehiko Kobayashi, Mariko Sasaki
The ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) is the most abundant gene in yeast and other eukaryotic organisms. Due to its heavy transcription, repetitive structure and programmed replication fork pauses, the rDNA is one of the most unstable regions in the genome. Thus, the rDNA is the best region to study the mechanisms responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Recently, we screened a library of ∼4,800 budding yeast gene knockout strains to identify mutants defective in the maintenance of rDNA stability. The results of this screen are summarized in the Yeast rDNA Stability Database, in which the stability and copy number of rDNA in each mutant are presented...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087672/elimination-of-sucrose-transport-and-hydrolysis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-platform-strain-for-engineering-sucrose-metabolism
#4
Wesley Leoricy Marques, Robert Mans, Eko Roy Marella, Rosa Lorizolla Cordeiro, Marcel van den Broek, Jean-Marc G Daran, Jack T Pronk, Andreas K Gombert, Antonius J A van Maris
Many relevant options to improve efficacy and kinetics of sucrose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, thereby, the economics of sucrose-based processes, remain to be investigated. An essential first step is to identify all native sucrose-hydrolysing enzymes and sucrose transporters in this yeast, including those that can be activated by suppressor mutations in sucrose-negative strains. A strain in which all known sucrose-transporter genes (MAL11, MAL21, MAL31, MPH2, MPH3) were deleted did not grow on sucrose after 2 months of incubation...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073930/editorial-3rs-tightly-intertwined-to-maintain-genome-stability
#5
EDITORIAL
Michael Lisby, Uffe H Mortensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073929/improving-heterologous-production-of-phenylpropanoids-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-tackling-an-unwanted-side-reaction-of-tsc13-an-endogenous-double-bond-reductase
#6
Beata Joanna Lehka, Michael Eichenberger, Walden Emil Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Katherina Garcia Vanegas, Nicolaas Buijs, Niels Bjerg Jensen, Jane Dannow Dyekjær, Håvard Jenssen, Ernesto Simon, Michael Naesby
Phenylpropanoids, such as flavonoids and stilbenoids, are of great commercial interest, and their production in S. cerevisiae is a very promising strategy. However, to achieve commercially viable production, each step of the process must be optimized. We looked at carbon loss, known to occur in the heterologous flavonoid pathway in yeast, and identified an endogenous enzyme, the enoyl reductase Tsc13, which turned out to be responsible for the accumulation of phloretic acid via reduction of p-coumaroyl-CoA...
January 10, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011906/saccharomyces-uvarum-is-responsible-for-the-traditional-fermentation-of-apple-chicha-in-patagonia
#7
M E Rodríguez, L Pérez-Través, M P Sangorrín, E Barrio, A Querol, C A Lopes
Apple chicha is a fresh low alcoholic beverage elaborated by aboriginal communities of Andean Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). In the present work we identified the yeast microbiota associated with this fermentation, and characterized genetically those belonging to the genus Saccharomyces Both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum were found in the analyzed fermentations. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses based on genes sequence analysis were carried out for both S. cerevisiae and S...
December 23, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011905/replication-fork-regression-and-its-regulation
#8
Xiangzhou Meng, Xiaolan Zhao
One major challenge during genome duplication is the stalling of DNA replication forks by various forms of template blockages. As these barriers can lead to incomplete replication, multiple mechanisms have to act concertedly to correct and rescue stalled replication forks. Among these mechanisms, replication fork regression entails simultaneous annealing of nascent and template strands, which leads to regression of replication forks and formation of four-way DNA junctions. In principle, this process can lead to either positive outcomes, such as DNA repair and replication resumption, or less desirable outcomes, such as misalignment between nascent and template DNA and DNA cleavage...
December 23, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011904/multifunctional-roles-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-srs2-protein-in-replication-recombination-and-repair
#9
Hengyao Niu, Hannah L Klein
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 DNA helicase has important roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair. In replication, Srs2 aids in repair of gaps by repair synthesis by preventing gaps from being used to initiate recombination. This is considered to be an anti-recombination role. In recombination, Srs2 plays both pro-recombination and anti-recombination roles to promote the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) recombination pathway and to inhibit gaps from initiating homologous recombination (HR)...
December 23, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993913/direct-stamp-of-technology-or-origin-on-the-genotypic-and-phenotypic-variation-of-indigenous-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-population-in-a-natural-model-of-boiled-grape-juice-fermentation-into-traditional-msalais-wine-in-china
#10
Li-Xia Zhu, Guan-Qiong Wang, Ju-Lan Xue, Dong-Qi Gou, Chang-Qing Duan
Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the inter-delta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais...
December 18, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956494/sch-9p-kinase-and-the-gcn4p-transcription-factor-regulate-glycerol-production-during-winemaking
#11
Beatriz Vallejo, Helena Orozco, Cecilia Picazo, Emilia Matallana, Agustín Aranda
Grape juice fermentation is a harsh environment with many stressful conditions, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts its metabolism in response to those environmental challenges. Many nutrient-sensing pathways control this feature. The Tor/Sch 9p pathway promotes growth and protein synthesis when nutrients are plenty, while the transcription factor Gcn4p is required for the activation of amino acid biosynthetic pathways. We previously showed that Sch 9p impact on longevity depends on the nitrogen/carbon ratio...
December 11, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956493/laura-frontali-my-life-with-yeast
#12
Laura Frontali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956492/screening-for-novel-genes-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-involved-in-recombinant-antibody-production
#13
Jorg C de Ruijter, German Jurgens, Alexander D Frey
Cost-effective manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals in non-mammalian hosts still requires tremendous efforts in strain development. In order to expedite identification of novel leads for strain engineering, we used a transposon-mutagenized yeast genomic DNA library to create a collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains expressing a full-length IgG antibody. Using a high-throughput screening, transformants with either significantly higher or lower IgG expression were selected. The integration site of the transposon in three of the selected strains was located by DNA sequencing...
December 11, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956491/fermentation-assays-reveal-differences-in-sugar-and-off-flavor-metabolism-across-different-brettanomyces-bruxellensis-strains
#14
Sam Crauwels, Filip Van Opstaele, Barbara Jaskula-Goiris, Jan Steensels, Christel Verreth, Lien Bosmans, Caroline Paulussen, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Ronnie de Jonge, Jessika De Clippeleer, Kathleen Marchal, Gorik De Samblanx, Kris A Willems, Kevin J Verstrepen, Guido Aerts, Bart Lievens
Brettanomyces (Dekkera) bruxellensis is an ascomycetous yeast of major importance in the food, beverage and biofuel industry. It has been isolated from various man-made ecological niches that are typically characterized by harsh environmental conditions such as wine, beer, soft drink etc. Recent comparative genomics studies revealed an immense intraspecific diversity, but it is still unclear whether this genetic diversity also leads to systematic differences in fermentation performance and (off-)flavor production, and to what extent strains have evolved to match their ecological niche...
December 11, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915244/antifungal-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-of-a-salmon-protamine-peptide-and-its-derived-cyclic-peptide-against-candida-albicans
#15
Jun-Ichi Nagao, Tamaki Cho, Makoto Mitarai, Keishi Iohara, Kazumi Hayama, Shigeru Abe, Yoshihiko Tanaka
Protamine peptides (PP) derived from salmon are 14-mer consisting of 10 arginine residues. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of PP against Candida albicans PP showed the concentration-dependent dual mode of action; fungicidal activity and inhibitory activity of hyphal development in vitro. At lethal concentration of PP, intracellular accumulation of PP was energy-dependent but independent of endocytosis that resulted in ATP efflux and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915243/signaling-pathways-of-replication-stress-in-yeast
#16
Benjamin Pardo, Laure Crabbé, Philippe Pasero
Eukaryotic cells activate the S-phase checkpoint in response to a variety of events affecting the progression of replication forks, collectively referred to as replication stress. This signaling pathway is divided in two branches: the DNA damage checkpoint (DDC) and the DNA replication checkpoint (DRC). Both pathways are activated by the sensor kinase Mec1 and converge on the effector kinase Rad53. However, the DDC operates throughout the cell cycle and depends on the checkpoint mediator Rad9 to activate Rad53, whereas the DRC is specific to S phase and is mediated by Mrc1 and other fork components to signal replication impediments...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915242/distinct-mechanisms-of-mutant-huntingtin-toxicity-in-different-yeast-strains
#17
Genrikh V Serpionov, Alexander I Alexandrov, Michael D Ter-Avanesyan
Expansion of polyglutamine stretches in several proteins cause neurodegenerative amyloidoses, including Huntington disease. In yeast, mutant huntingtin (mHtt) with a stretch of 103 glutamine residues (HttQ103) forms toxic aggregates. A range of yeast strains have been used to elucidate the mechanisms of mHtt toxicity, and have revealed perturbations of various unrelated processes. HttQ103 aggregates can induce aggregation of cellular proteins, many of which contain glutamine/asparagine-rich regions, including Sup35 and Def1...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856503/functional-analysis-of-debaryomyces-hansenii-rpn4-on-a-genetic-background-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Dmitry S Karpov, Evgenia N Grineva, Arvo T Leinsoo, Nonna I Nadolinskaia, Nataliya K Danilenko, Vera V Tutyaeva, Daria S Spasskaya, Olga V Preobrazhenskaya, Yuriy P Lysov, Vadim L Karpov
The transcription factor ScRpn4 coordinates the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteasomal genes. ScRpn4 orthologs are found in a number of other Saccharomycetes yeasts. Their functions, however, have not yet been characterised experimentally in vivo. We expressed the Debaryomyces hansenii DEHA2D12848 gene encoding an ScRpn4 ortholog (DhRpn4), in an S. cerevisiae strain lacking RPN4 We showed that DhRpn4 activates transcription of proteasomal genes using ScRpn4 binding site and provides resistance to various stresses...
November 16, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799300/relocalization-of-dna-lesions-to-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#19
Catherine H Freudenreich, Xiaofeng A Su
Early screens in yeast for mutations exhibiting sensitivity to DNA damage identified nuclear pore components, but their role in DNA repair was not well understood. Over the last decade, studies have revealed that several types of persistent DNA lesions relocate to either the nuclear pore complex (NPC) or nuclear envelope. Of these two sites, the nuclear pore appears to be crucial for DNA repair of persistent double-strand breaks (DSBs), eroded telomeres, and sites of fork collapse at expanded CAG repeats. Using a combination of cell biological imaging techniques and yeast genetic assays for DNA repair, researchers have begun to understand both the how and why of lesion relocation to the NPC...
October 30, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797916/flux-control-through-protein-phosphorylation-in-yeast
#20
Yu Chen, Jens Nielsen
Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms regulating metabolism as it can directly modify metabolic enzymes by the addition of phosphate groups. Attributed to such a rapid and reversible mechanism, cells can adjust metabolism rapidly in response to temporal changes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used cell factory and model organism, is reported to show frequent phosphorylation events in metabolism. Studying protein phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae allow for gaining new insight into the function of regulatory networks, which may enable improved metabolic engineering as well as identify mechanisms underlying human metabolic diseases...
October 25, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
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