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FEMS Yeast Research

Stefan Hohmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Charles A Abbas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Velimir Gayevskiy, Soon Lee, Matthew R Goddard
Humans have acted as vectors for species and expanded their ranges since at least the dawn of agriculture. While relatively well characterized for macrofauna and macroflora, the extent and dynamics of human-aided microbial dispersal is poorly described. We studied the role which humans have played in manipulating the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the world's most important microbes, using whole genome sequencing. We include 52 strains representative of the diversity in New Zealand to the global set of genomes for this species...
October 15, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Eziuche A Ugbogu, Ke Wang, Lilian M Schweizer, Michael Schweizer
Two of the five unlinked genes theoretically capable of encoding 5-phosphoribosyl-1(α)-pyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase (Prs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PRS1 and PRS5, contain in-frame insertions which separate the cation- and PRPP-binding sites, diagnostic of Prs polypeptides. The impairment of cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in strains lacking PRS1 and the synthetic lethality associated with loss of PRS1 and PRS5 imply that these insertions are not gratuitous. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that Prs1 interacts with the CWI MAPK pathway, only when Slt2 has been phosphorylated by Mkk1/2...
October 15, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Peng Mao, John J Wyrick
DNA repair is critical to maintain genome stability. In eukaryotic cells, DNA repair is complicated by the packaging of the DNA 'substrate' into chromatin. DNA repair pathways utilize different mechanisms to overcome the barrier presented by chromatin to efficiently locate and remove DNA lesions in the genome. DNA excision repair pathways are responsible for repairing a majority of DNA lesions arising in the genome. Excision repair pathways include nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER), which repair bulky and non-bulky DNA lesions, respectively...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Arpita Maity, Anusha Chaudhuri, Biswadip Das
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nuclear exosome along with TRAMP and DRN selectively eliminate diverse aberrant messages. These decay apparatus appear to operate as independent mechanisms in the nucleus. Here, using genetic and molecular approach we systematically investigate the functional relationship between exosome, TRAMP, and DRN mechanisms by examining their relative contributions in the degradation of diverse classes of aberrant nuclear mRNAs generated at various phases of mRNP biogenesis. Our findings suggest that nuclear exosome in association with the TRAMP complex exclusively degrades the transcription-assembly defective mRNPs and splice-defective intron-containing pre-mRNAs, whereas nuclear exosome along with DRN solely degrades the export-defective messages...
September 29, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Marie-Noëlle Simon, Dmitri Churikov, Vincent Géli
Replicative senescence is triggered by short unprotected telomeres that arise in the absence of telomerase. In addition, telomeres are known as difficult regions to replicate due to their repetitive G-rich sequence prone to secondary structures and tightly bound non-histone proteins. Here we review accumulating evidence that telomerase inactivation in yeast immediately unmasks the problems associated with replication stress at telomeres. Early after telomerase inactivation, yeast cells undergo successive rounds of stochastic DNA damages and become dependent on recombination for viability long before the bulk of telomeres are getting critically short...
September 27, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Martin Kupiec
Each time a cell duplicates, the whole genome must be accurately copied and distributed. The enormous amount of DNA in eukaryotic cells requires a high level of coordination between polymerases and other DNA and chromatin-interacting proteins to ensure timely and accurate DNA replication and chromatin formation. PCNA forms a ring that encircles the DNA. It serves as a processivity factor for DNA polymerases, and as a landing platform for different proteins that interact with DNA and chromatin. It thus serves as a signaling hub and influences the rate and accuracy of DNA replication, the re-formation of chromatin in the wake of the moving fork, and the proper segregation of the sister chromatids...
September 24, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Moshe Kafri, Eyal Metzl-Raz, Felix Jonas, Naama Barkai
The minimal description of a growing cell consists of self-replicating ribosomes translating the cellular proteome. While neglecting all other cellular components, this model provides key insights into the control and limitations of growth rate. It shows, for example, that growth rate is maximized when ribosomes work at full capacity, explains the linear relation between growth rate and the ribosome fraction of the proteome, and defines the maximal possible growth rate. This ribosome-centered model also highlights the challenge of coordinating cell growth with related processes such as cell division or nutrient production...
September 19, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Zhongpeng Guo, Lisbeth Olsson
High initial cell density is used to increase volumetric productivity and shorten production time in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation. Comparison of physiological parameters in high initial cell density cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic, formic, levulinic and cinnamic acid demonstrated general and acid-specific response of cells. All the acids studied impaired growth and inhibited glycolytic flux, and caused oxidative stress and accumulation of trehalose. However, trehalose may play a role other than protecting yeast cells from acid-induced oxidative stress...
September 11, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Tatiana A Defosse, Céline Melin, Marc Clastre, Sébastien Besseau, Arnaud Lanoue, Gaëlle Glévarec, Audrey Oudin, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Patrick Vandeputte, Tomas Linder, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Vincent Courdavault, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nicolas Papon
The fungal CTG clade includes a number of well-known yeasts that impact human health or with high biotechnological potential. To further extend the set of molecular tools dedicated to these microorganisms, the initial focus of this study was to develop a mycophenolic acid (MPA) resistance cassette. Surprisingly, while we were carrying out preliminary susceptibility testing experiments in a set of yeast species, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, while not being a MPA producer, was found to be primarily resistant towards this drug, whereas a series of nine related species were susceptible to MPA...
September 11, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
José P Martínez, Rosario Blanes, Manuel Casanova, Eulogio Valentín, Amelia Murgui, Ángel Domínguez
By 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry we have characterized the polypeptide species present in extracts obtained by 60% ethanol treatment of whole mature (48 h) biofilms formed by a reference strain (CAI4-URA3) and four C. albicans null mutants for cell wall-related genes (ALG5, CSA1, MNN9 and PGA10) Null mutants form fragile biofilms that appeared partially split and weakly attached to the substratum contrary to those produced by the reference strain. An almost identical, electrophoretic profile consisting of about 276 spots was visualized in all extracts examined...
September 7, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Julieta Martino, Kara A Bernstein
Homologous recombination (HR) is an error-free DNA repair mechanism that maintains genome integrity by repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs). Defects in HR lead to genomic instability and are associated with cancer predisposition. A key step in HR is the formation of Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments which are responsible for the homology search and strand invasion steps that define HR. Recently, the budding yeast Shu complex has emerged as an important regulator of Rad51 along with the other Rad51 mediators including Rad52 and the Rad51 paralogs, Rad55-Rad57...
September 1, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Ujani Chakraborty, Eric Alani
Mismatch repair (MMR) systems correct DNA mismatches that result from DNA polymerase misincorporation errors. Mismatches also appear in heteroduplex DNA intermediates formed during recombination between nearly identical sequences, and can be corrected by MMR or removed through an unwinding mechanism, known as anti-recombination or heteroduplex rejection. We review studies, primarily in baker's yeast, which support how specific factors can regulate the MMR/anti-recombination decision. Based on recent advances, we present models for how DNA structure, relative amounts of key repair proteins, the timely localization of repair proteins to DNA substrates, and epigenetic marks can modulate this critical decision...
August 28, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
JiEun Yun, Dong Gun Lee
Propionic acid (PPA) is a weak acid that has been used in food products as a preservative because of its inhibitory effect on microorganisms. In the present study, we investigated the PPA fungal killing mechanism, which showed apoptotic features. First, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and metacaspase activation were detected by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and CaspACE FITC-VAD-FMK staining, respectively. Increased fluorescence intensities were observed following exposure to PPA, indicating that PPA produced an oxidative environment through the generation of ROS and activation of metacaspase, which can promote apoptosis signaling...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Satarupa Das, Biswadip Das
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4G, plays a key functional role in the initiation of cap-dependent translation by acting as an adapter to nucleate the assembly of eIF4F complex. Together with poly(A)-binding protein and eIF3, eIF4F subsequently triggers the recruitment of 43S ribosomal pre-initiation complex to the messenger RNA template. Since eukaryotes primarily regulate translation at the level of initiation, eIF4G is implicated in the control of eukaryotic gene expression. Remarkably, emerging evidence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicates that eIF4G also plays a key role in nuclear mRNA biogenesis and surveillance-a finding that is in agreement with its nuclear distribution...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Vasundhara Sharma, Paola Monti, Gilberto Fronza, Alberto Inga
The observation that human transcription factors (TFs) can function when expressed in yeast cells has stimulated the development of various functional assays to investigate (i) the role of binding site sequences (herein referred to as response elements, REs) in transactivation specificity, (ii) the impact of polymorphic nucleotide variants on transactivation potential, (iii) the functional consequences of mutations in TFs and (iv) the impact of cofactors or small molecules. These approaches have found applications in basic as well as applied research, including the identification and the characterisation of mutant TF alleles from clinical samples...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Karina Robledo-Márquez, Guadalupe Gutiérrez-Escobedo, Patricia Yáñez-Carrillo, Yamile Vidal-Aguiar, Marcela Briones-Martín-Del-Campo, Emmanuel Orta-Zavalza, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño
The fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is a haploid asexual yeast. Candida glabrata contains orthologs of the genes that control mating and cell-type identity in other fungi, which encode putative transcription factors localized in the MAT locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or MTL in other fungi. Candida glabrata contains three copies of the CgMTL locus but only CgMTL1 correctly expresses the information encoded in it. CgMTL1 can encode the Cg A1: gene ( A: information), or the Cgalpha1 and Cgalpha2 genes (alpha information)...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Paula Jouhten, Olga Ponomarova, Ramon Gonzalez, Kiran R Patil
The architecture and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network are among the best studied owing to its widespread use in both basic research and industry. Yet, several recent studies have revealed notable limitations in explaining genotype-metabolic phenotype relations in this yeast, especially when concerning multiple genetic/environmental perturbations. Apparently unexpected genotype-phenotype relations may originate in the evolutionarily shaped cellular operating principles being hidden in common laboratory conditions...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Caroline Maria Marcos, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Patricia Akemi Assato, Daniella Sayuri Yamazaki, Rosângela Aparecida Moraes da Silva, Cláudia Tavares Santos, Norival Alves Santos-Filho, Deivys Leandro Portuondo, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida
Paracoccidioides spp., which are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi, are responsible for the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America, the paracoccidioidomycosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the involvement of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction. Adhesive properties were examined using recombinant PbEF-Tu proteins and the respective polyclonal anti-rPbEF-Tu antibody. Immunogold analysis demonstrated the surface location of EF-Tu in P...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
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