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FEMS Yeast Research

Marizeth Groenewald, Lorenzo Lombard, Michel de Vries, Alejandra Giraldo Lopez, Maudy Smith, Pedro W Crous
A Citizen Science initiative by the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute and the Utrecht University Museum gave rise to a project where fungal and yeast isolates were obtained and identified from Dutch soil samples. During the current study 386 yeast strains were isolated from 157 different locations in the Netherlands. These strains were identified using sequence data of the large-subunit rRNA gene (D1/D2 region) and the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) regions. A total of 53 different yeast species were found as well as 15 potentially novel species...
July 17, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Maarten D Verhoeven, Sophie C de Valk, Jean-Marc G Daran, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
d-Glucose, d-xylose and l-arabinose are major sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This study explores fermentation of glucose-xylose-arabinose mixtures by a consortium of three 'specialist' Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. A d-glucose- and l-arabinose-tolerant xylose specialist was constructed by eliminating hexose phosphorylation in an engineered xylose-fermenting strain and subsequent laboratory evolution. A resulting strain anaerobically grew and fermented d-xylose in the presence of 20 g L-1 of d-glucose and l-arabinose...
July 16, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Yoichiro Ito, Toru Watanabe, Shimpei Aikawa, Teruyuki Nishi, Tozo Nishiyama, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Yuji Okubo, Jun Ishii, Akihiko Kondo
The non-conventional yeast Komagataella phaffii, formerly Pichia pastoris, is a popular host for recombinant protein production. The relatively lower gene targeting efficiency observed in this species occurs due to high levels of non-homologous recombination activity. In the current study, we explored the function of the K. phaffii homolog of DNA ligase IV (Dnl4p) by creating a DNL4-disrupted strain. To assess the roles of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-related proteins in this species, strains deleted for either or both genes encoding Dnl4p or the telomeric Ku complex subunit (Ku70p) were generated...
July 11, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
E Campos-Góngora, A S Palande, C León-Ramirez, E K Pathan, J Ruiz-Herrera, M V Deshpande
Yarrowia lipolytica is an ascomycetous dimorphic yeast with immense potential for industrial applications, including bioremediation of crude oil contaminated environments. It has been shown that a dimorphic marine isolate of Y. lipolytica (var. indica) has significant capacity to degrade fatty acids and alkanes, when in its yeast morphology. It has also been demonstrated that polyamines play an important role in the yeast-to-mycelium transition of different strains of Y. lipolytica that are unable to utilize those carbon sources...
July 5, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Marilyn De Graeve, Sofie L De Maeseneire, Sophie L K W Roelants, Wim Soetaert
In this review, we focus on one of the most important microbial producers of biosurfactants, Starmerella bombicola. Emphasis is laid on the discovery, taxonomy, habitat, cellular characteristics, biochemistry and genetics of this non-pathogenic yeast. Biosurfactants are natural surface-active compounds produced by several types of microorganisms and have been considered an interesting alternative to synthetic surfactants. The sophorolipids produced by Starmerella bombicola are promising biosurfactants, with application potential in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and cleaning industries...
July 5, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Cristian Varela, Jessica Lleixà, Chris Curtin, Anthony Borneman
Brettanomyces bruxellensis is usually considered a spoilage microorganism, responsible for significant economic losses during the production of fermented beverages such as wine, beer and cider, though for some styles of beer its influence is essential. In recent years the competitiveness of this yeast in bioethanol production processes has brought to attention its broader biotechnological potential. Furthermore, the species has evolved key fermentation traits in parallel with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Attempts to better understand B...
July 4, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Ravinder Kumar
Even today vaccine(s) remains a mainstay in combating infectious diseases. Many yeast-based vaccines are currently in different phases of clinical trials. Despite the encouraging results of whole recombinant yeast (WRY) and yeast display (YD), the systematic study assessing the long-term stability of protein antigen(s) in yeast cells is still missing. Therefore, in the present study, I investigate the stability of heterologous protein antigen in the cellular environment of S. cerevisiae through E. coli surface protein (major curlin or CsgA)...
July 4, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Faiza Asghar, Hongbo Yan, Linghuo Jiang
Maf1 is a repressor of RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription for tRNA. Nutrient deprivation and environmental stress repress Pol III transcription through Maf1 in S. cerevisiae. The sole Candida albicans homolog CaMaf1 is a protein of 380 amino acids with conserved domains and motifs of the eukaryotic Maf1 family. Here we show that C. albicans cells lacking CaMAF1 show elevated levels of tRNA. Deletion of CaMAF1 increases the sensitivity of C. albicans cells to lithium cation and SDS as well as tolerance to rapamycin and azole...
July 2, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos, Vinicius da Silva Duarte, Laura Treu, Stefano Campanaro, Chiara Nadai, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
Starmerella bacillaris is an osmotolerant yeast with interesting winemaking traits such as low-ethanol and high-glycerol production, previously considered as wine spoilage and recently proposed to improve the sensory quality of wine. This is the first work performing a whole-genome analysis of the variants identified by comparing two S. bacillaris strains (PAS13 and FRI751). Additionally, an extensive search for orthologous genes against Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts produced a detailed reconstruction of the pan-genome for yeast species used in winemaking...
June 28, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Usha Yadav, Tarun Kumar Rai, Subhash Chandra Sethi, Anupriya Chandraker, Mohd Ashraf Khan, Sneha Sudha Komath
C. albicans N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylase (CaGpi12) recognizes N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol (GlcNAc-PI) from S. cerevisiae and is able to complement ScGPI12 function. Both N- and C-terminal ends of CaGpi12 are important for its function. CaGpi12 was biochemically characterized using rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) microsomes prepared from BWP17 strain of C. albicans. CaGpi12 is optimally active at 30°C and pH 7.5. It is a metal dependent enzyme that is stimulated by divalent cations but shows no preference for Zn2+ unlike the mammalian homolog...
June 25, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Yi-Kai Su, Laura B Willis, Lars Rehmann, David Smith, Thomas W Jeffries
This study employed cell recycling, batch adaptation, cell mating and high throughput screening to select adapted Spathaspora passalidarum strains with improved fermentative ability.The most promising candidate, YK208-E11 (E11) showed a 3-fold increase in specific fermentation rate compared to the parental strain and an ethanol yield greater than 0.45 g/g substrate while co-utilizing cellobiose, glucose, and xylose. Further characterization showed that strain E11 also makes 40% less biomass compared to the parental strain when cultivated in rich media under aerobic conditions...
June 21, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Róbert Zach, Jarmila Tvaružková, Martin Schätz, Ondrej Tupa, Beáta Grallert, Martin Prevorovský
Fission yeast 'cut' mutants show defects in temporal coordination of nuclear division with cytokinesis, resulting in aberrant mitosis and lethality. Among other causes, the 'cut' phenotype can be triggered by genetic or chemical perturbation of lipid metabolism, supposedly resulting in shortage of membrane phospholipids and insufficient nuclear envelope expansion during anaphase. Interestingly, penetrance of the 'cut' phenotype in mutants of the transcription factor cbf11 and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase cut6, both related to lipid metabolism, is highly dependent on growth media, although the specific nutrient(s) affecting 'cut' occurrence is not known...
June 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
YongQin Wu, MengYing Wu, YuanYuan Wang, YiSheng Chen, Jing Gao, ChunMei Ying
Candida albicans is a major fungal opportunistic pathogen of humans. In the treatment of C. albicans, azole drugs target the sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) encoded by ERG11 gene. Most studies have focused on the fact that the ERG11 mutant results in drug resistance, but its mechanism of action as a drug target has not been described yet. Our results showed that deletion of ERG11 reduced filamentous and invasive growth, and impaired hyphal elongation in sensing serum. Lack of ERG11 increased susceptibility to H2O2 and was defective in clearing reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Virve Vidgren, Brian Gibson
In the interspecies lager yeast hybrid there are MAL loci involved in maltose and maltotriose utilization derived from each parent (S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus). We show that trans-regulation across hybrid subgenomes occurs for MAL genes. However, gene expression is less efficient with non-native activators (trans-activation) compared to native activators (cis-activation). MAL genes were induced by maltose and repressed by glucose irrespective of host. Despite the strong expression of S. cerevisiae-type genes in the S...
June 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Paulo Gonçalves Teixeira, Florian David, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Production of triacylglycerols (TAGs) through microbial fermentation is an emerging alternative to plant and animal-derived sources. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a preferred organism for industrial use but has natively a very poor capacity of TAG production and storage. Here, we engineered S. cerevisiae for accumulation of high TAG levels through the use of structural and physiological factors that influence assembly and biogenesis of lipid droplets. First, human and fungal perilipin genes were expressed, increasing TAG content by up to 36% when expressing the human perilipin gene PLIN3...
June 11, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Robert Mans, Melanie Wijsman, Pascale Daran-Lapujade, Jean-Marc Daran
Here, two methods are described for efficient genetic modification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR/Cas9. The first method enables the modification of a single genetic locus using in vivo assembly of a guide RNA (gRNA) expression plasmid without the need for prior cloning. A second method using in vitro assembled plasmids that could contain up to two gRNAs was used to simultaneously introduce up to six genetic modifications (e.g. six gene deletions) in a single transformation step by transforming up to three gRNA expression plasmids simultaneously...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Maksim Zakhartsev, Matthias Reuss
Cell volume is an important parameter for modelling cellular processes. Temperature-induced variability of cellular size, volume, intracellular granularity, a fraction of budding cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D (in anaerobic glucose unlimited batch cultures) were measured by flow cytometry and matched with the performance of the biomass growth (maximal specific growth rate (μ_max), specific rate of glucose consumption, the rate of maintenance, biomass yield on glucose). The critical diameter of single cells was 7...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Rayne S S Magalhães, Blagovesta Popova, Gerhard H Braus, Tiago F Outeiro, Elis C A Eleutherio
Trehalose on both sides of the bilayer is a requirement for full protection of membranes against stress. It was not known yet how trehalose, synthesized in the cytosol when dividing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are shifted from 28°C to 40°C, is transported to the outside and degraded when cells return to 28°C. According to our results, the lack of Agt1, a trehalose transporter, although had not affected trehalose synthesis, reduced cell tolerance to 51°C and increased lipid peroxidation. The damage was reversed when external trehalose was added during 40°C adaptation, confirming that the reason for the agt1Δ sensitivity is the absence of trehalose at the outside of the lipid bilayer...
September 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Claudio Falcone, Cristina Mazzoni
The stability of RNAs represents a crucial point for cell life in that these molecules code for proteins and also play structural and regulatory functions. In this review, we will mainly focus on RNA stability and its connection with cell death and aging. In addition, we will consider the interaction of RNAs with ribonucleoprotein complexes, such as P-bodies and stress granules, as well as the role of non-coding RNAs. Finally, we will mention some correlations between RNA and diseases, considering yeast as a simple model system for the study of human cancer and neurodegenerative disorders...
September 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Dustin K Goncharoff, Zhiqiang Du, Liming Li
Prion and prion-like phenomena are involved in the pathology of numerous human neurodegenerative diseases. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has a number of endogenous yeast prions-epigenetic elements that are transmitted as altered protein conformations and often manifested as heritable phenotypic traits. One such yeast prion, [SWI+], was discovered and characterized by our laboratory. The protein determinant of [SWI+], Swi1 was found to contain an amino-terminal, asparagine-rich prion domain. Normally, Swi1 functions as part of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, thus, acting as a global transcriptional regulator...
September 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
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