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FEMS Yeast Research

Richard J Zahrl, David A Peña, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.) is one of the most important production systems for heterologous proteins. After the first genome sequences were published in 2009, tremendous effort was made to establish systems-level analytical methods. Methylotrophic lifestyle was one of the most thoroughly investigated topics, studied at the levels of transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux. Also the responses of P. pastoris to environmental stress conditions experienced during high cell density production processes were studied...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Sheng Wang, Ruishan Wang, Tan Liu, Zhilai Zhan, Liping Kang, Yanan Wang, Chaogeng Lv, Daniele Werck-Reichhart, Lanping Guo, Luqi Huang
Shikonin and its derivatives are the main active components in the medicinal plant Arnebia euchroma and possess extensive pharmaceutical properties. In this study, we developed an optimized yeast system to obtain high-level production of 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate acid (GBA), an important intermediate involved in shikonin biosynthesis pathway. For host selection, recombinant expression of p-hydroxybenzoate:geranyltransferase (PGT) derived from A. euchroma was performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae WAT11U strain and high yield monoterpene strain...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Kiyotaka Y Hara, Jyumpei Kobayashi, Ryosuke Yamada, Daisuke Sasaki, Yuki Kuriya, Yoko Hirono-Hara, Jun Ishii, Michihiro Araki, Akihiko Kondo
Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Barbra Lerm, Chris Kenyon, Ilan S Schwartz, Heinrich Kroukamp, Riaan de Witt, Nelesh P Govender, G Sybren de Hoog, Alfred Botha
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for the AIDS-defining illness, cryptococcal meningitis. During the disease process, entry of cryptococcal cells into the brain is facilitated by virulence factors that include urease enzyme activity. A novel species of an Emmonsia-like fungus, recently named Emergomyces africanus, was identified as a cause of disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected persons in South Africa. However, in contrast to C. neoformans, the enzymes produced by this fungus, some of which may be involved in pathogenesis, have not been described...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Siyu Xu, Naomichi Yamamoto
Ribavirin is an antiviral drug that is used to treat a wide range of human viral infections. However, the side effects are reported, and the mechanisms on eukaryotic cells are still largely unknown. Here we report our observation of accumulation followed by reduction of small nuclear (sn)RNAs and small nucleolar (sno)RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to ribavirin. The three strains reported to contain dsRNA virus-like particle(s) were exposed to 100 μM of ribavirin, and snRNAs and snoRNAs from a total of 31 snR genes were differentially detected between the samples exposed to ribavirin and the respective negative controls by mRNA-Seq...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Hokuto Ohtsuka, Hirofumi Aiba
Ecl1 family genes are conserved among yeast, in which their overexpression extends chronological lifespan. Ecl1 family genes were first identified in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe; at the time, they were considered noncoding RNA owing to their short coding sequence of fewer than 300 base pairs. Schizosaccharomyces pombe carries three Ecl1 family genes, ecl1+, ecl2+ and ecl3+, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae has one, ECL1. Their overexpression extends chronological lifespan, increases oxidative stress resistance and induces sexual development in fission yeast...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Xiaofei Song, Quanli Liu, Jiwei Mao, Yuzhen Wu, Yuanzi Li, Kai Gao, Xiuming Zhang, Yanling Bai, Haijin Xu, Mingqiang Qiao
In biotechnological industry, increased expression cassette stability and copy number serve as important means of maintaining consistently high production levels of heterologous proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we combined δ sequences for site-specific integration with TPI1 gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (POT1) as a selection marker to realize high-copy integration and stable expression of heterologous proteins in S. cerevisiae. With the newly developed POT1 platform, a 32-copy integration of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette was obtained in a single round and was stably maintained after 100 generations of growth in a rich complex medium...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Jiaoqi Gao, Wenjie Yuan, Yimin Li, Fengwu Bai, Yu Jiang
Inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus (KmINU1) has wide application in industrial biotechnology, and it is supposed that its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level via the promoter. Therefore, in this study, the KmINU1 promoter, fused to the reporter EGFP gene, was analyzed to determine its fundamental regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C (ATCC 204508). Induction by inulin and repression by high glucose concentrations of KmINU1 promoters are reported, and the promoter with a length of 353 bp was shown to have the highest strength with the weakest responses to high glucose concentration...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Guodong Liu, Yun Chen, Nils J Færgeman, Jens Nielsen
The sterol composition of membranes is known to influence many phenotypes of yeast. However, a systematic study of the relationship between sterol composition and stress resistances has not been conducted. Here, we therefore constructed single or double gene deletion mutants of the last four enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis in a prototrophic genetic background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of the sterol composition of these mutants revealed a high flexibility of the sterol-processing steps instead of the previously proposed sequential conversion...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Nerve Zhou, Samuele Bottagisi, Michael Katz, Joseph Schacherer, Anne Friedrich, Zoran Gojkovic, Krishna B S Swamy, Wolfgang Knecht, Concetta Compagno, Jure Piškur
Large-scale chromosomal rearrangements are an important source of evolutionary novelty that may have reshaped the genomes of existing yeast species. They dramatically alter genome organization and gene expression fueling a phenotypic leap in response to environmental constraints. Although the emergence of such signatures of genetic diversity is thought to be associated with human exploitation of yeasts, less is known about the driving forces operating in natural habitats. Here we hypothesize that an ecological battlefield characteristic of every autumn when fruits ripen accounts for the genomic innovations in natural populations...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Daniela Bessa, Filipa Gonçalves, Rosa Martins, António César Silva-Ferreira, Dorit Schuller, Paula Sampaio, Célia Pais
Succinic acid is a platform chemical that plays an important role as precursor for the synthesis of many valuable bio-based chemicals. Its microbial production from renewable resources has seen great developments, specially exploring the use of yeasts to overcome the limitations of using bacteria. The objective of the present work was to screen for succinate-producing isolates, using a yeast collection with different origins and characteristics. Four strains were chosen, two as promising succinic acid producers, in comparison with two low producers...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Marco Brambilla, Francesca Martani, Paola Branduardi
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 is a modular protein composed of four RNA recognition motifs (RRM), a proline-rich domain (P) and a C-terminus. Thanks to this modularity, Pab1 is involved in different interactions that regulate many aspects of mRNA metabolism, including the assembly of stress granules. In this work, we analyzed the contribution of each domain for the recruitment of the protein within stress granules by comparing the intracellular distribution of synthetic Pab1-GFP variants, lacking one or more domains, with the localization of the endogenous mCherry-tagged Pab1...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Hua Li, Hechao Fan, Youran Li, Gui Yang Shi, Zhong Yang Ding, Zheng Hua Gu, Liang Zhang
The xylose-fermenting yeasts (CTG clade yeasts, e.g. Scheffersomyces stipitis, Spathaspora passalidarum, Candida amazonensis and Candida jeffriesii) have the potential to be superior platforms for the conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysate into fuel-grade ethanol and other chemical products. Here, a genetic expression system compatible with the genetic coding characteristics of CTG clade yeasts was constructed for use in xylose-fermenting yeasts. The pRACTH-gfpm plasmid based on an 18S rDNA shuttle vector was capable of stable integration into the genomes of a wide range of heterologous hosts...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Chien-Wei Huang, Michelle E Walker, Bruno Fedrizzi, Richard C Gardner, Vladimir Jiranek
The rotten-egg odour of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has attracted considerable research interest due to its huge impact on the sensory quality of fermented foods and beverages. To date, the yeast genetic mechanisms of H2S liberation during wine fermentation are well understood and yeast strains producing low levels of H2S have been developed. Studies have also revealed that H2S is not just a by-product in the biosynthesis of the sulfur-containing amino acids, but indeed a vital molecule involved in detoxification, population signalling and extending cellular life span...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Nadia Maria Berterame, Stefano Bertagnoli, Vera Codazzi, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established workhorse, either for recombinant or natural products, thanks to its natural traits and easily editable metabolism. However, during a bio-based industrial process it meets multiple stresses generated by operative conditions such as non-optimal temperature, pH, oxygenation and product accumulation. The development of tolerant strains is therefore indispensable for the improvement of production, yield and productivity of fermentative processes. In this regard, plants as resilient organisms are a generous source for fishing genes and/or metabolites that can help the cell factory to counteract environmental constraints...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
David Ferreira, Virginie Galeote, Isabelle Sanchez, Jean-Luc Legras, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Sylvie Dequin
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to perform wine fermentation for several millennia due to its endurance and unmatched qualities. Nevertheless, at the moment of inoculation, wine yeasts must cope with specific stress factors that still challenge wine makers by slowing down or compromising the fermentation process. To better assess the role of genetic and environmental factors that govern multistress resistance during the wine fermentation lag phase, we used a factorial plan to characterise the individual and combined impact of relevant stress factors on eight S...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Helder Lopes, Isabel Rocha
Over the last 15 years, several genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) were developed for different yeast species, aiding both the elucidation of new biological processes and the shift toward a bio-based economy, through the design of in silico inspired cell factories. Here, an historical perspective of the GSMMs built over time for several yeast species is presented and the main inheritance patterns among the metabolic reconstructions are highlighted. We additionally provide a critical perspective on the overall genome-scale modeling procedure, underlining incomplete model validation and evaluation approaches and the quest for the integration of regulatory and kinetic information into yeast GSMMs...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Chandre Monerawela, Ursula Bond
Saccharomyces pastorianus, referred to as lager yeasts, are hybrids of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus. Isolates within the species are divided into two groups (I and II) based on chromosome structure and composition. Following the hybridisation, the parental chromosomes underwent homeologous recombination, generating a set of hybrid chromosomes unique to the species. Here, we assessed the recombination events in seven lager yeast genomes to more clearly define the evolutionary route of lager yeasts. Meta-analysis of the recombination epicentres, as well as a detailed analysis of recombination events at the MAT locus, reveals a more complex evolutionary relationship between the group I and II lager yeasts than previously considered and identifies several divergent routes of evolution leading to the current S...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Taisuke Seike, Hironori Niki
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces octosporus is one of four species in the genus Schizosaccharomyces. Recently released genome sequence data provide useful information for comparative studies. However, Sz. octosporus has not yet been genetically characterized because there have been no heterothallic strains of this species. Here we report the construction of stable heterothallic strains of Sz. octosporus for genetic crosses. First, we continuously observed the mating process of a homothallic strain, yFS286, and determined the mating frequency of Sz...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Mickel L A Jansen, Jasmine M Bracher, Ioannis Papapetridis, Maarten D Verhoeven, Hans de Bruijn, Paul P de Waal, Antonius J A van Maris, Paul Klaassen, Jack T Pronk
The recent start-up of several full-scale 'second generation' ethanol plants marks a major milestone in the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates of agricultural residues and energy crops. After a discussion of the challenges that these novel industrial contexts impose on yeast strains, this minireview describes key metabolic engineering strategies that have been developed to address these challenges. Additionally, it outlines how proof-of-concept studies, often developed in academic settings, can be used for the development of robust strain platforms that meet the requirements for industrial application...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
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