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FEMS Yeast Research

Ioannis Papapetridis, Maarten D Verhoeven, Sanne J Wiersma, Maaike Goudriaan, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
Simultaneous fermentation of glucose and xylose can contribute to improved productivity and robustness of yeast-based processes for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This study explores a novel laboratory evolution strategy for identifying mutations that contribute to simultaneous utilization of these sugars in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To force simultaneous utilization of xylose and glucose, the genes encoding glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI1) and ribulose-5-phosphate epimerase (RPE1) were deleted in a xylose-isomerase-based xylose-fermenting strain with a modified oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway...
May 15, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Stéphanie Rollero, Audrey Bloem, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Carole Camarasa, Benoit Divol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently the most important yeast involved in food fermentations, particularly in oenology. However, several other yeast species occur naturally in grape must that are highly promising for diversifying and improving the aromatic profile of wines. If the nitrogen requirement of S. cerevisiae has been described in detail, those of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain poorly studied despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. With a view to improving the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, we explored the fermentation performances, the utilization of nitrogen sources and the volatile compound production of ten strains of non-conventional yeasts in pure culture...
May 7, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Marco J Hernández-Chávez, Bernardo Franco, Diana M Clavijo-Giraldo, Nahúm V Hernández, Eine Estrada-Mata, Héctor Manuel Mora-Montes
Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for mucosal and systemic infections. The cell wall is the initial contact point between a fungal cell and the host immune system, and mannoproteins are important components that play key roles when interacting with host cells. In C. albicans, mannans are modified by mannosyl-phosphate moieties, named phosphomannans, which can work as molecular scaffolds to synthesize β1,2-mannooligosaccharides, and MNN4 is a positive regulator of the phosphomannosylation pathway...
April 27, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Maksim Zakhartsev, Matthias Reuss
Cell volume is an important parameter for modelling cellular processes. Temperature-induced variability of cellular size, volume, intracellular granularity, a fraction of budding cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D (in anaerobic glucose unlimited batch cultures) were measured by flow cytometry and matched with the performance of the biomass growth (maximal specific growth rate (μ_max), specific rate of glucose consumption, the rate of maintenance, biomass yield on glucose). The critical diameter of single cells was 7...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Lina Heistinger, Josef Moser, Nadine E Tatto, Minoska Valli, Brigitte Gasser, Diethard Mattanovich
The methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) is a haploid yeast that is able to form diploid cells by mating once nitrogen becomes limiting. Activation of the mating response requires the secretion of a- and α-factor pheromones, which bind to G-protein coupled receptors on cells of opposite mating type. In K. phaffii, the genes coding for the α-factor (MFα), the pheromone surface receptors and the conserved a-factor biogenesis pathway have been annotated previously. Initial homology based search failed to identify potential a-factor genes (MFA)...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Yona Kassir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Sebastian Schlafer, Anja Kamp, Javier E Garcia
pH in fungal biofilms is important for a variety of fungal infections and industrial applications involving fungal biofilms, but to date, it has never been measured directly inside the biofilm matrix. In the present study, a new methodology was developed allowing for confocal microscopy based monitoring of extracellular pH inside fungal biofilms. Monospecies biofilms of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Cryptococcus neoformans were stained with the pH dependent ratiometric probe C-SNARF-4, imaged with a confocal microscope, and a digital image analysis procedure was developed to determine pH in the extracellular matrix...
April 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Jian Liu, Sevan Arabaciyan, Jean Marie François, Jean-Pascal Capp
Bimodality in gene expression is thought to provide a high phenotypic heterogeneity that can be favorable for adaptation or unfavorable notably in industrial processes that require stable and homogenous properties. Whether this property is produced or suppressed in different conditions has been understudied. Here we identified tens of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic fragments conferring bimodal yEGFP expression on centromeric plasmid and studied some of these promoters in different DNA contexts, inducing conditions or strain backgrounds...
April 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Yuman Gan, Yuping Lin, Yufeng Guo, Xianni Qi, Qinhong Wang
TALENs-assisted multiplex editing (TAME) toolbox was previously established and used to successfully enhance ethanol-stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae laboratory strain. Here, the TAME toolbox was harnessed to improve and elucidate stress tolerances of S. cerevisiae industrial strain. One osmotolerant strain and one thermotolerant strain were selected from the mutant library generated by TAME at corresponding stress conditions, and exhibited 1.2- to 1.3-fold increases of fermentation capacities, respectively...
April 17, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Hadiar Rahman, Joshua Carneglia, Molly Lausten, Michael Robertello, John Choy, John Golin
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has sophisticated nutrient-sensing programs for responding to harsh environments containing limited nutrients. As a result, yeast cells can live in diverse environments, including animals, as a commensal or a pathogen. Because they live in mixed populations with other organisms that excrete toxic chemicals, it is of interest to know whether yeast cells maintain functional multidrug resistance mechanisms during nutrient stress. We measured the activity of Pdr5, the major Saccharomyces drug efflux pump under conditions of limiting nutrients...
April 16, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Yuan Tian, Ning Gao, Qi Ni, Yinhe Mao, Danfeng Dong, Xinhua Huang, Cen Jiang, Zhen Li, Lihua Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Yibing Peng, Changbin Chen
The transcriptional regulator Pdr1 plays a positive role in regulating azole drug-resistance in Candida glabrata. Previous studies have shown the importance of the carboxyl (C)-terminal sequence of Pdr1 in fulfilling its function, as this region mediates interactions between Pdr1 and the co-activator Gal11A and is crucial for activation of Pdr1 targets. However, mechanisms of how Pdr1 is regulated, especially implication of its C-terminus in the regulatory activity, remain uncharacterized. In this study, we unexpectedly observed that the C-terminal modification of Pdr1 in an azole-resistant clinical isolate harboring a single GOF mutation, resulted in adverse effects such as decreased expression levels of Pdr1, downregulation of Pdr1 targets and azole hypersensitivity...
April 10, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Rafael Sentandreu, Antonio Caminero, Itzel Rentería, Claudia León-Ramirez, Luis González-de-la-Vara, Eulogio Valentin-Gomez, José Ruiz-Herrera
The walls of both, yeast and mycelial cells of Candida albicans possess a species specific antigen that is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb 3H8). This antigen can be extracted in the form of a very high Mr complex, close or over 106 Da, by treatment, with β-1,3 glucanase, β mercaptoethanol or dithothreitol, or mild alkali, but not by saturated HF in pyridine, suggesting that the complex is bound to wall β-1,3 glucans, and to proteins by disulfide bonds, but not to β-1,6 glucans. Through its sensitivity to trypsin and different deglycosylation procedures, it was concluded that the epitope is associated to a glycoprotein containing N-glycosidic, but not O-glycosidic mannan moieties...
April 10, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Tatiana M Souza-Moreira, Clara Navarrete, Xin Chen, Cleslei F Zanelli, Sandro R Valentini, Maysa Furlan, Jens Nielsen, Anastasia Krivoruchko
A complexity of pathway expression in yeast compared to prokaryotes is the need for separate promoters and terminators for each gene expressed. Single transcript expression and separated protein production is possible via the use of 2A viral peptides, but detailed characterization to assess their suitability and applications is needed. The present work aimed to characterize multiple 2A peptide sequences to determine suitability for metabolic engineering applications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We screened 22 peptides placed between fluorescent protein sequences...
March 30, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Christophe Leplat, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Tristan Rossignol
Yarrowia lipolytica is a non-conventional oleaginous yeast that displays high lipid titers and yields; its production capacity holds significant promise for industrial biolipid applications. While its lipid metabolism has been widely studied, little is known about its transcriptional regulatory network. Deciphering the role of transcriptional regulators is crucial for understanding lipid accumulation, a complex phenomenon.To identify the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, we developed a systematic overexpression approach for 148 putative transcription factors...
March 29, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Shingo Nozaki, Kanji Furuya, Hironori Niki
Dimorphic yeasts transform into filamentous cells or hyphae in response to environmental cues. The mechanisms for the hyphal transition of dimorphic yeasts have mainly been studied in Candida albicans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen. The Ras1-MAPK pathway is a major signal transduction pathway for hyphal transition in C. albicans. Recently, the non-pathogenic dimorphic yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus has also been used for genetic analyses of hyphal induction. We confirmed that Ras1-MAPK and other MAPK pathways exist in Sz...
March 16, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Joshua A Kritzer, Yelena Freyzon, Susan Lindquist
Tyrosine phosphorylation is a key biochemical signal that controls growth and differentiation in multicellular organisms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and nearly all other unicellular eukaryotes lack intact phosphotyrosine signaling pathways. However, many of these organisms have primitive phosphotyrosine-binding proteins and tyrosine phosphatases, leading to the assumption that the major barrier for emergence of phosphotyrosine signaling was the negative consequences of promiscuous tyrosine kinase activity. In this work, we reveal that the classic oncogene v-Src, which phosphorylates many dozens of proteins in yeast, is toxic because it disrupts a specific spore wall remodeling pathway...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Patrícia Branco, Helena Albergaria, Nils Arneborg, Catarina Prista
Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which induce death of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally-secreted GAPDH-derived AMPs (i.e. saccharomycin) caused a loss of culturability and decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells. In this study, we show that chemically-synthesized analogues of saccharomycin also induce a pHi drop and loss of culturability in H...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Hajnalka Csoma, Lajos Ács-Szabó, László Attila Papp, Matthias Sipiczki
Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) is a genetically heterogeneous species. In this work the diversity of 41 strains of various origins is examined and compared by the analysis of the length polymorphism of nuclear microsatellites and the RFLP of mitochondrial genomes. The band patterns are analysed with UPGMA, Neighbor Joining, Neighbor Net, Minimum Spanning Tree and Non-metric MDS algorithms. The results and their comparison to previous analyses demonstrate that different markers and different clustering methods can result in very different groupings of the same strains...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Michael Eichenberger, Anders Hansson, David Fischer, Lara Dürr, Michael Naesby
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites responsible for most of the red, purple and blue colors of flowers, fruits and vegetables. They are increasingly used in the food and beverage industry as natural alternative to artificial colorants. Production of these compounds by fermentation of microorganisms would provide an attractive alternative. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of the three basic anthocyanins, as well as the three main trans-flavan-3-ols...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Michael K Jensen
The engineering of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins continues to expand the toolkit available for genome editing, reprogramming gene regulation, genome visualisation and epigenetic studies of living organisms. In this review, the emerging design principles on the use of nuclease-deficient CRISPR-based reprogramming of gene expression will be presented. The review will focus on the designs implemented in yeast both at the level of CRISPR proteins and guide RNA (gRNA), but will lend due credits to the seminal studies performed in other species where relevant...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
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