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Food Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479132/farm-family-effects-of-adopting-improved-and-hybrid-sorghum-seed-in-the-sudan-savanna-of-west-africa
#1
Melinda Smale, Amidou Assima, Alpha Kergna, Véronique Thériault, Eva Weltzien
Uptake of improved sorghum varieties in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa has been limited, despite the economic importance of the crop and long-term investments in sorghum improvement. One reason why is that attaining substantial yield advantages has been difficult in this harsh, heterogeneous growing environment. Release in Mali of the first sorghum hybrids in Sub-Saharan Africa that have been developed primarily from local germplasm has the potential to change this situation. Utilizing plot data collected in Mali, we explain the adoption of improved seed with an ordered logit model and apply a multivalued treatment effects model to measure impacts on farm families, differentiating between improved varieties and hybrids...
January 2018: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276333/soft-drink-prices-sales-body-mass-index-and-diabetes-evidence-from-a-panel-of-low-middle-and-high-income-countries
#2
Yevgeniy Goryakin, Pablo Monsivais, Marc Suhrcke
We take advantage of four different cross-country datasets containing data on 78 countries for the period 1999-2014, in order to assess the relationship of carbonated soft drinks' sales, as well as their prices, with body mass index (BMI), overweight, obesity and diabetes. Using an ecological study design and multivariate regression longitudinal estimation approaches, we find that carbonated soft drink sales were significantly positively related to BMI, overweight and obesity - but only in the low and lower-middle income countries...
December 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093609/how-can-we-better-capture-food-away-from-home-lessons-from-india-s-linking-person-level-meal-and-household-level-food-data
#3
John L Fiedler, Suryakant Yadav
Despite acknowledged shortcomings, household consumption and expenditure surveys (HCES) are increasingly being used to proxy food consumption because they are relatively more available and affordable than surveys using more precise dietary assessment methods. One of the most common, significant sources of HCES measurement error is their under-estimation of food away from home (FAFH). In 2011, India's National Survey Sample Organization introduced revisions in its HCES questionnaire that included replacing "cooked meals"-the single item in the food consumption module designed to capture FAFH at the household level-with five more detailed and explicitly FAFH sub-categories...
October 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375180/designing-a-food-tax-to-impact-food-related-non-communicable-diseases-the-case-of-chile
#4
Juan Carlos Caro, Lindsey Smith-Taillie, Shu Wen Ng, Barry Popkin
The global shift towards diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy dense ultra-processed foods is linked to higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and most other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), causing significant health costs. Chile has the highest SSB consumption in the world, very high junk food intake and very rapid increases in these poor components of the diet plus obesity prevalence. This study's purpose is to compare the effect of different tax schemes for SSBs and ultra-processed foods on nutrient availability, utilizing price-elasticities, which are estimated from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model, using the 2011-2012 Income and Expenditure survey...
August 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839345/review-food-loss-and-waste-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
REVIEW
Megan Sheahan, Christopher B Barrett
The research, development practitioner, and donor community has begun to focus on food loss and waste - often referred to as post-harvest losses (PHL) - in Sub-Saharan Africa. This article reviews the current state of the literature on PHL mitigation. First, we identify explicitly the varied objectives underlying efforts to reduce PHL levels. Second, we summarize the estimated magnitudes of losses, evaluate the methodologies used to generate those estimates, and explore the dearth of thoughtful assessment around "optimal" PHL levels...
July 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413254/non-farm-entrepreneurship-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa-new-empirical-evidence
#6
Paula Nagler, Wim Naudé
We report on the prevalence and patterns of non-farm enterprises in six sub-Saharan African countries, and study their performance in terms of labor productivity, survival and exit, using the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). Rural households operate enterprises due to both push and pull factors and tend to do so predominantly in easy-to-enter activities, such as sales and trade, rather than in activities that require higher starting costs, such as transport services, or educational investment, such as professional services...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413253/are-african-households-not-leaving-agriculture-patterns-of-households-income-sources-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Benjamin Davis, Stefania Di Giuseppe, Alberto Zezza
This paper uses comparable income aggregates from 41 national household surveys from 22 countries to explore the patterns of income generation among rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to compare household income strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa with those in other regions. The paper seeks to understand how geography drives these strategies, focusing on the role of agricultural potential and distance to urban areas. Specialization in on-farm activities continues to be the norm in rural Africa, practiced by 52 percent of households (as opposed to 21 percent of households in other regions)...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413252/labor-productivity-and-employment-gaps-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Ellen B McCullough
Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation - labor allocation and labor productivity - in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural change...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413251/food-price-seasonality-in-africa-measurement-and-extent
#9
Christopher L Gilbert, Luc Christiaensen, Jonathan Kaminski
Everyone knows about seasonality. But what exactly do we know? This study systematically measures seasonal price gaps at 193 markets for 13 food commodities in seven African countries. It shows that the commonly used dummy variable or moving average deviation methods to estimate the seasonal gap can yield substantial upward bias. This can be partially circumvented using trigonometric and sawtooth models, which are more parsimonious. Among staple crops, seasonality is highest for maize (33 percent on average) and lowest for rice (16½ percent)...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413250/agricultural-commercialization-and-nutrition-revisited-empirical-evidence-from-three-african-countries
#10
Calogero Carletto, Paul Corral, Anita Guelfi
The transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture is key for economic growth. But what are the consequences for nutritional outcomes? The evidence to date has been scant and inconclusive. This study contributes to the debate by revisiting two prevailing wisdoms: (a) market participation by African smallholders remains low; and (b) the impact of commercialization on nutritional outcomes is generally positive. Using nationally representative data from three African countries, the analysis reveals high levels of commercialization by even the poorest and smallest landholders, with rates of market participation as high as 90%...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413249/agricultural-input-credit-in-sub-saharan-africa-telling-myth-from-facts
#11
Serge G Adjognon, Lenis Saweda O Liverpool-Tasie, Thomas A Reardon
Recent evidence shows that many Sub-Saharan African farmers use modern inputs, but there is limited information on how these inputs are financed. We use recent nationally representative data from four countries to explore input financing and the role of credit therein. A number of our results contradict "conventional wisdom" found in the literature. Our results consistently show that traditional credit use, formal or informal, is extremely low (across credit type, country, crop and farm size categories). Instead, farmers primarily finance modern input purchases with cash from nonfarm activities and crop sales...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413248/smallholders-land-access-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-new-landscape
#12
Klaus Deininger, Sara Savastano, Fang Xia
While scholars long recognized the importance of land markets as a key driver of rural non-farm development and transformation in rural areas, evidence on the extent of their operation and the nature of participants remains limited. We use household data from 6 countries to show that there is great potential for such markets to increase productivity and equalize factor ratios. While rental markets transfer land to land-poor and labor-rich producers, their operation and thus impact may be constrained by policy restrictions...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413247/agricultural-factor-markets-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-updated-view-with-formal-tests-for-market-failure
#13
Brian Dillon, Christopher B Barrett
This paper uses the recently collected Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture Initiative data sets from five countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to provide a comprehensive overview of factor market participation by agrarian households and to formally test for failures in rural markets. Under complete and competitive markets, households can solve their consumption and production problems separately, so that household factor endowments do not predict input demand. This paper implements a simple, theoretically grounded test of this separation hypothesis, which can be interpreted as a reduced form test of market failure...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413246/how-much-of-the-labor-in-african-agriculture-is-provided-by-women
#14
Amparo Palacios-Lopez, Luc Christiaensen, Talip Kilic
The contribution of women to labor in African agriculture is regularly quoted in the range of 60-80%. Using individual, plot-level labor input data from nationally representative household surveys across six Sub-Saharan African countries, this study estimates the average female labor share in crop production at 40%. It is slightly above 50% in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda, and substantially lower in Nigeria (37%), Ethiopia (29%), and Niger (24%). There are no systematic differences across crops and activities, but female labor shares tend to be higher in households where women own a larger share of the land and when they are more educated...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413245/is-increasing-inorganic-fertilizer-use-for-maize-production-in-ssa-a-profitable-proposition-evidence-from-nigeria
#15
Lenis Saweda O Liverpool-Tasie, Bolarin T Omonona, Awa Sanou, Wale O Ogunleye
Inorganic fertilizer use across Sub-Saharan Africa is generally considered to be low. Yet, the notion that fertilizer use is too low is predicated on the assumption that it is profitable to use rates higher than currently observed. There is, however, limited empirical evidence to support this. Using a nationally representative panel dataset, this paper empirically estimates the profitability of fertilizer use for maize production in Nigeria. We find that fertilizer use in Nigeria is not as low as conventional wisdom suggests...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413244/agricultural-intensification-the-status-in-six-african-countries
#16
Hans P Binswanger-Mkhize, Sara Savastano
Boserup and Ruthenberg (BR) provided the framework to analyze the impact of population growth and market access on the intensification of farming systems. Prior evidence in Africa is consistent with the framework. Over the past two decades, rapid population growth has put farming systems under stress, while rapid urbanization and economic growth have provided new market opportunities. New measures of agro-ecological potential and urban gravity are developed to analyze their impact on population density and market access...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413243/ten-striking-facts-about-agricultural-input-use-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Megan Sheahan, Christopher B Barrett
Conventional wisdom holds that Sub-Saharan African farmers use few modern inputs despite the fact that most poverty-reducing agricultural growth in the region is expected to come largely from expanded use of inputs that embody improved technologies, particularly improved seed, fertilizers and other agro-chemicals, machinery, and irrigation. Yet following several years of high food prices, concerted policy efforts to intensify fertilizer and hybrid seed use, and increased public and private investment in agriculture, how low is modern input use in Africa really? This article revisits Africa's agricultural input landscape, exploiting the unique, recently collected, nationally representative, agriculturally intensive, and cross-country comparable Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) covering six countries in the region (Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda)...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413242/agriculture-in-africa-telling-myths-from-facts-a-synthesis
#18
EDITORIAL
Luc Christiaensen
Stylized facts drive research agendas and policy debates. Yet robust stylized facts are hard to come by, and when available, often outdated. The 12 papers in this Special Issue revisit conventional wisdom on African agriculture and its farmers' livelihoods using nationally representative surveys from the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture Initiative in six African countries. At times they simply confirm our common understanding of the topic. But they also throw up a number of surprises, redirecting policy debates while fine-tuning others...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148997/welfare-impacts-of-improved-chickpea-adoption-a-pathway-for-rural-development-in-ethiopia
#19
Simone Verkaart, Bernard G Munyua, Kai Mausch, Jeffrey D Michler
We analyse the impact of improved chickpea adoption on welfare in Ethiopia using three rounds of panel data. First, we estimate the determinants of improved chickpea adoption using a double hurdle model. We apply a control function approach with correlated random effects to control for possible endogeneity resulting from access to improved seed and technology transfer activities. To instrument for these variables we develop novel distance weighted measures of a household's neighbours' access to improved seed and technology transfer activities...
January 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018025/facing-famine-somali-experiences-in-the-famine-of-2011
#20
Daniel Maxwell, Nisar Majid, Guhad Adan, Khalif Abdirahman, Jeeyon Janet Kim
In 2011-12, Somalia experienced the worst famine of the twenty- first century. Since then, research on the famine has focused almost exclusively on the external response, the reasons for the delay in the international response, and the implications for international humanitarian action in the context of the "global war on terror." This paper focuses on the internal, Somali response to the famine. Themes of diversification, mobility and flexibility are all important to understanding how people coped with the famine, but this paper focuses on the factor that seemed to determine whether and how well people survived the famine: social connectedness, the extent of the social networks of affected populations, and the ability of these networks to mobilize resources...
December 2016: Food Policy
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