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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342887/genetic-detection-and-characterization-of-goose-parvovirus-implications-for-epidemiology-and-pathogenicity-in-cherry-valley-pekin-ducks
#1
LETTER
Kang Ning, Te Liang, Minghang Wang, Yunhan Dong, Shenghua Qu, Dabing Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342886/using-genetic-data-to-improve-species-distribution-models
#2
Jérémy Bouyer, Renaud Lancelota
Tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) transmit human and animal trypanosomoses in Africa, respectively a neglected human disease (sleeping sickness) and the most important constraint to cattle production in infested countries (nagana). We recently developed a methodology to map landscape friction (i.e. resistance to movement) for tsetse in West Africa. The goal was to identify natural barriers to tsetse dispersal, and potentially isolated tsetse populations for targeting elimination programmes. Most species distribution models neglect landscape functional connectivity whereas environmental factors affecting suitability or abundance are not necessarily the same as those influencing gene flows...
March 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342885/high-throughput-identification-of-mirnas-of-taenia-ovis-a-cestode-threatening-sheep-industry
#3
Yadong Zheng
Taenia ovis is a tapeworm that is mainly transmitted between dogs and sheep or goats and has an adverse effect on sheep industry. miRNAs are short regulatory non-coding RNAs, involved in parasite development and growth as well as parasite infection. The miRNA profile of T. ovis remains to be established. Herein, 33 known miRNAs belonging to 23 different families were identified in T. ovis metacestodes using deep sequencing approach. Of them, expression of some miRNAs such as tov-miR-10 and -let-7 was absolutely predominant...
March 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341546/co-circulation-of-two-usutu-virus-strains-in-northern-italy-between-2009-and-2014
#4
Mattia Calzolari, Chiara Chiapponi, Paolo Bonilauri, Davide Lelli, Laura Baioni, Ilaria Barbieri, Antonio Lavazza, Stefano Pongolini, Michele Dottori, Ana Moreno
Usutu virus is an arbovirus closely related to West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus), which circulates between mosquitoes and wild birds. This virus has been increasingly reported in Europe, raising concerns for its possible pathogenic potential for wild birds and humans. This study reports the whole genome sequences of 15 strains of USUV, isolated between 2010 and 2014 from mosquitoes and wild birds in the course of West Nile virus surveillance in the Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy regions of Northern Italy. Both whole and 656 partial genome sequences, obtained from isolated viruses and field samples (mosquitoes and wild birds), were analyzed to describe the temporal and geographical spread of USUV in the surveyed area...
March 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341545/novel-putative-bluetongue-virus-in-healthy-goats-from-sardinia-italy
#5
Giovanni Savini, Giantonella Puggioni, Giorgio Meloni, Maurilia Marcacci, Marco Di Domenico, Angela Maria Rocchigiani, Massimo Spedicato, Annalisa Oggiano, Daniela Manunta, Liana Teodori, Alessandra Leone, Ottavio Portanti, Francesca Cito, Annamaria Conte, Massimiliano Orsini, Cesare Cammà, Paolo Calistri, Armando Giovannini, Alessio Lorusso
In recent years, novel Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been isolated and/or sequenced by researchers within the field. During Bluetongue surveillance activities, we identified a putative novel BTV serotype in healthy goats from Sardinia, Italy. RNAs purified from blood and serum samples were positive for BTV by a generic real time RT-PCR and c-ELISA, respectively, whereas genotyping and serotyping were unsuccessful. By NGS, the whole genome sequence was obtained from two blood samples (BTV-X ITL2015 strains 34200 and 33531)...
March 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336429/insight-into-stereochemistry-of-a-new-imp-allelic-variant-imp-55-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-identified-in-a-clinical-strain-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#6
Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Omid Azizi, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi
Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) such as IMPs are broad-spectrum β-lactamases that inactivate virtually all β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. In this study, we investigated the hydrolytic activity, phylogenetic relationship, three dimensional (3D) structure including zinc binding motif of a new IMP variant (IMP-55) identified in a clinical strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). AB strain 56 was isolated from an adult ICU of a teaching hospital in Kerman, Iran. It exhibited MIC 32μg/ml to imipenem and showed MBL activity...
March 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336428/emergence-of-norovirus-gii-2-and-its-novel-recombination-during-the-gastroenteritis-outbreak-in-japanese-children-in-mid-2016
#7
Aksara Thongprachum, Shoko Okitsu, Pattara Khamrin, Niwat Maneekarn, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
In mid-2016, norovirus GII.2 emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreak in Japan with overall detection rate of 56.3% of norovirus cases. The differences in ORF1 and ORF2 of some norovirus GII were observed. Inter-subtype recombinants GII.Pe/GII.2, GII.P16/GII.2 and GII.P17/GII.2 were detected. Three amino acid substitutions were noted at P2 antigenic site of GII.P16/GII.2 recombinants. Furthermore, this study revealed that the current immunochromatographic kit available in Japan could be used effectively for the detection of recent GII...
March 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323070/urbanization-and-the-dynamics-of-rna-viruses-in-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos
#8
Michelle Wille, Kristine Lindqvist, Shaman Muradrasoli, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014. This artificial pond is kept ice-free during the winter months, and is a popular location where the ducks are fed, resulting in a resident population of ducks year-round...
March 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323069/minicircle-classes-heterogeneity-within-the-tciii-and-tciv-discrete-typing-units-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#9
S Ortiz, G Osorio, A Solari
The taxon Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, is composed of several discrete typing units (DTUs) named TcI-TcVI, and Tcbat. The history of the taxon T. cruzi is known, even though several controversial aspects remain as the relationships between TcIII and TcIV. We analyzed cloned T. cruzi stocks pertaining to the seven DTUs by filter hybridization tests of PCR amplicons from minicircle variable regions and kinetoplast DNA probes. Minicircle DNA blots from the cloned stocks and filter hybridization with one TcI, one TcII, one TcV, one TcVI, three TcIII, one TcIV from North America and one TcIV kinetoplast DNA probes from South America revealed minicircle variable region cross-reaction in some T...
March 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315742/association-of-nitric-oxide-synthase2-gene-polymorphisms-with-leprosy-reactions-in-northern-indian-population
#10
Amit Dubey, Sanjay Kumar Biswas, Ekata Sinha, Joy Kumar Chakma, Raj Kamal, Mamta Arora, Harish Sagar, Mohan Natarajan, Sameer S Bhagyawant, Keshar Kunja Mohanty
The pathogen Mycobacterium leprae causes leprosy that affects mainly skin and nerves. Polymorphisms of certain genes are substantiated to be associated with the susceptibility/resistance to leprosy. The present investigation addressed the association of Nitric Oxide Synthase2 gene polymorphisms and leprosy in a population from northern part of India. A total of 323 leprosy cases and 288 healthy controls were genotyped for four NOS2 promoter variants (rs1800482, rs2779249, rs8078340 and rs2301369) using FRET technology in Real Time PCR...
March 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315743/treatment-with-peg-ifn-and-ribavirin-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-low-grade-of-hepatic-fibrosis-genotype-1-and-4-and-favorable-ifnl3-genotype-a-pharmacogenetic-prospective-study
#11
Lucio Boglione, Chiara Simona Cardellino, Jessica Cusato, Amedeo De Nicolò, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
The new direct-acting antivirals agents (DAAs) rapidly changed the treatment approach in chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, the interferon (IFN)-free therapies availability is currently different in some countries, due to higher costs of these drugs. Naïve treated patients, who are not eligible for IFN-free therapies, could be selected for standard dual treatment with pegylated (PEG)-IFN and ribavirin (RBV), through IFN lambda 3 gene polymorphisms and fibrosis stage evaluation. Inclusion criteria were: naïve treated CHC patients with GT1 or GT4, without major contraindication to PEG-IFN or RBV, with fibrosis stage F0-F2 and IFNL3 rs8099917/rs12979860 TT/CC genotypes...
March 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315476/comparative-analysis-of-protein-evolution-in-the-genome-of-pre-epidemic-and-epidemic-zika-virus
#12
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Lei Dai, Deisy Contreras, Sanjeev Sinha, Ren Sun, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly in congenital infection, neurological disorders, and poor pregnancy outcome and no vaccine is available for use in humans or approved. Although ZIKV was first discovered in 1947, the exact mechanism of virus replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in the Americas clearly suggest a human-mosquito cycle or urban cycle of transmission. Understanding the conserved and adaptive features in the evolution of ZIKV genome will provide a hint on the mechanism of ZIKV adaptation to a new cycle of transmission...
March 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315475/evolution-of-the-ability-to-modulate-host-chemokine-networks-via-gene-duplication-in-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv
#13
Jessica A Scarborough, John R Paul, Juliet V Spencer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that is particularly skillful at evading immune detection and defense mechanisms, largely due to extensive co-evolution with its host. One aspect of this co-evolution involves the acquisition of virally encoded G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with homology to the chemokine receptor family. GPCRs are the largest family of cell surface proteins, found in organisms from yeast to humans, and they regulate a variety of cellular processes including development, sensory perception, and immune cell trafficking...
March 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300649/not-an-easy-road-to-generate-an-effective-helicobacter-pylori-vaccine
#14
LETTER
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300648/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-emergent-gii-p17-gii-17-norovirus-in-brazil-2015
#15
Juliana S R Andrade, Tulio M Fumian, José Paulo G Leite, Matheus R de Assis, Gonzalo Bello, Daiana Mir, Marize P Miagostovich
A newly GII.17 Kawazaki_2014 variant strain was detected recently in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis reveals at least four independent introduction events of this lineage into this country that took place throughout 2014, coinciding with FIFA World Cup in Brazil, 2014, and Hong Kong has been identified as the most likely source of introduction. This variant emerged in Asia causing outbreaks and replacing prevalent GII.4. Emergence of GII.P17/GII.17 variant emphasizes the need for active laboratory surveillance for NoV including molecular epidemiology and studies on virus evolution...
March 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288927/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-salmonella-typhimurium-reveals-the-presence-of-the-highly-invasive-st313-in-brazil
#16
LETTER
Fernanda Almeida, Amanda Aparecida Seribelli, Patrick da Silva, Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Cristiano Gallina Moreira, Marc W Allard, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288926/development-of-new-microsatellites-for-the-hookworm-ancylostoma-caninum-and-analysis-of-genetic-diversity-in-brazilian-populations
#17
Élida Mara Leite Rabelo, Rodrigo Rodrigues Cambraia de Miranda, Luis Fernando Viana Furtado, Rodrigo Aparecido Fernandes Redondo, Jacob Adam Tennessen, Michael Scott Blouin
Considering the great efforts towards formulating a vaccine against hookworms, and the concerns about the spread of drug resistance through hookworm populations, it is justified to study the molecular diversity and population genetic structure of these nematodes. This work had the aim to develop microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure and the molecular diversity of Brazilian populations of Ancylostoma caninum. Seven microsatellites markers were successfully used to characterize five Brazilian populations...
March 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286139/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-the-juvenile-and-adult-stages-of-fasciola-gigantica
#18
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wei Cong, Hany M Elsheikha, Guo-Hua Liu, Jian-Gang Ma, Wei-Yi Huang, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
Fasciola gigantica is regarded as the major liver fluke causing fasciolosis in livestock in tropical countries. Despite the significant economic and public health impacts of F. gigantica there are few studies on the pathogenesis of this parasite and our understanding is further limited by the lack of genome and transcriptome information. In this study, de novo Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to obtain a comprehensive transcriptome profile of the juvenile (42days post infection) and adult stages of F...
March 9, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284997/multiple-novel-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-south-korea-2016
#19
Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Yu-Na Lee, Gyeong-Beom Heo, You-Chan Bae, Sung-Joon Joh, Seok-Chan Park, Kang-Seuk Choi, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Il Jang, Min-Su Kang, Ok-Mi Jeong, Byung-Kook Choi, Sang-Man Lee, Suk Chan Jeong, Bong-Kyun Park, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee
We report the identification of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N6, clade 2.3.4.4, that presumably originated from China. In addition, reassortant strains with Eurasian lineage low pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated in wild birds and poultry in South Korea. The emergence of these novel H5N6 viruses and their circulation among bird populations are of great concern because of the potential for virus dissemination with intercontinental wild bird migration.
March 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284996/first-survey-of-cryptosporidium-giardia-and-enterocytozoon-in-diarrhoeic-children-from-wuhan-china
#20
Tao Wang, Yingying Fan, Anson V Koehler, Guangxu Ma, Tao Li, Min Hu, Robin B Gasser
Intestinal protozoan pathogens cause significant diarrhoeal diseases in children. However, to date, there has been limited genetic study of the intestinal pathogens Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in humans in China, with the exception of research in a small number of cities/provinces. In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterise these protistan parasites from 500 children with a history of diarrhoea in Wuhan and environs, Hubei province, China. Genomic DNAs from faecal samples were screened for the particular protists by PCR utilising regions in the small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA, the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60), the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) and/or the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes as genetic markers...
March 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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