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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Yanheng Wu, Jinsi Lin, Shuhuan Yang, Ying Xie, Man Wang, Xueqin Chen, Yayang Zhu, Le Luo, Wuyang Shi
OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular characteristics of H9N2-subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from air samples collected in live poultry markets (LPMs) and explore their sequence identities with AIVs that caused human infection. METHODS: Weekly surveillance of H9N2-subtype AIVs in the air of LPMs was conducted from 2015 to 2016. H9-positive samples were isolated from chicken embryos. Whole genome sequences of the isolated AIVs were obtained through high-throughput sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Laís Calissi Brisolla Tavares, Francielli Mahnic de Vasconcellos, Daniel Almeida Sant'Ana, Monique Ribeiro Tiba-Casas, Carlos Henrique Camargo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Erika Ebranati, Stefania Lauzi, Francesco Cerutti, Claudio Caruso, Loretta Masoero, Ana Moreno, Gian Mario De Mia, Simone Peletto, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Camilla Luzzago
The prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a geographic area are largely influenced by live animal trade and management practices. Despite control and eradication programs currently underway in several European countries, the risk of BVDV spread within and among countries is still present. BVDV-1 is the predominant type circulating in European cattle population. In this study, a phylogeographic analysis was applied to the BVDV-1 highest prevalent subtypes in Italy to reconstruct the origin and spatial-temporal distribution and to trace main viral flows between different locations to highlight priority areas for BVDV control...
January 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Qiong Chen, Jia-Wei Zhou, Jian-Zhong Fan, Sheng-Hai Wu, Li-Hui Xu, Yan Jiang, Zhi Ruan, Yun-Song Yu, Dao-Jun Yu, Xian-Jun Wang
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a common nosocomial bacterial pathogen with limited treatment options. CRAB outbreaks are disastrous for critically ill patients. This study investigated carbapenemase-produced A. baumannii outbreaks in a tertiary hospital. Although multiple outbreaks were suggested by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, the genetic lineages and evolution between these isolates were not clear. To investigate the genomic epidemiology of these outbreaks and to reveal possible transmission routes, whole genome sequences (WGS) were compared and analyzed...
January 8, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rym Essid, Jean Menotti, Chelbi Hanen, Karim Aoun, Aïda Bouratbine
Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite infecting a wide range of hosts. It has emerged as an important cause of chronic life-threatening diarrhea in humans worldwide. Several subtypes of Cryptosporidium sp. have been described to be responsible for several large outbreaks related to water contamination in developed countries. However, there is a lack of information in the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium among human population especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to update and report the genetic diversity of human Cryptosporidium spp...
January 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hyejin Jeon, Shukho Kim, Mi Hyun Kim, Se Yeon Kim, Donghyuk Nam, Sung Chan Park, Sue-Hyun Park, Hanna Bae, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Jae Hyun Cho, Won-Kil Lee, Yoo Chul Lee, Sang Hwa Lee, Min Sang Shin, Je Chul Lee
To elucidate the epidemicity of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility, the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance, and the ability to form biofilms of 147 CRAB isolates collected between 2013 and 2015 from a Korean hospital based on sequence types (STs). Six different STs were identified: ST191 (n=47) and ST208 (n=36) were clones that had already been identified in the study hospital, whereas ST229 (n=28), ST369 (n=18), ST357 (n=17), and ST552 (n=1) were previously unknown...
January 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
B Visseaux, F Damond, S Matheron, D Descamps, C Charpentier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Luis Collado, Nataly Muñoz, Lorena Porte, Sofía Ochoa, Carmen Varela, Ivo Muñoz
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, it has also been associated with other diseases such as bacteremia and with several post-infection sequelae. Although campylobacteriosis is usually a self-limited infection, antibiotics are indicated for severe and chronic conditions. Unfortunately, several industrialised nations have reported a substantial increase in antibiotic resistance of C. jejuni. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of resistance developed by this pathogen in the developing world...
January 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Monu Karki, Amit Kumar, Gnanavel Venkatesan, Sargam Arya, A B Pandey
Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV) are members of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) of the family Poxviridae. CaPVs are responsible for important contagious diseases of small ruminants that are enzootic to the Indian sub-continent, Central and Northern Africa and the Middle East. In the present study, the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the L1R gene of sixteen CaPV isolates (seven SPPV and nine GTPV) from India were performed along with 3D homology modeling of the L1R protein. L1R is a myristoylated protein responsible for virion assembly and being present on intracellular mature virion (IMV) surface, it is also a potent target for eliciting neutralizing antibodies...
January 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
A Chernick, A Ambagala, K Orsel, J D Wasmuth, G van Marle, F van der Meer
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae that causes a form of persistent infection. If a fetus is infected in utero during the first 120days of gestation the resulting calf will be immunotolerant to the infecting strain and maintain the virus for life. These animals are epidemiologically important in maintaining BVDV on farms, but also present a unique opportunity to study quasispecies in vivo in the absence of significant selection by the host adaptive immune response...
January 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Simona De Grazia, Gianvito Lanave, Floriana Bonura, Noemi Urone, Vincenzo Cappa, Sara Li Muli, Arcangelo Pepe, Akos Gellért, Krisztian Banyai, Vito Martella, Giovanni M Giammanco
Human astroviruses (HAstV) are important enteric pathogens that can be classified into eight sero/genotypes (HAstV-1 to -8). Although the various HAstV types show global spread, type-1 strains tend to be predominant. Molecular analysis of the genomic region encoding the capsid protein (ORF2) has revealed discrete sequence variation, with different lineages within each HAstV type and at least three major lineages have been identified within HAstV-1. Longitudinal epidemiological surveillance has revealed temporal shift of the various HAstV-1 lineages...
December 26, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Shreya Das, Saugata Majumder, Chetna Mathur, Joseph Kingston J
Clostridium perfringens an ubiquitous environmental bacterium causes major food borne illnesses, digestive diseases and several soft tissue infections in humans and animals. In the present study, toxin typing of 91 C. perfringens isolates from animals with enteric diseases and their environments revealed the presence of type A and C strains. Enterotoxin gene (cpe), responsible for majority of the food poisoning incidences in humans and enteric infections in animals was present in 60.43% of the isolates of which 61...
December 23, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Аida Daugaliyeva, Akhmetzhan Sultanov, Bekbolat Usserbayev, Sholpan Baramova, Paola Modesto, Akmaral Adambayeva, Pier Luigi Acutis, Simone Peletto
Currently, although the prevalence of brucellosis in Kazakhstan remains high, there are limited data available on the genetic diversity of circulating Brucella strains. Here, MLVA was employed to genotype a panel of 102 Brucella isolates collected from eight Kazakh regions and neighboring countries (Russia, Kyrgyzstan) during the period 1935-2017. MLVA-11 analysis classified 64 B. abortus strains into genotypes 72, 82, 331, 71, 341 and 69, while one genotype was novel, having no correspondence within the MLVA international database...
December 23, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Aneta Afelt, Audrey Lacroix, Urszula Zawadzka-Pawlewska, Wojciech Pokojski, Philippe Buchy, Roger Frutos
Environmental modifications are leading to biodiversity changes, loss and habitat disturbance. This in turn increases contacts between wildlife and hence the risk of transmission and emergence of zoonotic diseases. We analyzed the environment and land use using remote spatial data around the sampling locations of bats positive for coronavirus (21 sites) and astrovirus (11 sites) collected in 43 sites. A clear association between viruses and hosts was observed. Viruses associated to synanthropic bat genera, such as Myotis or Scotophilus were associated to highly transformed habitats with human presence while viruses associated to fruit bat genera were correlated with natural environments with dense forest, grassland areas and regions of high elevation...
December 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tanja Petrović, Selma Uzunović, Ivan Barišić, Josefa Luxner, Andrea Grisold, Gernot Zarfel, Amir Ibrahimagić, Sanja Jakovac, Domagoj Slaćanac, Branka Bedenić
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Lijuan Qiu, Lin Wang, Li Tan, Ming Li, Chengqing Wu, Li Li, Zhen Zhang, Hongchao Jiang, Qiangming Sun, Tiesong Zhang
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is particularly prevalent in low-immunity school-age children. Few data have been reported on MP prevalence in Yunnan, China. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and characterize genomic DNA of MP in a small outbreak in 2016, Southwest China. RepMP4 and RepMP2/3 genes of MP positive samples were amplified for molecular typing through sequence alignment and PCR-RFLP assay. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by MEGA5.0. The results showed that two distinct P1 types (type I and type II) were prevalent in this MP outbreak...
December 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Stéphanie Sherpa, Delphine Rioux, Charlotte Pougnet-Lagarde, Laurence Després
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South-eastern Asia, is currently the most invasive mosquito in the world. The spatio-temporal dynamics of its expansion through the genetic characterization of invasive populations has been challenged so far by the limited number of genetic markers variable enough to infer the genetic structure in recently invaded areas. Here we applied the double-digest Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing method (ddRADseq) to mosquitoes collected in two invaded areas, Reunion Island (12 localities) and Europe (18 localities)...
December 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Pengfei Guo, Xiangru Sun, Xiufang Feng, Chaolong Zhang
Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-ß1) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to liver cirrhosis (LC), controversial results exist. Consequently, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate the relationship of TGF-ß1-509C/T and codon 10T/C polymorphisms with the risk of LC introduced by chronic hepatitis B/V virus (HBV/HCV) infection. A total of 9 case-control studies, involving 985 LC patients and 909 controls, were recruited for meta-analysis...
December 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Lisa D Auckland, Karen F Snowden, Gabriel L Hamer, Sarah A Hamer
Across the Americas, triatomine insects harbor diverse strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), agent of Chagas disease. Geographic patterns of vector infection and parasite strain associations, especially in vectors encountered by the public, may be useful in assessing entomological risk, but are largely unknown across the US. We collected Triatoma spp. from across the US (mainly Texas), in part using a citizen science initiative, and amplified T. cruzi DNA to determine infection prevalence and parasite discrete typing units (DTUs)...
December 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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