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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Mariano Altamiranda-Saavedra, Jan E Conn, Margarita M Correa
This study evaluated the influence of environmental heterogeneity on Anopheles darlingi genetic and morphometric traits at a microgeographic level. Specimens of An. darlingi collected from multiple municipalities in the Colombian malaria endemic region Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú (UCS) were analyzed using 13 microsatellite loci. Spatial genetic structure, population variation and wing geometric morphometric analyses were performed. Microsatellite results showed low genetic differentiation and high gene flow among populations; four highly admixed subpopulations were detected with no particular association to the municipalities...
November 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Caroline Xavier de Carvalho, Cynthia Chester Cardoso, Fernanda de Souza Gomes Kehdy, Antonio Guilherme Pacheco, Milton Ozório Moraes
Dengue is a major worldwide problem in tropical and subtropical areas; it is caused by four different viral serotypes, and it can manifest as asymptomatic, mild, or severe. Many factors interact to determine the severity of the disease, including the genetic profile of the infected patient. However, the mechanisms that lead to severe disease and eventually death have not been determined, and a great challenge is the early identification of patients who are more likely to progress to a worse health condition...
November 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jiaxin Ling, Teemu Smura, Daniel Tamarit, Otso Huitu, Liina Voutilainen, Heikki Henttonen, Antti Vaheri, Olli Vapalahti, Tarja Sironen
Hantaviruses have co-existed with their hosts for millions of years. Seewis virus (SWSV), a soricomorph-borne hantavirus, is widespread in Eurasia, ranging from Central Siberia to Western Europe. To gain insight into the phylogeography and evolutionary history of SWSV in Finland, lung tissue samples of 225 common shrews (Sorex araneus) trapped from different parts of Finland were screened for the presence of SWSV RNA. Forty-two of the samples were positive. Partial small (S), medium (M) and large (L) segments of the virus were sequenced, and analyzed together with all SWSV sequences available in Genbank...
November 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Pramita Chowdhury, Srikanta Sen, Sumana Datta Kanjilal, Sanghamitra Sengupta
Erythrocyte binding antigens 175 (EBA-175) and 140 (EBA-140) play key roles in erythrocyte invasion by binding to glycophorin A (GPA) and C (GPC) respectively in human malaria. Since antigenic variation in malaria endemic region is a major barrier to development of effective vaccine, we explore the nature and pattern of sequence diversity of these two vaccine candidates in Kolkata, India. Population genetic parameters based on parasite sequences representing region II of Pfeba-175 and Pfeba-140 genes were estimated using DnaSP V...
November 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Raghda Mohamed Fathi Abbas, Daisuke Torigoe, Yayoi Kameda, Hassan T Tag-El-Din-Hassan, Nobuya Sasaki, Masami Morimatsu, Takashi Agui
Sendai virus (SeV) is one of the most important pathogens in the specific-pathogen free rodents. It is known that there are some inbred mouse strains susceptible or resistant to SeV infection. The C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice are representative of the resistant and susceptible strains, respectively. Previous study with the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified three QTLs responsible for resistance or susceptibility to SeV infection on different chromosomes and indicated that resistance or susceptibility to SeV infection was almost predicted by genotypes of these three QTLs...
November 9, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Corinna Pietsch, Uwe G Liebert
The genetic heterogeneity of rotaviruses constitutes a substantial burden to human and animal health. Occasional interspecies transmissions can generate novel virus strains in the human population. We detected equine-like G3P[8] strains in feces sampled from three children in Germany in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Thereof two showed a DS-1-like backbone. In one strain the NSP2 gene segment was of distinct genotype (G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses of the German strains showed a relation to other equine-like G3 rotaviruses circulating in different countries...
November 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ceren Öncü, Annika Brinkmann, Filiz Günay, Sırrı Kar, Kerem Öter, Yasemen Sarıkaya, Andreas Nitsche, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Bülent Alten, Koray Ergünay
Mosquitoes are involved in the transmission and maintenance of several viral diseases with significant health impact. Biosurveillance efforts have also revealed insect-specific viruses, observed to cocirculate with pathogenic strains. This report describes the findings of flavivirus and rhabdovirus screening, performed in eastern Thrace and Aegean region of Anatolia during 2016, including and expanding on locations with previously-documented virus activity. A mosquito cohort of 1545 individuals comprising 14 species were collected and screened in 108 pools via generic and specific amplification and direct metagenomics by next generation sequencing...
November 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ana Paula Oliveira-Arbex, Érica Boarato David, Semíramis Guimarães
Blastocystis, an unicellular anaerobic eukaryote, is known to be a very common intestinal parasite found in humans and animals fecal samples worldwide. Currently, there is an increasing interest to yield insights into its prevalence and diversity in human populations living in poor and deprived areas. In this study, we describe the prevalence and genetic variability of Blastocystis isolates obtained from daycare center attendees aged 0 to 6years and staff, as well as some children family members and their dogs in a low-income community in São Paulo State, Brazil...
November 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yaxin Chen, Mijuan Shi, Yingyin Cheng, Wanting Zhang, Qin Tang, Xiao-Qin Xia
With the expanding of marine and freshwater aquaculture, the outbreaks of aquatic animal diseases have increasingly become the major threats to the healthy development of aquaculture industries. Notably, viral infections lead to massive fish deaths and result in great economic loss every year across the world. Hence, it is meaningful to clarify the biodiversity, geographical distribution and host specificity of fish-associated viruses. In this study, viral sequences detected in fish samples were manually collected from public resources, along with the related metadata, such as sampling time, location, specimen type and fish species...
November 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jacqueline María Valverde-Villegas, Rúbia Marília de Medeiros, Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Breno Riegel Santos, Marineide Gonçalves de Melo, Sabrina Esteves de Matos Almeida, José Artur Bogo Chies
The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of plasma CXCL10, CCL20, CCL22, CCL2, CCL17 and CCL24 levels in HIV-positive patients grouped according to extreme phenotypes of progression to AIDS, and at different stages of HIV infection. HIV-positive individuals with extreme phenotypes of AIDS progression (n=58) at different clinical stages (chronic individuals, both pre-HAART and under-HAART) and HIV-negative controls (n=20) were evaluated. Additionally, HIV-positive individuals that initiated HAART with >350CD4(+)T-cells/mm(3) were compared with those who initiated treatment with <350CD4(+)T-cells/mm(3)...
November 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Alvaro Peix, Martha-Helena Ramírez-Bahena, Encarna Velázquez
The genus Pseudomonas described in 1894 is one of the most diverse and ubiquitous bacterial genera which encompass species isolated worldwide. In the last years more than 70 new species have been described, which were isolated from different environments, including soil, water, sediments, air, animals, plants, fungi, algae, compost, human and animal related sources. Some of these species have been isolated in extreme environments, such as Antarctica or Atacama desert, and from contaminated water or soil. Also, some species recently described are plant or animal pathogens...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Agnes Laleye, Tony Joannis, Ismaila Shittu, Clement Meseko, Gianpiero Zamperin, Adelaide Milani, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Isabella Monne, Celia Abolnik
Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Shohreh Almasi, Mohammad Reza Aliparasti, Behrouz Naghili, Khalil Yeganeh, Fatemeh Tavanafar, Syamak Amini-Khiabani, Zohreh Babaloo
Leprosy, which is developed by the obligate intracellular Mycobacterium leprae (ML); has different manifestations, associated with the host immune responses. The protective immune response against ML includes T-cell-mediated immunity. The CTLA-4 has a great impact as a negative regulator of the immune response and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. This study analyzed the relationship between CTLA-4+49A/G gene polymorphism and clinical manifestation of leprosy disease and susceptibility among the Azeri population living Northwest Iran...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Emilyn Costa Conceição, Nalin Rastogi, David Couvin, Maria Luíza Lopes, Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Sidra Ezídio Gonçalves Vasconcellos, Philip Noel Suffys, Maria Paula Cruz Schneider, Maísa Silva de Sousa, Christophe Sola, Ricardo José de Paula Souza E Guimarães, Rafael Silva Duarte, Karla Valéria Batista Lima
There is only scarce information available on genotypic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates circulating in the Northern part of Brazil, a relatively neglected region regarding research on tuberculosis. We therefore characterized 980 MTBC clinical isolates from the state of Pará, by spoligotyping and data was compared with patterns from around the world, besides analyzing drug susceptibility, and collecting sociodemographic data. We also performed 24 loci MIRU-VNTR typing to evaluate phylogenetic inferences among the East-African-India (EAI) lineage strains...
October 30, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rong Han, Jifei Yang, Qingli Niu, Zhijie Liu, Ze Chen, Wei Kan, Guangwei Hu, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
Tick-borne rickettsioses is one of the oldest known vector-borne diseases and has been viewed as emerging or re-emerging disease in China. The causative agents have been increasingly recognized and exhibited a high degree of genetic diversity and widespread distribution. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Qinghai Province, northwestern China. In total, 860 questing adult ticks representing six species were collected. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (19...
October 28, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Harris Bernstein, Carol Bernstein, Richard E Michod
We review the sexual processes common in pathogenic microorganisms and assess the primary adaptive benefit of such processes. The pathogenic microorganisms considered include bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, and viruses. The sexual processes include bacterial transformation, eukaryotic meiotic sex and virus multiplicity reactivation. Recent evidence shows that sexual processes are common in microbial pathogens. A major general challenge to pathogen survival and infectivity is the need to overcome the hostile defenses of their target host...
October 27, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Baoming Liu, Jing-Xian Yang, Ling Yan, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
As one of the major global public health concerns, hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be divided into at least eight genotypes, which may be related to disease severity and treatment response. We previously demonstrated that genotypes B and C HBV, with distinct geographical distribution in China, had divergent genotype-dependent amino acid polymorphisms and variations in reverse transcriptase (RT) gene region, a target of antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogues. Recently recombination between HBV genotypes B and C was reported to occur in the RT region...
October 27, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Utpal Kumar Adhikari, M Mizanur Rahman
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emergent arthropod-borne zoonotic infectious viral pathogen which causes fatal diseases in the humans and ruminants. Currently, no effective and licensed vaccine is available for the prevention of RVFV infection in endemic as well as in non-endemic regions. So, an immunoinformatics-driven genome-wide screening approach was performed for the identification of overlapping CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes and also linear B-cell epitopes from the conserved sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) of RVFV...
October 26, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sergey E Tkachev, Galina S Chicherina, Irina Golovljova, Polina S Belokopytova, Artem Yu Tikunov, Oksana V Zadora, Victor V Glupov, Nina V Tikunova
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a causative agent of a severe neurological disease. There are three main TBEV subtypes: the European (TBEV-Eu), Far Eastern (TBEV-FE), and Siberian (TBEV-Sib). Currently, three lineages within TBEV-Sib have been recorded. In this study, the genetic and biological characteristics of a new original strain, TBEV-2871, isolated in the Novosibirsk province of Western Siberia, Russia were investigated. The strain has low neuroinvasiveness in mice...
October 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Gulshana A Mazumder, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Codon usage bias refers to the phenomenon where synonymous codons are used with unequal frequencies. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial cytochrome B (MT-CYB) gene of phylum platyhelminth we used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein coding sequences of five different classes - cestoda, monogenea, rabditophora, trematoda and turbellaria. It was found from nucleotide composition analysis that in all the classes, A/T-ended codons were preferred over G/C-ended codons. From box plot analysis GC1 found to have highest response to codon usage bias...
October 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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