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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104454/ecology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-i-genotypes-across-rhodnius-prolixus-captured-in-attalea-butyracea-palms
#1
Cristina Poveda, Adriana Higuera, Plutarco Urbano, Juan David Ramírez
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease exhibits significant genetic diversity. This parasite is divided into six discrete typing units (DTUs) where T. cruzi I (TcI) is the most widespread in the Americas. TcI genotypes have been associated to domestic and sylvatic cycles of transmission (TcIDom and sylvatic TcI). Due to the importance of the enzootic transmission, we determined the frequency of TcI genotypes present in Rhodnius prolixus captured in different regions of the palm A. butyracea to understand the ecology of the disease and the importance of A...
January 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095299/african-and-asian-zika-virus-strains-differentially-induce-early-antiviral-responses-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#2
Rodolphe Hamel, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Fodé Diop, Loïc Talignani, Julien Pompon, Déborah Garcia, Florian Liegeois, Amadou A Sall, Hans Yssel, Dorothée Missé
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging arbovirus. Since its discovery 60years ago in Uganda, it has spread throughout the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions worldwide. Although infection with ZIKV often leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has coincided with an increase in adults developing Guillain-Barré syndrome and neurological complications in new-borns, such as congenital microcephaly. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the complications caused by different primary isolates of ZIKV...
January 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095298/molecular-identification-and-genotyping-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-dna-in-autochthonous-chagas-disease-patients-from-texas-usa
#3
Melissa N Garcia, Hadley Burroughs, Rodion Gorchakov, Sarah M Gunter, Eric Dumonteil, Kristy O Murray, Claudia P Herrera
The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed throughout the Americas, from the southern United States (US) to northern Argentina, and infects at least 6 million people in endemic areas. Much remains unknown about the dynamics of T. cruzi transmission among mammals and triatomine vectors in sylvatic and peridomestic eco-epidemiological cycles, as well as of the risk of transmission to humans in the US. Identification of T. cruzi DTUs among locally-acquired cases is necessary for enhancing our diagnostic and clinical prognostic capacities, as well as to understand parasite transmission cycles...
January 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088502/the-nucleotide-changes-within-hbv-core-promoter-precore-during-the-first-12weeks-of-nucleos-t-ide-treatment-might-be-associated-with-a-better-virological-response
#4
Yaqin Peng, Yutang Li, Jinlin Hou, Jian Sun, Mingze Su, Yao Li, Kuanhui Xiang, Ling Yan, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the dynamic changes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core promoter/precore (CP/preC) sequences during antiviral treatment and their associations with virological responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The baseline and 12-week CP/preC sequences (nts 1655-2014) were obtained from 52 chronic hepatitis B patients with positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), who received a 104-week lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil combination therapy. The mutations within the CP/preC were analyzed against genotype specific reference sequences...
January 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087495/comparative-analysis-of-variation-and-selection-in-the-hcv-genome
#5
Juan Ángel Patiño-Galindo, Fernando González-Candelas
Genotype 1 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most prevalent of the variants of this virus. Its two main subtypes, HCV-1a and HCV-1b, are associated to differences in epidemic features and risk groups, despite sharing similar features in most biological properties. We have analyzed the impact of positive selection on the evolution of these variants using complete genome coding regions, and compared the levels of genetic variability and the distribution of positively selected sites. We have also compared the distributions of positively selected and conserved sites considering different factors such as RNA secondary structure, the presence of different epitopes (antibody, CD4 and CD8), and secondary protein structure...
January 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087494/porcine-kobuvirus-1-in-healthy-and-diarrheic-pigs-genetic-detection-and-characterization-of-virus-and-co-infection-with-rotavirus-a
#6
Anna Jackova, Ivan Sliz, Rene Mandelik, Slavomira Salamunova, Jaroslav Novotny, Mariana Kolesarova, Michaela Vlasakova, Stefan Vilcek
The porcine kobuvirus 1 (PKV-1) is believed to be an enteric virus. To investigate the prevalence of PKV-1 in pigs, virus was detected by RT-PCR in rectal swabs originating from 414 healthy and diarrheic pigs of different age categories on farms in Slovakia. Among all ages of animals, PKV-1 was detected equally in diarrheic (63.8%) and clinically healthy (62.9%) pigs. PKV-1 was more often detected in diarrheic (74.6%) than in healthy (64.4%) suckling piglets (<28days) but data was not statistically significant...
January 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082188/molecular-epidemiology-of-hiv-1-in-iceland-early-introductions-transmission-dynamics-and-recent-outbreaks-among-injection-drug-users
#7
Malik Sallam, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Guðrún Baldvinsdóttir, Hlynur Indriðason, Thora Björg Björnsdóttir, Anders Widell, Magnús Gottfreðsson, Arthur Löve, Patrik Medstrand
The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland has not been described so far. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of HIV-1 can give insights for prevention of virus spread. The objective of the current study was to characterize the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 in Iceland. Partial HIV-1 pol (1020bp) sequences were generated from 230 Icelandic samples, representing 77% of all HIV-1 infected individuals reported in the country 1985-2012. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed for subtype/CRF assignment and determination of transmission clusters...
January 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082187/the-mthfr-c677t-mutation-is-not-a-risk-factor-recognized-for-hbv-related-hcc-in-a-population-with-a-high-prevalence-of-this-genetic-marker
#8
Xiaolei Jiao, Ying Luo, Bin Yang, Li Jing, Yayue Li, Changzheng Liu, Xiang Jing, Fengmei Wang, Yijun Wang, Zhi Du, Yingtang Gao
BACKGROUND: Polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene can affect disease progression in HBV infection. However, the results from different reports are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the outcome of HBV infection in a Tianjin Han population. METHODS: TaqMan SNP genotyping was employed to determine the alleles and genotypes of MTHFR C677T in 2511 subjects from various stages of HBV infection and 549 healthy controls...
January 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069446/rich2-is-implicated-in-viraemic-control-of-hiv-1-in-black-south-african-individuals
#9
Maria Paximadis, Refilwe N Ngqobe, Richard E Chaisson, Neil A Martinson, Caroline T Tiemessen
An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in RICH2 (rs2072255; 255(i)), in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) with an exonic SNP (rs2072254; 254(e)), has been identified in a genome wide association study to be associated with progression to AIDS in Caucasian individuals. RICH2 links tetherin to the cortical actin network and the RICH2/tetherin interaction has been shown to be important for the downstream activation of NF-κβ and the consequential promotion of proinflammatory responses. We investigated the role of these two SNPs in natural control of HIV-1 in black South Africans including healthy controls (HCs; N=102) and antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected controllers (HICs; N=52) and progressors (N=74)...
January 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065804/limited-naturally-occurring-escape-in-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-epitopes-in-hepatitis-c-glycoprotein-e2-and-constrained-sequence-usage-in-acute-infection
#10
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Melanie R Walker, Preston Leung, Auda A Eltahla, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Tanya Applegate, Kimberly Page, Sunita Dwivedi, Julie Bruneau, Meghan D Morris, Andrea L Cox, William Osburn, Arthur Y Kim, Janke Schinkel, Naglaa H Shoukry, Georg M Lauer, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Maria Prins, Fabio Luciani, Andrew R Lloyd, Rowena A Bull
Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been associated with spontaneous clearance of the hepatitis C infection as well as viral persistence by immune escape. Further study of neutralizing antibody epitopes is needed to unravel pathways of resistance to virus neutralization, and to identify conserved regions for vaccine design. All reported broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb) epitopes in the HCV Envelope (E2) glycoprotein were identified. The critical contact residues of these epitopes were mapped onto the linear E2 sequence...
January 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063924/diversity-in-vp3-nsp3-and-nsp4-of-rotavirus-b-detected-from-japanese-cattle
#11
Michiko Hayashi-Miyamoto, Toshiaki Murakami, Fujiko Minami-Fukuda, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Mai Kishimoto, Kaori Sano, Yuki Naoi, Keigo Asano, Toru Ichimaru, Kei Haga, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Mami Oba, Hiroshi Aoki, Junsuke Shirai, Motohiko Ishida, Kazuhiko Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
Bovine rotavirus B (RVB) is an etiological agent of diarrhea mostly in adult cattle. Currently, a few sequences of viral protein (VP)1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 and nonstructural protein (NSP)1, 2, and 5 of bovine RVB are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases, and none have been reported for VP3, NSP3, and NSP4. In order to fill this gap in the genetic characterization of bovine RVB strains, we used a metagenomics approach and sequenced and analyzed the complete coding sequences (CDS) of VP3, NSP3, and NSP4 genes, as well as the partial or complete CDS of other genes of RVBs detected from Japanese cattle...
January 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063923/phylogenetic-analysis-of-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-isolated-from-slaughter-age-pigs-in-colombia
#12
Jorge E Forero D, Cristian Gutiérrez-Vergara, Jaime Parra S, Guillermo Correa L, Berardo Rodríguez, Lina A Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier Díaz, Albeiro López-Herrera
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that causes acute hepatitis in humans, and can be transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Pigs are considered to be a reservoir for this infection-mainly where the disease is not endemic. In a previous study conducted in Antioquia, which is a region in Colombia where the production and consumption of pork meat is higher than in the rest of the country, the presence of anti-HEV IgG-type antibodies was reported in slaughter-age pigs. Aiming to identify the HEV genotype circulating in swine, animal liver, and feces samples from five swine cattle slaughterhouses located in six different sub-regions of Antioquia were collected...
January 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062387/molecular-diversity-recombination-and-population-structure-of-alphasatellites-associated-with-begomovirus-disease-complexes
#13
R Vinoth Kumar, Divya Singh, Achuit K Singh, S Chakraborty
The genus, begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) includes a large number of viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide. The majority of monopartite begomoviruses are associated with satellites (betasatellites) and/or satellite-like molecules (alphasatellites). In spite of the Indo-China region being regarded as the centre of origin of begomoviruses and satellites, a detailed study on the emergence and evolution of alphasatellites in India has not yet conducted. Our present analysis indicated the association of 22 alphasatellites with monopartite and bipartite begomovirus-betasatellite complexes in India...
January 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062388/netf-producing-clostridium-perfringens-clonality-and-plasmid-pathogenicity-loci-analysis
#14
Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Andrew M Kropinski, Scott J Weese, Ashley E Whitehead, Valeria R Parreira, Patrick Boerlin, John F Prescott
Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of foal necrotizing enteritis and canine acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. A major virulence determinant of the strains associated with these diseases appears to be a beta-sheet pore-forming toxin, NetF, encoded within a pathogenicity locus (NetF locus) on a large tcp-conjugative plasmid. Strains producing NetF also produce the putative toxin NetE, encoded within the same pathogenicity locus, as well as CPE enterotoxin and CPB2 on a second plasmid, and sometimes the putative toxin NetG within a pathogenicity locus (NetG locus) on another separate large conjugative plasmid...
January 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062386/rna-expression-analysis-of-efflux-pump-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-south-korea
#15
Tae Sang Oh, Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Chang-Ki Kim, Sun Young Cho, Hee Joo Lee
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an important communicable disease. Various mechanisms of resistance to antituberculosis drugs have been reported; these are principally mutations in target genes. However, not all M. tuberculosis resistance can be explained by mutations in such genes. Other resistance mechanisms associated with drug transport, such as efflux pumps, have also been reported. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of three putative efflux pumps and mutations in target genes associated with injectable agents and fluoroquinolones with clinical MDR and XDR-TB isolates...
January 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043887/first-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-common-quails-coturnix-coturnix-intended-for-human-consumption-in-china
#16
Wei Cong, Hong-Liang Ju, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Qing-Feng Meng, Jian-Gang Ma, Ai-Dong Qian, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in humans and other animals including birds throughout the world. However, little is known of the molecular epidemiology and genotypes of T. gondii infecting quails in China. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize T. gondii genotypes in common quails in China. During December 2014 to October 2015, a total of 390 muscle tissue samples of common quails were collected and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a nested PCR, and the positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'-and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology...
December 30, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040563/wing-geometry-of-triatoma-sordida-hemiptera-reduviidae-populations-from-brazil
#17
Daniel Pagotto Vendrami, Marcos Takashi Obara, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Walter Ceretti-Junior, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Triatoma sordida has a widespread distribution in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay and is frequently found in peridomestic environments. We investigated size and shape variability of T. sordida wings across Brazil. Field-collected adults from twelve populations were studied. For each individual female, seven landmarks on the right wing were digitalized. Shape variables derived from Procrustes superimposition were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Wing size and shape variations among populations was explored by means of ANOVA...
December 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040562/enzootic-origins-for-clinical-manifestations-of-lyme-borreliosis
#18
Setareh Jahfari, Aleksandra Krawczyk, E Claudia Coipan, Manoj Fonville, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Katsuhisa Takumi
Both early localized and late disseminated forms of Lyme borreliosis are caused by Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato. Differentiating between the spirochetes that only cause localized skin infection from those that cause disseminated infection, and tracing the group of medically-important spirochetes to a specific vertebrate host species, are two critical issues in disease risk assessment and management. Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato isolates from Lyme borreliosis cases with distinct clinical manifestations (erythema migrans, neuroborreliosis, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and Lyme arthritis) and isolates from Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on rodents, birds and hedgehogs were typed to the genospecies level by sequencing part of the intergenic spacer region...
December 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039076/whole-genome-analysis-provides-evidence-for-porcine-to-simian-interspecies-transmission-of-rotavirus-a
#19
Ryan Navarro, Meiji Soe Aung, Katalina Cruz, Jennifer Ketzis, Christa Ann Gallagher, Amy Beierschmitt, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Souvik Ghosh
We report here whole genome analysis of a porcine rotavirus-A (RVA) strain RVA/Pig-wt/KNA/ET8B/2015/G5P[13] detected in a diarrheic piglet, and nearly whole genome (except for VP4 gene) analysis of a simian RVA strain RVA/Simian-wt/KNA/08979/2015/G5P[X] detected in a non-diarrheic African green monkey (AGM) on the island of St. Kitts, Caribbean region. Strain ET8B exhibited a G5-P[13]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1 genotype constellation that was identical to those of Brazilian porcine RVA G5P[13] strains RVA/Pig-wt/BRA/ROTA01/2013/G5P[13] and RVA/Pig-wt/BRA/ROTA07/2013/G5P[13], the only porcine G5P[13] RVAs that have been analyzed for the whole genome so far...
December 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039075/comparative-genome-analysis-of-multiple-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-two-fatal-cases
#20
Shu Yong Lim, Kien-Pong Yap, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Kartini Abdul Jabar, Kwai Lin Thong
Enterococcus faecium is both a commensal of the human intestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of enterococcal infections is mainly due to the ability of this organism to develop resistance to multiple antibiotics, including vancomycin. The aim of this study was to perform comparative genome analyses on four vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains isolated from two fatal cases in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Two sequence types, ST80 and ST203, were identified which belong to the clinically important clonal complex (CC) 17...
December 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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