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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919804/prevalence-of-giardia-duodenalis-assemblages-and-sub-assemblages-in-symptomatic-patients-from-damascus-city-and-its-suburbs
#1
Dania Skhal, Ghalia Aboualchamat, Ayman Al Mariri, Samar Al Nahhas
Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important human enteric parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. However, there is limited information on the prevalent genetic variability of G. duodenalis in Syria. This study aimed to evaluate the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages causing humans infection in the city of Damascus and its suburbs. 40 symptomatic giardiasis patients were recruited in this study. Fecal samples were genotyped using PCR/RFLP assay targeting the β-giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes...
December 2, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908797/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-b-genotypes-circulating-in-pakistani-children
#2
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Nayab Mahmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV B genotypes in Pakistani children below 5years with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) during three consecutive winter seasons from 2010 to 2013. A total of 1941 samples were analyzed for RSV infection by real time PCR and 24% (472/1941) samples were found positive out of which 22...
November 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908796/detection-of-novel-gii-17-norovirus-in-argentina-2015
#3
Juan I Degiuseppe, Karina A Gomes, María F Hadad, Gabriel I Parra, Juan A Stupka
During the winter of 2014-2015 a novel GII.17 norovirus strain emerged as a cause of large gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia; displacing the long-term predominant strain, GII.4. Although sporadically detected, the emerging GII.17 virus was described in North America and Europe. In this study, we describe the presence of this novel strain in Argentina (South America), and provide new information on the genetic diversity of GII.17 noroviruses. Ten stool samples from individuals (1-88years old; median: 5years old) experiencing gastroenteritis symptoms from San Martín de los Andes, Argentina were tested for Norovirus using RT-PCR...
November 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894992/analysis-of-complete-genome-sequences-of-g9p-19-rotavirus-strains-from-human-and-piglet-with-diarrhea-provides-evidence-for-whole-genome-interspecies-transmission-of-nonreassorted-porcine-rotavirus
#4
Arpaporn Yodmeeklin, Pattara Khamrin, Watchaporn Chuchaona, Kattareeya Kumthip, Aphisek Kongkaew, Ratchaya Vachirachewin, Shoko Okitsu, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn
Whole genomes of G9P[19] human (RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19]) and porcine (RVA/Pig-wt/THA/CMP-015-12/2012/G9P[19]) rotaviruses concurrently detected in the same geographical area in northern Thailand were sequenced and analyzed for their genetic relationships using bioinformatic tools. The complete genome sequence of human rotavirus RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19] was most closely related to those of porcine rotavirus RVA/Pig-wt/THA/CMP-015-12/2012/G9P[19] and to those of porcine-like human and porcine rotaviruses reference strains than to those of human rotavirus reference strains...
November 26, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894991/bats-are-rare-reservoirs-of-staphylococcus-aureus-complex-in-gabon
#5
Jana Held, Markus Gmeiner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Pierre-Blaise Matsiégui, Juliane Schaer, Isabella Eckerle, Natalie Weber, Kai Matuschewski, Stefan Bletz, Frieder Schaumburg
The colonization of afro-tropical wildlife with Staphylococcus aureus and the derived clade Staphylococcus schweitzeri remains largely unknown. A reservoir in bats could be of importance since bats and humans share overlapping habitats. In addition, bats are food sources in some African regions and can be the cause of zoonotic diseases. Here, we present a cross-sectional survey employing pharyngeal swabs of captured and released bats (n=133) in a forest area of Gabon. We detected low colonization rates of S...
November 26, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894990/microevolutionary-analyses-of-pythium-insidiosum-isolates-of-brazil-and-thailand-based-on-exo-1-3-%C3%AE-glucanase-gene
#6
Tatiana Corrêa Ribeiro, Carla Weiblen, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Sônia de Avila Botton, Lizandra Jaqueline Robe, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Danieli Urach Monteiro, Douglas Miotto Lorensetti, Janio Morais Santurio
Pythium insidiosum is an important oomycete due to its ability to infect humans and animals. It causes pythiosis, a disease of difficult treatment that occurs more frequently in humans in Thailand and in horses in Brazil. Since cell-wall components are frequently related to host shifts, we decided here to use sequences from the exo-1.3-β-glucanase gene (exo1), which encodes an immunodominant protein putatively involved in cell wall remodeling, to investigate the microevolutionary relationships of Brazilian and Thai isolates of P...
November 25, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894989/new-pieces-on-genetic-diversity-and-evolutionary-history-of-hepatitis-b-virus-characterization-of-the-novel-subgenotype-f6
#7
LETTER
Laura Noelia Mojsiejczuk, Carolina Torres, María Belén Pisano, Viviana Re, Rodolfo Héctor Campos, Diego Martín Flichman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888038/evidence-of-bottleneck-effect-on-hepatitis-c-virus-transmission-between-a-couple-under-interferon-based-therapy
#8
Rafael Alves da Silva, Isabel Maria Vicente Guedes de Carvalho, Renata Prandini Adum de Matos, Lilian Hiromi Tomonari Yamasaki, Cíntia Bittar, Paula Rahal, Ana Carolina Gomes Jardim
Issues on the correlation of viral genetic diversity and treatment response to the hepatitis C infection remain uncertain. The bottleneck effect dictates the characteristics of the viral population that will establish the infection in a new host and is related to how the immune system and treatment will be effective against the virus. Here we evaluated the phylogenetic characteristics of quasispecies population and the treatment response pattern of a HCV infected couple. We also analyzed whether the viral population of these patients indicated that they were exposed to the same source for primer infection...
November 22, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884653/migration-recombination-and-reassortment-are-involved-in-the-evolution-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-bunyavirus
#9
Junming Shi, Sheng Hu, Xiaoping Liu, Juan Yang, Dan Liu, Liang Wu, Hualin Wang, Zhihong Hu, Fei Deng, Shu Shen
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) has been identified as the etiological agent causing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). SFTSV was reported in recent years as a newly emerging tick-borne virus in China, Japan and South Korea and is a novel member of the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, which is suspected to be transmitted by the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. The genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships between geographically distributed SFTSV strains are currently unclear...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884652/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiologic-trends-reveal-the-important-role-of-rotavirus-in-adult-infectious-gastroenteritis-in-shanghai-china
#10
Yan Wang, Jinan Zhang, Pengbo Liu
As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November-March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April-October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884651/analysis-of-mutations-in-dna-gyrase-and-topoisomerase-iv-of-ureaplasma-urealyticum-and-ureaplasma-parvum-serovars-resistant-to-fluoroquinolones
#11
Giorgio Piccinelli, Franco Gargiulo, Valeria Biscaro, Francesca Caccuri, Arnaldo Caruso, Maria Antonia De Francesco
This study aims to determine the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance of Ureaplasma biovars and serovars isolated from urogenital clinical samples and determine the underlying molecular mechanism for quinolone resistance for all resistant isolates. Of 105 samples confirmed as positive for U. urealyticum/U. parvum, 85 were resistant to quinolones by the Mycoplasma-IST2 kit. However, only 43 out of 85 quinolone resistant isolates had amino acid substitutions in GyrA, GyrB, ParC and ParE proteins underlining that this assay have mis-identified as fluoroquinolone resistant 42 isolates...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871816/experimental-transmission-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-rhdv-from-rabbit-to-wild-mice-mus-spretus-and-apodemus-sylvaticus-under-laboratory-conditions
#12
Gregorio Rocha, Fernando Alda, Albert Pagés, Tomás Merchán
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly lethal and contagious viral disease that produces haemorrhagic lesions in liver and lungs of domestic and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This study investigates the transmission of RHDV from infected rabbits to mice, based on the detection of viral RNA. Sixteen wild mice (Mus spretus, n=12 and Apodemus sylvaticus, n=4) were put in contact with nine rabbits inoculated with RHDV. No mice died following exposure to RHDV-infected rabbits or developed macroscopic haemorrhagic lesions...
November 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871815/identification-and-genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-rat-bocavirus-from-brown-rats-in-china
#13
Susanna K P Lau, Hazel C Yeung, Kenneth S M Li, Carol S F Lam, Jian-Piao Cai, Ming-Chi Yuen, Ming Wang, Bo-Jian Zheng, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Despite recent discoveries of novel animal bocaparvoviruses, current understandings on the diversity and evolution of bocaparvoviruses are still limited. We report the identification and genome characterization of a novel bocaparvovirus, rat bocaparvovirus (RBoV), in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in China. RBoV was detected in 11.5%, 2.4%, 16.2% and 0.3% of alimentary, respiratory, spleen and kidney samples respectively, of 636 brown rats by PCR, but not in samples of other rodent species, suggesting that brown rats are the primary reservoir of RBoV...
November 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871796/diversity-of-bat-astroviruses-in-lao-pdr-and-cambodia
#14
Audrey Lacroix, Veasna Duong, Vibol Hul, Sorn San, Holl Davun, Keo Omaliss, Sokha Chea, Alexandre Hassanin, Watthana Theppangna, Soubanh Silithammavong, Kongsy Khammavong, Sinpakone Singhalath, Aneta Afelt, Zoe Greatorex, Amanda E Fine, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah Olson, Damien O Joly, Lucy Keatts, Philippe Dussart, Roger Frutos, Philippe Buchy
Astroviruses are known to infect humans and a wide range of animal species, and can cause gastroenteritis in their hosts. Recent studies have reported astroviruses in bats in Europe and in several locations in China. We sampled 1876 bats from 17 genera at 45 sites from 14 and 13 provinces in Cambodia and Lao PDR respectively, and tested them for astroviruses. Our study revealed a high diversity of astroviruses among various Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera bats. Evidence for varying degrees of host restriction for astroviruses in bats was found...
November 15, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847329/the-genetic-profile-of-susceptibility-to-infectious-diseases-in-roman-period-populations-from-central-poland
#15
Magda Lewandowska, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Alicja Zamerska, Tomasz Płoszaj, Henryk W Witas
For thousands of years human beings have resisted life-threatening pathogens. This ongoing battle is considered to be the major force shaping our gene pool as every micro-evolutionary process provokes specific shifts in the genome, both that of the host and the pathogen. Past populations were more susceptible to changes in allele frequencies not only due to selection pressure, but also as a result of genetic drift, migration and inbreeding. In the present study we have investigated the frequency of five polymorphisms within innate immune-response genes (SLC11A1 D543N, MBL2 G161A, P2RX7 A1513C, IL10 A-1082G, TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del) related to susceptibility to infections in humans...
November 12, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845268/evidence-for-influenza-b-virus-lineage-shifts-and-reassortants-circulating-in-thailand-in-2014-2016
#16
Nipaporn Tewawong, Nungruthai Suntronwong, Sumeth Korkong, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Towards the surveillance of seasonal influenza viruses between August 2015 and June 2016, respiratory samples (n=3390) were collected from Thai patients with influenza-like illness. One-hundred fifty-seven (4.6%) samples tested positive for influenza B virus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). While the influenza B virus Yamagata lineage strains were more prevalent than the Victoria lineage strains in 2015 (77.5% vs. 22.5%), the Victoria lineage strains appeared to dominate the first half of 2016 (62...
November 12, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845269/mitochondrial-genomes-of-two-babesia-taxa-from-sheep-in-china-as-a-foundation-for-population-genetic-and-epidemiological-investigations
#17
Tao Wang, Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Neil D Young, Ross S Hall, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
Here, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two operational taxonomic units of Babesia from sheep from China using a deep sequencing-coupled approach. Then, we defined and compared the gene order of these mt genomes (~5.8 to 6.2kb in size), assessed sequence differences in mt genes among Babesia taxa and evaluated genetic relationships among these taxa and related apicomplexans (Theileria) for which mt genomic data sets were available. We also identified mt genetic regions that might be useful as markers for future population genetic and molecular epidemiological studies of Babesia from small ruminants...
November 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840256/global-gene-expression-profile-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-challenged-with-theileria-annulata-in-crossbred-and-indigenous-cattle
#18
Amod Kumar, Gyanendra Kumar Gaur, Ravi Kumar Gandham, Manjit Panigrahi, Shrikant Ghosh, B C Saravanan, Bharat Bhushan, Ashok Kumar Tiwari, Sourabh Sulabh, Bhuvana Priya, Muhasin Asaf V N, Jay Prakash Gupta, Sajad Ahmad Wani, Amit Ranjan Sahu, Aditya Prasad Sahoo
Bovine tropical theileriosis is an important haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. It is one of the major constraints of the livestock development programmes in India and Southeast Asia. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance to tropical theileriosis in indigenous cattle is not well documented. Recent studies incited an idea that differentially expressed genes in exotic and indigenous cattle play significant role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis...
November 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838527/molecular-characterisation-of-theileria-orientalis-in-imported-and-native-bovines-from-pakistan
#19
Hagos Gebrekidan, Tariq Abbas, Muhammad Wajid, Aamir Ali, Robin B Gasser, Abdul Jabbar
The epidemiological aspects of Theileria orientalis in Pakistan are unknown; therefore, investigations using sensitive and precise molecular techniques are required. This study reports the first molecular characterisation of T. orientalis detected from imported (Bos taurus) and native cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) selected from four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. DNA samples from blood (n=246) were extracted and tested using conventional PCR utilising the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR)...
November 10, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838528/occurrence-and-genetic-variability-of-kemerovo-virus-in-ixodes-ticks-from-different-regions-of-western-siberia-russia-and-kazakhstan
#20
Sergey E Tkachev, Artem Yu Tikunov, Igor V Babkin, Natalia N Livanova, Stanislav G Livanov, Victor V Panov, Valeriy V Yakimenko, Alexey K Tantsev, Dmitrii E Taranenko, Nina V Tikunova
Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia remain poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of KEMV in Ixodes ticks from Western Siberia...
November 9, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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