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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Elena Zhirakovskaia, Artem Tikunov, Alexander Tymentsev, Sergey Sokolov, Daria Sedelnikova, Nina Tikunova
This hospital-based surveillance study was carried out in Novosibirsk, Asian Russia from September 2009 to December 2012. Stool samples from 5486 children with diarrhea and from 339 healthy controls were screened for rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and bocavirus by RT-PCR. At least one enteric virus was found in 2075 (37.8%) cases with diarrhea and 8 (2.4%) controls. In the diarrhea cases, rotavirus was the most commonly detected virus (24.9%), followed by norovirus (13.4%), astrovirus (2.8%) and bocavirus (1...
November 8, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Zhenbang Zhu, Yang Guo, Piao Yu, Xiaoying Wang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Wenjuan Dong, Xiaohong Liu, Chunhe Guo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a great economic loss to the swine industry globally. Current prevention and treatment measures are not effective to control the outbreak and spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). In other words, new antiviral strategies are urgently needed. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) is regarded as a broad-spectrum disinfectant with strong inhibitory effects on microbes and parasites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of ClO2 against PRRSV infection in vitro...
November 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kalyani Dhusia, Kalpana Raja, Pierre Paul Michel Thomas, Pramod K Yadav, Pramod W Ramteke
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is an immediate precursor of polyamine biosynthesis in Serratia marcescens and a potential target for inhibition of its growth. We predicted the 3D structural conformation of ODC enzyme and validated it using MDS in our previous study. In this current study, the potential inhibitors of ODC were obtained by virtual screening of potential inhibitors from ZINC database and studied in depth for their different binding pose. Among the ten virtually screened inhibitors, Conessine exhibited the best binding with ODC and its inhibition property was studied further by MDS studies...
November 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Chin Cheng Chou, Men Chieng Lin, Feng Jie Su, Meei Mei Chen
Streptococcus agalactiae infects numerous fish species, causing considerable economic losses during fish cultivation. This study compared the phenotypic differences among S. agalactiae hemolytic variant isolates and investigated the genetic composition of their hemolysin genes. Hemolysin is encoded by the cyl operon and mainly regulated by covS/R, which also regulates encapsulation. In total, 45 S. agalactiae clinical isolates were collected from cultured fishes in Taiwan. Three different hemolytic phenotypes-α, β, and γ-were identified...
November 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
A Caporossi, O Kulkarni, Blum Mgb, V Leroy, P Morand, S Larrat, O François
Collections of biological samples held by hospitals represent invaluable resources for conducting retrospective evolutionary studies of chronic infections. Using high-throughput sequencing, those collections permit analysis of within-host genetic diversity over long follow-up periods, and allow a better understanding of resistance to treatment regimes during disease evolution. Here, we studied the evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations in two patients with an absence of response to dual therapies...
November 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Andrés López-Rubio, Juan David Suaza Vasco, Sergio Solari, Lina Gutiérez, Charles Porter, Sandra Uribe
Three mitochondrial regions and a fragment of a large nuclear ribosomal subunit was used to study the evolutionary patterns of An. neivai, a mosquito inhabiting the mangrove and tropical forest in the lowland and coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula, through the Pacific Ecuadorian coast. This species exhibits epidemiological importance regarding Malaria transmission in natural ecosystems, particularly in rural areas of the Pacific Colombian coast. The results based on phylogenetic networks and Bayesian inference showed no robust evidence supporting the existence of previously suggested cryptic species...
November 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Senlin Ji, Mengyan Zhu, Junyan Zhang, Yuchen Cai, Xiaofeng Zhai, Dong Wang, Gairu Li, Shuo Su, Jiyong Zhou
Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), is the oldest known zoonotic infectious disease. Although the molecular mechanisms of RABV pathogenesis have been investigated extensively, the interactions between host and RABV are not clearly understood. It is now known that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in various physiological and pathological processes, but their possible roles in the host response to RABV infection remain to be elucidated. To better understand the pathogenesis of RABV, RNAs from RABV-infected and uninfected human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) were analyzed using human lncRNA microarrays...
November 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Emmanuel S Adabor
Frequent variations in influenza vaccines are necessary to match antigenic variants which appear in influenza epidemics. Antigenic variants of influenza viruses result from frequent mutations in amino acid residues located on their hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. Knowledge of specific changes in these amino acids helps to characterize distinct antigenic variants. In this paper, statistical models are developed and used to investigate changes in amino acids which accompany antigenic variants of epidemiological importance...
November 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Aphisek Kongkaew, Ratchaya Vachirachewin, Rungnapa Malasao, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn
Pigs have been assumed as a source of human viral infections. Surveillance of viruses in animals is essential to evaluate the risk to human and animal health and to determine economic impact. A number of studies focused mainly on well- known enteritis viruses such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine group A rotavirus (PRVA), however, little data is available for porcine adenovirus (PAdV). In this study, the presence of PAdV was investigated in fecal samples collected from piglets with and without diarrhea from 31 commercial pig farms in northern Thailand...
November 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
M Pinto, A González-Díaz, M P Machado, S Duarte, L Vieira, J A Carriço, S Marti, M P Bajanca-Lavado, J P Gomes
The human-restricted bacterium Haemophilus influenzae is responsible for respiratory infections in both children and adults. While colonization begins in the upper airways, it can spread throughout the respiratory tract potentially leading to invasive infections. Although the spread of H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) has been prevented by vaccination, the emergence of infections by other serotypes as well as by non-typeable isolates (NTHi) have been observed, prompting the need for novel prevention strategies...
October 31, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Aline R Matos, Jéssica S C C Martins, Maria de Lourdes A Oliveira, Cristiana C Garcia, Marilda M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: Influenza is an acute and highly contagious viral respiratory infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of host genetic factors associated with susceptibility and severity of influenza virus infection is of paramount importance. Previous studies evaluating the potential involvement of the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism (rs333), a 32 base pair deletion in CC motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene, in severity and mortality of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infected individuals have been reported, but their results are quite conflicting...
October 31, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Diego Faccone, Ezequiel Albornoz, Nathalie Tijet, Estefania Biondi, Sonia Gomez, Fernando Pasterán, Miryam Vazquez, Roberto G Melano, Alejandra Corso
A multidrug resistant isolate, identified as Citrobacter amalonaticus using MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by genomic analysis, was recovered from a pediatric patient in a hospital from Buenos Aires, Argentina. By whole-genome sequencing a total of 16 resistance genes were detected, including blaNDM-1 and mcr-1.5. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of these two genes together in a clinical isolate of the Citrobacter genus.
October 31, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Elham Moasser, Alireza Moasser, Hassan Zaraket
BACKGROUND: Two classes of antiviral drugs are available for influenza antiviral therapy: the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). Due to the emergence of adamantane-resistant variants, the use of these drugs has been largely limited in the world. The NAIs became the drugs of choice for treatment of influenza A infections. However, amino acid substitutions in the NA protein might lead to reduced sensitivity to NAIs. METHODS: The frequency and distribution of matrix protein 2 (M2) and neuraminidase (NA) variants which confer resistance to antiviral drugs was investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 2005 and 2016...
October 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Udayakumar S Vishnu, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella spp. can be sub-typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method, which targets a set of housekeeping genes. We have developed a core genome MLST (cgMLST) typing scheme to distinguish and differentiate species of Brucella up to biovar level. A total of 407 whole (complete and draft) genome sequences of different Brucella strains were used in this study. Genome sequences were filtered using the BLAST score ratio (BSR)-based allele calling algorithm, and we found that 164 cgMLST target loci are shared in all the 407 genome sequences...
October 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hyo Il Kwon, Shukho Kim, Man Hwan Oh, Minsang Shin, Je Chul Lee
Acinetobacter baumannii outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA) contributes to the intrinsic resistance of A. baumannii through the OmpA-like domain. The present study investigated the role of Acinetobacter nosocomialis OmpA (AnOmpA) in the intrinsic resistance of A. nosocomialis and compared it with the role of AbOmpA. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents against wild-type A. nosocomialis ATCC 17903, ∆AnompA mutant, and single-copy AnompA-complemented strains were determined by performing E-test or agar dilution...
October 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca Dabul, Juliana Sposto Avaca-Crusca, Roberto Barranco Navais, Thaís Panhan Merlo, Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore, Ilana Lopes Baratella da Cunha Camargo
Enterococcus faecalis are a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide, and the spread of vancomycin resistant strains (VRE) limits treatment options. Tigecycline-resistant VRE began to be isolated from inpatients at a Brazilian hospital within months following the addition of tigecycline to the hospital formulary. This was found to be the result of a spread of an ST103 E. faecalis clone. Our objective was to identify the basis for tigecycline resistance in this lineage. The genomes of two closely related tigecycline-susceptible (MIC = 0...
October 25, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
C Gauder, L N Mojsiejczuk, L Tadey, L Mammana, M B Bouzas, R H Campos, D M Flichman
Chronic HBV infection has been associated with severe liver disease although most of them do not progress to this stage. Even though low replicative carriers form the largest group of HBV chronically infected patients, there is a paucity of longitudinal studies to evaluate the molecular evolution of the whole genome in this subset of patients. In this study, longitudinal samples from 10 patients with persistently normal ALT levels were collected. HBV full-length genome sequences were obtained from 3 samples per patient (baseline, 5 and 10-years of follow-up)...
October 25, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Himangshu Deka, Durbba Nath, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 has been a serious health issue across the globe with approximately 36 thousand annual casualties in the United States of America only. Co-circulation in avian, swine and human hosts has led to frequent mutations in the virus genome, due to which development of successful antivirals against the virus has become a formidable challenge. Recently, focussed research is being carried out targeting the matrix proteins of this strain as vaccine candidates. This study is carried out to unravel the key features of the genes encoding the matrix proteins that manoeuvre the codon usage profile in the H3N2 strains...
October 24, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Xiaoyuan Yuan, Kai Meng, Yuxia Zhang, Zhijun Yu, Wu Ai, Youling Wang
Since 2017, a new type of goose-origin astrovirus (GoAstV) disease occurred in China. This disease can cause joint swelling of sick geese, and the anatomy shows a clear urate precipitation in the viscera. The rate of death or amputation can reach more than 30%, revealing its severe pathogenicity. One novel goose-origin astrovirus strain, designated as CXZ18, was isolated from diseased geese with a fatal infection characterized by visceral urate deposition. Similar clinical anatomy symptoms were partially reproduced by attacking infection of healthy geese...
October 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
J A Patil, K Alagarasu, M B Kakade, A M More, K A Gadekar, S M Jadhav, D Parashar, P S Shah
India witnessed dengue outbreaks during 2017 in different parts with more than 180000 cases. There is no data on the serotypes/genotypes of dengue virus (DENV) associated with the 2017 outbreak season. The present study investigated DENV circulating in Pune and Nashik regions of Maharashtra, Western India at molecular level. IgM negative samples that were collected before 6th post onset days of illness were tested for DENV RNA and serotyped by real time RT-PCR based methods. Representative samples of each serotype were processed for virus isolation and envelope (E) gene sequencing...
October 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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