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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240834/genome-wide-analysis-of-borrelia-turcica-and-candidatus-borrelia-tachyglossi-shows-relapsing-fever-like-genomes-with-unique-genomic-links-to-lyme-disease-borrelia
#1
Alexander W Gofton, Gabriele Margos, Volker Fingerle, Sabrina Hepner, Siew-May Loh, Una Ryan, Peter Irwin, Charlotte L Oskam
Borrelia are tick-borne bacteria that in humans are the aetiological agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Here we present the first genomes of B. turcica and B. tachyglossi, members of a recently described and rapidly expanding Borrelia clade associated with reptile (B. turcica) or echidna (B. tachyglossi) hosts, transmitted by hard ticks, and of unknown pathogenicity. Borrelia tachyglossi and B. turcica genomes are similar to those of relapsing fever Borrelia species, containing a linear ~ 900 kb chromosome, a single long (> 70 kb) linear plasmid, and numerous short (< 40 kb) linear and circular plasmids, as well as a suite of housekeeping and macronutrient biosynthesis genes which are not found in Lyme disease Borrelia...
September 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240833/genetic-variability-of-panstrongylus-geniculatus-reduviidae-triatominae-in-the-metropolitan-district-of-caracas-venezuela
#2
Candy C Nakad Bechara, Juan Carlos Londoño, Maikell Segovia, Meyber A Leon Sanchez, Clara E Martínez P, Marlenes M Rodríguez R, Hernan Jose Carrasco
Panstrongylus geniculatus has become the most frequently registered vector of Chagas disease in the metropolitan area of Caracas, Venezuela. This triatomine species has invaded urban areas in recent years and has been implicated in multiple oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in the region. The study of genetic variability and spatial structure in P. geniculatus populations can provide information about possible events of domiciliation and aid intervention programs against triatomine species rapidly adapting to urban ecotopes...
September 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236522/pcr-coupled-sequencing-achieves-specific-diagnosis-of-onchocerciasis-in-a-challenging-clinical-case-to-underpin-effective-treatment-and-clinical-management
#3
Amy Crowe, Anson V Koehler, Harsha Sheorey, Anita Tolpinrud, Robin B Gasser
This study demonstrates the utility of a PCR-based DNA sequencing approach to make a specific diagnosis of onchocerciasis in a returned traveller. Although a clinical diagnosis was not possible, the surgical excision of a suprascapular nodule from this patient, combined with an histological examination of this nodule and PCR-based sequencing of DNA from a nematode from this lesion solved the case. The analysis of DNA sequence data confirmed the presence of Onchocerca volvulus infection, supporting an effective treatment-clinical management strategy for the patient...
September 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227226/international-high-risk-clonal-lineages-of-ctx-m-producing-escherichia-coli-f-st648-in-free-roaming-cats-south-america
#4
Miriam R Fernandes, Fábio P Sellera, Quézia Moura, Vitor C Gaspar, Louise Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli belonging to high-virulent pandemic lineages has become a global problem with serious consequences for public health worldwide. In this regard, E. coli lineages belonging to the sequence type ST648, which are mostly associated with nosocomial infections, have begun to be reported in animals. In this study, we report the identification and genomic characterization of international CTX-M-producing E. coli ST648/F lineages in free-roaming cats from an urban slum, in Brazil...
September 15, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227225/differential-anti-microbial-secondary-metabolites-in-different-eskape-pathogens-explain-their-adaptation-in-the-hospital-setup
#5
Vishvanath Tiwari, Kiran Meena, Monalisa Tiwari
Nosocomial infections are caused by ESKAPE (E. faecium, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. cloacae) pathogens, and their co-existence is associated with their ability to survive in the hospital setup. They may produce molecules, which helps in the better survival of one ESKAPE pathogens over other. We have identified all secondary metabolite gene clusters in six ESKAPE pathogens and predicated antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of their product secondary metabolites. To validate our model, we have taken the secondary metabolites of other ESKAPE pathogens and studied its interaction with diguanylate cyclase (involved in quorum sensing) and biofilm-associated protein (involved in biofilm formation) of Acinetobacter baumannii...
September 15, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219321/global-spatiotemporal-transmission-dynamics-of-measles-virus-clade-d-genotypes-in-the-context-of-the-measles-elimination-goal-2020-in-india
#6
Sarah S Cherian, A M Walimbe, Karan Moolpani, Amruta Shirode, Sunil R Vaidya
Measles viruses (MeV) circulating in India mainly belong to genoypes D4 and D8 of clade D. In the context of measles elimination goal 2020 in India, molecular clock and phylogeography studies would help to identify the timescales of evolution and track the transmission pathways of MeV. We used nucleoprotein gene sequences (n = 756) from GenBank, representing 86 countries (1973-2016), to study the spatiotemporal transmission dynamics of clade D. Genotype D4 was introduced into India around 1991 and genotype D8 around 1994...
September 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219320/genome-scale-analysis-of-evolutionary-rate-and-selection-in-a-fast-expanding-spanish-cluster-of-hiv-1-subtype-f1
#7
Juan Á Patiño-Galindo, Francisco Domínguez, María T Cuevas, Elena Delgado, Mónica Sánchez, Lucía Pérez-Álvarez, Michael M Thomson, Rafael Sanjuán, Fernando González-Candelas, José M Cuevas
This work is aimed at assessing the presence of positive selection and/or shifts of the evolutionary rate in a fast-expanding HIV-1 subtype F1 transmission cluster affecting men who have sex with men in Spain. We applied Bayesian coalescent phylogenetics and selection analyses to 23 full-coding region sequences from patients belonging to that cluster, along with other 19 F1 epidemiologically-unrelated sequences. A shift in the overall evolutionary rate of the virus, explained by positively selected sites in the cluster, was detected...
September 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219319/molecular-heterozygosity-and-genetic-exploitations-of-trichoderma-inter-fusants-enhancing-tolerance-to-fungicides-and-mycoparasitism-against-sclerotium-rolfsii-sacc
#8
Darshna G Hirpara, H P Gajera
Protoplast fusion is an imperative tool to develop Trichoderma inter-fusants having desire traits through genetic manipulation. Study designed to develop diverse Trichoderma fusants for fungicide tolerance (Mancozeb, Thiram, Tebuconazole, and Carbendazim) and enhanced mycoparasitic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. The mycoparasitic T. virens NBAII Tvs12 and fungicide tolerant T. koningii MTCC 796 were utilized for protoplast fusion. The derived inter-fusants were subjected to diploidization using d-camphor in minimal media followed by successive three sub culturing onto potato dextrose agar to obtain 36 stable fusants...
September 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218706/prevalence-and-genotypes-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-pigs-in-southern-china
#9
Yang Zou, Jun-Ling Hou, Fa-Cai Li, Feng-Cai Zou, Rui-Qing Lin, Jian-Gang Ma, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Xing-Quan Zhu
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most important causative agents of microsporidiosis, causing diarrhoea the symptoms of enteric disease in humans and animals. Although there is some information on the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in China, there is still a lack of data in pigs in southern China. In the present study, a total of 396 faecal specimens were collected from pigs in Zhejiang, Guangdong and Yunnan provinces in southern China, and were examined by nested PCR amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for the prevalence and genotypes of E...
September 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217658/molecular-diversity-of-coxsackievirus-a10-circulating-in-the-southern-and-northern-region-of-india-2009-17
#10
Ashok Munivenkatappa, Pragya D Yadav, Dimpal A Nyayanit, Triparna D Majumdar, Lucky Sangal, Shilpi Jain, Daimond P Sinha, Anish Shrivastava, Devendra T Mourya
Non-Polio EnteroViruses (NPEV) are one of the known causative agents of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). In the present study, we identified, sequenced and characterized the complete genome of sixty-five Coxsackievirus-A10, an NPEV. These were isolated from stool specimens of AFP cases from Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, and Uttar Pradesh (UP) states of India. Evolutionary analysis of complete genome (7420 nucleotides) and VP1 gene (894 nucleotides) demonstrates that there are four different intra-typic strains circulating in India which were dissimilar to Chinese strains...
September 11, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201501/high-prevalence-of-cyclovirus-vietnam-cycv-vn-in-plasma-samples-from-madagascan-healthy-blood-donors
#11
Virginie Sauvage, Johanna Gomez, Anaïs Barray, Mathias Vandenbogaert, Laure Boizeau, Claude Tayou Tagny, Olivat Rakoto, Pascal Bizimana, Hassana Guitteye, Ba Bocar Ciré, Hadiza Soumana, Jean-Baptiste Shuli Tchomba, Valérie Caro, Syria Laperche
Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses belonging to the Circoviridae family, have been suggested as possible causes of enteric, respiratory and neurological disorders in human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), initially isolated from cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with unexplained neurological disorders, has since been reported in serum samples from chronically patients infected with HBV, HCV or HIV, in Italy. On the other hand, CyCV-VN was not detected in serum samples from healthy individuals...
September 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201500/recent-trends-in-molecular-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-mardan-kpk-pakistan
#12
Braira Wahid, Muhammad Waqar, Nouman Rasool, Zobaria Rehman, Jamaluddin Saeed, Muhammad Wasim, Muhammad Arif Khan, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Sajjad, Muhammad Idrees
To determine the genotypic distribution of HCV, frequency of risk factors involved in its transmission, and correlation of genotype with viral load in Mardan population which is the second largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Blood samples of 1140 were collected from different regions of Mardan and major proportion of recruited patients were internally displaced people (IDPs), refugees, and slum dwellers. Complete patient's history was analyzed to assess the possible risks involved in HCV transmission...
September 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196122/genetic-evidence-for-the-intercontinental-movement-of-avian-influenza-viruses-possessing-north-american-origin-nonstructural-gene-allele-b-into-south-korea
#13
Sun-Ha Cheon, Yu-Na Lee, Sung-Il Kang, Soo-Jeong Kye, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Myoung-Heon Lee, Jeong-Won Kim, Kwang-Nyeong Lee, Han-Mo Son, Youn-Jeong Lee
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are genetically separated by geographical barriers, resulting in the independent evolution of North American and Eurasian lineages. In the present study, to determine whether AIVs possessing the North American-origin nonstructural (NS) gene were previously introduced into South Korea, we performed a genetic analysis of AIVs isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds. We detected seven viruses possessing the North American-origin NS allele B among 413 AIV-positive samples obtained during AI surveillance between 2012 and 2017...
September 6, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179716/codon-usage-characteristics-of-pb2-gene-in-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-from-different-host-species
#14
Li Gun, Pan Haixian, Ren Yumiao, Tian Han, Lu Jingqi, Zhang Liguang
The influenza A H7N9 virus is a highly contagious virus which can only infect poultry before early 2013. But after that time, it widely caused human infections in China and brought Southeast Asia great threaten in the public health area. The coding gene for polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) in influenza A H7N9 virus encodes the PB2 protein, which is a part of the RNA polymerase. The enzyme lacks a correction function during its own replication process, so the mutation frequency of the influenza A H7N9 virus gene is high and the PB2 gene is also included...
September 1, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176370/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-virulent-systemic-feline-calicivirus-isolated-in-china
#15
Huimin Guo, Qiuhong Miao, Jie Zhu, Zhibiao Yang, Guangqing Liu
In this study, a virulent systemic (VS) feline calicivirus (FCV) strain, SH, was isolated from a household cat with severe systemic clinical signs, and its full-length genome was determined and analyzed. Through immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and western blotting assays, we found that FCV SH strain, like other isolates, can stably proliferate in Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Moreover, the typical morphology of FCV particles, with a diameter of about 35 nm, was observed using electron microscopy. The full-length genome of FCV strain SH was sequenced and determined to be 7704 nucleotides (nt) in length with a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 19 nt and a 3'-terminal UTR of 67 nt...
August 31, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172885/control-of-progression-towards-liver-fibrosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-socs3-polymorphisms-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#16
Fatima Zahra Jadid, Hajar Chihab, Hanane Salih Alj, Raouia Elfihry, Imane Zaidane, Sanaa Tazi, Wafaa Badre, Agnes Marchio, Kamal Marhoum El Filali, Mohammed Tahiri, Rachid Saile, Pascal Pineau, Sayeh Ezzikouri, Soumaya Benjelloun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic Hepatitis C is one of the most important risk factors of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Before reaching these ultimate steps, insulin resistance triggered by hepatitis C virus infection is known to participate in the progression of liver disease. The present study aims to investigate the influence of two functional polymorphisms on SOCS3 mRNA expression and on the outcomes of CHC progression in a North African context. PATIENTS & METHODS: In this case-control study, 601 Moroccan subjects composed of 200 healthy controls, 101 resolvers and 300 patients with persistent HCV infection including 95 mild chronic hepatitis, 131 Advanced Liver Diseases and 74 HCC were enrolled...
August 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172014/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-human-papillomavirus-related-diseases-especially-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Chunping Ao, Kang Zeng
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent in the world. It can cause condyloma acuminatum, anogenital malignancies, and head and neck cancers. The host immune responses to HPV involve multiple cell types that have regulatory functions, and HPV-mediated changes to regulatory T cells (Tregs) in both the local lesion tissues and the circulatory system of patients have received considerable attention. The role of Tregs in HPV infections ranges from suppression of effector T cell (Teff) responses to protection of tissues from immune-mediated injury in different anatomic subsites...
August 29, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157463/emerging-of-a-highly-pathogenic-and-multi-drug-resistant-strain-of-escherichia-coli-causing-an-outbreak-of-colibacillosis-in-chickens
#18
Junfeng Gao, Xueyan Duan, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Yongqiang Wang, Shijun J Zheng
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are important human pathogens responsible for urinary tract infection and meningitis. Therefore, infection of chickens by highly pathogenic E. coli with multi-drug resistance has become a major concern to food safety. In this study, we isolated a strain of E. coli (HB2016) from the oviduct of a diseased chicken with colibacillosis. Inoculation of chickens with 2 × 106  CFU of the isolate E. coli HB2016 by intraperitoneal injection successfully reproduced colibacillosis in chickens...
August 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153478/co-circulation-dynamics-and-persistence-of-newly-introduced-clades-of-2012-outbreak-associated-west-nile-virus-in-texas-2012-2015
#19
Chukwuemika Aroh, Chaoying Liang, Prithvi Raj, Benjamin Wakeland, Nan Yan, Edward Wakeland
The second largest outbreak of West Nile encephalitis and West Nile fever ever recorded occurred in the United States (U.S) in the summer of 2012. The outbreak was related to the widespread circulation of closely related clades, or groups, of West Nile virus (WNV) into multiple states where they were not previously found. Whether the invading 2012 strains were able to circulate and overwinter in states with their own endemic population of WNV is unknown and the effect of viral genetics on adaptation and persistence in a new ecological niche is unclear...
August 25, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153477/molecular-epidemiology-of-classic-mlb-and-va-astroviruses-isolated-from-5-year-old-children-with-gastroenteritis-in-thailand-2011-2016
#20
Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn
This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of astrovirus circulating in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand. A total of 2034 fecal specimens collected between 2011 and 2016 from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were analyzed for astrovirus infection using RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Overall, 54 samples were positive for astrovirus (2.6%). About half of the virus-positive samples (57.4%) were co-infection cases, mainly with rotavirus or norovirus...
August 25, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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