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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Ngan Thi Kim Pham, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang Duy Trinh, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Of 972 stool samples collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in six different regions (Hokkaido, Tokyo, Shizuoka, Kyoto, Osaka, and Saga) of Japan during 2-year period from July 2014 to June 2016, 63 samples (6.5%) determined to be positive for enterovirus by multiplex RT-PCR were subjected to genotype determination based on the partial VP1 region using the CODEHOP method. Sixty-two strains were succeeded in genotyping and seventeen EV types were identified. The majority of the studied strains belonged to EV-A (30 of 62; 48...
March 11, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Aruna Narula, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Nazia Khatoon, Amit Mishra, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Chikungunya infection has been a cause of countless deaths worldwide. Due to lack of permanent treatment and prevention of this disease, the mortality rate remains very high. Therefore, we followed an immunoinformatics approach for the development of multi-epitope subunit vaccine which is able to elucidate humoral, cell-mediated and innate immune responses inside the host body. Both structural and non-structural proteins of chikungunya virus were utilized for prediction of B-cell and T-cell binding epitopes along with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) inducing epitopes...
March 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Wei Cong, Long Chen, Xiao-Feng Shan, Ai-Dong Qian, Qing-Feng Meng
Until now, limited information on the molecular epidemiology and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii infection in donkeys is available in China. Thus, the present study was conducted to characterize T. gondii genotypes in donkeys, intended for human consumption in Shandong province, eastern China. A total of 618 muscle tissue samples of donkeys was collected in Shandong province from January 2016 to August 2017 and were used to detect the T. gondii B1 gene by a semi-nested PCR, and the positive samples were genotyped at 10 nuclear loci (i...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jacklyn R Hurst, Katherine J Kasper, Akshay N Sule, John K McCormick
Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific and globally prominent bacterial pathogen that despite causing numerous human infections, this bacterium is normally found in an asymptomatic carrier state. This review provides an overview of both bacterial and human factors that likely play an important role in nasopharyngeal colonization and pharyngitis, as well as the development of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Here we highlight a recently described role for bacterial superantigens in promoting acute nasopharyngeal infection, and discuss how these immune system activating toxins could be crucial to initiate the autoimmune process in rheumatic heart disease...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Manoj Kumar, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Harshad V Murugkar, Barnalee Saikia, Bharati Singh, Amit Mishra, Sushil K Tripathi, Sonam Agarwal, Shweta Shukla, Diwakar D Kulkarni, Vijendra Pal Singh, Chakradhar Tosh
H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIV), established in terrestrial poultry, have jumped species barriers and caused human infection indicating pandemic potential of the virus. Here, we report isolation, and antigenic and genetic characterization of two H6N2 viruses isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Kerala and Assam, India during 2014 and 2015, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition assay revealed antigenic divergence between the two isolates. This result was corroborated by amino acid differences at 55 positions (15...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Varun Chauhan, Kapil Goyal, Mini P Singh
Infections due to both HSV-1 and HSV-2 constitute an enormous health burden worldwide. Development of vaccine against herpes infections is a WHO supported public health priority. The viral glycoproteins have always been the major hotspots for vaccine designing. The present study was aimed to identify the conserved T and B cell epitopes in the major glycoproteins of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 via rigorous computational approaches. Identification of promiscuous T cell epitopes is of utmost importance in vaccine designing as such epitopes are capable of binding to several allelic forms of HLA and could generate effective immune response in the host...
March 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Chris Verhofstede, Kenny Dauwe, Katrien Fransen, Kristel Van Laethem, Sigi Van den Wijngaert, Jean Ruelle, Marie-Luce Delforge, Ellen Vancutsem, Dolores Vaira, Karolien Stoffels, Sergio Garcia Ribas, Géraldine Dessilly, Laurent Debaisieux, Denis Pierard, Marc Van Ranst, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Jessica Deblonde, Andre Sasse, Dominique Van Beckhoven, Virginie Mortier
To improve insight in the drivers of local HIV-1 transmission in Belgium, phylogenetic, demographic, epidemiological and laboratory data from patients newly diagnosed between 2013 and 2015 were combined and analyzed. Characteristics of clustered patients, paired patients and patients on isolated branches in the phylogenetic tree were compared. The results revealed an overall high level of clustering despite the short time frame of sampling, with 47.6% of all patients having at least one close genetic counterpart and 36...
March 6, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sajad Abdollahi, Iraj Rasooli, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic gram negative pathogen that can adhere to different surfaces and cause different nosocomial infections. To investigate the role of TonB-dependent copper receptor, an outer membrane protein, in virulence of A. baumannii, we deleted this receptor from A. baumannii chromosome. There was a significant decrease in biofilm formation by copper receptor deficient mutant strain. Similarly, the adherence to human epithelial cell and the hydrophobicity were declined. The survival rate of the mutant strain in human sera was reduced while no change was observed in motility of strains...
March 6, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mariel Araceli Oyervides-Muñoz, Antonio Alí Pérez-Maya, Hazyadee Frecia Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Gabriela Sofía Gómez Macias, Oscar Raúl Fajardo-Ramírez, Víctor Treviño, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña, María Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez
Cervical cancer is one of the main causes of female cancer death worldwide, and human papilloma virus (HPV) its causal agent. To investigate viral oncogenesis several studies have focused on the effects of HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 and the mechanisms by which these proteins stimulate the cellular transformation process. However, phenomena such as the physical state of the viral genome (episomal or integrated) and the effects of this integration on cell proliferation contribute new clues to understand how HPV infection causes carcinogenesis...
March 5, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
İlknur Polat, Ömür Baysal, Francesco Mercati, Emine Gümrükcü, Görkem Sülü, Aytül Kitapcı, Fabrizio Araniti, Francesco Carimi
Botrytis cinerea is a polyphagous fungal pathogen causing gray mold disease. Moreover, it is one of the most destructive infections of small fruit crops such as pepper (Capsicum annnum L.). C. sativum is a species belonging to the Solanaceae family and Turkey is one of the main producers in the World. In the present work, aiming to obtain information useful for pest management, fifty B. cinerea isolates collected from Turkey and a reference isolate (B05.10) were characterized using molecular markers and fungicide resistance genes...
March 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mohd Suhail, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Abid Qureshi, Mohd Tarique, Hany Abdel-Hafiz, Khalid Al-Ghamdi, Ishtiaq Qadri
Hepatitis C virus plays a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. The pathogenic mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma with HCV infection are generally linked with inflammation, cytokines, fibrosis, cellular signaling pathways, and liver cell proliferation modulating pathways. HCV encoded proteins (Core, NS3, NS4, NS5A) interact with a broad range of hepatocytes derived factors to modulate an array of activities such as cell signaling, DNA repair, transcription and translational regulation, cell propagation, apoptosis, membrane topology...
March 1, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
M Constanza Mannino, M Patricia Juárez, Nicolás Pedrini
The chemical control of Triatoma infestans, the major Chagas disease vector in southern South America, has been threatened in the last years by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant bug populations. As an alternative approach, the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to control T. infestans populations (regardless their pyrethroid susceptibility) has been demonstrated. Growing research efforts on the interaction between T. infestans and B. bassiana by molecular, ecological, biochemical and behavioral traits has allowed framing such interaction as an evolutionary arms race...
February 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mengkai Cai, Junming Huang, Dexin Bu, Zhiqing Yu, Xinliang Fu, Chihai Ji, Pei Zhou, Guihong Zhang
Swine are the main host of the H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV), however, H1N1 can also infect humans and occasionally cause serious respiratory disease. To trace the evolution of the SIV in Guangdong, China, we performed an epidemic investigation during the period of 2016-2017. Nine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from swine nasal swabs. Antigenic analysis revealed that these viruses belonged to two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/Swine/Guangdong/101/2016 and A/Swine/Guangdong/52/2017. Additionally, three genotypes, known as GD52/17-like, GD493/17-like and GD101/16-like, were identified by phylogenetic analysis...
February 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Cécile Minet, Sophie Thevenon, Isabelle Chantal, Philippe Solano, David Berthier
The CRISPR-Cas system, which was originally identified as a prokaryotic defense mechanism, is increasingly being used for the functional study of genes. This technology, which is simple, inexpensive and efficient, has aroused a lot of enthusiasm in the scientific community since its discovery, and every month many publications emanate from very different communities reporting on the use of CRISPR-Cas9. Currently, there are no vaccines to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by Trypanosomatidae, particularly Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Animal African Trypanosomoses (AAT), and treatments are cumbersome and sometimes not effective enough...
February 24, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jingwei Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhao, Huiyu Zhong, Lijuan Wu, Wenjing Zhou, Wu Peng, Xuejiao Hu, Jiajia Song, Tangyuheng Liu, Qian Wu, Hao Bai, Yi Zhou, Xuerong Chen, Jie Chen, Xiaojun Lu, Binwu Ying
OBJECTIVES: Abundant studies have suggested that TLR2 genetic variants involve in susceptibility to TB infection. We tried to verified the hypothesis that TLR2 genetic loci effect on the susceptibility to TB in the Western Chinese population. METHODS: A total 1109 individuals (634 TB patients and 475 healthy controls) were genotyped for rs3804099, rs3804100 and rs76112010 by using a custom-by-design 2x48-Plex SNP scan TM Kit. The statistical analysis between candidate 3 SNPs and risk and phenotypes of TB were conducted in this study...
February 24, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Soomin Jeon, Jaehoon Jung, Kwondo Kim, DongAhn Yoo, Chanho Lee, Jungsun Kang, Kyungjin Cho, Dae-Kyung Kang, Woori Kwak, Sook Hee Yoon, Heebal Kim, Seoae Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nader Bagheri, Alireza Razavi, Batoul Pourgheysari, Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Ashkan Pirayesh, Mohammedhadi Shafigh, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Rana Fereidani, Kamran Tahmasbi, Hedayatollah Shirzad
BACKGROUND: During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. The objective of this study was to determine the number of Th17 cells in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer and determined the relationship between main virulence factor of H. pylori and Th17 cells. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 89 H. pylori-infected gastritis patients, 63 H...
February 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Andrei A Deviatkin, Alexander N Lukashev
Recombination is a common event in RNA viruses; however, in the rabies virus there have been only a few reports of isolated recombination events. Comprehensive analysis found traces of recent recombination events within Arctic, Arctic-like and Africa 1b rabies virus groups, as well as recombination between distinct lyssaviruses. Recombination breakpoints were not linked to gene boundaries and could be detected all over the genome. However, there was no evidence that recombination is an important factor in the genetic variability of the rabies virus...
February 22, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
A Krüger, J Burgán, A W Friedrich, Rossen Jwa, Lucchesi Pma
Shiga toxins (Stx) are the main virulence factor of a pathogroup of Escherichia coli strains that cause severe human diseases. These toxins are encoded in prophages (Stx prophages), and generally their expression depends on prophage induction. Several studies have reported high diversity among both Stx prophages and Stx. In particular, the toxin subtype Stx2a is associated with high virulence and HUS. Here, we report the genome of ArgO145, an inducible Stx2a prophage identified in a bovine O145:H- strain which produced high levels of Shiga toxin and Stx phage particles...
February 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Aristides Bezerra de Melo, William Marciel de Souza, Gustavo Olszanski Acrani, Valéria Lima Carvalho, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Aline Lavado Tolardo, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Jedson Ferreira Cardoso, Jannifer de Oliveira Chiang, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros
Tacaiuma virus (TCMV) is antigenically characterized as a member of the Anopheles A complex in the Orthobunyavirus genus, Peribunyaviridae family (Bunyavirales order). Clinically, the TCMV infection is characterized by acute febrile illness with myalgia and arthralgia lasting three to five days. However, the genomic and evolutionary aspect of this virus has not been elucidated. In this study, we described the complete coding sequences of three segments of two TCMV strains isolated in Brazil and three complete coding sequences of the small segment of three TCMV strains...
February 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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