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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919552/accurate-identification-of-anopheles-gambiae-giles-trophic-preferences-by-maldi-tof-ms
#1
Sirama Niare, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Bernard Davoust, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Lionel Almeras
The determination of the trophic preferences of the Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) is a decisive parameter for the monitoring and the prevention of malaria risk transmission. Currently, arthropod blood feeding sources are identified using immunological or molecular biology traditional techniques. Despite the effectiveness of these methods, they present several limitations, and notably, they are time-consuming and costly techniques. A recent study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS could be a useful tool for the identification of blood meal origins in freshly engorged mosquitoes...
September 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919549/the-predominance-of-ethiopian-specific-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-families-and-minimal-contribution-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#2
Mulualem Tadesse, Gemeda Abebe, Alemayehu Bekele, Mesele Bezabih, Pim de Rijk, Conor J Meehan, Bouke C de Jong, Leen Rigouts
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has an extremely high rate of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, dominated by tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN). However, little is known about Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) lineages responsible for TBLN in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 304 MTBc isolates from TBLN patients in Southwest Ethiopia were genotyped primarily by spoligotyping. Isolates of selected spoligotypes were further analyzed by 15-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) (n=167) and qPCR-based single nucleotide polymorphism (n=38)...
September 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919551/identification-of-potential-antigens-from-non-classically-secreted-proteins-and-designing-novel-multitope-peptide-vaccine-candidate-against-brucella-melitensis-through-reverse-vaccinology-and-immunoinformatics-approach
#3
Udayakumar S Vishnu, Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Brucella melitensis is an intracellular pathogen resides in the professional and non-professional phagocytes of the host, causing zoonotic disease brucellosis. The stealthy nature of the Brucella makes it's highly pathogenic, and it is hard to eliminate the bacteria completely from the infected host. Hitherto, no licensed vaccines are available for human brucellosis. In this study, we identified potential antigens for vaccine development from non-classically secreted proteins through reverse vaccinology approach...
September 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919550/improving-the-genotyping-resolution-of-cryptosporidium-hominis-subtype-iba10g2-using-one-step-pcr-based-amplicon-sequencing
#4
Jessica Beser, Björn M Hallström, Abdolreza Advani, Sofia Andersson, Gabriel Östlund, Jadwiga Winiecka-Krusnell, Marianne Lebbad, Erik Alm, Karin Troell, Romanico B G Arrighi
Cryptosporidium hominis gp60 subtype IbA10G2 is a common cause of cryptosporidiosis. This subtype is responsible for many waterborne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases and is considered virulent and highly important in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. Due to low heterogeneity within the genome of C. hominis it has been difficult to identify epidemiological markers with higher resolution than gp60. However, new markers are required in order to improve outbreak investigations and studies of the transmission dynamics of this clinically important subtype...
September 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919548/reconsidering-the-classification-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-within-the-siberian-subtype-gives-new-insights-into-its-evolutionary-history
#5
S Y Kovalev, T A Mukhacheva
Tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Eurasia and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Classification of its causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), includes three subtypes, namely Far-Eastern, European, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib), as well as a group of 886-84-like strains with uncertain taxonomic status. TBEV-Sib is subdivided into three phylogenetic lineages: Baltic, Asian, and South-Siberian. A reason to reconsider TBEV-Sib classification was the analysis of 186 nucleotide sequences of an E gene fragment submitted to GenBank during the last two years...
September 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917540/galba-truncatula-and-fasciola-hepatica-genetic-costructures-and-interactions-with-intermediate-host-dispersal
#6
Ana C Correa, Thierry De Meeûs, Gilles Dreyfuss, Daniel Rondelaud, Sylvie Hurtrez-Boussès
Antagonistic interactions between hosts and parasites are key structuring forces in natural populations. Demographic factors like extinction, migration and the effective population size shape host-parasite metapopulational dynamics. Therefore, to understand the evolution of host-parasite systems it is necessary to study the distribution of the genetic variation of both entities simultaneously. In this paper, we investigate the population genetics co-structure of parasites and hosts within a metapopulation of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and two of its intermediate hosts, the main intermediate host in Europe, Galba truncatula, and a new intermediate host, Omphiscola glabra, in Central France...
September 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919547/deep-sequencing-to-resolve-complex-diversity-of-apicomplexan-parasites-in-platypuses-and-echidnas-proof-of-principle-for-wildlife-disease-investigation
#7
Jan Šlapeta, Stefan Saverimuttu, Larry Vogelnest, Cheryl Sangster, Frances Hulst, Karrie Rose, Paul Thompson, Richard Whittington
The short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) are iconic egg-laying monotremes (Mammalia: Monotremata) from Australasia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of diversity profiles in disease investigations of monotremes. Using small subunit (18S) rDNA amplicon deep-sequencing we demonstrated the presence of apicomplexan parasites and confirmed by direct and cloned amplicon gene sequencing Theileria ornithorhynchi, Theileria tachyglossi, Eimeria echidnae and Cryptosporidium fayeri...
September 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919546/phylodynamics-of-the-brazilian-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#8
Lucía Cano-Ortiz, Dennis Maletich Junqueira, Juliana Comerlato, Cristina Santos Costa, André Zani, Naila Blatt Duda, Caroline Tochetto, Raissa Nunes Dos Santos, Fernanda Vieira Amorim da Costa, Paulo Roehe, Ana Cláudia Franco
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil...
September 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919545/mechanisms-behind-tb-hbv-and-hiv-chronic-infections
#9
David Durantel, Inca Kusters, Jacques Louis, Nicolas Manel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Valentina Picot, Mitra Saaadatian-Elahi
Immune evasion is critical for pathogens to maintain their presence within hosts, giving rise to chronic infections. Here, we examine the immune evasion strategies employed by three pathogens with high medical burden, namely, tuberculosis, HIV and HBV. Establishment of chronic infection by these pathogens is a multi-step process that involves an interplay between restriction factor, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Engagement of these host defences is intimately linked with specific steps within the pathogen replication cycles...
September 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911852/molecular-epidemiology-and-the-resistance-and-virulence-properties-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cross-colonization-clonal-isolates-in-the-non-outbreak-setting
#10
Pengwei Hu, Jiayi Chen, Yuhang Chen, Tao Zhou, Xin Xu, Xiaofang Pei
The molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cross-colonization isolates has received limited attention in the non-outbreak setting. Also the roles of P. aeruginosa resistance and virulence in cross-colonization need to be further studied. This study aims to launch a tracking investigation to determine the epidemiological relationship of P. aeruginosa clinical and environmental isolates, identify the cross-colonization routes, and characterize the resistance and virulence properties of clonal clusters and sporadic strains in the respiratory care wards of a tertiary care hospital...
September 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899789/the-evolutionary-logic-of-sepsis
#11
Lajos Rózsa, Péter Apari, Mihály Sulyok, Dennis Tappe, Imre Bodó, Richárd Hardi, Viktor Müller
The recently proposed Microbiome Mutiny Hypothesis posits that members of the human microbiome obtain information about the host individuals' health status and, when host survival is compromised, switch to an intensive exploitation strategy to maximize residual transmission. In animals and humans, sepsis is an acute systemic reaction to microbes invading the normally sterile body compartments. When induced by formerly mutualistic or neutral microbes, possibly in response to declining host health, sepsis appears to fit the 'microbiome mutiny' scenario except for its apparent failure to enhance transmission of the causative organisms...
September 9, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893688/whole-genome-sequencing-identification-of-a-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-strain-carrying-blandm-5-from-guangdong-china
#12
Xiaoyan Li, Yan Jiang, Kuihai Wu, Yong Zhou, Ruike Liu, Yan Cao, Aiwu Wu, Yurong Qiu
A carbapenem-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (sequence type 34 [ST34]) strain was isolated from a fecal specimen from a child with acute diarrhea. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the 84.5-kb IncFII plasmid pST41-NDM carrying the NDM-5 carbapenemase gene possesses a structure identical to that of the IncFII-type plasmid backbone. However, the blaNDM-5 flanking sequence found in this plasmid is identical to the blaNDM-5-positive IncX3 plasmids carried by 10 strains of Enterobacteriaceae identified in the same hospital...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893687/genetic-analysis-of-id1-dbl2x-predicts-its-validity-as-a-vaccine-candidate-in-colombia-and-supports-at-least-two-independently-introduced-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-the-region
#13
J Rajwani, C M Klinger, E Arango, M I Arroyo, A Sabbagh, A Maestre, J B Dacks, S Gnidehou, S K Yanow
Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) poses a threat to both the mother and fetus, increasing the risk of severe maternal anemia, fetal growth restriction and low birth weight infants. Two vaccines are currently in development to protect women from Plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy. Both vaccine constructs target the ID1-DBL2Xb domain of VAR2CSA, a protein expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) that mediates parasite sequestration in the placenta. Although development of an effective vaccine may be hampered by ID1-DBL2Xb polymorphisms expressed by field isolates, a recent study showed that genetic variation of this domain in South American parasite populations is much lower than in other geographical locations...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889944/identification-of-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-lacking-histidine-rich-protein-2-and-3-in-eritrea
#14
Michela Menegon, Mariangela L'Episcopia, Abduselam M Nurahmed, Albadawi A Talha, Bakri Y M Nour, Carlo Severini
The histidine-rich protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum is the most common malaria antigen targeted by rapid diagnostic tests for the specific diagnosis of P. falciparum. Recently, pfhrp2 gene deletions have been documented in P. falciparum isolates from South America and some multiple endemic countries in Africa and Asia. Parasites with such gene deletions can produce false negative diagnostic results using HRP2-based rapid diagnostic kits. In the present work, the prevalence of P. falciparum parasites lacking pfhrp2, pfhrp3, which produces a second P...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#15
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882516/genetic-characterization-of-the-glycoprotein-g-of-chandipura-viruses-in-india-with-emphasis-on-an-outbreak-of-2015
#16
R G Damle, V Sankararaman, V S Bhide, S A Mahamuni, A M Walimbe, S S Cherian
Chandipura virus (CHPV) is found to be associated with sporadic encephalitis outbreaks in humans in India since 1965. We report here, the investigation of CHPV activity during the period of June-August 2015 in the state of Gujarat, which revealed 24.44% positivity among 45 referred encephalitis cases. Phylogenetic study of the G gene sequences of strains from Gujarat 2015 along with available sequences of additional strains from different geographical locations and isolation years (1965-2015), indicated the relatedness of the 2015 strain to a group of the CHPV prototype strain of 1965 and the earliest outbreak strains of 2003...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867594/serotype-and-mlst-based-inference-of-population-structure-of-clinical-streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-invasive-and-noninvasive-pneumococcal-disease
#17
Haijian Zhou, Jiayin Guo, Tian Qin, Hongyu Ren, Yang Xu, Chuanqing Wang, Xuebin Xu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen causing various diseases. In this study, S. pneumoniae from invasive (IPD) and noninvasive pneumococcal disease (NIPD) were studied by serotype and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for population structure characteristics. A total of 169 clinical S. pneumoniae, containing 63 IPD and 106 NIPD strains, were analyzed. 19F, 19A, 6A, 6B, 1, 14 and 23F were the dominant serotypes in both IPD and NIPD strains. By MLST, 169 strains were divided into 85 sequence types (STs) with an index of discrimination (IOD) value of 0...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867593/brucella-suis-biovar-2-multi-locus-sequence-type-st16-in-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-from-abruzzi-region-italy-introduction-from-central-eastern-europe
#18
D Di Sabatino, G Garofolo, A Di Provvido, K Zilli, G Foschi, E Di Giannatale, M Ciuffetelli, F De Massis
Porcine brucellosis occurs in many countries where pigs are farmed, often representing an underrated problem. B. suis biovar 2 is the most common isolate in Europe, with high prevalence reported in wild boars in which it is generally isolated in the absence of gross lesions. In the last five years, we tested for Brucella spp. 389 lymph nodes of wild boars collected during hunting seasons or during necropsy procedures. In this paper, we describe the first case of isolation of B. suis biovar 2 from a wild boar aborted foetus, and we analyse the genomic relationships with B...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867592/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-in-paediatric-oncology-and-non-oncology-patients-with-diarrhoea-in-jordan
#19
Nawal Hijjawi, Alireza Zahedi, Mahmoud Kazaleh, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease which affects human and animals worldwide. In adult immunocompetent individuals, cryptosporidiosis usually results in acute and self-limited diarrhoea; however, it can cause life threatening diarrhoea in children and immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, we compared the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and gp60 subtypes amongst paediatric oncology patients with diarrhoea (n=160) from King Hussein Medical Centre for Cancer in Jordan, and non-oncology paediatric patients with diarrhoea (n=137) from Al-Mafraq paediatric hospital...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866138/identification-of-two-novel-rotavirus-a-genotypes-g35-and-p-50-from-peruvian-alpaca-faeces
#20
Miguel A Rojas, Jorge Luiz S Gonçalves, Helver G Dias, Alberto Manchego, Norma Santos
Rotavirus A (RVA) Alp11B was detected from a neonatal Peruvian alpaca presenting with diarrhea, and the Alp11B VP7, VP4, VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes were sequenced. The partial genotype constellation of this strain, RVA/Alpaca-wt/PER/Alp11B/2010, was determined to be G35-P[50]-I13-E16-H6.
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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