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Pharmacogenomics Journal

A M Teitelbaum, S E Murphy, G Akk, T B Baker, A Germann, L B von Weymarn, L J Bierut, A Goate, E D Kharasch, A J Bloom
A common haplotype of the flavin-containing monooxygenase gene FMO3 is associated with aberrant mRNA splicing, a twofold reduction in in vivo nicotine N-oxidation and reduced nicotine dependence. Tobacco remains the largest cause of preventable mortality worldwide. CYP2A6, the primary hepatic nicotine metabolism gene, is robustly associated with cigarette consumption but other enzymes contribute to nicotine metabolism. We determined the effects of common variants in FMO3 on plasma levels of nicotine-N-oxide in 170 European Americans administered deuterated nicotine...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
S Bank, P S Andersen, J Burisch, N Pedersen, S Roug, J Galsgaard, S Y Turino, J B Brodersen, S Rashid, B K Rasmussen, S Avlund, T B Olesen, H J Hoffmann, B A Nexø, J Sode, U Vogel, V Andersen
Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is used for treatment of severe cases of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. A recent study indicated that genetically determined high activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), are associated with non-response to anti-TNF therapy. Using a candidate gene approach, 21 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes in the Toll-like receptors, the inflammasome and the IFNG pathways were assessed in 482 and 256 prior anti-TNF naïve Danish patients with CD and UC, respectively...
January 31, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
J S L Kloth, M C Verboom, J J Swen, T van der Straaten, S Sleijfer, A K L Reyners, N Steeghs, H Gelderblom, H J Guchelaar, R H J Mathijssen
This study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with outcome to treatment with sunitinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Forty-nine SNPS involved in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathway of sunitinib were associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in 127 patients with advanced GIST who have been treated with sunitinib. PFS was significantly longer in carriers of the TT genotype in POR rs1056878 (hazards ratio (HR) 4...
January 24, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Y Wang, B P Yan, D Liew, V W Y Lee
The choice of antiplatelet therapy among Asian populations for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is complicated owing to the high prevalence of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) genetic polymorphism that has been associated with reduced efficacy of clopidogrel. Ticagrelor is a potent but more expensive alternative antiplatelet agent that is not affected by CYP2C19 polymorphism. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness, from the Hong Kong health-care provider's perspective, of CYP2C19*2 genotype-guided selection of antiplatelet therapy compared with the universal use of clopidogrel or ticagrelor among ACS patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
January 24, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
G N Almeida-Paulo, I Dapía García, R Lubomirov, A M Borobia, N L Alonso-Sánchez, L Espinosa, A J Carcas-Sansuán
Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial...
January 17, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
M M T J Broekman, D R Wong, G J A Wanten, H M Roelofs, C J van Marrewijk, O H Klungel, A L M Verbeek, P M Hooymans, H-J Guchelaar, H Scheffer, L J J Derijks, M J H Coenen, D J de Jong
The conversion of azathioprine (AZA) to mercaptopurine (MP) is mediated by glutathione transferase Mu1 (GSTM1), alpha1 (GSTA1) and alpha2 (GSTA2). We designed a case-control study with data from the TOPIC trial to explore the effects of genetic variation on steady state 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotide (6-MMPR) and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) metabolite levels. We included 199 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (126 on AZA and 73 on MP). GSTM1-null genotype carriers on AZA had two-fold lower 6-MMPR levels than AZA users carrying one or two copies of GSTM1 (2239 (1006-4587) versus 4371 (1897-7369) pmol/8 × 10(8) RBCs; P<0...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Y Shen, M Tong, Q Liang, Y Guo, H Q Sun, W Zheng, L Ao, Z Guo, F She
A drug-induced resistant cancer cell is different from its parent cell in transcriptional response to drug treatment. The distinct transcriptional response pattern of a drug-induced resistant cancer cell to drug treatment might be introduced by acquired DNA methylation aberration in the cell exposing to sustained drug stimulation. In this study, we performed both transcriptional and DNA methylation profiles of the HCT-8 wild-type cells (HCT-8/WT) for human colorectal cancer (CRC) and the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced resistant cells (HCT-8/5-FU) after treatment with 5-FU for 0, 24 and 48 h...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
J L Baker, D Shriner, A R Bentley, C N Rotimi
As the common birthplace of all human populations, modern humans have lived longer on the African continent than in any other geographical region of the world. This long history, along with the evolutionary need to adapt to environmental challenges such as exposure to infectious agents, has led to greater genetic variation in Africans. The vast genetic variation in Africans also extends to genes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of pharmaceuticals. Ongoing cataloging of these clinically relevant variants reveals huge allele-frequency differences within and between African populations...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
A Novillo, A Romero-Lorca, M Gaibar, M Rubio, A Fernández-Santander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
C-C Chang, C-C Ng, C-L Too, S-E Choon, C-K Lee, W-H Chung, S H Hussein, K-S Lim, S Murad
Phenytoin (PHT) is a common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Although HLA-B*15:02 is associated with PHT-induced SJS/TEN (PHT-SJS/TEN) in Han Chinese and Thais, the genetic basis for susceptibility to PHT-induced SCARs (PHT-SCAR) in other populations remains unclear. We performed a case-control association study by genotyping the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B alleles of 16 Malay PHT-SCAR patients (13 SJS/TEN and 3 DRESS), 32 PHT-tolerant controls and 300 healthy ethnicity-matched controls...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
S de Denus, J L Rouleau, D L Mann, G S Huggins, T P Cappola, S H Shah, J Keleti, Y F Zada, S Provost, A Bardhadi, M S Phillips, V Normand, I Mongrain, M-P Dubé
We conducted a meta-analysis of pharmacogenomic substudies of three randomized trials conducted in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) that were led by National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-funded HF Network to test the hypothesis that candidate genes modulate net fluid loss and weight change in patients with decompensated HF treated with a furosemide-based diuretic regimen. Although none of the genetic variants previously shown to modulate the effects of loop diuretics in healthy individuals were associated with net fluid loss after 72 h of treatment, a set of rare variants in the APOL1 gene, which codes for apolipoprotein L1 (P=0...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
W C Tan-Koi, Evelyn S H Lim, Y Y Teo
Recommendations on genetic testing are typically conveyed by drug regulatory authorities through drug labels, which are legal requirements for market authorization of drugs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of drug labels focusing on three crucial aspects of regulatory pharmacogenomics communications: (i) intent; (ii) interpretation in the local context; and (iii) implications of the genetic information. Labels of drugs associated with well-established safety-related genetic markers for adverse drug reactions across six developed countries of United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore were reviewed...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Q Feng, W Q Wei, C P Chung, R T Levinson, L Bastarache, J C Denny, C M Stein
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and prevent cardiovascular disease. However, there is wide individual variation in LDL-C response. Drugs targeting proprotein convertase subtilin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) lower LDL-C and will be used with statins. PCSK9 mediates the degradation of LDL receptors (LDLRs). Therefore, a greater LDL-C response to statins would be expected in individuals with PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants because LDLR degradation is reduced...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
A Blasetti, C Di Giulio, S Tumini, M Provenzano, D Rapino, L Comegna, G Prezioso, R Chiuri, S Franchini, F Chiarelli, L Stuppia
In recent years, increasing interest has been devoted to the susceptibility gene polymorphisms in type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as in other autoimmune diseases. Among these, a nucleotide polymorphism of the gene encoding for the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) has been associated with T1D in several studies. The aim of this study is to define the frequency of the C1858T polymorphism in the PTPN22 gene in a cohort of 113 Caucasian patients (58 males and 55 females) with T1D, and to assess a possible correlation with a group of clinically relevant variables: age at onset, gender, diabetes-related autoantibodies, residual β-cell function and daily insulin requirement (IR) 6 months after diagnosis...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Y Choi, F Jiang, H An, H J Park, J H Choi, H Lee
Genetic association studies on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus have reported conflicting results, except for the role of the CYP3A5*3 polymorphism. The objective of this study was to identify genetic variants affecting the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus using the DMET(TM) Plus microarray in 42 healthy males. Aside from CYP3A5*3, the rs3814055 polymorphism in the NR1I2 gene was associated with the tacrolimus pharmacokinetics based on false discovery rate-corrected multiple tests and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
E Sacchetti, C Magri, A Minelli, P Valsecchi, M Traversa, S Calza, A Vita, M Gennarelli
The search for biomarkers of response to antipsychotic medications is hindered by difficulties inherent in the topic or related to persistent methodological difficulties, such as high rates of anticipated discontinuation and consequent distortions in the imputation of missing data. Because early response to antipsychotics represents a sufficiently reliable index of the subsequent treatment response in patients with schizophrenia, we undertook a real-world, genome-wide association study (GWAS) with the aim of identifying genetic predictors of response to risperidone after 2 weeks in 86 patients with schizophrenia...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
P S Chen, H H Chang, C-C Huang, C C Lee, S-Y Lee, S-L Chen, S-Y Huang, Y K Yang, R-B Lu
This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the associations between the polymorphisms of guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit β-3 (GNB3) C825T and metabolic disturbance in bipolar II disorder (BP-II) patients being treated with valproate (VPA). A 100 BP-II patients received a 12-week course of VPA treatment, and their body weight and metabolic indices were measured. At baseline, the GNB3 C825T polymorphisms were associated with the triglyceride level (P=0.032) in BP-II patients. During the VPA treatment course, the polymorphisms were not only associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (P-values=0...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
A Chhibber, C E French, S W Yee, E R Gamazon, E Theusch, X Qin, A Webb, A C Papp, A Wang, C Q Simmons, A Konkashbaev, A S Chaudhry, K Mitchel, D Stryke, T E Ferrin, S T Weiss, D L Kroetz, W Sadee, D A Nickerson, R M Krauss, A L George, E G Schuetz, M W Medina, N J Cox, S E Scherer, K M Giacomini, S E Brenner
Variation in the expression level and activity of genes involved in drug disposition and action ('pharmacogenes') can affect drug response and toxicity, especially when in tissues of pharmacological importance. Previous studies have relied primarily on microarrays to understand gene expression differences, or have focused on a single tissue or small number of samples. The goal of this study was to use RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the expression levels and alternative splicing of 389 Pharmacogenomics Research Network pharmacogenes across four tissues (liver, kidney, heart and adipose) and lymphoblastoid cell lines, which are used widely in pharmacogenomics studies...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
H-W Park, S Tse, W Yang, H W Kelly, S C Kaste, C-H Pui, M V Relling, K G Tantisira
Treatment with glucocorticoids is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD). We performed a genome-wide association study to analyze interactive effects between genotypes and cumulative dose of prednisone (PD) over 4.3 years of follow-up period on the final BMD Z-scores in 461 white children from the Childhood Asthma Management Program. No variants met the conventional criteria for genome-wide significance, and thus we looked for evidence of replication. The top 100-ranked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were then carried forward replication in 59 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exposed to large fixed doses of PD as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
C Yan, N Pattabiraman, J Goecks, P Lam, A Nayak, Y Pan, J Torcivia-Rodriguez, A Voskanian, Q Wan, R Mazumder
Advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are generating a vast amount of data. This exacerbates the current challenge of translating NGS data into actionable clinical interpretations. We have comprehensively combined germline and somatic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs) that affect drug binding sites in order to investigate their prevalence. The integrated data thus generated in conjunction with exome or whole-genome sequencing can be used to identify patients who may not respond to a specific drug because of alterations in drug binding efficacy due to nsSNVs in the target protein's gene...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
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