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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397140/separating-the-effect-of-reward-from-corrective-feedback-during-learning-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Michael Freedberg, Jonathan Schacherer, Kuan-Hua Chen, Ergun Y Uc, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Eliot Hazeltine
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with procedural learning deficits. Nonetheless, studies have demonstrated that reward-related learning is comparable between patients with PD and controls (Bódi et al., Brain, 132(9), 2385-2395, 2009; Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, Science, 306(5703), 1940-1943, 2004; Palminteri et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(45), 19179-19184, 2009). However, because these studies do not separate the effect of reward from the effect of practice, it is difficult to determine whether the effect of reward on learning is distinct from the effect of corrective feedback on learning...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390029/a-closer-look-at-the-relationship-between-the-default-network-mind-wandering-negative-mood-and-depression
#2
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression...
April 7, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321705/positive-emotion-impedes-emotional-but-not-cognitive-conflict-processing
#3
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Sonja A Kotz
Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing...
March 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315140/electrophysiological-evidence-of-perceived-sexual-attractiveness-for-human-female-bodies-varying-in-waist-to-hip-ratio
#4
Marzia Del Zotto, Alan J Pegna
The dynamics of brain activation reflecting attractiveness in humans are unclear. Among the different features affecting attractiveness of the female body, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is considered to be crucial. To date, however, no event-related potential (ERP) study has addressed the question of its associated pattern of brain activation. We carried out two different experiments: (a) a behavioural study, to judge the level of attractiveness of female realistic models depicting 4 different WHRs (0.6, 0.7, 0...
March 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265963/do-emotion-induced-blindness-and-the-attentional-blink-share-underlying-mechanisms-an-event-related-potential-study-of-emotionally-arousing-words
#5
Jeffrey MacLeod, Brandie M Stewart, Aaron J Newman, Karen M Arnell
When two targets are presented within approximately 500 ms of each other in the context of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), participants' ability to report the second target is reduced compared to when the targets are presented further apart in time. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink (AB). The AB is increased in magnitude when the first target is emotionally arousing. Emotionally arousing stimuli can also capture attention and create an AB-like effect even when these stimuli are presented as to-be-ignored distractor items in a single-target RSVP task...
March 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255798/sensorimotor-simulation-and-emotion-processing-impairing-facial-action-increases-semantic-retrieval-demands
#6
Joshua D Davis, Piotr Winkielman, Seana Coulson
Sensorimotor models suggest that understanding the emotional content of a face recruits a simulation process in which a viewer partially reproduces the facial expression in their own sensorimotor system. An important prediction of these models is that disrupting simulation should make emotion recognition more difficult. Here we used electroencephalogram (EEG) and facial electromyogram (EMG) to investigate how interfering with sensorimotor signals from the face influences the real-time processing of emotional faces...
March 2, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236171/reward-based-contextual-learning-supported-by-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#7
Akina Umemoto, Azadeh HajiHosseini, Michael E Yates, Clay B Holroyd
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is commonly associated with cognitive control and decision making, but its specific function is highly debated. To explore a recent theory that the ACC learns the reward values of task contexts (Holroyd & McClure in Psychological Review, 122, 54-83, 2015; Holroyd & Yeung in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 122-128, 2012), we recorded the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from participants as they played a novel gambling task. The participants were first required to select from among three games in one "virtual casino," and subsequently they were required to select from among three different games in a different virtual casino; unbeknownst to them, the payoffs for the games were higher in one casino than in the other...
February 24, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224457/elevated-outcome-anticipation-and-outcome-evaluation-erps-associated-with-a-greater-preference-for-larger-but-delayed-rewards
#8
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Ajay Nadig, Storm Heidinger, Keegan Walden, Robin Nusslock
Although waiting for a reward reduces or discounts its value, some people have a stronger tendency to wait for larger rewards and forgo smaller-but-immediate rewards. This ability to delay gratification is captured by individual differences in so-called intertemporal choices in which individuals are asked to choose between larger-but-delayed versus smaller-but-immediate rewards. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether enhancement in two neurocognitive processes, outcome anticipation and outcome evaluation, modulate individual variability in intertemporal responses...
February 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194745/understanding-approach-and-avoidance-in-verbal-descriptions-of-everyday-actions-an-erp-study
#9
Hipólito Marrero, Mabel Urrutia, David Beltrán, Elena Gámez, José M Díaz
Understanding verbal descriptions of everyday actions could involve the neural representation of action direction (avoidance and approach) toward persons and things. We recorded the electrophysiological activity of participants while they were reading approach/avoidance action sentences that were directed toward a target: a thing/a person (i.e., "Petra accepted/rejected Ramón in her group"/ "Petra accepted/rejected the receipt of the bank"). We measured brain potentials time locked to the target word. In the case of things, we found a N400-like component with right frontal distribution modulated by approach/avoidance action...
February 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168598/brain-activity-underlying-negative-self-and-other-perception-in-adolescents-the-role-of-attachment-derived-self-representations
#10
Martin Debbané, Deborah Badoud, David Sander, Stephan Eliez, Patrick Luyten, Pascal Vrtička
One of teenagers' key developmental tasks is to engage in new and meaningful relationships with peers and adults outside the family context. Attachment-derived expectations about the self and others in terms of internal attachment working models have the potential to shape such social reorientation processes critically and thereby influence adolescents' social-emotional development and social integration. Because the neural underpinnings of this developmental task remain largely unknown, we sought to investigate them by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101830/getting-ahead-of-yourself-parafoveal-word-expectancy-modulates-the-n400-during-sentence-reading
#11
Mallory C Stites, Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
An important question in the reading literature regards the nature of the semantic information readers can extract from the parafovea (i.e., the next word in a sentence). Recent eye-tracking findings have found a semantic parafoveal preview benefit under many circumstances, and findings from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) also suggest that readers can at least detect semantic anomalies parafoveally (Barber, Van der Meij, & Kutas, Psychophysiology, 50(1), 48-59, 2013). We use ERPs to ask whether fine-grained aspects of semantic expectancy can affect the N400 elicited by a word appearing in the parafovea...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050804/the-erp-signature-of-the-contextual-diversity-effect-in-visual-word-recognition
#12
Marta Vergara-Martínez, Montserrat Comesaña, Manuel Perea
Behavioral experiments have revealed that words appearing in many different contexts are responded to faster than words that appear in few contexts. Although this contextual diversity (CD) effect has been found to be stronger than the word-frequency (WF) effect, it is a matter of debate whether the facilitative effects of CD and WF reflect the same underlying mechanisms. The analysis of the electrophysiological correlates of CD may shed some light on this issue. This experiment is the first to examine the ERPs to high- and low-CD words when WF is controlled for...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000083/impulsivity-in-rodents-with-a-genetic-predisposition-for-excessive-alcohol-consumption-is-associated-with-a-lack-of-a-prospective-strategy
#13
David N Linsenbardt, Michael P Smoker, Sarine S Janetsian-Fritz, Christopher C Lapish
Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that impulsive decision-making is a heritable risk factor for an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Clearly identifying a link between impulsivity and AUD risk, however, is complicated by the fact that both AUDs and impulsivity are heterogeneous constructs. Understanding the link between the two requires identifying the underlying cognitive factors that lead to impulsive choices. Rodent models have established that a family history of excessive drinking can lead to the expression of a transgenerational impulsive phenotype, suggesting heritable alterations in the decision-making process...
April 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921216/neural-correlates-of-rumination-in-adolescents-with-remitted-major-depressive-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#14
Katie L Burkhouse, Rachel H Jacobs, Amy T Peters, Olu Ajilore, Edward R Watkins, Scott A Langenecker
The aim of the present study was to use fMRI to examine the neural correlates of engaging in rumination among a sample of remitted depressed adolescents, a population at high risk for future depressive relapse. A rumination induction task was used to assess differences in the patterns of neural activation during rumination versus a distraction condition among 26 adolescents in remission from major depressive disorder (rMDD) and in 15 healthy control adolescents. Self-report depression and rumination, as well as clinician-rated depression, were also assessed among all participants...
April 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914042/perfectionism-mediated-the-relationship-between-brain-structure-variation-and-negative-emotion-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#15
Di Wu, Kangcheng Wang, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Xue Du, Junyi Yang, Jiang Qiu
In maladaptive respects, perfectionism reflects an individual's concern over making mistakes and doubting the quality of his or her own actions excessively, which would affect one's emotion. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with the perfectionism and negative affect. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in perfectionism, which was measured by the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), in a large sample of nonclinical young adults...
February 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#16
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
February 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683302/creative-ways-to-well-being-reappraisal-inventiveness-in-the-context-of-anger-evoking-situations
#17
Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss, Ursula Schwarzl, Hannelore Weber, Vera Loureiro de Assunção, Christian Rominger, Günter Schulter, Helmut K Lackner, Ilona Papousek
Neuroscientific studies in the field of creativity mainly focused on tasks drawing on basic verbal divergent thinking demands. This study took a step further by investigating brain mechanisms in response to other types of creative behavior, involving more "real-life" creativity demands in the context of emotion regulation and well-being. Specifically, functional patterns of EEG alpha activity were investigated while participants were required to generate as many and as different ways as possible to reappraise presented anger-eliciting situations in a manner that reduces their anger...
February 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655384/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-right-temporoparietal-area-inhibits-self-recognition
#18
Sophie Payne, Manos Tsakiris
Self-other discrimination is a crucial mechanism for social cognition. Neuroimaging and neurostimulation research has pointed to the involvement of the right temporoparietal region in a variety of self-other discrimination tasks. Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right temporoparietal area has been shown to disrupt self-other discrimination in face-recognition tasks, no research has investigated the effect of increasing the cortical excitability in this region on self-other face discrimination...
February 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649972/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-right-temporoparietal-junction-impairs-third-person-perspective-taking
#19
Michiel van Elk, Monique Duizer, Ilja Sligte, Hein van Schie
Given the current debates about the precise functional role of the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) in egocentric and exocentric perspective taking, in the present study we manipulated activity in the rTPJ to investigate the effects on a spatial perspective-taking task. Participants engaged in a mental body transformation task, requiring them to mentally rotate their own body to the position of an avatar, while undergoing anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the rTPJ...
February 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649971/cognitive-and-neural-consequences-of-memory-suppression-in-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Matthew D Sacchet, Benjamin J Levy, J Paul Hamilton, Arkadiy Maksimovskiy, Paula T Hertel, Jutta Joormann, Michael C Anderson, Anthony D Wagner, Ian H Gotlib
Negative biases in cognition have been documented consistently in major depressive disorder (MDD), including difficulties in the ability to control the processing of negative material. Although negative information-processing biases have been studied using both behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms, relatively little research has been conducted examining the difficulties of depressed persons with inhibiting the retrieval of negative information from long-term memory. In this study, we used the think/no-think paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the cognitive and neural consequences of memory suppression in individuals diagnosed with depression and in healthy controls...
February 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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