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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

Heather J Ferguson, Victoria E A Brunsdon, Elisabeth E F Bradford
Despite being able to rapidly and accurately infer their own and other peoples' visual perspectives, healthy adults experience difficulty ignoring the irrelevant perspective when the two perspectives are in conflict; they experience egocentric and altercentric interference. We examine for the first time how the age of an observed person (adult vs. child avatar) influences adults' visual perspective-taking, particularly the degree to which they experience interference from their own or the other person's perspective...
September 21, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Meredith P Levsen, Bruce D Bartholow
Affect regulation plays a key role in several theories of racial bias reduction. Here, we tested whether engaging in emotion regulation strategies while performing an implicit racial bias task (Weapons Identification Task; WIT) would alter neural and behavioral manifestations of bias. Participants either suppressed or reappraised in a positive light the distress associated with making errors during the WIT, while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. We hypothesized that engaging in emotion regulation strategies would reduce the distress associated with making errors indicative of bias, resulting in smaller error-related negativity (ERN) amplitude during errors and increased expression of racial bias...
September 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Meng Han, Xinrui Mao, Nika Kartvelishvili, Wen Li, Chunyan Guo
Emotion exerts varied influences on memory. While task-relevant item memory is often enhanced by emotion, associative memory is generally impaired. Unitization is known to improve associative memory, but its effects and mechanisms in protecting associative memory from emotional interference are rather obscure. The current study investigated associative memory by employing experimental manipulation of unitization (vs. nonunitization) encoding strategy and stimulus emotion (neutral, intrinsic negative, and extrinsic negative), combined with event-related potential (ERP) signatures of familiarity (FN400 old/new effects) and recollection (parietal late positive component/LPC old/new effects) in memory recognition...
September 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Philippa J Beston, Cécile Barbet, Erin A Heerey, Guillaume Thierry
The human brain can learn contingencies built into stimulus sequences unconsciously. The quality of such implicit learning has been connected to stimulus social relevance, but results so far are inconsistent. We engaged participants in an implicit-intentional learning task in which they learned to discriminate between legal and illegal card triads on the sole basis of feedback provided within a staircase procedure. Half of the participants received feedback from pictures of faces with a happy or sad expression (social group) and the other half based on traffic light icons (symbolic group)...
September 6, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Manuel G Calvo, Aida Gutiérrez-García, David Beltrán
Prior research has shown that the more (or less) attractive a face is judged, the more (or less) trustworthy the person is deemed and that some common neural networks are recruited during facial attractiveness and trustworthiness evaluation. To interpret the relationship between attractiveness and trustworthiness (e.g., whether perception of personal trustworthiness may depend on perception of facial attractiveness), we investigated their relative neural processing time course. An event-related potential (ERP) paradigm was used, with localization of brain sources of the scalp neural activity...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Dimitrios Kourtis, Pieter Vandemaele, Guy Vingerhoets
Previous work has shown that the perception of a graspable object may automatically potentiate actions that are tailored to specific action-related features of the object (e.g., its size) and may be related to its immediate grasping as well as to its long-term, functional use. We investigated the neural correlates of function- and size-related object affordances that may be concurrently potentiated by a graspable object. Participants were lying in a MR scanner holding a large switch in one hand and a small switch in the other hand...
August 28, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Annekathrin Schacht, Pascal Vrtička
Social information is particularly relevant for the human species because of its direct link to guiding physiological responses and behavior. Accordingly, extant functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data suggest that social content may form a unique stimulus dimension. It remains largely unknown, however, how neural activity underlying social (versus nonsocial) information processing temporally unfolds, and how such social information appraisal may interact with the processing of other stimulus characteristics, particularly emotional meaning...
August 21, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Adam McNeill, Rebecca L Monk, Adam W Qureshi, Stergios Makris, Derek Heim
Previous research indicates that alcohol intoxication impairs inhibitory control and that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) is a functional brain region important for exercising control over thoughts and behaviour. At the same time, the extent to which changes in inhibitory control following initial intoxication mediate subsequent drinking behaviours has not been elucidated fully. Ascertaining the extent to which inhibitory control impairments drive alcohol consumption, we applied continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (rDLPFC cTBS vs...
August 21, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Carla M Patist, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Eugene F Du Toit, John P Headrick
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity are dominant and inter-related health burdens. Obesity is a risk factor for MDD, and there is evidence MDD increases risk of obesity. However, description of a bidirectional relationship between obesity and MDD is misleading, as closer examination reveals distinct unidirectional relationships in MDD subtypes. MDD is frequently associated with weight loss, although obesity promotes MDD. In contrast, MDD with atypical features (MDD-AF) is characterised by subsequent weight gain and obesity...
August 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ema Tanovic, Luise Pruessner, Jutta Joormann
Individual differences in responding to uncertainty have been proposed as a key mechanism of how anxiety disorders develop and are maintained. However, most empirical work has compared responding to uncertain versus certain threat dichotomously. This is a significant limitation because uncertainty in daily life occurs along a continuum of probability, ranging from very low to high chances of negative outcomes. The current study investigated (1) how varying levels of uncertainty impact attention and anticipatory emotion, and (2) how these effects are moderated by individual differences in risk factors for anxiety disorders, particularly intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and worry...
August 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Séverine Lannoy, Fabien D'Hondt, Valérie Dormal, Marine Blanco, Mélanie Brion, Joël Billieux, Salvatore Campanella, Pierre Maurage
Emotional crossmodal integration (i.e., multisensorial decoding of emotions) is a crucial process that ensures adaptive social behaviors and responses to the environment. Recent evidence suggests that in binge drinking-an excessive alcohol consumption pattern associated with psychological and cerebral deficits-crossmodal integration is preserved at the behavioral level. Although some studies have suggested brain modifications during affective processing in binge drinking, nothing is known about the cerebral correlates of crossmodal integration...
August 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nurit Sternberg, Roy Luria, Gal Sheppes
Is Facebook usage bad for mental health? Existing studies provide mixed results, and direct evidence for neural underlying moderators is lacking. We suggest that being able to filter social-network information from accessing working memory is essential to preserve limited cognitive resources to pursue relevant goals. Accordingly, among individuals with impaired neural social-network filtering ability, enhanced social-network usage would be associated with negative mental health. Specifically, participants performed a novel electrophysiological paradigm that isolates neural Facebook filtering ability...
August 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Chiara Ferrari, Susanna Schiavi, Zaira Cattaneo
When viewing a portrait, we are often captured by its expressivity, even if the emotion depicted is not immediately identifiable. If the neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing of real faces have been largely clarified, we still know little about the neural basis of evaluation of (emotional) expressivity in portraits. In this study, we aimed at assessing-by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-whether the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the right somatosensory cortex (SC), that are important in discriminating facial emotion expressions, are also causally involved in the evaluation of expressivity of portraits...
August 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Robert Steinhauser, Robert Wirth, Wilfried Kunde, Markus Janczyk, Marco Steinhauser
In the present study, we considered error-related brain activity in event-related potentials, to investigate the relationship between error monitoring-that is, the detection and evaluation of erroneous responses-and action effect monitoring-that is, monitoring of the sensory consequences of behavior. To this end, participants worked on a task-switching paradigm that consisted of a free-choice task, in which a puzzle piece had to be attached to an existing one (the prime task), and a subsequent color flanker task (the probe task)...
August 1, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Kevin J MacDonald, Holly A Lockhart, Alex C Storace, Stephen M Emrich, Kimberly A Cote
Working memory (WM) is impaired following sleep loss and may be improved after a nap. The goal of the current study was to better understand sleep-related WM enhancement by: (1) employing a WM task that assesses the ability to hold and report visual representations as well as the fidelity of the reports on a fine scale, (2) investigating neurophysiological properties of sleep and WM capacity as potential predictors or moderators of sleep-related enhancement, and (3) exploring frontal and occipital event-related delay activity to index the neural processing of stimuli in WM...
July 26, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yu-Hui Lo, Philip Tseng
People prefer to lie using altered truthful events from memory, perhaps because doing so can increase their credibility while reducing cognitive and working memory (WM) load. One possible way to counter such deceptive behavior is to track WM usage, since fabricating coherent lies or managing between truth and lies is likely to involve heavy WM load. In this study, participants memorized a list of words in the study session and used these old words to provide deceptive answers when cued later, in the testing session...
July 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Maria Cotelli, Mauro Adenzato, Valentina Cantoni, Rosa Manenti, Antonella Alberici, Ivan Enrici, Alberto Benussi, Valentina Dell'Era, Elisa Bonetta, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a form of frontotemporal degeneration characterized by early changes in personality, emotional blunting, and/or loss of empathy. Recent research has highlighted that these features may be at least partially explained by impairments in the theory of mind (ToM; i.e., the ability to understand and predict other people's behaviour by attributing independent mental states to them). The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to test the hypothesis that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) selectively enhances communicative intention processing, a specific ToM ability...
July 11, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eva Wiese, George A Buzzell, Abdulaziz Abubshait, Paul J Beatty
In social interactions, we rely on nonverbal cues like gaze direction to understand the behavior of others. How we react to these cues is affected by whether they are believed to originate from an entity with a mind, capable of having internal states (i.e., mind perception). While prior work has established a set of neural regions linked to social-cognitive processes like mind perception, the degree to which activation within this network relates to performance in subsequent social-cognitive tasks remains unclear...
July 10, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Verónica Mäki-Marttunen, Thomas Hagen, Samira Aminihajibashi, Maja Foldal, Maria Stavrinou, Jens H Halvorsen, Bruno Laeng, Thomas Espeseth
During the execution of a cognitive task, the brain maintains contextual information to guide behavior and achieve desired goals. The AX-Continuous Performance Task is used to study proactive versus reactive cognitive control. Young adults tend to behave proactively in standard testing conditions. However, it remains unclear how interindividual variability (e.g., in cognitive and motivational factors) may drive people into more reactive or proactive control under the same task demands. We investigated the use of control strategies in a large population of healthy young adults...
July 10, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Peng Li, Weiwei Peng, Hong Li, Clay B Holroyd
Although a growing number of studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of reinforcement learning, it remains unclear how the brain responds to feedback that is unreliable. A recent theory proposes that the reward positivity (RewP) component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) and frontal midline theta (FMT) power reflect separate feedback-related processing functions of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the present study, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from participants as they engaged in a time estimation task in which feedback reliability was manipulated across conditions...
July 10, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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