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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547127/the-relationship-between-outcome-prediction-and-cognitive-fatigue-a-convergence-of-paradigms
#1
G R Wylie, H M Genova, J DeLuca, E Dobryakova
Cognitive fatigue is common after strenuous cognitive effort. A large body of literature has implicated a network of brain areas in fatigue, including the basal ganglia and cortical areas including ventro-medal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Furthermore, the ACC has been shown to be involved in processes such as error and conflict monitoring, outcome prediction, and effort processing. Thus, the ACC appears to be one common denominator between clinical work on fatigue and research on outcome prediction and effort...
May 25, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540647/the-integration-of-social-influence-and-reward-computational-approaches-and-neural-evidence
#2
Damon Tomlin, Andrea Nedic, Deborah A Prentice, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
Decades of research have established that decision-making is dramatically impacted by both the rewards an individual receives and the behavior of others. How do these distinct influences exert their influence on an individual's actions, and can the resulting behavior be effectively captured in a computational model? To address this question, we employed a novel spatial foraging game in which groups of three participants sought to find the most rewarding location in an unfamiliar two-dimensional space. As the game transitioned from one block to the next, the availability of information regarding other group members was varied systematically, revealing the relative impacts of feedback from the environment and information from other group members on individual decision-making...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536919/whose-hand-is-this-differential-responses-of-right-and-left-extrastriate-body-areas-to-visual-images-of-self-and-others-hands
#3
Francesco De Bellis, Luigi Trojano, Domenico Errico, Dario Grossi, Massimiliano Conson
The extrastriate body area (EBA) is involved in perception of human bodies and nonfacial body parts, but its role in representing body identity is not clear. Here, we used on-line high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the role of EBA in self-other distinction. In Experiments 1 and 2 we compared rTMS of right EBA with stimulation of left ventral premotor cortex (vPM), whereas in Experiment 3 we compared stimulation of right and left EBA. RTMS was applied during a hand laterality task in which self or others' hand images were presented in first- versus third-person view (Experiments 1 and 3), or while participants had to explicitly recognize their own hands (Experiment 2) presented in first- versus third-person view...
May 23, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484940/erp-evidence-for-the-control-of-emotional-memories-during-strategic-retrieval
#4
Jane E Herron
Neural evidence for the strategic retrieval of task-relevant 'target' memories at the expense of less relevant 'nontarget' memories has been demonstrated across a wide variety of studies. In ERP studies, this evidence consists of the ERP correlate of recollection (i.e. the 'left parietal old/new effect') being evident for targets and attenuated for nontargets. It is not yet known, however, whether this degree of strategic control can be extended to emotionally valenced words, or whether these items instead reactivate associated memories...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474293/increased-arithmetic-complexity-is-associated-with-domain-general-but-not-domain-specific-magnitude-processing-in-children-a-simultaneous-fnirs-eeg-study
#5
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Christina Artemenko, Thomas Dresler, Florian B Haeussinger, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
The investigation of the neural underpinnings of increased arithmetic complexity in children is essential for developing educational and therapeutic approaches and might provide novel measures to assess the effects of interventions. Although a few studies in adults and children have revealed the activation of bilateral brain regions during more complex calculations, little is known about children. We investigated 24 children undergoing one-digit and two-digit multiplication tasks while simultaneously recording functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) data...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474292/brain-activation-upon-ideal-body-media-exposure-and-peer-feedback-in-late-adolescent-girls
#6
Mara van der Meulen, Jolanda Veldhuis, Barbara R Braams, Sabine Peters, Elly A Konijn, Eveline A Crone
Media's prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls' body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too thin or normal)...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397140/separating-the-effect-of-reward-from-corrective-feedback-during-learning-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Michael Freedberg, Jonathan Schacherer, Kuan-Hua Chen, Ergun Y Uc, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Eliot Hazeltine
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with procedural learning deficits. Nonetheless, studies have demonstrated that reward-related learning is comparable between patients with PD and controls (Bódi et al., Brain, 132(9), 2385-2395, 2009; Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, Science, 306(5703), 1940-1943, 2004; Palminteri et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(45), 19179-19184, 2009). However, because these studies do not separate the effect of reward from the effect of practice, it is difficult to determine whether the effect of reward on learning is distinct from the effect of corrective feedback on learning...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390029/a-closer-look-at-the-relationship-between-the-default-network-mind-wandering-negative-mood-and-depression
#8
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression...
April 7, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315140/electrophysiological-evidence-of-perceived-sexual-attractiveness-for-human-female-bodies-varying-in-waist-to-hip-ratio
#9
Marzia Del Zotto, Alan J Pegna
The dynamics of brain activation reflecting attractiveness in humans are unclear. Among the different features affecting attractiveness of the female body, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is considered to be crucial. To date, however, no event-related potential (ERP) study has addressed the question of its associated pattern of brain activation. We carried out two different experiments: (a) a behavioural study, to judge the level of attractiveness of female realistic models depicting 4 different WHRs (0.6, 0.7, 0...
March 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265963/do-emotion-induced-blindness-and-the-attentional-blink-share-underlying-mechanisms-an-event-related-potential-study-of-emotionally-arousing-words
#10
Jeffrey MacLeod, Brandie M Stewart, Aaron J Newman, Karen M Arnell
When two targets are presented within approximately 500 ms of each other in the context of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), participants' ability to report the second target is reduced compared to when the targets are presented further apart in time. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink (AB). The AB is increased in magnitude when the first target is emotionally arousing. Emotionally arousing stimuli can also capture attention and create an AB-like effect even when these stimuli are presented as to-be-ignored distractor items in a single-target RSVP task...
March 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255798/sensorimotor-simulation-and-emotion-processing-impairing-facial-action-increases-semantic-retrieval-demands
#11
Joshua D Davis, Piotr Winkielman, Seana Coulson
Sensorimotor models suggest that understanding the emotional content of a face recruits a simulation process in which a viewer partially reproduces the facial expression in their own sensorimotor system. An important prediction of these models is that disrupting simulation should make emotion recognition more difficult. Here we used electroencephalogram (EEG) and facial electromyogram (EMG) to investigate how interfering with sensorimotor signals from the face influences the real-time processing of emotional faces...
March 2, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321705/positive-emotion-impedes-emotional-but-not-cognitive-conflict-processing
#12
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Sonja A Kotz
Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224457/elevated-outcome-anticipation-and-outcome-evaluation-erps-associated-with-a-greater-preference-for-larger-but-delayed-rewards
#13
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Ajay Nadig, Storm Heidinger, Keegan Walden, Robin Nusslock
Although waiting for a reward reduces or discounts its value, some people have a stronger tendency to wait for larger rewards and forgo smaller-but-immediate rewards. This ability to delay gratification is captured by individual differences in so-called intertemporal choices in which individuals are asked to choose between larger-but-delayed versus smaller-but-immediate rewards. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether enhancement in two neurocognitive processes, outcome anticipation and outcome evaluation, modulate individual variability in intertemporal responses...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168598/brain-activity-underlying-negative-self-and-other-perception-in-adolescents-the-role-of-attachment-derived-self-representations
#14
Martin Debbané, Deborah Badoud, David Sander, Stephan Eliez, Patrick Luyten, Pascal Vrtička
One of teenagers' key developmental tasks is to engage in new and meaningful relationships with peers and adults outside the family context. Attachment-derived expectations about the self and others in terms of internal attachment working models have the potential to shape such social reorientation processes critically and thereby influence adolescents' social-emotional development and social integration. Because the neural underpinnings of this developmental task remain largely unknown, we sought to investigate them by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116581/serotonin-enhances-the-impact-of-health-information-on-food-choice
#15
Ivo Vlaev, Molly J Crockett, Luke Clark, Ulrich Müller, Trevor W Robbins
Serotonin has been implicated in promoting self-control, regulation of hunger and physiological homeostasis, and regulation of caloric intake. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of serotonin on caloric intake reflect purely homeostatic mechanisms, or whether serotonin also modulates cognitive processes involved in dietary decision making. We investigated the effects of an acute dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on choices between food items that differed along taste and health attributes, compared with placebo and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101830/getting-ahead-of-yourself-parafoveal-word-expectancy-modulates-the-n400-during-sentence-reading
#16
Mallory C Stites, Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
An important question in the reading literature regards the nature of the semantic information readers can extract from the parafovea (i.e., the next word in a sentence). Recent eye-tracking findings have found a semantic parafoveal preview benefit under many circumstances, and findings from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) also suggest that readers can at least detect semantic anomalies parafoveally (Barber, Van der Meij, & Kutas, Psychophysiology, 50(1), 48-59, 2013). We use ERPs to ask whether fine-grained aspects of semantic expectancy can affect the N400 elicited by a word appearing in the parafovea...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092055/differentiating-emotional-processing-and-attention-in-psychopathy-with-functional-neuroimaging
#17
Nathaniel E Anderson, Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Vikram Rao, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050804/the-erp-signature-of-the-contextual-diversity-effect-in-visual-word-recognition
#18
Marta Vergara-Martínez, Montserrat Comesaña, Manuel Perea
Behavioral experiments have revealed that words appearing in many different contexts are responded to faster than words that appear in few contexts. Although this contextual diversity (CD) effect has been found to be stronger than the word-frequency (WF) effect, it is a matter of debate whether the facilitative effects of CD and WF reflect the same underlying mechanisms. The analysis of the electrophysiological correlates of CD may shed some light on this issue. This experiment is the first to examine the ERPs to high- and low-CD words when WF is controlled for...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000083/impulsivity-in-rodents-with-a-genetic-predisposition-for-excessive-alcohol-consumption-is-associated-with-a-lack-of-a-prospective-strategy
#19
David N Linsenbardt, Michael P Smoker, Sarine S Janetsian-Fritz, Christopher C Lapish
Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that impulsive decision-making is a heritable risk factor for an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Clearly identifying a link between impulsivity and AUD risk, however, is complicated by the fact that both AUDs and impulsivity are heterogeneous constructs. Understanding the link between the two requires identifying the underlying cognitive factors that lead to impulsive choices. Rodent models have established that a family history of excessive drinking can lead to the expression of a transgenerational impulsive phenotype, suggesting heritable alterations in the decision-making process...
April 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921216/neural-correlates-of-rumination-in-adolescents-with-remitted-major-depressive-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#20
Katie L Burkhouse, Rachel H Jacobs, Amy T Peters, Olu Ajilore, Edward R Watkins, Scott A Langenecker
The aim of the present study was to use fMRI to examine the neural correlates of engaging in rumination among a sample of remitted depressed adolescents, a population at high risk for future depressive relapse. A rumination induction task was used to assess differences in the patterns of neural activation during rumination versus a distraction condition among 26 adolescents in remission from major depressive disorder (rMDD) and in 15 healthy control adolescents. Self-report depression and rumination, as well as clinician-rated depression, were also assessed among all participants...
April 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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