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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

Megan Reilly, Natalya Machado, Sheila E Blumstein
The role of semantic features, which are distinctive (e.g., a zebra's stripes) or shared (e.g. has four legs) for accessing a concept, has been studied in detail in early neurodegenerative disease such as semantic dementia (SD). However, potential neural underpinnings of such processing have not been studied in healthy adults. The current study examines neural activation patterns using fMRI while participants completed a feature verification task, in which they identified shared or distinctive semantic features for a set of natural kinds and man-made artifacts...
November 13, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Sebastian Schindler, Onno Kruse, Rudolf Stark, Johanna Kissler
In communication, who is communicating can be just as important as what is said. However, sender identity in virtual communication is often inferred rather than perceived. Therefore, the present research investigates the brain structures activated by sender identity attributions and evaluative feedback processing during virtual communication. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 32 participants were told that they would receive personality feedback, either sent from another human participant or from a randomly acting computer...
November 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Paolo Riva, Andrea Manfrinati, Simona Sacchi, Alberto Pisoni, Leonor J Romero Lauro
Multiple cortical networks intervene in moral judgment, among which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial prefrontal structures (medial PFC) emerged as two major territories, which have been traditionally attributed, respectively, to cognitive control and affective reactions. However, some recent theoretical and empirical accounts disputed this dualistic approach to moral evaluation. In the present study, to further assess the functional contribution of the medial PFC in moral judgment, we modulated its cortical excitability by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and tracked the change in response to different types of moral dilemmas, including switch-like and footbridge-like moral dilemmas, with and without personal involvement...
November 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Anne Saulin, Thomas Baumgartner, Lorena R R Gianotti, Wilhelm Hofmann, Daria Knoch
Acts of helping friends and strangers are part of everyday life. However, people vary significantly with respect to how often they help others and with respect to whom they actually help on a day-to-day basis. Despite everyday helping being so pervasive, these individual differences are poorly understood. Here, we used source-localized resting electroencephalography to measure objective and stable individual differences in neural baseline activation in combination with an ecologically valid method that allows assessment of helping behavior in the field...
November 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Willem B Verwey, Anne-Lise Jouen, Peter F Dominey, Jocelyne Ventre-Dominey
To explore the effects of practice we scanned participants with fMRI while they were performing four-key unfamiliar and familiar sequences, and compared the associated activities relative to simple control sequences. On the basis of a recent cognitive model of sequential motor behavior (C-SMB), we propose that the observed neural activity would be associated with three functional networks that can operate in parallel and that allow (a) responding to stimuli in a reaction mode, (b) sequence execution using spatial sequence representations in a central-symbolic mode, and (c) sequence execution using motor chunk representations in a chunking mode...
November 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Kaileigh A Byrne, A Ross Otto, Bo Pang, Christopher J Patrick, Darrell A Worthy
Substance use has been linked to impairments in reward processing and decision-making, yet empirical research on the relationship between substance use and devaluation of reward in humans is limited. We report findings from two studies that tested whether individual differences in substance use behavior predicted reward learning strategies and devaluation sensitivity in a nonclinical sample. Participants in Experiment 1 (N = 66) and Experiment 2 (N = 91) completed subscales of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory and then performed a two-stage reinforcement learning task that included a devaluation procedure...
October 30, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Frank Van Overwalle, Frederik Van de Steen, Peter Mariën
In this analysis we explored the effective connectivity of the cerebellum with the cerebrum in social mentalizing, across five studies (n = 91) involving abstract and complex forms of mentalizing, such as (a) person and group impression formation, based on behavioral descriptions, and (b) constructing personal counterfactual events. Connectivity was analyzed by applying dynamic causal model analysis, which revealed effective connectivity between the mentalizing areas of the cerebellum and cerebrum. The results revealed a significant pattern of bidirectional (closed-loop) connectivity linking the right posterior cerebellum with bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), associated with behavior understanding...
October 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Geoffrey de Brouwer, Arina Fick, Brian H Harvey, De Wet Wolmarans
Rodent marble-burying behavior in the marble-burying test (MBT) is employed as a model or measure to study anxiety- and compulsive-like behaviors or anxiolytic and anticompulsive drug action. However, the test responds variably to a range of pharmacological interventions, and little consensus exists regarding specific methodologies for its execution. Regardless, the test is widely applied to investigate the effects of pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral manipulations on purported behaviors related to the said neuropsychiatric constructs...
October 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Gabriele Bellucci, Tim Hahn, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger
Economic games are used to elicit a social, conflictual situation in which people have to make decisions weighing self-related and collective interests. Combining these games with task-based fMRI has been shown to be successful in investigating the neural underpinnings of cooperative behaviors. However, it remains elusive to which extent resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) represents an individual's propensity to prosocial behaviors in the context of economic games. Here, we investigated whether task-free RSFC predicts individual differences in the propensity to trust and reciprocate in a one-round trust game (TG) employing a prediction-analytics framework...
October 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Samantha N Hellberg, Trinity I Russell, Mike J F Robinson
Gambling disorder is an impairing condition confounded by psychiatric co-morbidity, particularly with substance use and anxiety disorders. Yet, our knowledge of the mechanisms that cause these disorders to coalesce remains limited. The Incentive Sensitization Theory suggests that sensitization of neural "wanting" pathways, which attribute incentive salience to rewards and their cues, is responsible for the excessive desire for drugs and cue-triggered craving. The resulting hyper-reactivity of the "wanting' system is believed to heavily influence compulsive drug use and relapse...
October 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Barbara Schmidt, Luisa Keßler, Holger Hecht, Johannes Hewig, Clay B Holroyd, Wolfgang H R Miltner
In economic studies, it is standard practice to pay out the reward of only one randomly selected trial (pay-one) instead of the total reward accumulated across trials (pay-all), assuming that both methods are equivalent. We tested this assumption by recording electrophysiological activity to reward feedback from participants engaged in a decision-making task under both a pay-one and a pay-all condition. We show that participants are approximately 12% more risk averse in the pay-one condition than in the pay-all condition...
October 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
M R Ehlers, C J D Ross, R M Todd
Previous research has established a role for the norepinephrine (NE)/stress system in individual differences in biases to attend to reward or punishment. Outstanding questions concern its role in the flexibility with which such biases can be changed. The goal of this preregistered study was to examine the role of the NE/stress system in the degree to which biases can be trained along the axis of valence in the direction of reward. Participants genotyped for a common deletion variant of ADRA2b (linked to altered NE availability) experienced either an acute stress induction or a control procedure...
October 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yang Cao, Yufang Yang, Lin Wang
Using event-related potentials, in this study we examined how implied emotion is derived from sentences. In the same sentential context, different emotionally neutral words rendered the whole sentence emotionally neutral and semantically congruent, emotionally negative and semantically congruent, or emotionally neutral and semantically incongruent. Relative to the words in the neutral-congruent condition, the words in the neutral-incongruent condition elicited a larger N400, indicating increased semantic processing, whereas the words in the negative-congruent condition elicited a long-lasting positivity between 300 and 1,000 ms, indicating an emotional response...
October 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nishi Pegwal, Anita Pal, Ratna Sharma
Emotions affect many aspects of cognition (attention, decision-making, problem solving, conflict resolution, task switching, social cognition, etc.), but the cortical areas or networks through which these effects are achieved are still debatable. In the present study, the effect of emotion on cognition was studied in healthy young individuals (n = 56). Emotions were induced using high-arousing negative, positive, and low-arousing neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Sternberg's verbal working memory task was administered at baseline and after each emotion exposure, while high-density EEG was recorded...
October 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Mareike Bayer, Annika Grass, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotion effects in event-related potentials (ERPs) during reading have been observed at very short latencies of around 100 to 200 ms after word onset. The nature of these effects remains a matter of debate: First, it is possible that they reflect semantic access, which might thus occur much faster than proposed by most reading models. Second, it is possible that associative learning of a word's shape might contribute to the emergence of emotion effects during visual processing. The present study addressed this question by employing an associative learning paradigm on pronounceable letter strings (pseudowords)...
October 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Caitlin A Orsini, Caesar M Hernandez, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
The ability to choose among options that differ in their rewards and costs (value-based decision making) has long been a topic of interest for neuroscientists, psychologists, and economists alike. This is likely because this is a cognitive process in which all animals (including humans) engage on a daily basis, be it routine (which road to take to work) or consequential (which graduate school to attend). Studies of value-based decision making (particularly at the preclinical level) often treat it as a uniform process...
October 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
David Acunzo, Graham MacKenzie, Mark C W van Rossum
EEG studies suggest that the emotional content of visual stimuli is processed rapidly. In particular, the C1 component, which occurs up to 100 ms after stimulus onset and likely reflects activity in primary visual cortex V1, has been reported to be sensitive to emotional faces. However, difficulties replicating these results have been reported. We hypothesized that the nature of the task and attentional condition are key to reconcile the conflicting findings. We report three experiments of EEG activity during the C1 time range elicited by peripherally presented neutral and fearful faces under various attentional conditions: the faces were spatially attended or unattended and were either task-relevant or not...
October 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Carina Fernandes, A R Gonçalves, R Pasion, F Ferreira-Santos, F Barbosa, I P Martins, J Marques-Teixeira
Aging is associated with changes in cognitive and affective functioning, which likely shape older adults' social cognition. As the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying age differences in social abilities remain poorly understood, the present study aims to extend the research in this field. To this purpose, younger (n = 30; Mage = 26.6), middle-aged (n = 30; Mage = 48.4), and older adults (n = 29; Mage = 64.5) performed a task designed to assess affective perspective-taking, during an EEG recording...
October 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Shunsuke Kobayashi, Kohei Asano, Nozomu Matsuda, Yoshikazu Ugawa
Clinicians are increasingly recognizing impulse control disorders (ICDs) as a complication of dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Considering the pivotal role of dopamine in reward information processing, ICDs may originate from dysregulation of reward-oriented behavior, and the behavioral changes may be reflected in shifts of psychological risk preference during decision-making. We used a behavioral economics paradigm to evaluate quantitatively the risk preferences of PD patients in levodopa on and off states...
October 10, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Geon Ha Kim, Jung Yoon Kim, Jieun E Kim, Jiyoung Ma, Bori R Kim, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Hyeonseok S Jeong, Eun Namgung, Suji Lee, Ilhyang Kang, In Kyoon Lyoo, Jaeuk Hwang, Sujung Yoon
The association between subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and depressive symptoms has been widely reported and both have been regarded as risk factors for dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although SMCs arise as early as in middle age, the exact neural correlates of comorbid depressive symptoms among individuals who are middle-aged and with SMCs have not yet been well investigated. Because rich-club organization of the brain plays a key role in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders, the investigation of rich club organization may provide insight regarding the neurobiological mechanisms of depressive symptoms in SMCs...
October 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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