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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

Eefje S Poppelaars, Anita Harrewijn, P Michiel Westenberg, Melle J W van der Molen
Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between frontal delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (14-30 Hz) oscillations has been suggested as a candidate neural correlate of social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Prior studies have used amplitude-amplitude correlation (AAC) as a CFC measure and hypothesized it as a candidate neural mechanism of affective control. However, using this metric has yielded inconsistent results regarding the direction of CFC, and the functional significance of coupling strength is uncertain...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Daniela M Pfabigan, Anna M Wucherer, Claus Lamm
This study investigated the impact of criterion-based vs. social reference frames on behavioural and neural correlates of performance monitoring while taking individual differences in control beliefs into account. We conducted two experiments administering a time estimation task in which feedback was either delivered pertaining to participants' own performance (nonsocial/criterion-based reference) or to the performance of a reference group of previous participants (social reference). In Experiment 1, 34 male volunteers participated...
May 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Judith Charpentier, Klara Kovarski, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Marianne Latinus, Marie Gomot
Voices transmit social signals through speech and/or prosody. Emotional prosody conveys key information about the emotional state of a speaker and is thus a crucial cue that one has to detect in order to develop efficient social communication. Previous studies in adults reported different brain responses to emotional than to neutral prosodic deviancy. The aim of this study was to characterize such specific emotional deviancy effects in school-age children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a evoked potentials, reflecting automatic change detection and automatic attention orienting, respectively, were obtained for neutral and emotional angry deviants in both school-age children (n = 26) and adults (n = 14)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nicolas Burra, David Framorando, Alan J Pegna
Gender categorisation of human faces is facilitated when gaze is directed toward the observer (i.e., a direct gaze), compared with situations where gaze is averted or the eyes are closed (Macrae, Hood, Milne, Rowe, & Mason, Psychological Science, 13(5), 460-464, 2002). However, the temporal dynamics underlying this phenomenon remain to some extent unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the neural correlates of this effect, focusing on the event-related potential (ERP) components known to be sensitive to gaze perception (i...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Tamara Rakić, Melanie C Steffens, Holger Wiese
Social categorization appears to be an automatic process that occurs during person perception. Understanding social categorization better is important because mere categorization can lead to stereotype activation and, in turn, to discrimination. In the present study we used a novel approach to examine event-related potentials (ERPs) of gender categorization in the "Who said what?" memory paradigm, thus allowing for a more in-depth understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying identity versus categorization processing...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Marcelo Felipe de Sampaio Barros, Fernando M Araújo-Moreira, Luis Carlos Trevelin, Rémi Radel
The present study attempts to better identify the neurophysiological changes occurring during flow experience and how this can be related to the mobilization of attentional resources. Self-reports of flow (using a flow feelings scale) and attention (using thought probes), autonomic activity (heart rate, heart rate variability, and breathing rate), and cerebral oxygenation (using near-infrared spectroscopy) in two regions of the frontoparietal attention network (right lateral frontal cortex and right inferior parietal lobe) were measured during the practice of two simple video games (Tetris and Pong) played at different difficulty conditions (easy, optimal, hard, or self-selected)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Linh C Dang, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Jaime J Castrellon, Scott F Perkins, Ronald L Cowan, David H Zald
Reward valuation, which underlies all value-based decision-making, has been associated with dopamine function in many studies of nonhuman animals, but there is relatively less direct evidence for an association in humans. Here, we measured dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in vivo in humans to examine relations between individual differences in dopamine receptor availability and neural activity associated with a measure of reward valuation, expected value (i.e., the product of reward magnitude and the probability of obtaining the reward)...
May 3, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Lorenza S Colzato, Bryant J Jongkees, Matthijs de Wit, Melle J W van der Molen, Laura Steenbergen
The neurovisceral integration model proposes that heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prefrontal cortex activity via the vagus nerve, which connects the heart and the brain. HRV, an index of cardiac vagal tone, has been found to predict performance on several cognitive control tasks that rely on the prefrontal cortex. However, the link between HRV and the core cognitive control function "shifting" between tasks and mental sets is under-investigated. Therefore, the present study tested the neurovisceral integration model by examining, in 90 participants, the relationship between vagally mediated resting-state HRV and performance in a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively process-pure measure of cognitive flexibility...
April 30, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
G Dominguez, N Henkous, C Pierard, C Belzung, N Mons, Daniel Beracochea
The study was designed to assess whether repeated administration of diazepam (Valium®, Roche)-a benzodiazepine exerting an agonist action on GABAA receptors-may alleviate both the short (1 week, 1W) and long-term (6 weeks, 6W) deleterious effects of alcohol withdrawal occurring after chronic alcohol consumption (6 months; 12% v/v) in C57/BL6 male mice. More pointedly, we first evidenced that 1W and 6W alcohol-withdrawn mice exhibited working memory deficits in a sequential alternation task, associated with sustained exaggerated corticosterone rise and decreased pCREB levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
April 30, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Damien Brevers, Sarah C Herremans, Qinghua He, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Mathieu Petieau, Dimitri Verdonck, Tasha Poppa, Sara De Witte, Charles Kornreich, Antoine Bechara, Chris Baeken
Nowadays, sports betting has become increasingly available and easy to engage in. Here we examined the neural responses to stimuli that represent sporting events available for betting as compared to sporting events without a gambling opportunity. We used a cue exposure task in which football (soccer) fans (N = 42) viewed cues depicting scheduled football games that would occur shortly after the scanning session. In the "betting" condition, participants were instructed to choose, at the end of each block, the game (and the team) they wanted to bet on...
April 26, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Addiction-like symptoms in relation to excessive and compulsive social media use are common in the general population. Because they can lead to various adverse effects, there is a growing need to understand the brain systems and processes that are involved in potential social media addiction. We focus on the morphology of the posterior subdivision of the insular cortex (i.e., the insula), because it has been shown to be instrumental to supporting the maintenance of substance addictions and problematic behaviors...
April 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Marie Luise Schreiter, Witold X Chmielewski, Christian Beste
The goal-directed control of behaviour critically depends on emotional regulation and constitutes the basis of mental well-being and social interactions. Within a socioemotional setting, it is necessary to prioritize effectively the relevant emotional information over interfering irrelevant emotional information to orchestrate cognitive resources and achieve appropriate behavior. Currently, it is elusive whether and how different socioemotional stimulus dimensions modulate cognitive control and conflict resolution...
April 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Rico Fischer, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Alfons Hamm, Mathias Weymar
Response conflicts play a prominent role in the flexible adaptation of behavior as they represent context-signals that indicate the necessity for the recruitment of cognitive control. Previous studies have highlighted the functional roles of the affectively aversive and arousing quality of the conflict signal in triggering the adaptation process. To further test this potential link with arousal, participants performed a response conflict task in two separate sessions with either transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), which is assumed to activate the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NE) system, or with neutral sham stimulation...
April 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Łukasz Okruszek, M Jarkiewicz, M Gola, M Cella, E Łojek
Research on individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) shows a variety of emotional and cognitive deficits. We examined the hypothesis that ineffective emotional interference control may impact working memory (WM) performance by disrupting information encoding, maintenance, or retrieval in SCZ. Twenty-eight SCZ and 28 matched healthy controls (HC) performed the visual and verbal delayed-matching-to-sample task (DMST) with trials preceded by negative and nonemotional visual distractors. Event-Related Potentials associated with affective stimuli processing (Late Positive Potential-LPP) and WM-encoding (target-P3), maintenance (Negative Slow Wave-NSW), and retrieval (probe-P3) were analyzed...
April 13, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Klaus-Martin Krönke, Max Wolff, Holger Mohr, Anja Kräplin, Michael N Smolka, Gerhard Bühringer, Thomas Goschke
Despite their immense relevance, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying real-life self-control failures (SCFs) are insufficiently understood. Whereas previous studies have shown that SCFs were associated with decreased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG; a region involved in cognitive control), here we consider the possibility that the reduced implementation of cognitive control in individuals with low self-control may be due to impaired performance monitoring. Following a brain-as-predictor approach, we combined experience sampling of daily SCFs with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a Stroop task...
April 13, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
In four experiments, the association between arousal state and different mind-wandering states was examined. Participants performed a sustained attention task while pupil responses were continuously recorded. Periodically during the task, participants were presented with thought probes to determine if they were on task or mind wandering. Across the four experiments, the results suggested that in situations that promoted on-task behaviors and focused external attention, mind wandering was associated with lowered arousal, as seen by smaller tonic pupil diameters and smaller phasic pupillary responses...
April 13, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Elise D Kortink, Wouter D Weeda, Michael J Crowley, Bregtje Gunther Moor, Melle J W van der Molen
Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i...
April 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Joyce J Endendijk, Hannah Spencer, Anneloes L van Baar, Peter A Bos
Certain infant facial characteristics, referred to as baby schema, are thought to automatically trigger parenting behavior and affective orientation toward infants. Electroencephalography (EEG) is well suited to assessing the intuitive nature and temporal dynamics of parenting responses, due to its millisecond temporal resolution. Little is known, however, about the relations between neural processing of infant cues and actual parenting behavior in a naturalistic setting. In the present study we examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers (N = 33) watching infant faces of varying attractiveness, in relation to activation of the maternal care system and the mothers' observed parenting behavior (sensitivity, nonintrusiveness) with their own child (2-6 years old)...
April 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Haeme R P Park, Mariam Kostandyan, C Nico Boehler, Ruth M Krebs
Although it is clear that emotional and motivational manipulations yield a strong influence on cognition and behaviour, these domains have mostly been investigated in independent research lines. Therefore, it remains poorly understood how far these affective manipulations overlap in terms of their underlying neural activations, especially in light of previous findings that suggest a shared valence mechanism across multiple affective processing domains (e.g., monetary incentives, primary rewards, emotional events)...
April 11, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nathaniel E Anderson, J Michael Maurer, Vaughn R Steele, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathy is a personality disorder accompanied by abnormalities in emotional processing and attention. Recent theoretical applications of network-based models of cognition have been used to explain the diverse range of abnormalities apparent in psychopathy. Still, the physiological basis for these abnormalities is not well understood. A significant body of work has examined psychopathy-related abnormalities in simple attention-based tasks, but these studies have largely been performed using electrocortical measures, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), and they often have been carried out among individuals with low levels of psychopathic traits...
April 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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