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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

Tobias Brosch, Yoann Stussi, Olivier Desrichard, David Sander
Individuals with pronounced self-transcendence values have been shown to put greater weight on the long-term consequences of their actions when making decisions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the evaluation of events occurring several decades in the future as well as the role of core values in these processes. Thirty-six participants viewed a series of events, consisting of potential consequences of climate change, which could occur in the near future (around 2030), and thus would be experienced by the participants themselves, or in the far future (around 2080)...
March 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Francesco Rigoli, Katrin H Preller, Raymond J Dolan
In several contexts, such as finance and politics, people make choices that are relevant for others but irrelevant for oneself. Focusing on decision-making under risk, we compared monetary choices made for one's own interest with choices made on behalf of an anonymous individual. Consistent with the previous literature, other-interest choices were characterized by an increased gambling propensity. We also investigated choice stochasticity, which captures how much decisions vary in similar conditions. An aspect related to choice stochasticity is how much decisions are tuned to the option values, and we found that this was higher during self-interest than during other-interest choices...
March 16, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
David De Vito, Anne E Ferrey, Mark J Fenske, Naseem Al-Aidroos
Ignoring visual stimuli in the external environment leads to decreased liking of those items, a phenomenon attributed to the affective consequences of attentional inhibition. Here we investigated the generality of this "distractor devaluation" phenomenon by asking whether ignoring stimuli represented internally within visual working memory has the same affective consequences. In two experiments we presented participants with two or three visual stimuli and then, after the stimuli were no longer visible, provided an attentional cue indicating which item in memory was the target they would have to later recall, and which were task-irrelevant distractors...
March 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Lotte F van Dillen, Henk van Steenbergen
The present research examined whether cognitive load modulates the neural processing of appetitive, high-calorie food stimuli. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants quickly categorized high-calorie and low-calorie food pictures versus object pictures as edible or inedible while they concurrently performed a digit-span task that varied between low and high cognitive load (memorizing six digits vs. one digit). In line with predictions, the digit-span task engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when cognitive load was high compared to low...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Katherine C Lopez, Joan L Luby, Andy C Belden, Deanna M Barch
Recent interest has emerged in understanding the neural mechanisms by which deficits in emotion regulation (ER) early in development may relate to later depression. Corticolimbic alterations reported in emotion dysregulation and depression may be one possible link. We examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation in school age, corticolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in preadolescence, and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Participants were 143 children from a longitudinal preschool onset depression study who completed the Children Sadness Management Scale (CSMS; measuring ER), Child Depression Inventory (CDI-C; measuring depressive symptoms), and two resting-state MRI scans...
March 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Angelika Kunkel, Ruth Filik, Ian Grant Mackenzie, Hartmut Leuthold
Recently, we showed that when participants passively read about moral transgressions (e.g., adultery), they implicitly engage in the evaluative (good-bad) categorization of incoming information, as indicated by a larger event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity to immoral than to moral scenarios (Leuthold, Kunkel, Mackenzie, & Filik in Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1021-1029, 2015). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicated that explicit moral tasks prioritize the semantic-cognitive analysis of incoming information but that implicit tasks, as used in Leuthold et al...
March 6, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ashley R Smith, Gail M Rosenbaum, Morgan A Botdorf, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Most adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers. Prior research suggests that peers alter adolescents' decision making by increasing reward sensitivity and the engagement of regions involved in the processing of rewards, primarily the striatum. However, the potential influence of peers on the capacity for impulse control, and the associated recruitment of the brain's control circuitry, has not yet been adequately examined. In the current study, adolescents underwent functional neuroimaging while they completed interleaved rounds of risk-taking and response-inhibition tasks...
February 22, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Xiangru Zhu, Huijun Zhang, Lili Wu, Suyong Yang, Haiyan Wu, Wenbo Luo, Ruolei Gu, Yue-Jia Luo
Individual self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) could be temporarily modulated by the priming effect. Our previous studies have found that when Chinese participants gambled for mother and for self, outcome feedback evoked comparable neural responses between two conditions. However, it remains unclear if the response to rewards for mother and for self would differ after independence self-construal priming. In this study, we manipulated participants' self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) before a simple gambling task...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Iris M Spruit, Tom F Wilderjans, Henk van Steenbergen
Posterror slowing (PES) is the observation that people respond slower on trials subsequent to error commissions than on trials subsequent to correct responses. Different accounts have been proposed to explain PES. On the one hand, it has been suggested that PES arises from an adaptive increase in cognitive control following error commission, thereby making people more cautious after making an error. On the other hand, PES has been attributed to an orienting response, indicating that attention is shifted toward the error...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Sarah M Tashjian, David G Weissman, Amanda E Guyer, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is characterized by extensive neural development and sensitivity to social context, both of which contribute to engaging in prosocial behaviors. Although it is established that prosocial behaviors are linked to positive outcomes in adulthood, little is known about the neural correlates of adolescents' prosociality. Identifying whether the brain is differentially responsive to varying types of social input may be important for fostering prosocial behavior. We report pilot results using new stimuli and an ecologically valid donation paradigm indicating (1) brain regions typically recruited during socioemotional processing evinced differential activation when adolescents evaluated prosocial compared with social or noninteractive scenes (N = 20, ages 13-17 years, MAge = 15...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Kyle W Killebrew, Gennadiy Gurariy, Candace E Peacock, Marian E Berryhill, Gideon P Caplovitz
Why are some visual stimuli remembered, whereas others are forgotten? A limitation of recognition paradigms is that they measure aggregate behavioral performance and/or neural responses to all stimuli presented in a visual working memory (VWM) array. To address this limitation, we paired an electroencephalography (EEG) frequency-tagging technique with two full-report VWM paradigms. This permitted the tracking of individual stimuli as well as the aggregate response. We recorded high-density EEG (256 channel) while participants viewed four shape stimuli, each flickering at a different frequency...
February 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ellen Greimel, Sarolta Bakos, Iris Landes, Thomas Töllner, Jürgen Bartling, Gregor Kohls, Gerd Schulte-Körne
The brain's reward system undergoes major changes during adolescence, and an increased reactivity to social and nonsocial incentives has been described as a typical feature during this transitional period. Little is known whether there are sex differences in the brain's responsiveness to social or monetary incentives during adolescence. The aim of this event-related potential (ERP) study was to compare the neurophysiological underpinnings of monetary and social incentive processing in adolescent boys versus girls...
February 13, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Erik A Wing, Vijeth Iyengar, Thomas M Hess, Kevin S LaBar, Scott A Huettel, Roberto Cabeza
Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures...
February 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ryan S Williams, Farrah Kudus, Benjamin J Dyson, Julia Spaniol
Preparing for upcoming events, separating task-relevant from task-irrelevant information and efficiently responding to stimuli all require cognitive control. The adaptive recruitment of cognitive control depends on activity in the dopaminergic reward system as well as the frontoparietal control network. In healthy aging, dopaminergic neuromodulation is reduced, resulting in altered incentive-based recruitment of control mechanisms. In the present study, younger adults (18-28 years) and healthy older adults (66-89 years) completed an incentivized flanker task that included gain, loss, and neutral trials...
February 1, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
Implicit associations can interfere with cognitive operations and behavioral decisions without direct intention. Enhancement of neural activity with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was proposed to reduce implicit associations by means of improved cognitive control. However, a targeted reduction of distractive implicit associations by inhibitory cathodal tDCS, recently shown in spatial-numerical associations, provides an interesting alternative approach to support goal-directed behavior with transcranial brain stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Miles Wischnewski, Harold Bekkering, Dennis J L G Schutter
During decision making, individuals are prone to rely on external cues such as expert advice when the outcome is not known. However, the electrophysiological correlates associated with outcome uncertainty and the use of expert advice are not completely understood. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), P3a, and P3b are event-related brain potentials (ERPs) linked to dissociable stages of feedback and attentional processing during decision making. Even though these ERPs are influenced by both reward- and punishment-related feedback, it remains unclear how extrinsic information during uncertainty modulates these brain potentials...
January 29, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yao Guan, M Jeffrey Farrar, Andreas Keil
False belief understanding (FBU) enables people to consider conflicting beliefs about the same situation. While language has been demonstrated to be a correlate of FBU, there is still controversy about the extent to which a specific aspect of language, complementation syntax, is a necessary condition for FBU. The present study tested an important notion from the debate proposing that complementation syntax task is redundant to FBU measures. Specifically, we examined electrophysiological correlates of false belief, false complementation, and their respective true conditions in adults using electroencephalography (EEG), focusing on indices of oscillatory brain activity and large-scale connectivity...
January 29, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nan Lin, Xiaohong Yang, Jing Li, Shaonan Wang, Huimin Hua, Yujun Ma, Xingshan Li
Neuroimaging studies have found that theory of mind (ToM) and discourse comprehension involve similar brain regions. These brain regions may be associated with three cognitive components that are necessarily or frequently involved in ToM and discourse comprehension, including social concept representation and retrieval, domain-general semantic integration, and domain-specific integration of social semantic contents. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural correlates of these three cognitive components by exploring how discourse topic (social/nonsocial) and discourse processing period (ending/beginning) modulate brain activation in a discourse comprehension (and also ToM) task...
January 29, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Rasmus Eklund, Stefan Wiens
Electrophysiological recordings are commonly used to study the neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Previous research is inconsistent as to whether awareness can be indexed with visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms or if it occurs later. The present study was preregistered with two main aims: First, to provide independent evidence for or against the presence of VAN, and second, to study whether stimulus size may account for the inconsistent findings. Subjects were shown low-contrast Gaussian filtered gratings (Gabor patches) in the four visual quadrants...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Elisabeth Schreuders, Eduard T Klapwijk, Geert-Jan Will, Berna Güroğlu
Although the majority of our social interactions are with people we know, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of sharing valuable resources with familiar others. Using an ecologically valid research paradigm, this functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of prosocial and selfish behavior in interactions with real-life friends and disliked peers in young adults. Participants (N = 27) distributed coins between themselves and another person, where they could make selfish choices that maximized their own gains or prosocial choices that maximized outcomes of the other...
January 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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