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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#1
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127656/altered-oscillatory-brain-dynamics-of-emotional-processing-in-young-binge-drinkers
#2
Siyuan Huang, Lee A Holcomb, Stephen M Cruz, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking, also termed binge drinking, is commonly practiced by young adults. It is accompanied by a range of cognitive, affective, and social problems, but the neural dynamics underlying changes in emotional functions is poorly understood. To investigate the behavioral and brain indices of affective processing as a function of binge drinking, young, healthy participants (23.3 ± 3.3 years) were assigned to two groups (n = 32 each) based on their drinking habits. Binge drinking (BD) participants reported drinking heavily with at least five binge episodes in the last 6 months, whereas light drinkers (LD) reported no more than one binge episode in the last 6 months...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110184/individual-differences-in-social-desirability-are-associated-with-white-matter-microstructure-of-the-external-capsule
#3
Milan Andrejević, Dar Meshi, Wouter van den Bos, Hauke R Heekeren
Humans tend to present themselves in a positive light to gain social approval. This behavioral trait, termed social desirability, is important for various types of social success. Surprisingly, investigation into the neural underpinnings of social desirability has been limited and focused only on interindividual differences in dopamine receptor binding. These studies revealed reduced dopamine receptor binding in the striatum of individuals who are high in trait social desirability. Interestingly, high dopamine signaling has been associated with low white-matter integrity, irrespective of social desirability...
November 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110183/integrated-cross-network-connectivity-of-amygdala-insula-and-subgenual-cingulate-associated-with-facial-emotion-perception-in-healthy-controls-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Lisanne M Jenkins, Jonathan P Stange, Alyssa Barba, Sophie R DelDonno, Leah R Kling, Emily M Briceño, Sara L Weisenbach, K Luan Phan, Stewart A Shankman, Robert C Welsh, Scott A Langenecker
Emotion perception deficits could be due to disrupted connectivity of key nodes in the salience and emotion network (SEN), including the amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and insula. We examined SEN resting-state (rs-)fMRI connectivity in rMDD in relation to Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) performance. Fifty-two medication-free people ages 18 to 23 years participated. Twenty-seven had major depressive disorder (MDD) in remission (rMDD, 10 males), as MDD is associated with emotion perception deficits and alterations in rsfMRI...
November 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076064/emotional-enhancement-of-error-detection-the-role-of-perceptual-processing-and-inhibition-monitoring-in-failed-auditory-stop-trials
#5
Magdalena Senderecka
The first aim of the present study was to test whether arousing, aversive sounds can influence inhibitory task performance and lead to increased error monitoring relative to a neutral task condition. The second aim was to examine whether the enhancement of error monitoring in an affective context (if present) could be predicted from stop-signal-related brain activity. Participants performed an emotional stop-signal task that required response inhibition to aversive and neutral auditory stimuli. The behavioral data revealed that unpleasant sounds facilitated inhibitory processing by decreasing the stop-signal reaction time and increasing the inhibitory rate relative to neutral tones...
October 26, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063522/remembering-specific-features-of-emotional-events-across-time-the-role-of-rem-sleep-and-prefrontal-theta-oscillations
#6
Marie Roxanne Sopp, Tanja Michael, Hans-Günter Weeß, Axel Mecklinger
When an episode of emotional significance is encountered, it often results in the formation of a highly resistant memory representation that is easily retrieved for many succeeding years. Recent research shows that beyond generic consolidation processes, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep importantly contributes to this effect. However, the boundary conditions of consolidation processes during REM sleep, specifically whether these extend to source memory, have not been examined extensively. The current study tested the effects of putative consolidation processes emerging during REM sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) on item and source memory of negative and neutral images, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063521/blunted-amygdala-activity-is-associated-with-depression-severity-in-treatment-resistant-depression
#7
Jamie Ferri, Stuart J Eisendrath, Susanna L Fryer, Erin Gillung, Brian J Roach, Daniel H Mathalon
Up to 50% of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not recover after two antidepressant medication trials, and therefore meet the criteria for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is one promising treatment; however, the extent to which MBCT influences clinical outcomes relative to baseline neural activation remains unknown. In the present study we investigated baseline differences in amygdala activation between TRD patients and healthy controls (HCs), related amygdala activation to depression symptoms, and examined the impacts of MBCT and amygdala activation on longitudinal depression outcomes...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063520/individual-differences-in-skewed-financial-risk-taking-across-the-adult-life-span
#8
Kendra L Seaman, Josiah K Leong, Charlene C Wu, Brian Knutson, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Older adults are disproportionately targeted by fraud schemes that advertise unlikely but large returns (positively skewed risks). We examined adult age differences in choice and neural activity as individuals considered risky gambles. Gambles were symmetric (50% chance of modest win or loss), positively skewed (25% chance of large gain), or negatively skewed (25% chance of large loss). The willingness to accept positively skewed relative to symmetric gambles increased with age, and this effect replicated in an independent behavioral study...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039129/implicit-attitudes-and-executive-control-interact-to-regulate-interest-in-extra-pair-relationships
#9
Ryuhei Ueda, Kuniaki Yanagisawa, Hiroshi Ashida, Nobuhito Abe
Do we actively maintain monogamous relationships by force of will, or does monogamy flow automatically? During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), male participants in a romantic relationship performed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to evaluate implicit attitudes toward adultery and a go/no-go task to measure prefrontal activity implicated in explicit executive control. Subsequently, they were engaged in a date-rating task in which they rated how much they wanted to date unfamiliar females. We found that the individuals with higher prefrontal activity during go/no-go task could regulate the interest for dates with unattractive females; moreover, the individuals with both a stronger negative attitude toward adultery and higher prefrontal activity could regulate their interest for dates with attractive females, and such individuals tended to maintain longer romantic relationships with a particular partner...
October 16, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019148/modulating-what-is-and-what-could-have-been-the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-the-evaluation-of-attained-and-unattained-decision-outcomes
#10
Mascha van 't Wout, Hannah Silverman
The affective evaluation of decision outcomes, whether attained (e.g., disappointment) or based on the conscious realization that a decision made differently would have led to a better or worse outcome (e.g., regret), greatly influence future decisions. Prior research has demonstrated a role of the medial and orbitofrontal cortex (M/OFC) in decision valuation and the experience of regret and relief. Here we examined whether inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could dampen the experience of decision-induced affect, with a focus on regret and relief...
October 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975567/brief-training-in-mindfulness-may-normalize-a-blunted-error-related-negativity-in-chronically-depressed-patients
#11
Maria Fissler, Emilia Winnebeck, Titus A Schroeter, Marie Gummbersbach, Julia M Huntenburg, Matti Gärtner, Thorsten Barnhofer
The error-related negativity (ERN), an evoked-potential that arises in response to the commission of errors, is an important early indicator of self-regulatory capacities. In this study we investigated whether brief mindfulness training can reverse ERN deficits in chronically depressed patients. The ERN was assessed in a sustained attention task. Chronically depressed patients (n = 59) showed significantly blunted expression of the ERN in frontocentral and frontal regions, relative to healthy controls (n = 18)...
October 3, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971360/respond-don-t-react-the-influence-of-mindfulness-training-on-performance-monitoring-in-older-adults
#12
Colette M Smart, Sidney J Segalowitz
A sizeable body of literature demonstrates positive effects of mindfulness training on brain, behavior, and psychological processes in both novice and expert practitioners as compared to non-meditators. However, only more recently has research begun to examine the specific mechanisms by which mindfulness exerts these effects. In the current study, we used event-related potentials (error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe)) to test the hypothesis that performance monitoring is one such mechanism...
October 2, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952137/neural-correlates-of-conventional-and-harm-welfare-based-moral-decision-making
#13
Stuart F White, Hui Zhao, Kelly Kimiko Leong, Judith G Smetana, Larry P Nucci, R James R Blair
The degree to which social norms are processed by a unitary system or dissociable systems remains debated. Much research on children's social-cognitive judgments has supported the distinction between "moral" (harm/welfare-based) and "conventional" norms. However, the extent to which these norms are processed by dissociable neural systems remains unclear. To address this issue, 23 healthy participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they rated the wrongness of harm/welfare-based and conventional transgressions and neutral vignettes...
September 26, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933047/the-right-touch-stroking-of-ct-innervated-skin-promotes-vocal-emotion-processing
#14
Annett Schirmer, Thomas C Gunter
Research has revealed a special mechanoreceptor, called C-tactile (CT) afferent, that is situated in hairy skin and that seems relevant for the processing of social touch. We pursued a possible role of this receptor in the perception of other social signals such as a person's voice. Participants completed three sessions in which they heard surprised and neutral vocal and nonvocal sounds and detected rare sound repetitions. In a given session, participants received no touch or soft brushstrokes to the arm (CT innervated) or palm (CT free)...
September 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924746/visual-long-term-memory-is-not-unitary-flexible-storage-of-visual-information-as-features-or-objects-as-a-function-of-affect
#15
Philipp Spachtholz, Christof Kuhbandner
Research has shown that observers store surprisingly highly detailed long-term memory representations of visual objects after only a single viewing. However, the nature of these representations is currently not well understood. In particular, it may be that the nature of such memory representations is not unitary but reflects the flexible operating of two separate memory subsystems: a feature-based subsystem that stores visual experiences in the form of independent features, and an object-based subsystem that stores visual experiences in the form of coherent objects...
September 18, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913727/sleep-amount-differentially-affects-fear-processing-neural-circuitry-in-pediatric-anxiety-a-preliminary-fmri-investigation
#16
Christina O Carlisi, Kevin Hilbert, Amanda E Guyer, Monique Ernst
Insufficient sleep, as well as the incidence of anxiety disorders, both peak during adolescence. While both conditions present perturbations in fear-processing-related neurocircuitry, it is unknown whether these neurofunctional alterations directly link anxiety and compromised sleep in adolescents. Fourteen anxious adolescents (AAs) and 19 healthy adolescents (HAs) were compared on a measure of sleep amount and neural responses to negatively valenced faces during fMRI. Group differences in neural response to negative faces emerged in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the hippocampus...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900892/increased-locus-coeruleus-tonic-activity-causes-disengagement-from-a-patch-foraging-task
#17
Gary A Kane, Elena M Vazey, Robert C Wilson, Amitai Shenhav, Nathaniel D Daw, Gary Aston-Jones, Jonathan D Cohen
High levels of locus coeruleus (LC) tonic activity are associated with distraction and poor performance within a task. Adaptive gain theory (AGT; Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005) suggests that this may reflect an adaptive function of the LC, encouraging search for more remunerative opportunities in times of low utility. Here, we examine whether stimulating LC tonic activity using designer receptors (DREADDs) promotes searching for better opportunities in a patch-foraging task as the value of a patch diminishes. The task required rats to decide repeatedly whether to exploit an immediate but depleting reward within a patch or to incur the cost of a time delay to travel to a new, fuller patch...
September 12, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895092/neural-response-to-evaluating-depression-predicts-perceivers-mental-health-treatment-recommendations
#18
Anne C Krendl, Brittany S Cassidy
Nonstigmatized perceivers' initial evaluations of stigmatized individuals have profound consequences for the well-being of those stigmatized individuals. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains underexplored. Specifically, what beliefs about the stigmatized condition (stigma-related beliefs) shape how nonstigmatized perceivers evaluate and behave toward stigmatized individuals? We examined these questions with respect to depression-related stigmatization because depression is highly stigmatized and nondepressed individuals' behavior (e...
September 11, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828734/neurocognitive-assessment-of-emotional-context-sensitivity
#19
Sarah Myruski, George A Bonanno, Olga Gulyayeva, Laura J Egan, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary
Sensitivity to emotional context is an emerging construct for characterizing adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation, but few measurement approaches exist. The current study combined behavioral and neurocognitive measures to assess context sensitivity in relation to self-report measures of adaptive emotional flexibility and well-being. Sixty-six adults completed an emotional go/no-go task using happy, fearful, and neutral faces as go and no-go cues, while EEG was recorded to generate event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting attentional selection and discrimination (N170) and cognitive control (N2)...
October 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766117/the-effect-of-bicephalic-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-on-the-attentional-bias-for-threat-a-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-study
#20
Laura Sagliano, Francesca D'Olimpio, Lorella Izzo, Luigi Trojano
Previous stimulation studies demonstrated that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in threat processing. According to a model of emotional processing, an unbalance between the two DLPFCs, with a hyperactivation of right frontal areas, is involved in the processing of negative emotions and genesis of anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the role of the right and left DLPFC in threat processing in healthy women who also completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We simultaneously modulated the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex by applying bicephalic transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) before participants completed a modified version of the classic Posner task using threatening and nonthreatening stimuli as spatial cues...
October 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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