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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

Yu-Hui Lo, Philip Tseng
People prefer to lie using altered truthful events from memory, perhaps because doing so can increase their credibility while reducing cognitive and working memory (WM) load. One possible way to counter such deceptive behavior is to track WM usage, since fabricating coherent lies or managing between truth and lies is likely to involve heavy WM load. In this study, participants memorized a list of words in the study session and used these old words to provide deceptive answers when cued later, in the testing session...
July 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Maria Cotelli, Mauro Adenzato, Valentina Cantoni, Rosa Manenti, Antonella Alberici, Ivan Enrici, Alberto Benussi, Valentina Dell'Era, Elisa Bonetta, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a form of frontotemporal degeneration characterized by early changes in personality, emotional blunting, and/or loss of empathy. Recent research has highlighted that these features may be at least partially explained by impairments in the theory of mind (ToM; i.e., the ability to understand and predict other people's behaviour by attributing independent mental states to them). The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to test the hypothesis that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) selectively enhances communicative intention processing, a specific ToM ability...
July 11, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eva Wiese, George A Buzzell, Abdulaziz Abubshait, Paul J Beatty
In social interactions, we rely on nonverbal cues like gaze direction to understand the behavior of others. How we react to these cues is affected by whether they are believed to originate from an entity with a mind, capable of having internal states (i.e., mind perception). While prior work has established a set of neural regions linked to social-cognitive processes like mind perception, the degree to which activation within this network relates to performance in subsequent social-cognitive tasks remains unclear...
July 10, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Verónica Mäki-Marttunen, Thomas Hagen, Samira Aminihajibashi, Maja Foldal, Maria Stavrinou, Jens H Halvorsen, Bruno Laeng, Thomas Espeseth
During the execution of a cognitive task, the brain maintains contextual information to guide behavior and achieve desired goals. The AX-Continuous Performance Task is used to study proactive versus reactive cognitive control. Young adults tend to behave proactively in standard testing conditions. However, it remains unclear how interindividual variability (e.g., in cognitive and motivational factors) may drive people into more reactive or proactive control under the same task demands. We investigated the use of control strategies in a large population of healthy young adults...
July 10, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Peng Li, Weiwei Peng, Hong Li, Clay B Holroyd
Although a growing number of studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of reinforcement learning, it remains unclear how the brain responds to feedback that is unreliable. A recent theory proposes that the reward positivity (RewP) component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) and frontal midline theta (FMT) power reflect separate feedback-related processing functions of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the present study, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from participants as they engaged in a time estimation task in which feedback reliability was manipulated across conditions...
July 10, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Grit Herzmann, Greta Minor, Tim Curran
Multiple mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the other-race effect on face memory, the phenomenon of better memory performance for own-race than other-race faces. Here, two of these mechanisms, increased attention allocation and greater holistic processing during memory encoding for own-race than other-race faces, were tested in two separate experiments. In these experiments event-related potentials were measured during study (the difference due to memory, Dm) and test phase (old/new effects) to examine brain activation related to memory encoding and retrieval, allowing for selective investigations of these memory sub-processes...
June 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Rahel Rabi, Marc F Joanisse, Tianshu Zhu, John Paul Minda
When learning rule-based categories, sufficient cognitive resources are needed to test hypotheses, maintain the currently active rule in working memory, update rules after feedback, and to select a new rule if necessary. Prior research has demonstrated that conjunctive rules are more complex than unidimensional rules and place greater demands on executive functions like working memory. In our study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a conjunctive rule-based category learning task with trial-by-trial feedback...
June 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Luis E Flores, Kristen L Eckstrand, Jennifer S Silk, Nicholas B Allen, Marigrace Ambrosia, Kati L Healey, Erika E Forbes
Feeling emotionally close to others during social interactions is a ubiquitous and meaningful experience that can elicit positive affect. The present study integrates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to investigate whether neural response to social reward (1) is related to the experience of emotional closeness and (2) moderates the association between emotional closeness and positive affect during and following social interactions. In this study, 34 typically developing adolescents (ages 14-18 years) completed a social-reward fMRI task, a monetary-reward fMRI task, and a 2-week EMA protocol regarding their social and affective experiences...
June 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Bernis Sutcubasi, Baris Metin, Cumhur Tas, Fatma Keskin Krzan, Berna A Sarı, Betul Ozcimen, Nevzat Tarhan
Alterations in reward processing are frequently reported in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One important factor affecting reward processing is the quality of reward as social and monetary rewards are processed by different neural networks. However, the effect of reward type on reward processing in ADHD has not been extensively studied. Hence, in the current study, an exploratory research was conducted to investigate the effect of reward type (i.e., social or monetary) on different phases of reward processing...
June 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
John E Kiat, Dianna Long, Robert F Belli
Attention and memory are highly integrated processes. Building on prior behavioral investigations, this study assesses the link between individual differences in low-level neural attentional responding and false memory susceptibility on the misinformation effect, a paradigm in which false event memories are induced via misleading post-event information. Twenty-four subjects completed the misinformation effect paradigm after which high-density (256-channel) EEG data was collected as they engaged in an auditory oddball task...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Bidhan Lamichhane, Mark A McDaniel, Emily R Waldum, Todd S Braver
The capability to remember and execute intentions in the future - termed prospective memory (PM) - may be of special significance for older adults to enable successful completion of important activities of daily living. Despite the importance of this cognitive function, mixed findings have been obtained regarding age-related decline in PM, and, currently, there is limited understanding of potential contributing mechanisms. In the current study, older (N=41) and younger adults (N=47) underwent task-functional MRI during performance of PM conditions that encouraged either spontaneous retrieval (Focal) or sustained attentional monitoring (Non-focal) to detect PM targets...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Richard Huskey, Britney Craighead, Michael B Miller, René Weber
Cognitive control is a framework for understanding the neuropsychological processes that underlie the successful completion of everyday tasks. Only recently has research in this area investigated motivational contributions to control allocation. An important gap in our understanding is the way in which intrinsic rewards associated with a task motivate the sustained allocation of control. To address this issue, we draw on flow theory, which predicts that a balance between task difficulty and individual ability results in the highest levels of intrinsic reward...
June 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Haoyun Zhang, Anna Eppes, Anne Beatty-Martínez, Christian Navarro-Torres, Michele T Diaz
Language production and cognitive control are complex processes that involve distinct yet interacting brain networks. However, the extent to which these processes interact and their neural bases have not been thoroughly examined. Here, we investigated the neural and behavioral bases of language production and cognitive control via a phonological go/no-go picture-naming task. Naming difficulty and cognitive control demands (i.e., conflict monitoring and response inhibition) were manipulated by varying the proportion of naming trials (go trials) and inhibition trials (no-go trials) across task runs...
June 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Orsolya Szalárdy, Brigitta Tóth, Dávid Farkas, Annamária Kovács, Gábor Urbán, Gábor Orosz, Beáta Tünde Szabó, László Hunyadi, Botond Hajdu, István Winkler
The notion of automatic syntactic analysis received support from some event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, none of these studies tested syntax processing in the presence of a concurrent speech stream. Here we present two concurrent continuous speech streams, manipulating two variables potentially affecting speech processing in a fully crossed design: attention (focused vs. divided) and task (lexical - detecting numerals vs. syntactical - detecting syntactic violations). ERPs elicited by syntactic violations and numerals as targets were compared with those for distractors (task-relevant events in the unattended speech stream) and attended and unattended task-irrelevant events...
June 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Irene Cristofori, Carola Salvi, Mark Beeman, Jordan Grafman
Creative problem solving involves search processes, and it is known to be hard to motivate. Reward cues have been found to enhance performance across a range of tasks, even when cues are presented subliminally, without being consciously detected. It is uncertain whether motivational processes, such as reward, can influence problem solving. We tested the effect of supraliminal and subliminal reward on participant performance on problem solving that can be solved by deliberate analysis or by insight. Forty-one participants attempted to solve 100 compound remote associate problems...
June 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Maryam Ziaei, George Samrani, Jonas Persson
Age-related declines in attention and working memory (WM) are well documented and may be worsened by the occurrence of distracting information. Emotionally valenced stimuli may have particularly strong distracting effects on cognition. We investigated age-related differences in emotional distraction using task-fMRI. WM performance in older adults was lower for emotional compared with neutral distractors, suggesting a disproportional impairment elicited by emotional task-irrelevant information. Critically, older adults were particularly distracted by task-irrelevant positive information, whereas the opposite pattern was found for younger adults...
June 11, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Maureen D Satyshur, Elliot A Layden, Jennifer R Gowins, Angel Buchanan, Jacqueline K Gollan
Ruminative thinking is related to an increased risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and perpetuates negative mood states. Rumination, uncontrollable negative thoughts about the self, may comprise both reflective and brooding components. However, only brooding rumination is consistently associated with increased negativity bias and negative coping styles, while reflective rumination has a less clear relationship with negative outcomes in healthy and depressed participants. The current study examined seed-to-voxel (S2...
June 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eefje S Poppelaars, Anita Harrewijn, P Michiel Westenberg, Melle J W van der Molen
Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between frontal delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (14-30 Hz) oscillations has been suggested as a candidate neural correlate of social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Prior studies have used amplitude-amplitude correlation (AAC) as a CFC measure and hypothesized it as a candidate neural mechanism of affective control. However, using this metric has yielded inconsistent results regarding the direction of CFC, and the functional significance of coupling strength is uncertain...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Daniela M Pfabigan, Anna M Wucherer, Claus Lamm
This study investigated the impact of criterion-based vs. social reference frames on behavioural and neural correlates of performance monitoring while taking individual differences in control beliefs into account. We conducted two experiments administering a time estimation task in which feedback was either delivered pertaining to participants' own performance (nonsocial/criterion-based reference) or to the performance of a reference group of previous participants (social reference). In Experiment 1, 34 male volunteers participated...
May 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Judith Charpentier, Klara Kovarski, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Marianne Latinus, Marie Gomot
Voices transmit social signals through speech and/or prosody. Emotional prosody conveys key information about the emotional state of a speaker and is thus a crucial cue that one has to detect in order to develop efficient social communication. Previous studies in adults reported different brain responses to emotional than to neutral prosodic deviancy. The aim of this study was to characterize such specific emotional deviancy effects in school-age children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a evoked potentials, reflecting automatic change detection and automatic attention orienting, respectively, were obtained for neutral and emotional angry deviants in both school-age children (n = 26) and adults (n = 14)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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