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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

Laura Sagliano, Francesca D'Olimpio, Lorella Izzo, Luigi Trojano
Previous stimulation studies demonstrated that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in threat processing. According to a model of emotional processing, an unbalance between the two DLPFCs, with a hyperactivation of right frontal areas, is involved in the processing of negative emotions and genesis of anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the role of the right and left DLPFC in threat processing in healthy women who also completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We simultaneously modulated the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex by applying bicephalic transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) before participants completed a modified version of the classic Posner task using threatening and nonthreatening stimuli as spatial cues...
August 1, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Valeria Bekhtereva, Matthias M Müller
Is color a critical feature in emotional content extraction and involuntary attentional orienting toward affective stimuli? Here we used briefly presented emotional distractors to investigate the extent to which color information can influence the time course of attentional bias in early visual cortex. While participants performed a demanding visual foreground task, complex unpleasant and neutral background images were displayed in color or grayscale format for a short period of 133 ms and were immediately masked...
July 11, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Meenal Budhiraja, Ivanka Savic, Philip Lindner, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
The phenotype and genotype of antisocial behavior among females are different from those among males. Previous studies have documented structural brain alterations in males with antisocial behavior, yet little is known about the neural correlates of female antisocial behavior. The present study examined young women who had presented conduct disorder (CDW) prior to age 15 to determine whether brain abnormalities are present in adulthood and whether the observed abnormalities are associated with comorbid disorders or maltreatment that typically characterize this population...
July 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Danielle M Shore, Rowena Ng, Ursula Bellugi, Debra L Mills
Accurate assessment of trustworthiness is fundamental to successful and adaptive social behavior. Initially, people assess trustworthiness from facial appearance alone. These assessments then inform critical approach or avoid decisions. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit a heightened social drive, especially toward strangers. This study investigated the temporal dynamics of facial trustworthiness evaluation in neurotypic adults (TD) and individuals with WS. We examined whether differences in neural activity during trustworthiness evaluation may explain increased approach motivation in WS compared to TD individuals...
July 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yung-Hao Yang, Yung-Hsuan Tien, Pei-Ling Yang, Su-Ling Yeh
Previous studies found that word meaning can be processed unconsciously. Yet it remains unknown whether temporally segregated words can be integrated into a holistic meaningful phrase without consciousness. The first four experiments were designed to examine this by sequentially presenting the first three words of Chinese four-word idioms as prime to one eye and dynamic Mondrians to the other (i.e., the continuous flash suppression paradigm; CFS). An unmasked target word followed the three masked words in a lexical decision task...
July 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Xin Hou, Timothy A Allen, Dongtao Wei, Hui Huang, Kangcheng Wang, Colin G DeYoung, Jiang Qiu
Individual differences in the personality trait Agreeableness underlie humans' ability to interpret social cues and coordinate effectively with others. However, previous investigations of the neural basis of Agreeableness have yielded largely inconsistent results. Recent evidence has demonstrated that Agreeableness can be divided into two, correlated subdimensions. Compassion reflects tendencies toward empathy, sympathy, and concern for others, while Politeness reflects tendencies toward compliance and refraining from aggression and exploitation...
June 30, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yi-Chun Tsai, Hsin-Jie Lu, Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang, Neil G Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan
Few studies have investigated the effects of anxiety on contingent attentional capture. The present study examined contingent attentional capture in trait anxiety by applying a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm during electroencephalographic recording. Overall, the behavioral and electrophysiological results showed a larger capture effect when a distractor was the same color as the target compared to when the distractor was not of the target color. Moreover, high-anxiety individuals showed a larger N2pc in the target colored distractor condition and nontarget colored distractor condition compared to the distractor-absent condition...
June 27, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
M Rollwage, H Comtesse, G Stemmler
This study investigated individual risky choice behavior in a gambling task and its relation with traits proposed by the Reinforcer-Sensitivity-Theory-5 (RST-5; Corr & McNaughton in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(10), 2339-2354, 2012) as well as with frontal EEG asymmetry. As assumed by the RST-5, the results showed independent influences of approach/avoidance and gain/loss sensitivities on participants' behavior in risky choices. Individual approach/avoidance sensitivity was predicted by trait measures of the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), while no such correlation was present for gain/loss sensitivity...
June 26, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve
Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams)...
June 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yinan Wang, Feng Kong, Xiangzhen Kong, Yuanfang Zhao, Danhua Lin, Jia Liu
Anger is a common negative emotion in social life. Behavioral research suggests that unsatisfied relatedness, autonomy, and competence are related to anger. However, it remains unclear whether these unsatisfied needs all contribute to anger or just a particular unsatisfied need is the main source of anger. In addition, little is known about the neural substrate between unsatisfied needs and anger. To address these two questions, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the neural substrate underlying the relation between unsatisfied needs and trait anger...
June 12, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Guido Alessandri, Vilfredo De Pascalis
In this article, we explore the neural correlates of the general and specific factors assessed by the Life Orientation Test-Revised. These factors have been shown to assess general optimism (GO) and a form of self-enhancement akin to unrealistic optimism (SP). Toward our aim, we used a standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), which provides electroencephalographic (EEG) localization measures that are independent of recording reference. Resting-EEG and self-report measures of GO and SP were collected from 51 female undergraduates...
June 9, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Madelon M E Riem, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Pietro De Carli, Morten L Kringelbach, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task, participants learned about an infant's temperament through repeated pairing of the infant face with positive or negative facial expressions and vocalizations. At the end of the task, participants were able to differentiate between "mostly sad" infants who cried often and "mostly happy" infants who laughed often...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Bethany R Lusk, Andrea R Carr, Valerie A Ranson, Kim L Felmingham
Emotion regulation deficits have been implicated in anxiety and depressive disorders, and these internalising disorders are more prevalent in women than men. Few electrophysiological studies have investigated sex differences in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation controlling for menstrual phase. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men who completed an emotion regulation task. A novel finding of increased N2 amplitude during suppression was found for midluteal women compared with men...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Iris Schutte, J Leon Kenemans, Dennis J L G Schutter
Prior research has shown that the ratio between resting-state theta (4-7 Hz)-beta (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is associated with reward- and punishment-related feedback learning and risky decision making. However, it remains unclear whether the theta/beta EEG ratio is also an electrophysiological index for poorer behavioral adaptation when reward and punishment contingencies change over time. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resting-state theta (4-7 Hz)-beta (13-30 Hz) EEG ratio correlated with reversal learning...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Samantha J Reznik, Robin Nusslock, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Lyn Y Abramson, James A Coan, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Research suggests that midline posterior versus frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity (PFTA) may reflect a novel neurophysiological index of approach motivation. Elevated PFTA has been associated with approach-related tendencies both at rest and during laboratory tasks designed to enhance approach motivation. PFTA is sensitive to changes in dopamine signaling within the fronto-striatal neural circuit, which is centrally involved in approach motivation, reward processing, and goal-directed behavior...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Asako Toyama, Kentaro Katahira, Hideki Ohira
A broadly used computational framework posits that two learning systems operate in parallel during the learning of choice preferences-namely, the model-free and model-based reinforcement-learning systems. In this study, we examined another possibility, through which model-free learning is the basic system and model-based information is its modulator. Accordingly, we proposed several modified versions of a temporal-difference learning model to explain the choice-learning process. Using the two-stage decision task developed by Daw, Gershman, Seymour, Dayan, and Dolan (2011), we compared their original computational model, which assumes a parallel learning process, and our proposed models, which assume a sequential learning process...
June 1, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Daniel J Strauss, Alexander L Francis
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in studying listening effort. Research on listening effort intersects with the development of active theories of speech perception and contributes to the broader endeavor of understanding speech perception within the context of neuroscientific theories of perception, attention, and effort. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the problem, researchers vary widely in their precise conceptualization of the catch-all term listening effort. Very recent consensus work stresses the relationship between listening effort and the allocation of cognitive resources, providing a conceptual link to current cognitive neuropsychological theories associating effort with the allocation of selective attention...
May 31, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Fang Cui, Xiangru Zhu, Yuejia Luo
Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding the response that is triggered by observing others' pain: the "empathizing hypothesis" and the "threat value of pain hypothesis." The former suggests that observing others' pain triggers an empathic response. The latter suggests that it activates the threat-detection system. In the present study, participants were instructed to observe pictures that showed an anonymous hand or foot in a painful or non-painful situation in a threatening or friendly social context. Event-related potentials were recorded when the participants passively observed these pictures in different contexts...
May 26, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
G R Wylie, H M Genova, J DeLuca, E Dobryakova
Cognitive fatigue is common after strenuous cognitive effort. A large body of literature has implicated a network of brain areas in fatigue, including the basal ganglia and cortical areas including ventro-medal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Furthermore, the ACC has been shown to be involved in processes such as error and conflict monitoring, outcome prediction, and effort processing. Thus, the ACC appears to be one common denominator between clinical work on fatigue and research on outcome prediction and effort...
May 25, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Damon Tomlin, Andrea Nedic, Deborah A Prentice, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
Decades of research have established that decision-making is dramatically impacted by both the rewards an individual receives and the behavior of others. How do these distinct influences exert their influence on an individual's actions, and can the resulting behavior be effectively captured in a computational model? To address this question, we employed a novel spatial foraging game in which groups of three participants sought to find the most rewarding location in an unfamiliar two-dimensional space. As the game transitioned from one block to the next, the availability of information regarding other group members was varied systematically, revealing the relative impacts of feedback from the environment and information from other group members on individual decision-making...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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