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Animal Health Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779505/herd-level-infectious-disease-surveillance-of-livestock-populations-using-aggregate-samples
#1
Marisa L Rotolo, Rodger G Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
All sectors of livestock production are in the process of shifting from small populations on many farms to large populations on fewer farms. A concurrent shift has occurred in the number of livestock moved across political boundaries. The unintended consequence of these changes has been the appearance of multifactorial diseases that are resistant to traditional methods of prevention and control. The need to understand complex animal health conditions mandates a shift toward the collection of longitudinal animal health data...
May 21, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704909/gut-immunity-its-development-and-reasons-and-opportunities-for-modulation-in-monogastric-production-animals
#2
Leon J Broom, Michael H Kogut
The intestine performs the critical roles of nutrient acquisition, tolerance of innocuous and beneficial microorganisms, while retaining the ability to respond appropriately to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing their translocation to more sterile body compartments. Various components contribute to antimicrobial defenses in the intestine. The mucus layer(s), antimicrobial peptides and IgA provide the first line of defense, and seek to trap and facilitate the removal of invading microbes...
April 29, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467055/molecular-serogrouping-of-escherichia-coli
#3
Chitrita DebRoy, Pina M Fratamico, Elisabeth Roberts
O-antigens present on the surface of Escherichia coli provide antigenic specificity for the strain and are the main components for O-serogroup designation. Serotyping using O-group-specific antisera for the identification of E. coli O-serogroups has been traditionally the gold-standard for distinguishing E. coli strains. Knowledge of the O-group is important for determining pathogenic lineage, classifying E. coli for epidemiological studies, for determining virulence, and for tracing outbreaks of diseases and sources of infection...
February 22, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231804/impact-of-point-sources-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-natural-environment-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#4
Irene Bueno, Jessica Williams-Nguyen, Haejin Hwang, Jan M Sargeant, André J Nault, Randall S Singer
There is a growing concern about the role of the environment in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this systematic review, we summarize evidence for increases of ARG in the natural environment associated with potential sources of ARB and ARG such as agricultural facilities and wastewater treatment plants. A total of 5247 citations were identified, including studies that ascertained both ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were screened for relevance to the question and methodology...
December 12, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224586/a-scoping-review-of-the-evidence-for-efficacy-of-acupuncture-in-companion-animals
#5
Wesley J Rose, Jan M Sargeant, W J Brad Hanna, David Kelton, Dianna M Wolfe, Lee V Wisener
Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture...
December 11, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665886/antimicrobial-resistance-from-basic-science-to-translational-innovation
#6
Jun Lin
The rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to animal agriculture and human health. To summarize and update current and emerging AMR issues that are significant for animal health and food safety, this issue presents a virtual AMR symposium consisting of seven review papers. These reviews cover a newly described AMR mechanism in Campylobacter, effects of AMR and microbiome on Campylobacter infection, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in food-producing animals, the impact of point source or antibiotic residues on the environmental resistome, and potential factors influencing horizontal gene transfer in the intestines of food animals...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665885/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-residual-antimicrobials-in-the-environment-in-vietnam
#7
Shinji Yamasaki, Tuyen Danh Le, Mai Quang Vien, Chinh Van Dang, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, have become serious problems worldwide. Recent studies conducted in Vietnam revealed that ESBL-producing E. coli are widely distributed in food animals and people. CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-1 are the most prevalent β-lactamases among the identified ESBLs. Furthermore, most of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were multi-drug resistant. Residual antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfadimidine, cephalexin, and sulfadiazine were also detected at a high level in both animal meats and environmental water collected from several cities, including Ho Chi Minh city and Can Tho city...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665884/factors-influencing-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-the-intestine
#8
Ximin Zeng, Jun Lin
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is ancient. Use of antibiotics is a selective driving force that enriches AR genes and promotes the emergence of resistant pathogens. It also has been widely accepted that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs everywhere and plays a critical role in the transmission of AR genes among bacteria. However, our understanding of HGT processes primarily build on extensive in vitro studies; to date, there is still a significant knowledge gap regarding in situ HGT events as well as the factors that influence HGT in different ecological niches...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665883/plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-animals-current-status-and-future-directions
#9
Jian Sun, Ximin Zeng, Xing-Ping Li, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jun Lin
Colistin, a peptide antibiotic belonging to the polymyxin family, is one of the last effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections. Recent discovery of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, from people and food animals has caused a significant public health concern and drawn worldwide attention. Extensive usage of colistin in food animals has been proposed as a major driving force for the emergence and transmission of mcr-1; thus, there is a worldwide trend to limit colistin usage in animal production...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665882/effects-of-antibiotic-resistance-ar-and-microbiota-shifts-on-campylobacter-jejuni-mediated-diseases
#10
Phillip T Brooks, Linda S Mansfield
Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen recently designated a serious antimicrobial resistant (AR) threat. While most patients with C. jejuni experience hemorrhagic colitis, serious autoimmune conditions can follow including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the acute neuropathy Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS). This review examines inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni diarrheal versus autoimmune disease especially AR C. jejuni and microbiome shifts. Because both susceptible and AR C...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183407/phage-mediated-dissemination-of-virulence-factors-in-pathogenic-bacteria-facilitated-by-antibiotic-growth-promoters-in-animals-a-perspective
#11
Migma Dorji Tamang, Hoon Sunwoo, Byeonghwa Jeon
Addition of sub-therapeutic antibiotics to the feed of food-producing animals for growth promotion and disease prevention has become a common agricultural practice in many countries. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a looming concern associated with the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) around the world. In addition, some studies have shown that AGPs may not only affect antibiotic resistance but may also stimulate the dissemination of virulence factors via bacteriophages. Although only a few studies are currently available in the literature regarding this topic, in this article we endeavor to provide a perspective about how AGPs would impact the transmission of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer via phages in a few pathogenic bacterial species significant to livestock production...
November 29, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166961/antibiotic-resistance-trends-and-mechanisms-in-the-foodborne-pathogen-campylobacter
#12
Yizhi Tang, Liangxing Fang, Changyun Xu, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and is commonly present in food producing animals. This pathogenic organism is highly adaptable and has become increasingly resistant to various antibiotics. Recently, both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have designated antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter as a serious threat to public health. For the past decade, multiple mechanisms conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics have been described in Campylobacter, and new resistance mechanisms constantly emerge in the pathogen...
November 23, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#13
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110751/actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-biofilms-role-in-pathogenicity-and-potential-impact-for-vaccination-development
#14
Skander Hathroubi, Abraham Loera-Muro, Alma L Guerrero-Barrera, Yannick D N Tremblay, Mario Jacques
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is responsible for major economic losses in the global pork industry. The disease may present itself as a chronic or an acute infection characterized by severe pathology, including hemorrhage, fibrinous and necrotic lung lesions, and, in the worst cases, rapid death. A. pleuropneumoniae is transmitted via aerosol route, direct contact with infected pigs, and by the farm environment...
November 7, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110743/rosmarinic-acid-modes-of-action-medicinal-values-and-health-benefits
#15
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mayada Ragab Farag, Marappan Gopi, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Yashpal Singh Malik, Kuldeep Dhama
The supplementation of livestock rations with herbs containing bioactive components, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown promising results as a natural feed additive in promoting growth, productive and reproductive performance, feed utilization, fertility, anti-oxidant status and immunologic indices. Furthermore, RA reportedly reduces the risks of various animal diseases and mitigates side effects of chemical and synthetic drugs. RA is a natural polyphenol present in several Lamiaceae herbs like Perilla frutescens, and RA is becoming an integral component of animal nutrition as it counters the effect of reactive oxygen species induced in the body as a consequence of different kinds of stressors...
November 7, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776490/global-distributions-and-strain-diversity-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Aliyu Mahmuda, Venugopal Nair
The poultry industry faces challenge amidst global food security crisis. Infectious bronchitis is one of the most important viral infections that cause huge economic loss to the poultry industry worldwide. The causative agent, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an RNA virus with great ability for mutation and recombination; thus, capable of generating new virus strains that are difficult to control. There are many IBV strains found worldwide, including the Massachusetts, 4/91, D274, and QX-like strains that can be grouped under the classic or variant serotypes...
June 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641596/types-and-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-poultry
#17
REVIEW
Eva-Maria Saliu, Wilfried Vahjen, Jürgen Zentek
For several billion years, bacteria have developed mechanisms to resist antibacterial substances. In modern time, antibiotics are frequently used in veterinary and human medicine for prevention and treatment of diseases, globally still also for their growth promoting effects as feed additives. This complex situation has evolved in accelerating development and prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in livestock and people. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to a wide range of ß-lactam antibiotics...
June 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606203/importance-of-bovine-mastitis-in-africa
#18
REVIEW
Thabiso E Motaung, Kiro R Petrovski, Inge-Marie Petzer, Oriel Thekisoe, Toi J Tsilo
Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent...
June 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506325/a-proposed-analytic-framework-for-determining-the-impact-of-an-antimicrobial-resistance-intervention
#19
REVIEW
Yrjo T Grohn, Carolee Carson, Cristina Lanzas, Laura Pullum, Michael Stanhope, Victoriya Volkova
Antimicrobial use (AMU) is increasingly threatened by antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The FDA is implementing risk mitigation measures promoting prudent AMU in food animals. Their evaluation is crucial: the AMU/AMR relationship is complex; a suitable framework to analyze interventions is unavailable. Systems science analysis, depicting variables and their associations, would help integrate mathematics/epidemiology to evaluate the relationship. This would identify informative data and models to evaluate interventions...
June 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485263/alternatives-to-antibiotics-for-maximizing-growth-performance-and-feed-efficiency-in-poultry-a-review
#20
REVIEW
U Gadde, W H Kim, S T Oh, Hyun S Lillehoj
With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions...
June 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
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