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Animal Health Research Reviews

Ian Tizard, H L Shivaprasad, Jianhua Guo, Samer Hameed, Judith Ball, Susan Payne
Bornaviruses cause neurologic diseases in several species of birds, especially parrots, waterfowl and finches. The characteristic lesions observed in these birds include encephalitis and gross dilatation of the anterior stomach - the proventriculus. The disease is thus known as proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is characterized by extreme proventricular dilatation, blockage of the passage of digesta and consequent death by starvation. There are few clinical resemblances between this and the bornaviral encephalitides observed in mammals...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
David Francoz, Vincent Wellemans, Jean-Philippe Roy, Pierre Lacasse, Alfredo Ordonez-Iturriaga, François Labelle, Simon Dufour
Intramammary infection (IMI) treatment and prevention at drying-off is one of the leading causes for using antimicrobials on dairy farms. The objective of the current paper is to describe the protocol used for conducting a systematic review of the literature on non-antibiotic strategies that can be used on dairy cows at dry off to treat and prevent IMI. Relevant literature will be identified using a combination of database search strategies and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, articles will have to: (1) be published after 1969; (2) be written in English, French, or Spanish; (3) use a study design such as a controlled trial, an observational study, or an experimental study conducted in vivo; (4) be conducted on commercial dairy cows; (5) investigate a non-antibiotic intervention used at dry off; and finally, (6) report on a relevant mastitis outcome...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Sheila K Patterson, Hyeun Bum Kim, Klaudyna Borewicz, Richard E Isaacson
Salmonella enterica is an important food borne pathogen that is frequently carried by swine. Carrier animals pose a food safety risk because they can transmit S. enterica to finished food products in the processing plant or by contamination of the environment. Environmental contamination has become increasingly important as non-animal foods (plant-based) have been implicated as sources of S. enterica. The prevalence of S. enterica in swine is high and yet carrier animals remain healthy. S. enterica has developed a highly sophisticated set of virulence factors that allow it to adapt to host environments and to cause disease...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Wenjing Geng, Jun Lin
To effectively mitigate antimicrobial resistance in the agricultural ecosystem, there is an increasing pressure to reduce and eliminate the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth promotion and disease prevention in food animals. However, limiting antibiotic use could compromise animal production efficiency and health. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Increasing evidence has shown that the growth-promoting effect of AGPs was highly correlated with the reduced activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacterial enzyme that has a negative impact on host fat digestion and energy harvest; consistent with this finding, the population of Lactobacillus species, the major intestinal BSH-producer, was significantly reduced in response to AGP use...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
R Pieper, C Villodre Tudela, M Taciak, J Bindelle, J F Pérez, J Zentek
The physiological role of the gastrointestinal microbiota has become an important subject of nutrition research in pigs in the past years, and the importance of intestinal microbial activity in the etiology of disease is doubtless. This review summarizes the recent knowledge related to the microbial ecology of protein fermentation and the appearance of protein-derived metabolites along the pig intestine. The amount of fermentable protein depends on factors such as dietary protein concentration, protein digestibility due to secondary or tertiary structure, the interaction with dietary compounds or anti-nutritional factors, and the secretion of endogenous proteins into the gut lumen...
August 30, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
K D DeDonder, R Gehring, L A Tell, J E Riviere
The tetracyclines (TTC) and sulfonamides are among the most common residues found in bulk raw milk samples. Detection of drug residues in bulk milk (BM) tankers demonstrates that the product is not suitable for human consumption. Discarding BM with residue-contaminated milk is a waste of a valuable commodity, and a repurposing for consumption at calf ranches is a way to recapture some value. However, if calves consuming milk with drug residues are slaughtered for veal, their meat could contain drug residues...
August 18, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
María Cruz Arnal, Juan Herrero, Olatz Fernández, David Martínez, Carlos Prada, Alicia García-Serrano, Daniel Fernández de Luco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
J N Cullen, C Yuan, S Totton, R Dzikamunhenga, J F Coetzee, N da Silva, C Wang, A M O'Connor
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a common and important disease of calves. Without effective vaccines, antibiotic therapy is often implemented to minimize the impact of IBK. This review updates a previously published systematic review regarding comparative efficacy for antibiotic treatments of IBK. Available years of Centre for Biosciences and Agriculture International and MEDLINE databases were searched, including non-English results. Also searched were the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and World Buiatrics Congress conference proceedings from 1996 to 2016, reviews since 2013, reference lists from relevant trials, and U...
June 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Sarah C Totton, Julie M Glanville, Rungano S Dzikamunhenga, James S Dickson, Annette M O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we summarized change in Salmonella prevalence and/or quantity associated with pathogen reduction treatments (washes, sprays, steam) on pork carcasses or skin-on carcass parts in comparative designs (natural or artificial contamination). METHODS: In January 2015, CAB Abstracts (1910-2015), SCI and CPCI-Science (1900-2015), Medline® and Medline® In-Process (1946-2015) (OVIDSP),, and Safe Pork (1996-2012) were searched with no language or publication type restrictions...
June 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Silvia Alonso, Johanna Lindahl, Kristina Roesel, Sylvain Gnamien Traore, Bassa Antoine Yobouet, Andrée Prisca Ndjoug Ndour, Maud Carron, Delia Grace
The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations...
June 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Silvia Alonso, Ian Dohoo, Johanna Lindahl, Cristobal Verdugo, Isaiah Akuku, Delia Grace
A meta-analysis was performed to derive prevalence estimates for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in cattle in Tanzania using data derived from a systematic review of zoonotic hazards in cattle production systems. Articles published before 2012 reporting prevalence and considered at least moderate in quality were included in the analysis. Results showed high heterogeneity between studies, with wide ranges in the reported prevalence: Brucella (0.3-60.8%), Mycobacterium (0.1-13.2%) and Trypanosoma (0...
June 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Jessica Williams-Nguyen, Irene Bueno, Jan M Sargeant, André J Nault, Randall S Singer
Herein we describe a protocol for a systematic review of the evidence on whether point sources of anthropogenic effluent are associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance in the adjacent environment. The review question was based on the Population, Exposure, Comparator, Outcome, Study Design (PECOS) framework as follows: Is the prevalence or concentration of antibiotic resistant bacteria or resistance genes (O) in soil, water, air or free-living wildlife (P) higher in close proximity to, or downstream from, known or suspected sources of anthropogenic effluent (E) compared to areas more distant from or upstream from these sources (C)? A comprehensive search strategy was created to capture all relevant, published literature...
June 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
S Buczinski, G Fecteau, M Chigerwe, J M Vandeweerd
Calves are highly dependent of colostrum (and antibody) intake because they are born agammaglobulinemic. The transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed directly by dosing immunoglobulin G (IgG) or by refractometry or Brix refractometry. The latter are easier to perform routinely in the field. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of refractometry or Brix refractometry versus dosage of IgG as a reference standard test. With this review protocol we aim to be able to report refractometer and Brix refractometer accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity as well as to quantify the impact of any study characteristic on test accuracy...
June 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
Bioactive compounds from marine and terrestrial organisms have been used extensively in the treatment of many diseases in both their natural form and as templates for synthetic modifications. This review summarizes present knowledge about anthelmintic effects of the extracts of bioactive plants in Nigeria against helminth parasites of ruminants. Plants traditionally used in livestock production are discussed. The main focus is hinged on in vitro and in vivo activities of secondary plant metabolites against nematodes of livestock...
June 1, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Ian Tizard, Judith Ball, George Stoica, Susan Payne
Natural bornavirus infections and their resulting diseases are largely restricted to horses and sheep in Central Europe. The disease also occurs naturally in cats, and can be induced experimentally in laboratory rodents and numerous other mammals. Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), the cause of most cases of mammalian Borna disease, is a negative-stranded RNA virus that replicates within the nucleus of target cells. It causes severe, often lethal, encephalitis in susceptible species. Recent events, especially the discovery of numerous new species of bornaviruses in birds and a report of an acute, lethal bornaviral encephalitis in humans, apparently acquired from squirrels, have revived interest in this remarkable family of viruses...
May 23, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Manuel F Chamorro, Amelia Woolums, Paul H Walz
Vaccination of calves in the face of maternal antibodies (IFOMA) often does not result in seroconversion as maternally derived immunity interferes with the activation of adequate antibody responses to vaccination; however, it can prime T and B cell memory responses that protect calves against clinical disease when maternal immunity has decayed. The activation of B and T cell memory responses in calves vaccinated IFOMA varies and is affected by several factors, including age, level of maternal immunity, type of vaccine, and route of administration...
April 4, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Robert P Ellis, L Susanne Squires Ellis, Erwin M Kohler
The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. THE ORGANIZATION AND PURPOSE: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current research advances in animal diseases...
December 2015: Animal Health Research Reviews
U Gadde, T Rathinam, Hyun S Lillehoj
Passive immunization with pathogen-specific egg yolk antibodies (IgY) is emerging as a potential alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of various human and animal diseases. Laying hens are an excellent source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies, which can be collected noninvasively from egg yolks. The use of IgY offers several advantages in that it is environmentally friendly, nontoxic, and reduces the numbers of animals required for antibody production. This paper reviews the use of IgY antibodies in the treatment and prevention of enteric pathogen infections in poultry...
December 2015: Animal Health Research Reviews
Heidi M Wyrosdick, John J Schaefer
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that causes toxoplasmosis in people and other animals. It is considered one of the most common parasitic infections in the world due to its impressive range of hosts, widespread environmental contamination and the diverse means by which animals can be infected. Despite its ubiquity and numerous ongoing research efforts into both its basic biology and clinical management, many aspects of diagnosis and management of this disease are poorly understood. The range of diagnostic options that is available for veterinary diagnostic investigators are notably more limited than those available to medical diagnosticians, making accurate interpretation of each test result critical...
December 2015: Animal Health Research Reviews
Cassandra B Tucker, Johann F Coetzee, Joseph M Stookey, Daniel U Thomson, Temple Grandin, Karen S Schwartzkopf-Genswein
This review identifies priorities for beef cattle welfare research in the USA. Based on our professional expertise and synthesis of existing literature, we identify two themes in intensive aspects of beef production: areas where policy-based actions are needed and those where additional research is required. For some topics, considerable research informs best practice, yet gaps remain between scientific knowledge and implementation. For example, many of the risk factors and management strategies to prevent respiratory disease are understood, but only used by a relatively small portion of the industry...
December 2015: Animal Health Research Reviews
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