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American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias

Babak Fathabadi, Mohammad Dehghanifiroozabadi, Jan Aaseth, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh, Samaneh Nakhaee, Ali Rajabpour-Sanati, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Omid Mehrpour
BACKGROUND: It is argued that breakdown of β-amyloid in the brain causes deposition of senescent plaques and therefore Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the influential factors for increasing level of this protein is exposure to lead. Our aim was to compare blood lead levels (BLLs) between patients with AD and healthy controls. METHODS: This case-control study was performed on all patients with cognitive impairment who were referred to the Neurological Clinic of Birjand in 2016 to 2017...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Emre Umucu, Mary Wyman, Beatrice Lee, Megan Zuelsdorff, Susan Flowers Benton, Naomi Nystrom, Sterling C Johnson, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Carey E Gleason
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to validate the Apathy Evaluation Scale, self-rated version (AES-S), and assess the severity of apathy in a cognitively healthy middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: Three hundred and sixteen middle-aged adults were selected to represent a subset of the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Clinical Core: the Investigating Memory in People At-risk, Causes and Treatments cohort. RESULTS: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation identified 3 subscales: apathy, disinterest, and social withdrawal factors...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Hao Niu, Ismael Alvarez-Alvarez, Ines Aguinaga-Ontoso, Francisco Guillen-Grima
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a concerning public health issue. We aimed to analyze the trends of hospital morbidity from AD in the European Union (EU) in the period 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Data from hospital discharges of men and women over 50 years old hospitalized due to AD in the EU were extracted from Eurostat database. We tested for secular trends computing anual percent change, and identified significant changes in the linear slope of the trend...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Sukanya Jongsiriyanyong, Panita Limpawattana
The spectrum of cognitive decline in the elderly ranges from what can be classified as normal cognitive decline with aging to subjective cognitive impairment to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. This article reviewed the up-to-date evidence of MCI including the diagnostic criteria of MCI due to Alzheimer's disease, vascular cognitive impairment and MCI due to Parkinson disease, management and preventive intervention of MCI. There are various etiologies of MCI, and a large number of studies have been conducted to ascertain the practical modalities of preserving cognition in predementia stages...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Molly Fox, Carlo Berzuini, Leslie A Knapp, Laura M Glynn
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with improvement in immunoregulation that persists into the geriatric phase. Impaired immunoregulation is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Hence, we investigate the relationship between pregnancy and AD. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohort of British women (N = 95). Cox proportional hazards modeling assessed the putative effects of cumulative months pregnant on AD risk and the mutually adjusted effects of counts of first and third trimesters on AD risk...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Fayyaz Ahmad, Waqar Mahmood Dar
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) allows individuals and their health managers to manage healthier medication. We proposed an approach for classification of AD stages, with respect to principal component analysis (PCA)-based algorithm. The PCA has been extensively applied as the most auspicious face-recognition algorithm. For the proposed algorithm, 100 images of 10 children were transformed for feature extraction and covariance matrix was constructed to obtain eigenvalues. The eigenvector provided a useful framework for face recognition...
July 29, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Auda Fares, Dieter Borrmann
The pathologic and molecular substrate of people diagnosed with cognitive deficits and movement disturbance may not occur exclusively in the context of a brain region, but it may be expressed in another part of body such as muscle. A large body of research has demonstrated that slow motor performance is associated with cognitive impairment in elderly people. The interdependence between motor dysfunction and cognition decline is still not fully understood. Although several factors have been suggested to give a plausible explanation, β-amyloid (Aβ) and τ-protein aggregation is a common feature of a number of neurodegenerative disorders which are characterized by both motor and cognitive impairment, and it is assumed that the aggregation process plays a central role in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease...
July 25, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Joël Macoir, Anne Lafay, Carol Hudon
The detection of cognitive impairment in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may improve detection of the emergence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This detection is challenging, however, given the lack of sensitive assessment tools. The main objective of this study was to determine the potential contribution of word production tasks to the detection of cognitive impairment in SCD. The performances of 20 individuals with SCD, healthy controls (HCs), and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were compared on object and action naming and free fluency tasks...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Tom Buchanan, Catherine Loveday
Memory complaints are a key diagnostic criterion for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Rating scales can be used to capture information about individuals' memory problems from informants such as family members. However, problems with scale reliability suggest that individual differences influence the ratings informants provide. This project tested whether informants' neuroticism was associated with their ratings of an older adult's memory. In an online study, 293 volunteers completed a Five-Factor Personality Questionnaire and used 2 memory questionnaires to provide ratings of memory problems in an older individual they knew well...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Nélia Sofia Domingues, Phylicia Verreault, Carol Hudon
BACKGROUND/RATIONALE: This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy of the nonpharmacological interventions reducing burden, psychological symptoms, and improving quality of life of caregivers of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHOD: Databases reviewed included Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycNet, AgeLine, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Studies using an experimental/quasi-experimental design including nonpharmacological intervention were included...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Gabriele Cipriani, Sabrina Danti, Cecilia Carlesi, Gemma Borin
BACKGROUND: Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement for human health and well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between cognitive performance and ambient pollution exposure. METHODS: Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. RESULTS: Air pollution is a multifaceted toxic chemical mixture capable of assaulting the central nervous system...
September 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Suping Cai, Yubo Wang, Yafei Kang, Haidong Wang, Hyejin Kim, Karen M von Deneen, Meiping Huang, Yuanyuan Jiang, Liyu Huang
PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be the clinical transition stage between patients with cognitively intact geriatrics and Alzheimer's disease (AD). When observed longitudinally, however, a certain proportion of patients with MCI are expected to revert to a cognitively intact state (MCI_R) while others either remain in the MCI state (MCI_S) or deteriorate into AD (MCI_P). It is worthwhile to investigate the divergence in the brain activities of these MCI groups with different post hoc labels...
September 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Jakub Kazmierski, Chaido Messini-Zachou, Mara Gkioka, Magda Tsolaki
Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the mainstays of symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their efficacy is limited, and their use was associated with deaths in some groups of patients. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of the long-term use of ChEIs on mortality in patients with AD. This observational, longitudinal study included 1171 adult patients with a diagnosis of AD treated with donepezil or rivastigmine. Each patient was observed for 24 months or until death...
September 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous disorder featuring language impairment, personality changes, and executive defects, often due to the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Both FTD and FTLD are often associated with olfactory impairment, early biomarker for neurodegeneration, which can be evaluated with different techniques, among which low-cost olfactory tests are widely used. Therefore, we conducted a review of the literature focusing on papers published between January 1, 2007, and June 12, 2017, investigating the usefulness of olfactory testing in FTD/FTLD...
September 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Inmaculada Boyano, Ana Ramos, Jorge López-Alvarez, Carolina Mendoza-Rebolledo, Emma Osa-Ruiz, Irene Rodríguez, Almudena Pérez, Eva Alfayate, Belén González, Laura Fernández, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Alberto Rábano, Javier Olazarán
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a longitudinal study to explore the clinical and pathological correlates of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in institutionalized patients with dementia. METHODS: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were extracted from 182 nursing home patients (mean age [standard deviation]: 81.3 [6.9], 78.0% female, and 83.4% moderate to severe dementia), which were divided according to the CMBs number and location. One-year follow-up data were obtained from 153 patients, and postmortem pathological diagnosis was available in 40 patients...
September 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Jan Te Nijenhuis, Kyu Yeong Choi, Yu Yong Choi, Jang Jae Lee, Eun Hyun Seo, Hoowon Kim, Kun Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Being a carrier of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a clear risk factor for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On some neurocognitive tests, there are smaller differences between carriers and noncarriers, while other tests show larger differences. AIMS: We explore whether the size of the difference between carriers and noncarriers is a function of how well the tests measure general intelligence, so whether there are Jensen effects. METHODS: We used the method of correlated vectors on 441 Korean older adults at risk for AD and 44 with AD...
September 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Beth Fields, Jason Bruemmer, Gene Gloeckner, Wendy Wood
Institutional facilities face challenges providing experiences to residents with dementia that promote participation in meaningful activities. Guided by the Lived Environment Life Quality Model, this study investigated associations between 9 different activity situations-one an equine-assisted activities program (EAAP)-and positive, negative, and neutral behavioral indicators of quality of life (QoL) in 6 residents with dementia who expressed an interest in horses. Direct observational data were collected for 4 hours twice weekly over 8 weeks...
August 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Giulio E Lancioni, Nirbhay N Singh, Mark F O'Reilly, Jeff Sigafoos, Fiora D'Amico, Dominga Laporta, Maria Giovanna Cattaneo, Antonella Scordamaglia, Katia Pinto
OBJECTIVES: These 2 studies evaluated technology-based behavioral interventions for promoting daily activities and supported ambulation in people with mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease, respectively. METHODS: Study 1 included 8 participants who were taught to start and carry out daily activities on their own using a tablet or smartphone device, which provided activity reminders, step instructions, and praise. Study 2 included 9 participants who were taught to engage in brief periods of ambulation using a walker combined with a tilt microswitch and a notebook computer, which monitored step responses and provided stimulation and prompts...
August 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Gabriele Wilz, Lisette Weise, Christina Reiter, Maren Reder, Anna Machmer, Renate Soellner
INTRODUCTION: Caregiver intervention studies typically assess whether participants attain general goals (eg, improved mental/physical health) but not their own individual goals. We used goal attainment scaling to evaluate whether participants of a telephone intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) attained their personal goals. We also evaluated treatment compliance and implementation. METHODS: A sample of 139 family caregivers of people with dementia received 12 telephone sessions over 6 months...
August 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Barbara Resnick, Elizabeth Galik, Ann Kolanowski, Kimberly Van Haitsma, Marie Boltz, Jeanette Ellis, Liza Behrens, Nina M Flanagan
BACKGROUND/RATIONALE: This study tested the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia (QUALID) Scale using Rasch analysis. The QUALID includes 11 items with a 5-point response scale. Scores range from 11 to 55, and lower scores indicate higher quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Baseline data from a randomized clinical trial including 137 residents from 14 nursing homes were used. Psychometric testing included item mapping, evaluation of response categories, item reliability, construct validity based on INFIT and OUTFIT statistics, and convergent validity based on correlations between QoL and pain, agitation, depression, and function...
August 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
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