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Experimental Biology and Medicine

Aldo H De-La-Cruz-Montoya, Eric G Ramírez-Salazar, Mayeli M Martínez-Aguilar, Pablo M González-de-la-Rosa, Manuel Quiterio, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Jorge Salmerón, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz
Osteoporosis is the most frequent disorder of bone metabolism, owing to an alteration between osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which results from the interaction of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors. microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs of around 22 nucleotides with important regulatory roles in gene regulation, that target mRNAs for post-transcriptional destabilization have been suggested as biomarkers in several disorders. In this work, we used small RNA sequencing to identify microRNAs from peripheral blood monocytes that were differentially expressed between non-osteoporotic and osteoporotic Mexican postmenopausal women, to elucidate the potential role of microRNAs as non-invasive marker candidates in osteoporosis...
October 15, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Xiujun Li, Jiali Wang, Yuchen Pan, Yujun Xu, Dan Liu, Yayi Hou, Guangfeng Zhao
Further studies on the molecular mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells in the maintenance of growth and function are essential for their clinical application. Growing evidence has shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, it is reported that highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), with another lncRNA MALAT-1, accelerated liver cancer stem cell growth. The regulating role of MALAT-1 in mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated...
September 30, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Cong Lin, Hester Happé, Kimberley Veraar, Marion Scharpfenecker, Dorien Jm Peters
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by progressive renal cyst formation and expansion. Several clinical trials show that somatostatin analogs halt cyst growth and progression of ADPKD by inhibiting adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. However, two studies suggest that the effect of the somatostatin analog octreotide on kidney growth during the first year of treatment is reduced in the subsequent follow-ups and the kidney enlargement resumes. We hypothesize that this biphasic change in kidney growth during octreotide treatment may be due to changes in somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression...
September 27, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Karin E Thompson, Ramesh M Ray, Shanta Alli, Wenbo Ge, Alyssa Boler, W Shannon McCool, Avtar S Meena, Pradeep K Shukla, Radakrishna Rao, Leonard R Johnson, Mark A Miller, Gabor J Tigyi
Diarrheal disease is a severe global health problem. It is estimated that secretory diarrhea causes 2.5 million deaths annually among children under the age of five in the developing world. A critical barrier in treating diarrheal disease is lack of easy-to-use effective treatments. While antibiotics may shorten the length and severity of diarrhea, oral rehydration remains the primary approach in managing secretory diarrhea. Existing treatments mostly depend on reconstituting medicines with water that is often contaminated which can be an unresolved problem in the developing world...
September 25, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Abigail L Walker, Syed Z Imam, Ruth A Roberts
The discovery and development of new drugs are vital if we are to improve and expand treatment options available to improve outcomes for patients. Overall, therapeutic strategies fall into two broad categories: small molecules and biologics, although more recently there has been a growth in novel platforms such as miRNAs and oligonucleotides. On average, the development of a small molecule drug takes around 12 years and costs around $50m. Despite this huge investment of time and money, attrition remains a major challenge and very few molecules actually make it through to the market...
September 25, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jenny C Mortimer
Population growth, climate change, and dwindling finite resources are amongst the major challenges which are facing the planet. Requirements for food, materials, water, and energy will soon exceed capacity. Green biotechnology, fueled by recent plant synthetic biology breakthroughs, may offer solutions. This review summarizes current progress towards robust and predictable engineering of plants. I then discuss applications from the lab and field, with a focus on bioenergy, biomaterials, and medicine. Impact statement The plant synthetic biology field has exploded in the last five years, in part driven by techniques such as CRISPR and cheap DNA synthesis...
September 24, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Nathanael O'Neill, Sergiy Sylantyev
Ionotropic receptors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA Rs) produce two forms of inhibitory signaling: phasic inhibition triggered by activation of synaptic GABAA Rs at GABAergic synapses, and tonic inhibition generated in large part through persistent activation of extrasynaptic GABAA Rs. It has recently been demonstrated that tonic inhibition may also involve spontaneously opening GABAA Rs (s-GABAA Rs) whose activation does not require binding of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Here, we examine intracellular mechanisms modulating GABAA Rs' tonic effects in rat dentate gyrus granule cells (DGCs)...
September 11, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Stephen J Jones, Annette F Taylor, Paul A Beales
Nanomedicines for controlled drug release provide temporal and spatial regulation of drug bioavailability in the body. The timing of drug release is usually engineered either for slow gradual release over an extended period of time or for rapid release triggered by a specific change in its physicochemical environment. However, between these two extremes, there is the desirable possibility of adaptive nanomedicines that dynamically modulate drug release in tune with its changing environment. Adaptation and response through communication with its environment is a fundamental trait of living systems; therefore, the design of biomimetic nanomedicines through the approaches of bottom-up synthetic biology provides a viable route to this goal...
September 11, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Raji Lenin, Peter G Nagy, Jordy Gentry, Rajashekhar Gangaraju
Stress-associated premature senescence plays a major role in retinal diseases. In this study, we investigated the relationship between endothelial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and cellular senescence in the development of retinal dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that constant endothelial activation by transmembrane tumor necrosis factor-α (tmTNF-α) exacerbates age-induced visual deficits via senescence-mediated ER stress in this model. To address this, we employed a mouse model of chronic vascular activation using endothelial-specific TNF-α-expressing (tie2-TNF) mice at 5 and 10 months of age...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dóra Mihály, Gergő Papp, Zsolt Mervai, Andrea Reszegi, Péter Tátrai, Gábor Szalóki, Johanna Sápi, Zoltán Sápi
MiR-206 is a remarkable miRNA because it functions as a suppressor miRNA in rhabdomyosarcoma while at the same time, as previously showed, it can act as an oncomiRNA in SMARCB1 immunonegative soft tissue sarcomas. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-206 on its several target genes in various human tumorous and normal cell lines. In the current work, we created miR-206-overexpressing cell lines (HT-1080, Caco2, iASC, and SS-iASC) using permanent transfection. mRNA expression of the target genes of miR-206 (SMARCB1, ACTL6A, CCND1, POLA1, NOTCH3, MET, and G6PD) and SMARCB1 protein expression were examined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry...
August 15, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
M Isabel Ordiz, Karl Wold, Yankho Kaimila, Oscar Divala, Madeline Gilstrap, Henry Z Lu, Mark J Manary
Recent studies have suggested that environmental enteric dysfunction can be assessed in rural African children by measuring levels of fecal mRNA transcripts. The field collection of fecal samples is less invasive and cumbersome than administration of the lactulose:mannitol test, which is typically used to assess environmental enteric dysfunction. This study sought to determine if, as in children aged 12-60 months, an array of seven fecal host transcripts (CD53, CDX1, HLA-DRA, TNF, S100A8, MUC12, and REG1A) could predict environmental enteric dysfunction in rural African infants...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Wei Zhuang, Guili Lian, Bangbang Huang, Apang Du, Genfa Xiao, Jin Gong, Changsheng Xu, Huajun Wang, Liangdi Xie
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans manifests as a chronic process. However, PAH induced by high-dose monocrotaline (MCT) in animals occurs as a subacute process. To establish a chronic PAH model, rats were randomly divided into three groups, control (ctrl), single injection (SI), and twice injection (TI) groups. Rats in the SI group received a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg MCT on day 0. Rats in the TI group received twice injections of 20 mg/kg MCT on days 0 and 7. Survival percentage, characteristic changes of pulmonary arterial variables, and right ventricular features were evaluated...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Manuel X Duval
For more than 20 years, drug discovery has relied on two assumptions, i.e. (i) a therapeutic response can be triggered by modulating the activity of a single gene product, and (ii) a compound uncovered by its activity on a recombinant protein in vitro can perform its activity in vivo. Drug discovery operates accordingly by using the concepts of targets and pipelines. The target, such as a gene product, is the intended point of therapeutic intervention, and compounds that modulate its activity in vitro follow a series of downstream developments...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Fang Fang, Ke Ni, Jin Shang, Xiaoke Zhang, Chengliang Xiong, Tianqing Meng
Mitofusin 2 is a kind of mitochondria membrane protein that has been implicated in maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function. However, the expression and function of mitofusin 2 in human sperm are not well described at present. The aim of this study was to explore the location of mitofusin 2 in human sperm and to discover its relationship to human sperm functions like motility and cryoprotective potentials. Our result showed that mitofusin 2 is specifically localized in the 5-7 μm midpiece between the neck and main part of human sperm tail...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Gulsah Albayrak, Ece Konac, Asiye Ugras Dikmen, Cenk Y Bilen
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and the leading cause of death in developed countries. With the aid of molecular and genetic profiling of cancers, cancer molecular subtypes are paving the way for tailored cancer therapy. FOXA1 has been identified as one of the seven molecular subtypes of prostate cancer. FOXA1 is involved in a variety of metabolic process such as glucose homeostasis and deregulation of its expression is crucial in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of FOXA1 gene knock-out on the expression levels of various cancer cell metabolism and cell cycle-related protein expressions...
July 25, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Hui-Chao Pan, Xian-Hao Wu, Qian-Li Wan, Bao-Hong Liu And, Xu-Sheng Wu
Contrast-induced nephropathy has been the common cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in the elderly patients. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy in over-aged patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 470 over-aged patients (≥80 years old) were judged as the contrast-induced nephropathy group ( n = 46) and non-contrast-induced nephropathy group ( n = 424) according to the postoperative 48-h serum creatinine levels...
August 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sunmin Park, Da S Kim, Xuangao Wu, Qiu J Yi
Chronic alcohol intake causes hepatic steatosis and changes the body composition and glucose metabolism. We examined whether water extracts of mulberry (WMB) and white flower dandelion ( Taraxacum coreanum Nakai, WTC) can prevent and/or delay the symptoms of chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis in male Sprague Dawley rats, and explored the mechanisms. Ethanol degradation was examined by orally administering 3 g ethanol/kg bw after giving them 0.3 g/kg bw WMB or WTC. All rats were continuously provided about 7 g ethanol/kg bw/day for four weeks and were given either of 0...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Xin Li, Yuhong Cheng, Xiuli Zhong, Bing Zhang, Zhiwei Bao, Yi Zhang, Zhigang Wang
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with suppressed lipolytic response in adipocytes/adipose tissue, however, the underlying mechanism remains to be extensively studied. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcriptional factor regulating antioxidant generation, has been recently reported to mediate lipid metabolism. Employing both fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and male C57BL/6 mice, in the present study, we investigated the potential involvement of Nrf2 activation in HHcy-mediated lipolytic suppression...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Nicola Conran, Steven R Goodman, Peter Stambrook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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