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Experimental Biology and Medicine

M Isabel Ordiz, Karl Wold, Yankho Kaimila, Oscar Divala, Madeline Gilstrap, Henry Z Lu, Mark J Manary
Recent studies have suggested that environmental enteric dysfunction can be assessed in rural African children by measuring levels of fecal mRNA transcripts. The field collection of fecal samples is less invasive and cumbersome than administration of the lactulose:mannitol test, which is typically used to assess environmental enteric dysfunction. This study sought to determine if, as in children aged 12-60 months, an array of seven fecal host transcripts (CD53, CDX1, HLA-DRA, TNF, S100A8, MUC12, and REG1A) could predict environmental enteric dysfunction in rural African infants...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Wei Zhuang, Guili Lian, Bangbang Huang, Apang Du, Genfa Xiao, Jin Gong, Changsheng Xu, Huajun Wang, Liangdi Xie
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans manifests as a chronic process. However, PAH induced by high-dose monocrotaline (MCT) in animals occurs as a subacute process. To establish a chronic PAH model, rats were randomly divided into three groups, control (ctrl), single injection (SI), and twice injection (TI) groups. Rats in the SI group received a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg MCT on day 0. Rats in the TI group received twice injections of 20 mg/kg MCT on days 0 and 7. Survival percentage, characteristic changes of pulmonary arterial variables, and right ventricular features were evaluated...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Manuel X Duval
For more than 20 years, drug discovery has relied on two assumptions, i.e. (i) a therapeutic response can be triggered by modulating the activity of a single gene product, and (ii) a compound uncovered by its activity on a recombinant protein in vitro can perform its activity in vivo. Drug discovery operates accordingly by using the concepts of targets and pipelines. The target, such as a gene product, is the intended point of therapeutic intervention, and compounds that modulate its activity in vitro follow a series of downstream developments...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Fang Fang, Ke Ni, Jin Shang, Xiaoke Zhang, Chengliang Xiong, Tianqing Meng
Mitofusin 2 is a kind of mitochondria membrane protein that has been implicated in maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function. However, the expression and function of mitofusin 2 in human sperm are not well described at present. The aim of this study was to explore the location of mitofusin 2 in human sperm and to discover its relationship to human sperm functions like motility and cryoprotective potentials. Our result showed that mitofusin 2 is specifically localized in the 5-7 μm midpiece between the neck and main part of human sperm tail...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Gulsah Albayrak, Ece Konac, Asiye Ugras Dikmen, Cenk Y Bilen
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and the leading cause of death in developed countries. With the aid of molecular and genetic profiling of cancers, cancer molecular subtypes are paving the way for tailored cancer therapy. FOXA1 has been identified as one of the seven molecular subtypes of prostate cancer. FOXA1 is involved in a variety of metabolic process such as glucose homeostasis and deregulation of its expression is crucial in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of FOXA1 gene knock-out on the expression levels of various cancer cell metabolism and cell cycle-related protein expressions...
July 25, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sunmin Park, Da S Kim, Xuangao Wu, Qiu J Yi
Chronic alcohol intake causes hepatic steatosis and changes the body composition and glucose metabolism. We examined whether water extracts of mulberry (WMB) and white flower dandelion ( Taraxacum coreanum Nakai, WTC) can prevent and/or delay the symptoms of chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis in male Sprague Dawley rats, and explored the mechanisms. Ethanol degradation was examined by orally administering 3 g ethanol/kg bw after giving them 0.3 g/kg bw WMB or WTC. All rats were continuously provided about 7 g ethanol/kg bw/day for four weeks and were given either of 0...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Xin Li, Yuhong Cheng, Xiuli Zhong, Bing Zhang, Zhiwei Bao, Yi Zhang, Zhigang Wang
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with suppressed lipolytic response in adipocytes/adipose tissue, however, the underlying mechanism remains to be extensively studied. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcriptional factor regulating antioxidant generation, has been recently reported to mediate lipid metabolism. Employing both fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and male C57BL/6 mice, in the present study, we investigated the potential involvement of Nrf2 activation in HHcy-mediated lipolytic suppression...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Nicola Conran, Steven R Goodman, Peter Stambrook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ravi K Chilukoti, Josefine Lendeckel, Katrin Darm, Alicja Bukowska, Andreas Goette, Marc Sühling, Kirsten Utpatel, Barbara Peters, Georg Homuth, Uwe Völker, Carmen Wolke, Christian Scharf, Uwe Lendeckel
Dronedarone improves microvascular flow during atrial fibrillation and reduces the infarct size in acute models of myocardial infarction. However, dronedarone might be harmful in patients with recent decompensated heart failure and increases mortality in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. A pathophysiological explanation for these discrepant data is lacking. This study investigated the effects of dronedarone on gene and protein expression in the infarcted area and border zone in pigs subjected to anterior ischemia/reperfusion myocardial infarction...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Weinan Zhou, Elizabeth A Davis, Megan J Dailey
The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in nutrient absorption, hormone release, and barrier function. Maintenance of the epithelium is driven by continuous cell renewal by intestinal epithelial stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. Obesity affects this process and results in changes in the size and function of the tissue. Because both the amount of food intake and the composition of the diet are contributing factors to developing and maintaining obesity, it is necessary to tease apart the separate contributions of obesity versus the type/amount of diet in driving the epithelial changes...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Carlos García-Vásquez, María J Fernández-Aceñero, Soledad García Gómez-Heras, Carlos Pastor
The intestinal anastomotic failure is one of the most severe complications in gastrointestinal surgery. Despite the great surgical improvements during the last decade, anastomotic leak rates remain practically the same, with a dramatically high grade of morbidity for patients. Leakages are usually the final consequence of ischemia in the anastomosis, leading to tissue hypoxia. In response to hypoxia, the cell orchestrates a variety of coordinated responses in order to restore oxygen homeostasis. The molecular mechanism of hypoxia sensitivity involves oxygen sensing hydroxylases, prolyl-hydroxylases, orchestrating two main transcription factors related to induction of inflammation and angiogenesis, namely nuclear factor-κB and hypoxia-inducible factors...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ahmed A Moustafa, Hogyoung Kim, Rasha S Albeltagy, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a small functional non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression. miRNAs are key regulatory components of various cellular networks. Current evidence support that multiple mammalian genome-encoded miRNAs impact the cellular biology, including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and tumorigenesis, by targeting specific subsets of mRNAs. This minireview is focused on the current themes underlying the interactions between miRNAs and their mRNA targets and pathways in prostate tumorigenesis and progression, and their potential clinical utility as biomarkers for prostate cancer...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jennifer Aa DeLuca, Kimberly F Allred, Rani Menon, Rebekah Riordan, Brad R Weeks, Arul Jayaraman, Clinton D Allred
Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex collection of disorders. Microbial dysbiosis as well as exposure to toxins including xenoestrogens are thought to be risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease development and relapse. Bisphenol-A has been shown to exert estrogenic activity in the colon and alter intestinal function, but the role that xenoestrogens, such as bisphenol-A , play in colonic inflammation has been previously described but with conflicting results. We investigated the ability of bisphenol-A to exacerbate colonic inflammation and alter microbiota metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids in an acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis model...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jiyeong Lee, Sora Mun, Arum Park, Doojin Kim, Byung Heun Cha, Hee-Gyoo Kang
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and before it progresses and metastasizes, the anticancer drug bicalutamide is often administered to patients. Many cases of androgen-dependent prostate cancer develop resistance during treatment with bicalutamide. Therefore, the effect of bicalutamide on androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells is of clinical interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of the anticancer drug bicalutamide on LNCaP prostate cancer cells by using a proteomics approach...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dariusz Biały, Magdalena Wawrzyńska, Iwona Bil-Lula, Anna Krzywonos-Zawadzka, Agnieszka Sapa-Wojciechowska, Jacek Arkowski, Mieczysław Woźniak, Grzegorz Sawicki
Electromagnetic field at extremely low frequencies plays a significant role in the physiological function of human tissues and systems. It is shown that electromagnetic field inhibits production of reactive oxygen species which are involved in heart injury triggered by oxidative stress. We hypothesize that low frequency electromagnetic field protects function of cardiac cells from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Human cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, and cardiac fibroblast underwent ischemia-reperfusion conditions in the presence or in the absence of low frequency electromagnetic field...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dan Han, Hui Tan, Chaofeng Sun, Guoliang Li
The voltage-gated sodium channel 1.5 (Nav1.5), encoded by the SCN5A gene, is responsible for the rising phase of the action potential of cardiomyocytes. The sodium current mediated by Nav1.5 consists of peak and late components (INa-P and INa-L ). Mutant Nav1.5 causes alterations in the peak and late sodium current and is associated with an increasingly wide range of congenital arrhythmias. More than 400 mutations have been identified in the SCN5A gene. Although the mechanisms of SCN5A mutations leading to a variety of arrhythmias can be classified according to the alteration of INa-P and INa-L as gain-of-function, loss-of-function and both, few researchers have summarized the mechanisms in this way before...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jia Zheng, Qianyun Feng, Sheng Zheng, Xinhua Xiao
Osteoporosis, the most frequent metabolic disorder of bone, is a complex disease with a multifactorial origin that is influenced by genes and environments. However, the pathogenesis of osteoporosis has not been fully elucidated. The theory of "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" indicates that early life environment exposure determines the risks of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. However, investigations into the effects of maternal nutrition and nutrition exposure during early life on the development of osteoporosis are limited...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Hongwei Shen, Yuan Xie, Senlin Ye, Kancheng He, Lu Yi, Rongrong Cui
Spider toxins are molecularly diverse and some display not only a strong antibacterial effect but also exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth and promote tumor cell apoptosis. The aim of the present investigation was to explore different antitumor effects of the spider peptide toxin lycosin-I through different pathways at different concentrations. It was found that by inactivating STAT3 pathway, high concentrations of lycosin-I induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and low concentrations of lycosin-I inhibit the migration of prostate cancer cells...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Agnes B Meireles, Daniella K Corrêa, João Vw da Silveira, Ana Lg Millás, Edison Bittencourt, Gustavo Ea de Brito-Melo, Libardo A González-Torres
Electrospinning is one of the techniques to produce structured polymeric fibers in the micro or nano scale and to generate novel materials for biomedical proposes. Electrospinning versatility provides fibers that could support different surgical and rehabilitation treatments. However, its diversity in equipment assembly, polymeric materials, and functional molecules to be incorporated in fibers result in profusion of recent biomaterials that are not fully explored, even though the recognized relevance of the technique...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Robert T Mallet, Albert H Olivencia-Yurvati, Rolf Bünger
This commentary addresses the recent retraction of an article which reported favorable outcomes in septic patients treated with intravenous pyruvate. The retracted report was cited in the authors' recent minireview on the cellular mechanisms and clinical application of pyruvate to improve cardiac performance. Because the retracted article reports pyruvate-enhanced resuscitation of critically ill patients, the authors wish to inform the readership, especially critical care providers, that this particular clinical application of pyruvate is not now supported by robust evidence...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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