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Experimental Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534601/carotenoid-supplementation-and-retinoic-acid-in-immunoglobulin-a-regulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis
#1
Yi Lyu, Lei Wu, Fang Wang, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota...
April 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557214/current-understanding-and-future-perspectives-of-the-roles-of-sirtuins-in-the-reprogramming-and-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Yi-Chao Hsu, Yu-Ting Wu, Chia-Ling Tsai, Yau-Huei Wei
In mammalian cells, there are seven members of the sirtuin protein family (SIRT1-7). SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7 catalyze posttranslational modification of proteins in the nucleus, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are in the mitochondria and SIRT2 is in the cytosol. SIRT1 can deacetylate the transcription factor SOX2 and regulate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogramming through the miR-34a-SIRT1-p53 axis. SIRT2 can regulate the function of pluripotent stem cells through GSK3β. SIRT3 can positively regulate PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression during the differentiation of stem cells...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557213/spectrin-and-its-interacting-partners-in-nuclear-structure-and-function
#3
Muriel W Lambert
Nonerythroid αII-spectrin is a structural protein whose roles in the nucleus have just begun to be explored. αII-spectrin is an important component of the nucleoskelelton and has both structural and non-structural functions. Its best known role is in repair of DNA ICLs both in genomic and telomeric DNA. αII-spectrin aids in the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of damage and a proposed mechanism of action is presented. It interacts with a number of different groups of proteins in the nucleus, indicating it has roles in additional cellular functions...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513100/low-linoleic-and-high-docosahexaenoic-acids-in-a-severe-phenotype-of-transgenic-cystic-fibrosis-mice
#4
Birgitta Strandvik, Wanda K O Neal, Mohamed A Ali, Ulf Hammar
Low linoleic acid concentration is a common finding in patients with cystic fibrosis and associated with severe clinical phenotype. Low docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids are more inconsistently found in patients, but arachidonic/docosahexaenoic ratio is usually high. In animal models with cftr mutations or KO animals for the cftr gene, linoleic acid deficiency has not been consistently reported and some report docosahexaenoic deficiency as the major fatty acid abnormality. We hereby describe fatty acid profile in a severe clinical cystic fibrosis phenotype in mice with a duplication of exon 3 generated in the cystic fibrosis gene of C57B1/6J mice ( cftrm 1 Bay allele)...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513099/application-of-monte-carlo-cross-validation-to-identify-pathway-cross-talk-in-neonatal-sepsis
#5
Yuxia Zhang, Cui Liu, Jingna Wang, Xingxia Li
To explore genetic pathway cross-talk in neonates with sepsis, an integrated approach was used in this paper. To explore the potential relationships between differently expressed genes between normal uninfected neonates and neonates with sepsis and pathways, genetic profiling and biologic signaling pathway were first integrated. For different pathways, the score was obtained based upon the genetic expression by quantitatively analyzing the pathway cross-talk. The paired pathways with high cross-talk were identified by random forest classification...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363328/molecular-physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-stromal-interaction-molecules
#6
Heather A Nelson, Michael W Roe
Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum is an important component of Ca2+ signal transduction that controls numerous physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. Release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum is coupled to the activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry into cells. Store-operated Ca2+ entry provides Ca2+ for replenishing depleted endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores and a Ca2+ signal that regulates Ca2+ -dependent intracellular biochemical events. Central to connecting discharge of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores following G protein-coupled receptor activation with the induction of store-operated Ca2+ entry are stromal interaction molecules (STIM1 and STIM2)...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359577/phage-therapy-in-allergic-disorders
#7
Andrzej Górski, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Jan Borysowski
Allergic disorders pose a growing challenge to medicine and our society. Therefore, novel approaches to prevention and therapy are needed. Recent progress in studies on bacterial viruses (phages) has provided new data indicating that they have significant immunomodulating activities. We show how those activities could be translated into beneficial effects in allergic disorders and present initial clinical data that support this hope. Impact statement Allergic disorders pose a growing challenge to medicine and our society, so new approaches to prevention and therapy are urgently needed...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316798/regulation-of-mitophagy-by-the-ubiquitin-pathway-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
Shyamal Desai, Meredith Juncker, Catherine Kim
Mitophagy is a cellular process by which dysfunctional mitochondria are degraded via autophagy. Increasing empirical evidence proposes that this mitochondrial quality-control mechanism is defective in neurons of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Ataxia Telangiectasia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Accumulation of defective mitochondria and the production of reactive oxygen species due to defective mitophagy have been identified as causes underlying neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405771/biomarker-definitions-and-their-applications
#9
Robert M Califf
Biomarkers are critical to the rational development of medical therapeutics, but significant confusion persists regarding fundamental definitions and concepts involved in their use in research and clinical practice, particularly in the fields of chronic disease and nutrition. Clarification of the definitions of different biomarkers and a better understanding of their appropriate application could result in substantial benefits. This review examines biomarker definitions recently established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health as part of their joint Biomarkers, EndpointS, and other Tools (BEST) resource...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405770/liquid-biopsy-and-its-role-in-an-advanced-clinical-trial-for-lung-cancer
#10
Donald J Johann, Mathew Steliga, Ik J Shin, Donghoon Yoon, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Laura Hutchins, Meeiyueh Liu, Jason Liem, Karl Walker, Andy Pereira, Mary Yang, Susanne K Jeffus, Erich Peterson, Joshua Xu
Liquid biopsy methodologies, for the purpose of plasma genotyping of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of solid tumors, are a new class of novel molecular assays. Such assays are rapidly entering the clinical sphere of research-based monitoring in translational oncology, especially for thoracic malignancies. Potential applications for these blood-based cfDNA assays include: (i) initial diagnosis, (ii) response to therapy and follow-up, (iii) tumor evolution, and (iv) minimal residual disease evaluation. Precision medicine will benefit from cutting-edge molecular diagnostics, especially regarding treatment decisions in the adjuvant setting, where avoiding over-treatment and unnecessary toxicity are paramount...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350067/soluble-neuregulin1-is-strongly-up-regulated-in-the-rat-model-of-charcot-marie-tooth-1a-disease
#11
Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giulia Ronchi, Davide Pascal, Davide Visigalli, Giovanna Capodivento, Lucilla Nobbio, Isabelle Perroteau, Angelo Schenone, Stefano Geuna, Giovanna Gambarotta
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a growth factor playing a pivotal role in peripheral nerve development through the activation of the transmembrane co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3. Soluble NRG1 isoforms, mainly secreted by Schwann cells, are strongly and transiently up-regulated after acute peripheral nerve injury, thus suggesting that they play a crucial role also in the response to nerve damage. Here we show that in the rat experimental model of the peripheral demyelinating neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) the expression of the different NRG1 isoforms (soluble, type α and β, type a and b) is strongly up-regulated, as well as the expression of NRG1 co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3, thus showing that CMT1A nerves have a gene expression pattern highly reminiscent of injured nerves...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350066/differential-expression-of-cytokeratin-14-and-18-in-bladder-cancer-tumorigenesis
#12
Yun-Peng Li, Xiao-Peng Jia, Yu-Qing Jiang, Wei Wang, Yun-Liang Wang, Xiu-Li Wang, Yue-Xian Guo
It has been previously suggested that cytokeratins (CKs) are important diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for urothelial lesions. Hence it is imperative to understand the expression pattern of cytokeratins during formation of papillary bladder cancer, which was the objective of the current study. Expression pattern of CK14 and CK18 were examined using immunohistochemical staining in a mice model of papillary bladder cancer. Twenty female mice were divided into two groups-group 1 (NT) and group 2, which received N-butyl- N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) for 20 weeks plus one week without treatment...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338309/oral-microbiota-reduce-wound-healing-capacity-of-epithelial-monolayers-irrespective-of-the-presence-of-5-fluorouracil
#13
Eline Vanlancker, Barbara Vanhoecke, Tom Sieprath, Janie Bourgeois, Annelore Beterams, Barbara De Moerloose, Winnok H De Vos, Tom Van de Wiele
Oral mucositis is still one of the most painful side effects of chemotherapeutic treatment and a mounting body of evidence suggests a key role for the oral microbiome in mucositis development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this work, we have investigated the interactions between the host, the microbiome, and chemotherapeutic treatments in more detail. The effect of 5-fluorouracil, commonly inducing mucositis, was assessed on a co-culture model that consists of an epithelial cell layer and a biofilm derived from oral microbiota from different types of samples (saliva, buccal swabs and tongue swabs) and donors (healthy individuals and patients suffering from mucositis)...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307283/featured-article-modulation-of-the-ogf-ogfr-pathway-alters-cytokine-profiles-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
The endogenous neuropeptide opioid growth factor, chemically termed [Met5 ]-enkephalin, has growth inhibitory and immunomodulatory properties. Opioid growth factor is distributed widely throughout most tissues, is autocrine and paracrine produced, and interacts at the nuclear-associated receptor, OGFr. Serum levels of opioid growth factor are decreased in patients with multiple sclerosis and in animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis suggesting that the OGF-OGFr pathway becomes dysregulated in this disease...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307282/foxd3-foxd4-is-required-for-the-development-of-hindgut-in-the-rat-model-of-anorectal-malformation
#15
Luo-Jia Wang, Wei-Lin Wang, Hong Gao, Yu-Zuo Bai, Shu-Cheng Zhang
Congenital anorectal malformation is the most common digestive tract malformation in newborns. It has been reported that FOXD3/FOXD4, a forkhead transcription factor, regulates the generation, migration, and differentiation of neural crest cells. However, whether FOXD3/FOXD4 takes part in anorectal malformation remains unclear. In the present study, we used ethylene thiourea to induce the animal models of anorectal malformation in rat embryos and to interrogate the role of FOXD3/FOXD4 in anorectal malformation pathogenesis...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307281/intermittent-fasting-protects-against-the-deterioration-of-cognitive-function-energy-metabolism-and-dyslipidemia-in-alzheimer-s-disease-induced-estrogen-deficient-rats
#16
Bae Kun Shin, Suna Kang, Da Sol Kim, Sunmin Park
Intermittent fasting may be an effective intervention to protect against age-related metabolic disturbances, although it is still controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of intermittent fasting on the deterioration of the metabolism and cognitive functions in rats with estrogen deficiency and its mechanism was also explored. Ovariectomized rats were infused with β-amyloid (25-35; Alzheimer's disease) or β-amyloid (35-25, Non-Alzheimer's disease; normal cognitive function) into the hippocampus. Each group was randomly divided into two sub-groups: one with intermittent fasting and the other fed ad libitum: Alzheimer's disease-ad libitum, Alzheimer's disease-intermittent fasting, Non-Alzheimer's disease-ad libitum, and Non-Alzheimer's disease-intermittent fasting...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249185/mir-145-regulates-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-targeting-foxo1
#17
Wei Hao, Hongzhi Liu, Lugang Zhou, Yujie Sun, Hao Su, Jianqiang Ni, Tian He, Peng Shi, Xin Wang
In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of miR-145 before and after hASCs osteogenic differentiation. We also intended to explore the influence of the target relationship between miR-145 and FoxO1 on osteogenic differentiation. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and real-time PCR were used to confirm the target relationship between miR-145 and FoxO1. Furthermore, the modulatory effects of miR-145 and FoxO1 on hASCs osteoinductive differentiation were measured by real-time PCR , Western blot, ALP staining, ARS staining, and cell immunofluorescence assay...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237294/mutagenicity-evaluation-of-anastatica-hierochuntica-l-aqueous-extract-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Siti Rosmani Md Zin, Zahurin Mohamed, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Won F Wong, Normadiah M Kassim
Anastatica hierochuntica L. ( A. hierochuntica), a folk medicinal plant, was evaluated for mutagenic potential via in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro assay was conducted according to modified Ames test, while the in vivo study was performed according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline for mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Four groups ( n= 5 males and 5 females per group) Sprague Dawley rats were randomly chosen as the negative control, positive control (received a single intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg), 1000 and, 2000 mg/kg A...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231123/urinary-protein-biomarkers-of-kidney-injury-in-patients-receiving-cisplatin-chemotherapy
#19
Blessy George, Melanie S Joy, Lauren M Aleksunes
Despite recent progress in the development of novel approaches to treat cancer, traditional antineoplastic drugs, such as cisplatin, remain a mainstay of regimens targeting solid tumors. Use of cisplatin is limited by acute kidney injury, which occurs in approximately 30% of patients. Current clinical measures, such as serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate, are inadequate in their ability to detect acute kidney injury, particularly when there is only a moderate degree of injury. Thus, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostic biomarkers to predict nephrotoxicity...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224368/immune-response-proteins-as-predictive-biomarkers-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-breast-cancer-patients
#20
Li-Rong Yu, Zhijun Cao, Issam Makhoul, Jaclyn R Daniels, Suzanne Klimberg, Jeanne Y Wei, Jane Pf Bai, Jinong Li, Julia T Lathrop, Richard D Beger, Valentina K Todorova
Cancer treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) can induce cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Currently, there are no specific biomarkers that can identify patients at risk during the initial doses of chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine plasma cytokines/chemokines and potential cardiovascular biomarkers for the prediction of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Plasma samples were collected before (T0), and after the first (T1) and the second (T2) cycles of DOX-based chemotherapy of 27 breast cancer patients, including five patients who presented with >10% decline of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), five patients with LVEF decline of 5-10%, and 17 patients who maintained normal LVEF at the end of chemotherapy (240 mg/m2 cumulative dose of DOX from four cycles of treatment)...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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