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Experimental Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909015/diabetic-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fail-to-differentiate-in-functional-adipocytes
#1
Ignazio Barbagallo, Giovanni Li Volti, Fabio Galvano, Guido Tettamanti, Francesca R Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Luca Vanella
Adipose tissue dysfunction represents a hallmark of diabetic patients and is a consequence of the altered homeostasis of this tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their differentiation into adipocytes contribute significantly in maintaining the mass and function of adult adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differentiation of MSCs from patients suffering type 2 diabetes (dASC) and how such process results in hyperplasia or rather a stop of adipocyte turnover resulting in hypertrophy of mature adipocytes...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903836/sericin-ameliorated-dysmorphic-mitochondria-in-high-cholesterol-diet-streptozotocin-rat-by-antioxidative-property
#2
Sumate Ampawong, Duangnate Isarangkul, Pornanong Aramwit
Sericin has been implicated in lower cholesterolemic effect due to its properties with several mechanisms. Mitochondria are one of the most important targets to be affected in high blood cholesterol and glucose conditions. The protective role of sericin on mitochondria remains doubtful. To examine this role, electron microscopic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies were performed in a high-cholesterol diet/streptozotocin rat model. The results demonstrated that sericin reduced blood cholesterol without hypoglycemic effect...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903835/identification-of-microrna-signature-and-potential-pathway-targets-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohammed Ziada, Abubaker Elshaikh, Amrita Datta, Hogyoung Kim, Krzysztof Moroz, Sudesh Srivastav, Raju Thomas, Jonathan L Silberstein, Krishnarao Moparty, Fatma Elzahraa H Salem, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American men. Early diagnosis is a prerequisite to improving therapeutic benefits. However, the current clinical biomarkers for PC do not reliably decipher indolent PC from other urogenital disorders. Thus, effective clinical intervention necessitates development of new biomarkers for early detection of PC. The present study aimed to identify the miRNA signature in organ-confined (Gleason Score 6) prostate tumors...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903834/saliva-diagnostics-current-views-and-directions
#4
Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David Tw Wong
In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895095/calprotectin-in-rheumatic-diseases
#5
Francesca Ometto, Lara Friso, Davide Astorri, Costantino Botsios, Bernd Raffeiner, Leonardo Punzi, Andrea Doria
Calprotectin is a heterodimer formed by two proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, which are mainly produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils in the circulation and in inflamed tissues. The implication of calprotectin in the inflammatory process has already been demonstrated, but its role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and monitoring of rheumatic diseases has gained great attention in recent years. Calprotectin, being stable at room temperature, is a candidate biomarker for the follow-up of disease activity in many autoimmune disorders, where it can predict response to treatment or disease relapse...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895094/crosstalk-between-microrna-122-and-fox-family-genes-in-hepg2-cells
#6
Subodh Kumar, Ankita Batra, Shruthi Kanthaje, Sujata Ghosh, Anuradha Chakraborti
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is liver specific and plays an important role in physiology as well as diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Downregulation of miR-122 in HCC modulates apoptosis. Similarly, the putative targets of miR-122, the forkhead box (FOX) family genes also play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. Hence, an interplay between miR-122 and FOX family genes has been explored in this study. Initially, an augmentation of apoptosis was noticed in HepG2 cells after transfection with miR-122...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889698/major-involvement-of-bacterial-components-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-its-accompanying-oxidative-stress-systemic-inflammation-and-hypercoagulability
#7
Etheresia Pretorius, Oore-Ofe Akeredolu, Prashilla Soma, Douglas B Kell
We review the evidence that infectious agents, including those that become dormant within the host, have a major role to play in much of the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and the inflammation that is its hallmark. This occurs in particular because they can produce cross-reactive (auto-)antigens, as well as potent inflammagens such as lipopolysaccharide that can themselves catalyze further inflammagenesis, including via β-amyloid formation. A series of observables coexist in many chronic, inflammatory diseases as well as rheumatoid arthritis...
November 25, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856519/transcriptional-landscape-analysis-identifies-differently-expressed-genes-involved-in-follicle-stimulating-hormone-induced-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#8
Katre Maasalu, Ott Laius, Lidiia Zhytnik, Sulev Kõks, Ele Prans, Ene Reimann, Aare Märtson
Osteoporosis is a disorder associated with bone tissue reorganization, bone mass, and mineral density. Osteoporosis can severely affect postmenopausal women, causing bone fragility and osteoporotic fractures. The aim of the current study was to compare blood mRNA profiles of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, with the aim of finding different gene expressions and thus targets for future osteoporosis biomarker studies. Our study consisted of transcriptome analysis of whole blood serum from 12 elderly female osteoporotic patients and 12 non-osteoporotic elderly female controls...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811171/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-reverses-suppression-of-adiponectin-expression-via-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#9
Qinyue Guo, Lin Xu, Jiali Liu, Huixia Li, Hongzhi Sun, Shufang Wu, Bo Zhou
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a novel endocrine hormone involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms whereby FGF21 mediates insulin sensitivity remain not fully understood. In the present study, FGF21was administrated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice and tunicamycin-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and metabolic parameters, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress indicators, and insulin signaling molecular were assessed by Western blotting. The administration of FGF21 in obese mice reduced body weight, blood glucose and serum insulin, and increased insulin sensitivity, resulting in alleviation of insulin resistance...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798122/viral-derived-complement-inhibitors-current-status-and-potential-role-in-immunomodulation
#10
Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Hassan Zaraket
The complement system is one of the body's major innate immune defense mechanisms in vertebrates. Its function is to detect foreign bodies and promote their elimination through opsonisation or lysis. Complement proteins play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of several disorders. However, excessive complement activation does not confer more protection but instead leads to several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. With inappropriate activation of the complement system, activated complement proteins and glycoproteins may damage both healthy and diseased tissues...
October 25, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798123/the-contribution-of-interleukin-2-to-effective-wound-healing
#11
Karen M Doersch, Daniel J DelloStritto, M Karen Newell-Rogers
Ineffective skin wound healing is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Roughly 6.5 million Americans experience chronically open wounds and the cost of treating these wounds numbers in the billions of dollars annually. In contrast, robust wound healing can lead to the development of either hypertrophic scarring or keloidosis, both of which can cause discomfort and can be cosmetically undesirable. Appropriate wound healing requires the interplay of a variety of factors, including the skin, the local microenvironment, the immune system, and the external environment...
October 24, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798118/heat-delays-skin-wound-healing-in-mice
#12
Marco Aurélio Dos Santos-Silva, Eduardo Tavares Lima Trajano, Fernanda Seabra Schanuel, Andréa Monte-Alto-Costa
In vivo studies have shown that the combination of infrared radiation (IR) and visible light (VIS) is responsible for the activation of metaloproteinases, causing matrix degradation and damage to healthy skin. However, the role of heat originating from the VIS spectrum on wound healing remains poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical effects of heat induced by visible light on cutaneous wound healing in mice. Male mice were anesthetized, subjected to a cutaneous excisional wound and divided into two groups (n = 10/group) exposed to 23℃ or 43℃ in a thermal chamber for 30 min every other day, for 13 days...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798121/fibronectin-in-retinal-disease
#13
Charles G Miller, Greg Budoff, Jonathan L Prenner, Jean E Schwarzbauer
Retinal fibrosis, characterized by dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition by retinal endothelial cells, pigment epithelial cells, and other resident cell-types, is a unifying feature of several common retinal diseases. Fibronectin is an early constituent of newly deposited ECM and serves as a template for assembly of other ECM proteins, including collagens. Under physiologic conditions, fibronectin is found in all layers of Bruch's membrane. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a complication of retinal surgery, is characterized by ECM accumulation...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798120/activation-of-cxcl12-cxcr4-renders-colorectal-cancer-cells-less-sensitive-to-radiotherapy-via-up-regulating-the-expression-of-survivin
#14
Dawei Wang, Chengbin Jiao, Yanli Zhu, Deshen Liang, Ming Zao, Xiangyu Meng, Jianwei Gao, Yunlong He, Weixin Liu, Jie Hou, Zhaohua Zhong, Zhuoxin Cheng
Colorectal cancer is the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Surgical treatment combined with radiotherapy is the main treatment course for colorectal cancer; nevertheless, radio-resistance is commonly encountered during the treatment course and seriously influences the therapeutic efficacy. We tested the hypothesis that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is closely related to radiotherapy sensitivity in colorectal cancer cells. Here, we found that the decrease in cell viability and the increase in cell death induced by radiotherapy were attenuated by CXCL12 treatment, and the inhibition of CXCR4 promoted colorectal cancer cells to be more sensitive to radiotherapy...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798119/carrot-solution-culture-bioproduction-of-uniformly-labeled-13c-lutein-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-dosing-in-non-human-primates
#15
Joshua W Smith, Randy B Rogers, Sookyoung Jeon, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Lin Wang, Jonathan V Sweedler, Martha Neuringer, Matthew J Kuchan, John W Erdman
Lutein is a xanthophyll abundant in nature and most commonly present in the human diet through consumption of leafy green vegetables. With zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, lutein is a component of the macular pigment of the retina, where it protects against photooxidation and age-related macular degeneration. Recent studies have suggested that lutein may positively impact cognition throughout the lifespan, but outside of the retina, the deposition, metabolism, and function(s) of lutein are poorly understood...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798117/targeting-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-in-disease-could-resveratrol-be-a-potential-candidate
#16
Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal
Disturbances of extracellular matrix homeostasis are associated with a number of pathological conditions. The ability of extracellular matrix to provide contextual information and hence control the individual or collective cellular behavior is increasingly being recognized. Hence, newer therapeutic approaches targeting extracellular matrix remodeling are widely investigated. We reviewed the current literature showing the effects of resveratrol on various aspects of extracellular matrix remodeling. This review presents a summary of the effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix deposition and breakdown...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738246/is-mercury-in-tibetan-medicine-toxic-clinical-neurocognitive-and-biochemical-results-of-an-initial-cross-sectional-study
#17
Sarah Sallon, Yahav Dory, Yazeed Barghouti, Tsewang Tamdin, Rigzin Sangmo, Jamyang Tashi, Sonam Yangdon, Tenzin Yeshi, Tsetan Sadutshang, Michal Rotenburg, Elinor Cohen, Yehudit Harlavan, Galit Sharabi, Tali Bdolah-Abram
Mercury an important therapeutic substance in Tibetan Medicine undergoes complex "detoxification" prior to inclusion in multi-ingredient formulas. In an initial cross-sectional study, patients taking Tibetan Medicine for various conditions were evaluated for mercury toxicity. Two groups were identified: Group 1, patients taking " TSOTHEL: " the most important detoxified mercury preparation and Group 2, patients taking other mercury preparations or mercury free Tibetan Medicine. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry of Tibetan Medicine showed mercury consumption 130 µg/kg/day (Group 1) and 30 µg/kg/day (Group 2) (P ≤ 0...
October 13, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708182/microencapsulation-of-porcine-thyroid-cell-organoids-within-a-polymer-microcapsule-construct
#18
Yipeng Yang, Emmanuel C Opara, Yingbin Liu, Anthony Atala, Weixin Zhao
Hypothyroidism is a common condition of hormone deficiency, and oral administration of thyroid hormones is currently the only available treatment option. However, there are some disadvantages with this treatment modality including compliance challenges to patients. Therefore, a physiologically based alternative therapy for hypothyroidism with little or no side-effects is needed. In this study, we have developed a method for microencapsulating porcine thyroid cells as a thyroid hormone replacement approach. The hybrid wall of the polymer microcapsules permits thyroid hormone release while preventing immunoglobulin antibodies from entry...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703041/comparison-of-the-anti-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-activities-of-phosphorylated-and-sulfated-astragalus-polysaccharides
#19
Yixuan Wang, Yun Chen, Hongxu Du, Jingjing Yang, Ke Ming, Meiyun Song, Jiaguo Liu
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) (Picornaviridae) causes an infectious disease in ducks which results in severe losses in duck industry. However, the proper antiviral supportive drugs for this disease have not been discovered. Polysaccharide is the main ingredient of Astragalus that has been demonstrated to directly and indirectly inhibit RNA of viruses replication. In this study, the antiviral activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and its derivatives against DHAV were evaluated and compared. APS was modified via the sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate (STMP-STPP) method and chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain its phosphate (pAPS) and sulfate (sAPS), respectively...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698252/secretory-leukocyte-protease-inhibitor-promising-protective-roles-in-obesity-associated-atherosclerosis
#20
Qiao-Qing Zhong, Xiang Wang, Yun-Feng Li, Li-Jun Peng, Zhi-Sheng Jiang
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a serine protease inhibitor, which was most commonly examined in mucosal fluids such as saliva, is a versatile molecule and plays non-redundant roles. In addition to its anti-protease activity, SLPI has been shown to express anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as participating in innate and adaptive immune responses, most of which has been well documented. Recently, it is reported that SLPI is expressed in adipocytes and adipose tissue where it could play an important feedback role in the resolution of inflammation...
October 3, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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