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Experimental Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440739/featured-article-pharmacological-postconditioning-with-delta-opioid-attenuates-myocardial-reperfusion-injury-in-isolated-porcine-hearts
#1
Maria Seewald, James A Coles, Daniel C Sigg, Paul A Iaizzo
Ischemic preconditioning has been utilized to protect the heart from ischemia prior to ischemia onset, whereas postconditioning is employed to minimize the consequences of ischemia at the onset of reperfusion. The underlying mechanisms and pathways of ischemic pre- and postconditioning continue to be investigated as therapeutic targets. We evaluated the administration of a delta opioid agonist or cariporide on various parameters associated with myocardial reperfusion injury upon reperfusion of isolated porcine hearts...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#2
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440737/heart-rate-variability-depression-in-porcine-peritonitis-induced-sepsis-without-organ-failure
#3
Dagmar Jarkovska, Lenka Valesova, Jiri Chvojka, Jan Benes, Vojtech Danihel, Jitka Sviglerova, Lukas Nalos, Martin Matejovic, Milan Stengl
Depression of heart-rate variability (HRV) in conditions of systemic inflammation has been shown in both patients and experimental animal models and HRV has been suggested as an early indicator of sepsis. The sensitivity of HRV-derived parameters to the severity of sepsis, however, remains unclear. In this study we modified the clinically relevant porcine model of peritonitis-induced sepsis in order to avoid the development of organ failure and to test the sensitivity of HRV to such non-severe conditions. In 11 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented domestic pigs of both sexes, sepsis was induced by fecal peritonitis...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440736/levistilide-a-inhibits-angiogenesis-in-liver-fibrosis-via-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-signaling-pathway
#4
Zhi-Min Zhao, Hong-Liang Liu, Xin Sun, Tao Guo, Li Shen, Yan-Yan Tao, Cheng-Hai Liu
Levistilide A (C24H28O4, molecular weight = 380.48) derived from Angelica sinensis (Danggui) has been reported to inhibit hepatic stellate cell proliferation. This study investigated the effects of levistilide A on liver fibrosis relating to angiogenesis, particularly on the characteristic change in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. LX-2 cells were activated by TGF-β1, and the human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs) were induced by endothelial cell growth supplement. Cell viability was detected using a methylthiazoldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay; F-actin was visualized through the fluorescence probe method; cell proliferation was examined using the EdU kit; antiangiogenesis activity was assessed using the tube formation assay and transgenic zebrafish model...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440735/nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-knockdown-enhances-glucose-uptake-and-alters-glucose-metabolism-in-aml12-hepatocytes
#5
Xiaoyang Yuan, Huijing Huang, Yi Huang, Jinli Wang, Jinhua Yan, Ling Ding, Cuntai Zhang, Le Zhang
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to induce the expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Recently, increasing evidence has revealed roles for Nrf2 in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism; however, the exact functions of Nrf2 in hepatocyte biology are largely unclear. In the current study, the transient knockdown of Nrf2 via siRNA transfection enhanced the glucose uptake of fasting AML12 hepatocytes to 325.3 ± 11.1% ( P < 0.05) of that of untransfected control cells...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440734/cholinergic-activation-suppresses-palmitate-induced-macrophage-activation-and-improves-acylation-stimulating-protein-resistance-in-co-cultured-adipocytes
#6
Jing Wu, Zhou-Yang Jiao, Rui-Zhen Li, Hui-Ling Lu, Hao-Hao Zhang, Katherine Cianflone
Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), produced through activation of the alternative complement immune system, modulates lipid metabolism. Using a trans-well co-culture cell model, the mitigating role of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated cholinergic pathway on ASP resistance was evaluated. ASP signaling in adipocytes via its receptor C5L2 and signaling intermediates Gαq, Gβ, phosphorylated protein kinase C-α, and protein kinase C-ζ were markedly suppressed in the presence of TNFα or medium from palmitate-treated RAW264...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440733/morphological-and-morphometric-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intralesional-tamoxifen-on-keloids
#7
Lauro R Soares-Lopes, Ione M Soares-Lopes, Lauro Ll Filho, Airlane P Alencar, Benedito B da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intralesional tamoxifen on keloids, particularly on the concentration of fibroblasts, dermal inflammatory infiltrate, and collagen degeneration. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate keloids in 13 patients of both genders pre- and post-treatment with intralesional tamoxifen. Two samples of keloid lesions were obtained by 4-mm punch biopsies during the study: the first at the time of diagnostic confirmation of keloid and the other eight weeks later at the end of intralesional tamoxifen treatment...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440732/expression-of-microrna-let-7a-positively-correlates-with-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tissues
#8
Dongni Qiu, Jian Chen, Jie Liu, Zhongguang Luo, Weiru Jiang, Jianping Huang, Zhibing Qiu, Wenjie Yue, Lijun Wu
Let-7a miRNA is downregulated in various cancers. However, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), the relationship between let-7a and HBV replication has not been fully elucidated. Liver specimens were collected from 23 HCC patients with chronically active HBV. The serum levels of the HBV antigens hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg), and the HBV antibodies, anti-HBs, anti-HBe and anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were measured using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056549/pegylated-long-circulating-liposomes-deliver-homoharringtonine-to-suppress-multiple-myeloma-cancer-stem-cells
#9
Miao Li, Fangfang Shi, Xiong Fei, Songyan Wu, Di Wu, Meng Pan, Shouhua Luo, Ning Gu, Jun Dou
The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the inhibiting effect of high proportion polyethyleneglycol of long-circulating homoharringtonine liposomes on RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cancer stem cells. The CD138(-)CD34(-) multiple myeloma cancer stem cells isolated from RPMI8226 cell line using magnetic activated cell sorting system were, respectively, incubated with the optimized formulation of polyethyleneglycol of long-circulating homoharringtonine liposomes and the homoharringtonine in vitro, and the multiple myeloma cancer stem cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell cycle were analyzed...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496801/the-role-of-adaptive-bone-formation-in-the-etiology-of-stress-fracture
#10
Julie M Hughes, Kristin L Popp, Ran Yanovich, Mary L Bouxsein, Ronald W Matheny
Stress fractures are common injuries with load-bearing activities. Stress fractures have been reported in the scientific literature for over a century; however, the etiology continues to be investigated with important distinctions made between the contributions of the tissue-level processes of bone remodeling and modeling. In response to novel repetitive loading, increased bone remodeling may serve to replace fatigue-damaged bone while at the same time creating temporary porosity. Much attention has been given to the role of remodeling in the etiology of stress fracture; however, the role of bone modeling has received less attention...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075931/human-ductal-plate-and-its-derivatives-express-antigens-of-cholangiocellular-hepatocellular-hepatic-stellate-progenitor-cell-stem-cell-and-neuroendocrine-lineages-and-proliferative-antigens
#11
Tadashi Terada
Molecular mechanisms of human ductal plate (DP) development and differentiation (DD) are unclear. The author immunohistochemically investigated expressions of cholangiocellular antigens (CEA, CA19-9, EMA, MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, mucins, CK7, and CK19), hepatocellular antigens (HepPar1, AFP, CK8, and CK18), hepatic stellate/progenitor cell (HSC) antigens or stem cell (SC) antigens (C-erbB2, CD56, chromogranin, synaptophysin, bcl2, NSE, NCAM, KIT, and PDGFRA), and proliferating antigen (Ki67) in 32 human fetal livers (HFL)...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346014/intestinal-absorption-and-renal-reabsorption-of-calcium-throughout-postnatal-development
#12
Megan R Beggs, R Todd Alexander
Calcium is vital for many physiological functions including bone mineralization. Postnatal deposition of calcium into bone is greatest in infancy and continues through childhood and adolescence until peek mineral density is reached in early adulthood. Thereafter, bone mineral density remains static until it eventually declines in later life. A positive calcium balance, i.e. more calcium absorbed than excreted, is crucial to bone deposition during growth and thus to peek bone mineral density. Dietary calcium is absorbed from the intestine into the blood...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346013/the-physiology-of-blood-loss-and-shock-new-insights-from-a-human-laboratory-model-of-hemorrhage
#13
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Victor A Convertino
The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346012/lymphangiogenesis-fuel-smoke-or-extinguisher-of-inflammation-s-fire
#14
Gabriella R Abouelkheir, Bradley D Upchurch, Joseph M Rutkowski
Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in fluid clearance and immune cell trafficking from the periphery make these results seemingly obvious as a mechanism of alleviating locally inflamed environments: the lymphatics are simply providing a drain...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346011/various-plus-unique-viral-protein-u-as-a-plurifunctional-protein-for-hiv-1-replication
#15
Andrew Soper, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Hirofumi Aso, Miyu Moriwaki, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, encodes four accessory genes, one of which is viral protein U (Vpu). Recently, the study of Vpu has been of great interest. For instance, various cellular proteins are degraded (e.g. CD4) and down-modulated (e.g. tetherin) by Vpu. Vpu also antagonizes the function of tetherin and inhibits NF-κB. Moreover, Vpu is a viroporin forming ion channels and may represent a promising target for anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this review, we summarize the domains/residues that are responsible for Vpu's functions, describe the current understanding of the role of Vpu in HIV-1-infected cells, and review the effect of Vpu on HIV-1 in replication and pathogenesis...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299977/identification-of-lymph-node-metastasis-related-micrornas-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-analysis-of-the-underlying-mechanisms-using-a-bioinformatics-approach
#16
Li Yan, Demin Jiao, Huizhen Hu, Jian Wang, Xiali Tang, Jun Chen, Qingyong Chen
This study aimed to screen lymphatic metastasis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) in lung adenocarcinoma and explore their underlying mechanisms using bioinformatics. The miRNA expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma, matched adjacent non-tumorigenic and lymph node metastasis tissues of patients were profiled via microarray. The screened metastasis-related miRNAs were then validated using quantitative real-time PCR in a second cohort of lung adenocarcinoma patients with lymphatic metastasis. Significance was determined using a paired t-test...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299976/leukocyte-telomere-length-is-inversely-associated-with-post-load-but-not-with-fasting-plasma-glucose-levels
#17
Mykola Khalangot, Dmytro Krasnienkov, Alexander Vaiserman, Ivan Avilov, Volodymir Kovtun, Nadia Okhrimenko, Alexander Koliada, Victor Kravchenko
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by shorter leukocyte telomere length, but the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and type 2 diabetes mellitus development is rather questioned. Fasting and post-load glycaemia associated with different types of insulin resistance and their relation with leukocyte telomere length remains unknown. We compared leukocyte telomere length and fasting or post-load glucose levels in persons who do not receive glucose lowering treatment. For 82 randomly selected rural residents of Ukraine, aged 45+, not previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the WHO oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements were performed...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299975/targeted-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-differentiates-metabolic-syndrome-from-obesity
#18
Fanyi Zhong, Mengyang Xu, Richard S Bruno, Kevin D Ballard, Jiangjiang Zhu
Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Identification of novel biomarkers are needed to distinguish metabolic syndrome from equally obese individuals in order to direct them to early interventions that reduce their risk of developing further health problems. We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to evaluate the associations between metabolite profiles and established metabolic syndrome criteria (i...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299974/causes-of-peripheral-cytopenia-in-hepatitic-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertensive-splenomegaly
#19
Yunfu Lv, Wan Yee Lau, Hongfei Wu, XiaoYu Han, Xiaoguang Gong, Ning Liu, Jie Yue, Qingqing Li, YeJuan Li, Jie Deng
The clinical data of 183 patients with hepatitic cirrhosis and portal hypertensive splenomegaly complicated by peripheral cytopenia were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the causes of peripheral cytopenia, as well as the proportion of the causes in these patients. All patients underwent splenectomy. Before operation, these patients had one or more types of peripheral cytopenia (cumulative cytopenia: 390 patient-times). After splenectomy, blood counts in 79.2% (309/390) returned to normal, while in 15...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205448/association-between-red-meat-consumption-and-colon-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-results
#20
Nancy D Turner, Shannon K Lloyd
A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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