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Experimental Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205448/association-between-red-meat-consumption-and-colon-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-results
#1
Nancy D Turner, Shannon K Lloyd
A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201924/conditioned-effects-of-ethanol-on-the-immune-system
#2
Anny Gano, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Terrence Deak
Several studies indicate that the immune system can be subjected to classical conditioning. Acute ethanol intoxication significantly modulates several pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukins-1 and 6 [IL-1β and IL-6, respectively] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα])) in several brain areas, including amygdala (AMG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and hippocampus (HPC). It is unknown, however, whether cues associated with ethanol can elicit conditioned alterations in cytokine expression. The present study analyzed, in male Sprague-Dawley rats, whether ethanol-induced changes in the central cytokine response may be amenable to conditioning...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195515/targeting-cell-adhesion-molecules-with-nanoparticles-using-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-flow-based-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-of-atherosclerosis
#3
Khosrow Khodabandehlou, Jacqueline J Masehi-Lano, Christopher Poon, Jonathan Wang, Eun Ji Chung
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide; in addition to lipid dysfunction, chronic arterial wall inflammation is a key component of atherosclerosis. Techniques that target cell adhesion molecules, which are overexpressed during inflammation, are effective methods to detect and treat atherosclerosis. Specifically, research groups have identified vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, and selectins (E-selectin and P-selectin) as correlated to atherogenesis...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195514/blood-brain-barrier-on-a-chip-microphysiological-systems-that-capture-the-complexity-of-the-blood-central-nervous-system-interface
#4
Duc Tt Phan, R Hugh F Bender, Jillian W Andrejecsk, Agua Sobrino, Stephanie J Hachey, Steven C George, Christopher Cw Hughes
The blood-brain barrier is a dynamic and highly organized structure that strictly regulates the molecules allowed to cross the brain vasculature into the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier pathology has been associated with a number of central nervous system diseases, including vascular malformations, stroke/vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. There is a compelling need for representative models of this critical interface...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195513/inducible-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthases-exert-contrasting-effects-during-rat-intestinal-recovery-following-fasting
#5
Junta Ito, Hiroyuki Uchida, Naomi Machida, Kazuo Ohtake, Yuki Saito, Jun Kobayashi
We investigated the effects of endogenous inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase on recovery from intestinal mucosal atrophy caused by fasting-induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation during refeeding in rats. Rats were divided into five groups, one of which was fed ad libitum, and four of which underwent 72 h of fasting, followed by refeeding for 0, 6, 24, and 48 h, respectively. iNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein levels in jejunal tissues were measured, and mucosal height was histologically evaluated...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178857/dietary-2-oxoglutarate-prevents-bone-loss-caused-by-neonatal-treatment-with-maximal-dexamethasone-dose
#6
Piotr Dobrowolski, Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Tomasz Blicharski, Stefan G Pierzynowski
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used in the variety of dosages for treatment of premature infants with chronic lung disease, respiratory distress syndrome, allergies, asthma, and other inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Yet, adverse effects such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and growth retardation are recognized. Conversely, 2-oxoglutarate (2-Ox), a precursor of glutamine, glutamate, and collagen amino acids, exerts protective effects on bone development. Our aim was to elucidate the effect of dietary administered 2-Ox on bone loss caused by neonatal treatment with clinically relevant maximal therapeutic dexamethasone (Dex) dose...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178856/chemotherapeutic-delivery-using-ph-responsive-affinity-based-release
#7
Erika L Cyphert, Andrew S Fu, Horst A von Recum
Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic drug typically administered systemically which frequently leads to cardiac and hepatic toxicities. Local delivery to a tumor has a chance to mitigate some of these toxicities and can further be mitigated by including a means of tumor-specific drug release. Our laboratory has explored the use of molecular interactions to control the rate of drug release beyond that capable of diffusion alone. To this system, we added an additional affinity group (adamantane) to doxorubicin through a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178855/ginsenoside-rg1-improves-fertility-and-reduces-ovarian-pathological-damages-in-premature-ovarian-failure-model-of-mice
#8
Lianli He, Li Ling, Tianqin Wei, Yaping Wang, Zhengai Xiong
This study aims to investigate the effect as well as mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on premature ovarian failure (POF) induced by d-galactose (d-gal) in mice. C57BL/6 female mice were divided into four groups randomly, which were the saline group, the d-gal group, the d-gal + Rg1 group, and the Rg1 group. Body weight was recorded. Overall ovarian function including estrous cycles, sex hormone secretion, ovarian follicle development, and ovarian morphology was analyzed by H&E staining and ELISA. Effect of Rg1 on aging was determined by analyzing the activities of oxidation-associated biomarkers, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, expression of senescence-associated proteins, and fertility...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165296/the-activation-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-in-a-rat-model-with-renovascular-hypertension
#9
Jacek Bartosiewicz, Tomasz Kaminski, Krystyna Pawlak, Malgorzata Karbowska, Anna Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, Dariusz Pawlak
Hypertension is a serious condition that can lead to many health problems. The mechanisms underlying this process are still not fully understood. The kynurenine pathway may be involved in the occurrence and progression of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the activity of peripheral kynurenine pathway in rats with renovascular hypertension in Goldblatt 2K1C model. Hypertension was induced in the experimental groups by constricting the renal artery of the left kidney of the rats. Determination of tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine pathway metabolites was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma and tissues obtained at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgical intervention or sham surgery...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133985/apoptosis-and-injuries-of-heavy-ion-beam-and-x-ray-radiation-on-malignant-melanoma-cell
#10
Jin Qin, Sha Li, Chao Zhang, Dong-Wei Gao, Qiang Li, Hong Zhang, Xiao-Dong Jin, Yang Liu
This study aims to investigate the influence of high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and low LET X-ray radiation on apoptosis and related proteins of malignant melanoma on tumor-bearing mice under the same physical dosage. C57BL/6 J mice were burdened by tumors and randomized into three groups. These mice received heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and X-ray radiation under the same physical dosage, respectively; their weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days post-radiation. After 30 days, these mice were sacrificed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118725/synergistic-antibacterial-effects-of-herbal-extracts-and-antibiotics-on-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-computational-and-experimental-study
#11
Chiu-Fai Kuok, Sai-On Hoi, Chi-Fai Hoi, Chi-Hong Chan, Io-Hong Fong, Cheong-Kei Ngok, Li-Rong Meng, Pedro Fong
Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global concern, and the discovery of antimicrobial herbal constituents may provide valuable solutions to overcome the problem. In this study, the effects of therapies combining antibiotics and four medicinal herbs on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were investigated. Specifically, the synergistic effects of Magnolia officinalis, Verbena officinalis, Momordica charantia, and Daphne genkwa in combination with oxacillin or gentamicin against methicillin-resistant (ATCC43300) and methicillin-susceptible (ATCC25923) S...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114815/changes-in-cd4-cd25-tregs-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#12
Li Xue-Mei, Chen Jie, Dai Xuan, Liao Xiao-Xing, Hu Chun-Lin, Li Yu-Jie
The goal of this study was to observe the pathological characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic walls of ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice and the changes of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in atherosclerotic mice. Twenty ApoE(-/-) mice were split into high-fat diet (AH) and normal diet (AN) groups and 10 C57BL/6J male mice were designated as the control group (BN). The serum concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; paraffin sections of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin & eosin, and morphometric parameters were measured using the Image Pro Plus 6...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114814/transcriptomic-effects-of-metformin-in-skeletal-muscle-arteries-of-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#13
Jaume Padilla, Pamela K Thorne, Jeffrey S Martin, R Scott Rector, Sadia Akter, J Wade Davis, M Harold Laughlin, Nathan T Jenkins
We examined the effects of metformin, a commonly used antidiabetic drug, on gene expression in multiple arteries. Specifically, transcriptional profiles of feed arteries and second branch order arterioles in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles as well as aortic endothelial scrapes were examined from obese insulin-resistant Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats treated with ( n = 9) or without ( n = 10) metformin from 20 to 32 weeks of age. Metformin-treated rats exhibited a reduction in body weight, adiposity, and HbA1c ( P < 0...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110543/emerging-technologies-for-long-term-antimicrobial-device-coatings-advantages-and-limitations
#14
Erika L Cyphert, Horst A von Recum
Over the past 20 years, the field of antimicrobial medical device coatings has expanded nearly 30-fold with technologies shifting their focus from diffusion-only based (short-term antimicrobial eluting) coatings to long-term antimicrobial eluting and intrinsically antimicrobial functioning materials. A variety of emergent coatings have been developed with the goal of achieving long-term antimicrobial activity in order to mitigate the risk of implanted device failure. Specifically, the coatings can be grouped into two categories: those that use antibiotics in conjunction with a polymer coating and those that rely on the intrinsic properties of the material to kill or repel bacteria that come into contact with the surface...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103699/vitamin-d-alteration-associated-with-obesity-and-bariatric-surgery
#15
Eric Lespessailles, Hechmi Toumi
Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries. Interactions and relationships between obesity and bone tissue and its metabolism are complex but are more and more studied and recognized. Obesity is associated with an altered hormonal profile including particularly bone-regulating hormones like vitamin D. Bariatric surgery procedures, thanks to their effectiveness to achieve therapeutic endpoints for comorbidities associated with obesity, have had an increasing success...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093936/biological-activities-of-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-rosemary-extract-as-analyzed-in-microorganisms-and-cells
#16
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Daiane de Jesus, Leandro Wagner Figueira, Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Samira Estves Afonso Camargo, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093935/new-methods-for-monitoring-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-mitophagy-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Jessica A Williams, Katrina Zhao, Shengkan Jin, Wen-Xing Ding
Removal of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and functions. Increasing evidence implicates mitophagy in red blood cell differentiation, neurodegeneration, macrophage-mediated inflammation, ischemia, adipogenesis, drug-induced tissue injury, and cancer. Considerable progress has been made toward understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in mitophagy regulation. However, few reliable assays to monitor and quantify mitophagy have been developed, particularly in vivo...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092183/therapeutic-effects-of-hyaluronidase-on-acquired-lymphedema-using-a-newly-developed-mouse-limb-model
#18
Kangsan Roh, Sungrae Cho, Jae-Hyun Park, Byong Chul Yoo, Won-Ki Kim, Seok-Ki Kim, Kyewon Park, Hee Kang, Jin-Mo Ku, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Kyunghoon Lee, Sukchan Lee
Acquired lymphedema is one of the most dreaded side effects of cancer treatment, such as surgical treatment or irradiation. However, due to the lack of appropriate animal models, there is no effective therapeutic method to cure acquired lymphedema. To develop a reproducible acquired lymphedema animal model, we devised a mouse hind limb model by removing a superficial inguinal lymph node, a popliteal lymph node, a deep inguinal lymph node, and the femoral lymphatic vessel. We measured the volume of lymphedematous leg and observed the change in level of hyaluronic acid (HA) and lymphangiogenic factors after injecting hyaluronidase...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092182/an-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-selective-agonist-inhibits-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-preclinical-models-by-regulating-bile-acid-and-xenobiotic-receptors
#19
Suriyan Ponnusamy, Quynh T Tran, Thirumagal Thiyagarajan, Duane D Miller, Dave Bridges, Ramesh Narayanan
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) affects 8-10 million people in the US and up to 75% of obese individuals. Despite this, there are no approved oral therapeutics to treat NASH and therefore the need for novel approaches exists. The estrogen receptor β (ER-β)-selective agonist, β-LGND2, inhibits body weight and white adipose tissue, and increases metabolism, resulting in higher energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Due to favorable effects of β-LGND2 on obesity, we hypothesized that β-LGND2 will prevent NASH directly by reducing lipid accumulation in the liver or indirectly by favorably changing body composition...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092181/impaired-redox-environment-modulates-cardiogenic-and-ion-channel-gene-expression-in-cardiac-resident-and-non-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Baskar Subramani, Sellamuthu Subbannagounder, Chithra Ramanathanpullai, Sekar Palanivel, Rajesh Ramasamy
Redox homeostasis plays a crucial role in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. However, the behavioral actions of mesenchymal stem cells in redox imbalance state remain elusive. In the present study, the effect of redox imbalance that was induced by either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or ascorbic acid on human cardiac-resident (hC-MSCs) and non-resident (umbilical cord) mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) was evaluated. Both cells were sensitive and responsive when exposed to either H2O2 or ascorbic acid at a concentration of 400 µmol/L...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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