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Experimental Biology and Medicine

Sarah Sallon, Yahav Dory, Yazeed Barghouti, Tsewang Tamdin, Rigzin Sangmo, Jamyang Tashi, Sonam Yangdon, Tenzin Yeshi, Tsetan Sadutshang, Michal Rotenburg, Elinor Cohen, Yehudit Harlavan, Galit Sharabi, Tali Bdolah-Abram
Mercury an important therapeutic substance in Tibetan Medicine undergoes complex "detoxification" prior to inclusion in multi-ingredient formulas. In an initial cross-sectional study, patients taking Tibetan Medicine for various conditions were evaluated for mercury toxicity. Two groups were identified: Group 1, patients taking " TSOTHEL: " the most important detoxified mercury preparation and Group 2, patients taking other mercury preparations or mercury free Tibetan Medicine. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry of Tibetan Medicine showed mercury consumption 130 µg/kg/day (Group 1) and 30 µg/kg/day (Group 2) (P ≤ 0...
October 13, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yipeng Yang, Emmanuel C Opara, Yingbin Liu, Anthony Atala, Weixin Zhao
Hypothyroidism is a common condition of hormone deficiency, and oral administration of thyroid hormones is currently the only available treatment option. However, there are some disadvantages with this treatment modality including compliance challenges to patients. Therefore, a physiologically based alternative therapy for hypothyroidism with little or no side-effects is needed. In this study, we have developed a method for microencapsulating porcine thyroid cells as a thyroid hormone replacement approach. The hybrid wall of the polymer microcapsules permits thyroid hormone release while preventing immunoglobulin antibodies from entry...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yixuan Wang, Yun Chen, Hongxu Du, Jingjing Yang, Ke Ming, Meiyun Song, Jiaguo Liu
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) (Picornaviridae) causes an infectious disease in ducks which results in severe losses in duck industry. However, the proper antiviral supportive drugs for this disease have not been discovered. Polysaccharide is the main ingredient of Astragalus that has been demonstrated to directly and indirectly inhibit RNA of viruses replication. In this study, the antiviral activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and its derivatives against DHAV were evaluated and compared. APS was modified via the sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate (STMP-STPP) method and chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain its phosphate (pAPS) and sulfate (sAPS), respectively...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Qiao-Qing Zhong, Xiang Wang, Yun-Feng Li, Li-Jun Peng, Zhi-Sheng Jiang
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a serine protease inhibitor, which was most commonly examined in mucosal fluids such as saliva, is a versatile molecule and plays non-redundant roles. In addition to its anti-protease activity, SLPI has been shown to express anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as participating in innate and adaptive immune responses, most of which has been well documented. Recently, it is reported that SLPI is expressed in adipocytes and adipose tissue where it could play an important feedback role in the resolution of inflammation...
October 3, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Charles B Nguyen, Courtney W Houchen, Naushad Ali
Liver diseases are the fourth leading cause of mortality among adults in the United States. Patients with chronic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis have significantly higher risks of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With a dismal five-year survival rate of 11%, HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Regardless of the underlying cause, late presentation and a lack of effective therapy are the major impediments for successful treatment of HCC...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Haitao Huang, Zhiqi Chen, Xiuqin Ni
Gastric cancer is a common malignancy, and is one of the most frequent causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Recently, members of the transglutaminases (TGM) family, especially TGM2, have been implicated in the progression and drug resistance of cancers, but the function of TGM1 in cancer development has been largely overlooked. In this study, we demonstrate the roles of TGM1 in development of gastric cancer. We found that expression levels of TGM1 were upregulated in both gastric cancer tissues and cultured gastric cancer cells, and that TGM1 expression levels were correlated with patient survival...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Gang An, Shuzeng Liang, Chunhong Sheng, Yan Liu, Wei Yao
Keloid is one of the most frustrating problems related to wounding healing and presents a great challenge in clinic. MicroRNAs (miRs) have shown their potential as a novel therapy for the prevention and treatment of keloid. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in the regulation of scar development. In the current study, it was hypothesized that miR-205-5p was capable of suppressing keloid formation by inhibiting the VEGF-mediated wound healing cascade. The expression statuses of miR-205-5p and VEGF in clinical keloid tissues and keloid cell line human keloid fibroblasts (HKF) were detected...
September 19, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yi Sun, Deyi Luo, Yuchun Zhu, Kunjie Wang
We cultivated human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) under pressures of 0 or 200 cm H2O pressure for 24 h, before using microarray technology to extract and analyze the different expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs in the two groups. We also predicted the target mRNA of the miDNA and performed functional forecasting. Changes in miRNA were identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after overexpressing miRNA by transfection. We used flow cytometry to examine HBSMC proliferation, and we used qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses to quantify the expression and activation of mRNAs and proteins...
September 19, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dong Guo, Jia Guo, Xiang Li, Feng Guan
Glycosylation of certain proteins at the mammalian cell surface is an essential event in carcinogenesis. Sialylation, one type of glycosylation, can act on multiple cell-behaviors, such as migration, growth, and malignant invasion. Two polysialyltransferases, ST8Sia II (STX) and ST8Sia IV (PST), are responsible for synthesis of polysialic acid on neural cell adhesion molecule. We showed previously that STX and PST are oppositely expressed in normal murine mammary gland cells undergoing transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
September 19, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Tawin Iempridee
Long non-coding RNA H19 is aberrantly expressed in multiple malignancies and its expression levels correlate with recurrence, metastasis, and patient survival. Despite numerous reports documenting the role of H19 in carcinogenesis, its contribution to cervical cancer development is still largely unknown. In this study, I observed that H19 expression was elevated in cervical cancer cell lines and could be detected in extracellular vesicles in the culture medium. In addition, I demonstrated, by overexpression and knockdown experiments, that H19 promoted cell proliferation and multicellular tumor spheroid formation without significantly affecting apoptosis and cell migration...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Da-Wei Zhao, Meng Tian, Jian-Zheng Yang, Peng Du, Jie Bi, Xinjian Zhu, Tao Li
The aim of our study was to investigate the hemostatic mechanism underlying microbubble-enhanced non-focused ultrasound treatment of liver trauma. Thirty rabbits with liver trauma were randomly divided into three groups-the microbubble-enhanced ultrasound (MEUS; further subdivided based on exposure intensity into MEUS1 [0.11 W/cm(2)], MEUS2 [0.55 W/cm(2)], and MEUS3 [1.1 W/cm(2)]), ultrasound without microbubbles (US), and microbubbles without ultrasound (MB) groups. The pre- and post-treatment bleeding weight and visual bleeding scores were evaluated...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jun Li, Jing Xiao, Tiandong Han, Ye Tian, Wenying Wang, Yuan Du
We evaluated the clinical value of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi in infants. Fifty-five infants with upper urinary tract calculi were included in this study: 41 males and 14 females. Retrograde intrarenal surgery was performed by an 8 Fr/30 cm flexible ureterorenoscope (POLY®) combined with a holmium laser. CT scanning or radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder region was performed one month after the operation to confirm the clearance of calculi...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Suet-Hui Ow, Pei-Jou Chua, Boon-Huat Bay
Peroxiredoxin I to VI (PRX I-VI), a family of highly conserved antioxidants, has been implicated in numerous diseases. There have been reports that PRXs are expressed aberrantly in a variety of tumors, implying that they could play an important role in carcinogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs have been reported to modulate expression of PRXs. In addition, the use of epigenetic regulators, such as histone deacetylases, has been demonstrated to restore PRX to normal levels, indicating that the reversible nature of epigenetics can be exploited for future treatments...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Otilija D Keta, Danijela V Todorović, Tanja M Bulat, Pablo Ga Cirrone, Francesco Romano, Giacomo Cuttone, Ivan M Petrović, Aleksandra M Ristić Fira
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of irradiations with the therapeutic proton and carbon ion beams in two non-small cell lung cancers, CRL5876 adenocarcinoma and HTB177 large cell lung carcinoma. The DNA damage response dynamics, cell cycle regulation, and cell death pathway activation were followed. Viability of both cell lines was lower after carbon ions compared to the therapeutic proton irradiations. HTB177 cells showed higher recovery than CRL5876 cells seven days following the treatments, but the survival rates of both cell lines were lower after exposure to carbon ions with respect to therapeutic protons...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Javier Cabrera-Perez, Vladimir P Badovinac, Thomas S Griffith
Sepsis is a poorly understood syndrome of systemic inflammation responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. The integrity of the gut epithelium and competence of adaptive immune responses are notoriously compromised during sepsis, and the prevalent assumption in the scientific and medical community is that intestinal commensals have a detrimental role in the systemic inflammation and susceptibility to nosocomial infections seen in critically ill, septic patients. However, breakthroughs in the last decade provide strong credence to the idea that our mucosal microbiome plays an essential role in adaptive immunity, where a human host and its prokaryotic colonists seem to exist in a carefully negotiated armistice with compromises and benefits that go both ways...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jian-Hui Xiao, Yao Zhang, Gui-You Liang, Ru-Ming Liu, Xiao-Gang Li, Ling-Tao Zhang, Dai-Xiong Chen, Jian-Jiang Zhong
The antibacterial agent helvolic acid, which was isolated from the active antitumor fraction of Cordyceps taii, showed potent cytotoxicity against different human cancer cells. In the present study, the in vivo antitumor effect of helvolic acid was investigated in murine sarcoma S180 tumor-bearing mice. Doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day helvolic acid did not exert significant antitumor activity. Interestingly, co-administration of 10 mg/kg/day helvolic acid and 20 mg/kg/day cyclophosphamide (CTX) - a well-known chemotherapy drug - showed promising antitumor activity with a growth inhibitory rate of 70...
September 6, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Thais A Fornari, Carolina Lanaro, Dulcinéia M Albuquerque, Regiane Ferreira, Fernando F Costa
Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin deletion type-2 (HPFH-2) and Sicilian-δβ-thalassemia are conditions described as large deletions of the human β-like globin cluster, with absent β-globin chains and a compensatory variable increase in γ-globin. HPFH, in general, may be distinguished from DB-Thalassemia by higher fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels, absence of anemia and hypochromic and microcytic erythrocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a range of cellular processes including erythropoiesis and regulation of transcription factors such as the BCL11A and SOX6 genes, which are related to the regulation of γ-globin expression...
September 3, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
En-Guo Chen, Feng-Jie Wu, Ji-Song Zhang, Han-Liang Jiang, Liang-Liang Dong, Hui-Hui Hu
The objective was to assess the safety and outcome of cold snare technique used by flexible bronchoscopy in the treatment of airway benign neoplasms. The clinical data of 21 patients, who had airway benign neoplasm and were treated through the cold snare method in Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, affiliated with the Zhejiang University, were retrospectively analyzed. The relief of the symptoms and occurrence of complications were observed and evaluated. All the tumors were benign and removed by cold snare. Postoperatively, we found that the treatment was completely effective in 12 patients, and there was a significant improvement in 7 patients and a moderate improvement in 2 patients, and no recurrence in follow-up visit...
September 2, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Xue Zhao, Jun Hao, Huijun Duan, Zanhua Rong, Fan Li
In the present study, the effect and mechanism of periostin on renal proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation of lupus mice were investigated. MRL/lpr mice, known as lupus mice, were revealed to show enhanced periostin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidney accompanied by increased serum platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Again, cultured mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were treated with PDGF, then periostin, and PCNA and secreted fibronectin were detected...
September 2, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dahae Lim, Youngwoo Cho, Woogyeong Kim, Sehee Jeong, Young Pyo Jang, Jinju Kim
The pulmonary and intestinal systems have several characteristics in common. It is believed that these similarities somehow function to cause pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk during inflammation. Many studies have shown that pulmonary disease occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease more often than is commonly recognized. Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam, a medicinal herb originated from the inner bark of Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis (Milford) Rendle (Poaceae), has been used to cure fever, diarrhea, and chest inflammation in Korea as well as in China...
September 2, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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