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Experimental Biology and Medicine

Megan E Parrott, Esam Aljrbi, Diane L Biederman, Ryan N Montalvo, Jeremy L Barth, Holly A LaVoie
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of extracellular matrix protein (ECM) gene expression combined with echocardiographic analyses of heart functional parameters in the murine heart during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Our findings show regulation of all Timp, selected Mmps, and Col1a1, Col3a1, and Col8a1 mRNA levels with reproductive status, with the greatest number of significant changes occurring in the early postpartum period. Left ventricle cardiac diastolic parameters were the first to change during pregnancy and remained elevated postpartum, whereas systolic parameters were increased in late pregnancy and began to recover during the first week postpartum...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
This mini-review presents information on the intermittent blockade of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis by low-dose naltrexone (LDN), and the role of enkephalin (i.e. OGF) in autoimmune disorders, specifically multiple sclerosis, Crohn's, and fibromyalgia. Clinical reports on subjects taking LDN have documented reduced fatigue, few side-effects, and improved overall health. Preclinical studies on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis, revealed that immunization for EAE reduces serum OGF...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Maria Pina Dore, Giovanni Mario Pes, Alessandra Errigo, Alessandra Manca, Giuseppe Realdi
Tissue transglutaminase (t-TG) is unique among TG enzymes because of its additional role in several physiological and pathological activities, including inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing. The presence of t-TG has previously been described in the intestine of human and animal models, yet studies on t-TG activity in human gastric mucosa are missing. Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers. For the first time, our results show that t-TG activity was significantly higher in antral specimens of patients with chronic active gastritis associated with H...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Rabi Yacoub, Girish N Nadkarni, Daniel I McSkimming, Lee D Chaves, Sham Abyad, Mark A Bryniarski, Amanda M Honan, Shruthi A Thomas, Madan Gowda, John C He, Jaime Uribarri
The heterogeneity of the renal disease, therapeutic interventions, and the original cause of the renal failure, all directly affect the microbiota. We delineate in this report the direct effect of decreased renal function on the bacterial composition following stringent criteria to eliminate the possibilities of other confounding factors and dissect the direct effects of the uremic milieu. We analyzed the microbiome following three different approaches to further evaluate the effects of mild, moderate and advanced renal insufficiency on the microbiome...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jessica Hersh, Shao-Hua Yang
This article reviews glial cell interactions with the immune system post-ischemic stroke. Research has shown that glial cells in the brain play a role in altering phenotypes of other glial cells and have downstream immune cell targets ultimately regulating a neuroinflammatory response. These interactions may play a deleterious as well as beneficial role in stroke recovery. Furthermore, they may provide a novel way to approach potential therapies, since current stroke drug therapy is limited to only one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug complicated by a narrow therapeutic window...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dong Hoon Lee, Edward L Giovannucci
Current understanding of the association of body composition on mortality in the general population is limited. This review evaluated the available epidemiologic studies on body composition and mortality that leveraged diverse approaches to estimate body composition. Although studies showed inconsistent results, there was evidence suggesting that high fat mass and low lean body mass may be independently associated with mortality in the general population. This review may help partially explain the "obesity paradox" phenomenon and facilitate further studies to advance the understanding of the association of body composition on health in the general and patient populations...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Nathalie Fuentes, Patricia Silveyra
Sex-differences in the incidence and severity of inflammatory lung diseases have been recognized for years. Women of reproductive age are more likely to suffer from chronic lung disease, with higher mortality rates than men. Physiological changes in hormone levels such as those occurring during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause have been associated with lung function changes and asthma symptoms. Despite this, the roles of sex hormones in the mechanisms associated with lung diseases have not been fully elucidated...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Gismar Mc Rodrigues, Bruno Db Borges, Leticia Gabriela Q Moreira, Érica Aparecida G Rossete, Suzelei de Castro Franca
The results of this work provide preliminary evidence that ovariectomized rats display the vaginal smear cells typical of the estrous phase of mature rats after long-term ingestion of Colocasia esculenta flavonoid glycosides. Moreover, the treatment caused beneficial effects on endocrine and reproductive organs compared to estradiol. The animals did not exhibit significant body weight alterations among the groups, demonstrating the maintenance of standard metabolism and energy balance. The overall findings obtained with the rat model of menopause highlight the importance of dietary consumption of C...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
O Duhan Toparlak, Sheref S Mansy
Advances in the understanding of the biophysics of membranes, the nonenzymatic and enzymatic polymerization of RNA, and in the design of complex chemical reaction networks have led to a new, integrated way of viewing the shared chemistry needed to sustain life. Although a protocell capable of Darwinian evolution has yet to be built, the seemingly disparate pieces are beginning to fit together. At the very least, better cellular mimics are on the horizon that will likely teach us much about the physicochemical underpinnings of cellular life...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dun Liu, Xiao-Ying Jiang, Lan-Shu Zhou
An enriched environment (EE) is an animal housing technique where animals are given increased amounts of space, physical activity, and social interaction. Presently, researchers studying EEs focus mainly on their effects within the context of neurological diseases. However, little is known about how EEs affect the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study assessed the effects of an EE on the intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with colorectal cancer.
November 28, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Xincheng Yao, Taeyoon Son, Tae-Hoon Kim, Yiming Lu
Retinal photoreceptors are the primary target of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which is the leading cause of severe vision loss and legal blindness. An objective method for functional assessment of photoreceptor physiology can benefit early detection and better treatment evaluation of AMD and other eye diseases that are known to cause photoreceptor dysfunctions. This article summarizes in vitro study of IOS mechanisms and in vivo demonstration of IOS imaging of intact animals. Further development of the functional IOS imaging may provide a revolutionary solution to achieve objective assessment of human photoreceptors...
November 27, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Irena Kasacka, Żaneta Piotrowska, Jolanta Weresa, Anna Filipek
Despite extensive research into the pathogenesis of hypertension and disease-related end organ damage, the mechanisms leading to cardiac complications of hypertensive patients are still not fully elucidated. The aim of the presented research was immunodetection and evaluation of CacyBP/SIP, β-catenin, and proteasomes in the hearts of rats with hypertension of different etiology. Our results show an innovative and important network of interactions between proteins potentially involved in the development and progression of heart problems in various types of hypertension...
November 24, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Martin Pedard, Céline Brenière, Nicolas Pernet, Catherine Vergely, Yannick Béjot, Christine Marie
There are a great number of arguments suggesting that BDNF could be involved in stroke recovery dependent of neuroplasticity. Methods that can enhance BDNF levels in the ischemic brain could therefore have great clinical value. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that contain BDNF and infiltrate early and sustainably the ischemic brain might be used as a cellular vector to deliver BDNF to the ischemic brain and consequently promote recovery. This work is important in this field to show if this BDNF derived from BDNF could exert a positive action on stroke recovery...
November 24, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jiaming Liu, Chen Chen, Yinjie Liu, Xiaorong Sun, Xueqin Ding, Liying Qiu, Pengfei Han, Y James Kang
Our study reveals that TETA, traditionally regarded as a copper chelator, in lower doses delivers copper selectively to the heart through a mechanism independent of copper transporter-1 or -2. Copper supplementation by a lower dose of TETA suppresses pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Since ischemic heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are accompanied by myocardial copper loss, this approach of using a lower dose of TETA to supplement copper to the heart would help treat the disease condition of patients with such cardiac events...
November 24, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Zahra Nafar, Rong Wen, Shuliang Jiao
Quantitative fundus autofluorescence imaging with simultaneous visible-light optical coherence tomography-based multimodal technology has potential significant impact on the diagnosis and monitoring the progression of retinal diseases.
November 24, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Adam D Baim, Asadolah Movahedan, Asim V Farooq, Dimitra Skondra
This review describes a growing body of research on relationships between the microbiome and eye disease. Several groups have investigated the microbiota of the ocular surface; dysregulation of this delicate ecosystem has been associated with a variety of pro-inflammatory states. Other research has explored the effects of the gastrointestinal microbiota on ophthalmic diseases. Characterizing the ways these microbiotas influence ophthalmic homeostasis and pathogenesis may lead to research on new techniques for managing ophthalmic disease...
November 21, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jennifer L Wilson
Many untreated diseases are not monogenic and are instead caused by multiple genetic defects. Because of this complexity, computational, logical, and systems understanding will be essential to discovering novel therapies. The scientist engineer is uniquely disposed to use this type of understanding to advance therapeutic discovery. This work highlights benefits of the scientist engineer perspective and underscores the potential impact of these approaches for future therapeutic development. By framing the scientist engineer's tool set and increasing awareness about this approach, this article stands to impact future therapeutic development efforts in an age of rising development costs and high drug attrition...
November 20, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Wenbo Zhou, Huiyan Wang, Xian Wu, Wei Long, Fangxiu Zheng, Jing Kong, Bin Yu
The abnormal expression of many regulatory factors may be involved in the development of PE. circRNAs are proved to have a series of important biological functions; however, reports about circRNA and PE are rare. In this work, we evaluated the profile analysis of circRNAs in human placenta of PE by RNA-seq and found some newly differentially expressed circRNAs which might be involved in PE. Combined with bioinformatics analysis, their possible functions were preliminarily discussed.
November 20, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yung-Yang Liu, Li-Fu Li
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is life-saving for patients with acute respiratory failure but also causes difficult liberation of patients from ventilator due to rapid decrease of diaphragm muscle endurance and strength, which is termed ventilator-induced diaphragmatic damage (VIDD). Numerous studies have revealed that VIDD could increase extubation failure, ICU stay, ICU mortality, and healthcare expenditures. However, the mechanisms of VIDD, potentially involving a multistep process including muscle atrophy, oxidative loads, structural damage, and muscle fiber remodeling, are not fully elucidated...
November 19, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Alexandra L Rodriguez, Michael Whitehurst, Brandon G Fico, Katelyn M Dodge, Peter J Ferrandi, Gabriel Pena, Avraham Adelman, Chun-Jung Huang
High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been shown to be a time-efficient exercise strategy that provides similar or superior physiological benefits as traditional continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME). Our previous study demonstrated an equivalent elevation on the BDNF response in both obese and normal-weight individuals following 30 min of acute CME. To discover a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve brain health in an obese population, the present study found that obese individuals elicit a greater level of BDNF following acute HIIE versus CME than normal-weight individuals...
November 19, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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