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European Cells & Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891043/treamed-locked-intramedullary-nailing-for-studying-femur-fracture-and-its-complications
#1
O Yoshino, J Brady, K Young, B Hardy, R Matthys, T Buxton, R Appleyard, J Tomka, D Dabirrahmani, P Woodford, M Fadia, R Steck, A Quail, R G Richards, Z J Balogh
Morbidity associated with femur fractures in polytrauma patients is known to be high. The many unsolved clinical questions include the immunological effect of the fracture and its fixation, timing of fracture fixation, management of fracture non-union, effect of infection and critical size of bone defects. The aim of this study was to establish a clinically-relevant and reproducible animal model with regards to histological, biomechanical and radiological changes during bone healing. A custom-designed intramedullary nail with interlocking system (RabbitNail, RISystem AG, Davos Platz, Switzerland) was used for fixation, following femur fracture...
September 11, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880360/the-effect-of-whole-body-vibration-on-fracture-healing-a-systematic-review
#2
J Wang, K S Leung, S K Chow, W H Cheung
This systematic review examines the efficacy and safety of whole body vibration (WBV) on fracture healing. A systematic literature search was conducted with relevant keywords in PubMed and Embase, independently, by two reviewers. Original animal and clinical studies about WBV effects on fracture healing with available full-text and written in English were included. Information was extracted from the included studies for review. In total, 19 articles about pre-clinical studies were selected. Various vibration regimes are reported; of those, the frequencies of 35 Hz and 50 Hz show better results than others...
September 7, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853767/a-large-animal-model-for-a-failed-two-stage-revision-of-intramedullary-nail-related-infection-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
T F Moriarty, T Schmid, V Post, E Samara, S Kates, E M Schwarz, S Zeiter, R G Richards
The treatment of chronic orthopaedic device-associated infection (ODRI) often requires multiple surgeries and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Despite this extensive treatment protocol, the procedure is associated with significant failure rates. Currently, no large animal model is available that recapitulates a failed revision. Therefore, our aim was to establish a large animal model for failed treatment of an ODRI in order to serve as a testbed for future interventional strategies. Adult Swiss Alpine sheep received an intramedullary nail in the tibia and a localised inoculum of either a methicillin-sensitive or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, MRSA respectively)...
August 30, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836259/cartilage-matrix-remodelling-differs-by-disease-state-and-joint-type
#4
M-F Hsueh, V B Kraus, P Önnerfjord
Dramatic alterations in mechanical properties have been documented for osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. However, the matrix composition underlying these changes has not been mapped and their aetiology is not entirely understood. We hypothesised that an understanding of the cartilage matrix heterogeneity could provide insights into the origin of these OA-related alterations. We generated serial transverse cryo sections for 7 different cartilage conditions: 2 joint sites (knee and hip), 2 disease states (healthy and OA) and 3 tissue depths (superficial, middle and deep)...
August 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810287/seeding-density-is-a-crucial-determinant-for-the-in-vivo-vascularisation-capacity-of-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#5
T Später, C Körbel, F S Frueh, R M Nickels, M D Menger, M W Laschke
Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) represent effective vascularisation units for the seeding of dermal substitutes. However, particularly in case of extensive skin defects, the required amounts of donor fat tissue for the harvesting of ad-MVF may not always be available. Therefore, we herein determined the lowest ad-MVF density needed to induce a sufficient vascularisation and incorporation of seeded implants. Collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices (Integra®; diameter: 4 mm) were seeded with 15,000 (HD), 10,000 (MD) and 5,000 (LD) ad-MVF and implanted into full-thickness skin defects within mouse dorsal skinfold chambers, to analyse their in vivo vascularisation and incorporation...
August 15, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731483/the-role-of-laminins-in-cartilaginous-tissues-from-development-to-regeneration
#6
Y Sun, T L Wang, W S Toh, M Pei
As a key molecule of the extracellular matrix, laminin provides a delicate microenvironment for cell functions. Recent findings suggest that laminins expressed by cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes, progenitor cells and stem cells) could promote chondrogenesis. However, few papers outline the effect of laminins on providing a favorable matrix microenvironment for cartilage regeneration. In this review, we delineated the expression of laminins in hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage and cartilage-like tissue (nucleus pulposus) throughout several developmental stages...
July 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714058/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-pdgf-bb-delivery-strategies-on-tendon-healing-a-review
#7
O Evrova, J Buschmann
To promote and support tendon healing, one viable strategy is the use or administration of growth factors at the wound/rupture site. Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), together with other growth factors, is secreted by platelets after injury. PDGF-BB promotes mitogenesis and angiogenesis, which could accelerate tendon healing. Therefore, in vitro studies with PDGF-BB have been performed to determine its effect on tenocytes and tenoblasts. Moreover, accurate and sophisticated drug delivery devices, aiming for a sustained release of PDGF-BB, have been developed, either by using heparin-binding and fibrin-based matrices or different electrospinning techniques...
July 17, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692113/analysing-the-bioactive-makeup-of-demineralised-dentine-matrix-on-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-enhanced-bone-repair
#8
S J Avery, L Sadaghiani, A J Sloan, R J Waddington
Dentine matrix has proposed roles for directing mineralised tissue repair in dentine and bone; however, the range of bioactive components in dentine and specific biological effects on bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in humans are less well understood. The aims of this study were to further elucidate the biological response of MSCs to demineralised dentine matrix (DDM) in enhancing wound repair responses and ascertain key contributing components. Dentine was obtained from human teeth and DDM proteins solubilised with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
July 10, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537650/tendon-healing-induced-by-chemically-modified-mrnas
#9
K Groth, T Berezhanskyy, M K Aneja, J Geiger, M Schweizer, L Maucksch, T Pasewald, T Brill, B Tigani, E Weber, C Rudolph, G Hasenpusch
Tendon disorders are frequent both in human and veterinary medicine with high re-injury rates and unsatisfactory therapeutic treatments. Application of naked, chemically-modified mRNA (cmRNA), encoding for therapeutic proteins, is an innovative approach to address tendon healing. In the current study, we demonstrated that injection of naked cmRNA, diluted in a glucose-containing solution, into tendons resulted in high protein expression in healthy and experimentally-injured tendons. Injection of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7)-encoding cmRNA resulted in a significantly higher expression of BMP-7 protein and reduced formation of collagen type III, compared to vehicle control...
May 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485773/curcumin-alleviates-lumbar-radiculopathy-by-reducing-neuroinflammation-oxidative-stress-and-nociceptive-factors
#10
L Xiao, M Ding, A Fernandez, P Zhao, L Jin, X Li
Current non-surgical treatments for lumbar radiculopathy [e.g. epidural steroids and Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antagonists] are neither effective nor safe. As a non-toxic natural product, curcumin possesses an exceptional anti-inflammatory profile. We hypothesised that curcumin alleviates lumbar radiculopathy by attenuating neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and nociceptive factors. In a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) culture, curcumin effectively inhibited TNF-α-induced neuroinflammation, in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and COX-2...
May 9, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378876/potentials-and-limitations-of-integra%C3%A2-flowable-wound-matrix-seeded-with-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#11
T Später, F S Frueh, M D Menger, M W Laschke
Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) represent promising vascularisation units for bioengineered Integra® matrix wound dressing (MWD). However, due to the sheet-like structure with small pore sizes, the seeding of this matrix with ad-MVF is mainly limited to its surface. Integra® flowable wound matrix (FWM) may be suitable to achieve a more homogeneous distribution and, thus, improved vascularisation, because this gel-like matrix allows for the direct admixture of ad-MVF during sample preparation...
April 5, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368079/the-effect-of-extracellular-acidosis-on-the-behaviour-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#12
A Massa, F Perut, T Chano, A Woloszyk, T A Mitsiadis, S Avnet, N Baldini
The stem cell fraction of a cell population is finely tuned by stimuli from the external microenvironment. Among these stimuli, a decrease of extracellular pH (pHe) may occur in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. In this study, by using bone marrow stem cells and dental pulp stem cells, we provided evidence that extracellular acidosis endows the maintenance of stemness in mesenchymal cells. Indeed, continuous exposure for 21 d to low pHe (6.5-6.8) conditions impaired the osteogenic differentiation of both cell types...
April 3, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345732/comparative-analysis-in-continuous-expansion-of-bovine-and-human-primary-nucleus-pulposus-cells-for-tissue-repair-applications
#13
D H Rosenzweig, J Tremblay Gravel, D Bisson, J A Ouellet, M H Weber, L Haglund
Autologous NP cell implantation is a potential therapeutic avenue for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, monolayer expansion of cells isolated from surgical samples may negatively impact matrix production by way of dedifferentiation. Previously, we have used a continuous expansion culture system to successfully preserve a chondrocyte phenotype. In this work, we hypothesised that continuous expansion culture could also preserve nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype. We confirmed that serial passaging drove NP dedifferentiation by significantly decreasing collagen type II, aggrecan and chondroadherin (CHAD) gene expression, compared to freshly isolated cells...
March 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319248/cyclic-tensile-strain-enhances-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-smad-2-3-activation-and-tenogenic-differentiation-in-anisotropic-collagen-glycosaminoglycan-scaffolds
#14
W G Grier, A S Moy, B A Harley
Stem cell research arose from the need to explore new therapeutic possibilities for intractable and lethal diseases. Although musculoskeletal disorders are basically nonlethal, their high prevalence and relative ease of performing clinical trials have facilitated the clinical application of stem cells in this field. However, few reliable clinical studies have been published, despite the plethora of in vitro and preclinical studies in stem cell research for regenerative medicine in the musculoskeletal system...
March 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266689/local-induction-of-inflammation-affects-bone-formation
#15
M Croes, M C Kruyt, L Loozen, A H Kragten, H Yuan, W J Dhert, F C Öner, J Alblas
To explore the influence of inflammatory processes on bone formation, we applied a new in vivo screening model. Confined biological pockets were first created in rabbits as a response to implanted bone cement discs. These biomembrane pockets were subsequently used to study the effects of inflammatory stimuli on ectopic bone formation within biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) constructs loaded with TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA), all with or without bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2...
February 27, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266688/the-bmp2-variant-l51p-restores-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-the-presence-of-intervertebral-disc-cells
#16
A Tekari, R D May, D A Frauchiger, S C Chan, L M Benneker, B Gantenbein
Spinal fusion is hampered by the presence of remaining intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue and leads to spinal non-union. While the exact mechanism remains unknown, we hypothesise that factors preventing disc ossification, such as antagonists of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), could be responsible for this process. The objective of this study was to investigate spinal non-union using an in vitro human model with a focus on the BMP signalling components and to identify factors contributing to the incomplete and delayed ossification...
February 23, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266690/lengthening-primary-cilia-enhances-cellular-mechanosensitivity
#17
G-I Im
Stem cell research arose from the need to explore new therapeutic possibilities for intractable and lethal diseases. Although musculoskeletal disorders are basically nonlethal, their high prevalence and relative ease of performing clinical trials have facilitated the clinical application of stem cells in this field. However, few reliable clinical studies have been published, despite the plethora of in vitro and preclinical studies in stem cell research for regenerative medicine in the musculoskeletal system...
February 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266691/resorbable-electrospun-polydioxanone-fibres-modify-the-behaviour-of-cells-from-both-healthy-and-diseased-human-tendons
#18
A Kendal, S Snelling, S Dakin, E Stace, P-A Mouthuy, A Carr
Chronic tendinopathy in an active and ageing population represents an increasing burden to healthcare systems. Rotator cuff tendinopathy alone accounts for approximately 70 % of all shoulder pain. Tendinopathic tissue has a disorganised extracellular matrix, altered vasculature, and infiltration of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. This altered biology may contribute to the limited success of surgical repair strategies. Electrospun resorbable scaffolds can potentially enhance endogenous repair mechanisms by influencing the tissue microenvironment...
February 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217833/lengthening-primary-cilia-enhances-cellular-mechanosensitivity
#19
M Spasic, C R Jacobs
The primary cilium is a mechanosensor in a variety of mammalian cell types, initiating and directing intracellular signalling cascades in response to external stimuli. When primary cilia formation is disrupted, cells have diminished mechanosensitivity and an abrogated response to mechanical stimulation. Due to this important role, we hypothesised that increasing primary cilia length would enhance the downstream response and therefore, mechanosensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we increased osteocyte primary cilia length with fenoldopam and lithium and found that cells with longer primary cilia were more mechanosensitive...
February 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198985/cell-aggregation-enhances-bone-formation-by-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#20
A Chatterjea, V L LaPointe, A Barradas, H Garritsen, H Yuan, A Renard, C A van Blitterswijk, J de Beor
The amount of bone generated using current tissue engineering approaches is insufficient for many clinical applications. Previous in vitro studies suggest that culturing cells as 3D aggregates can enhance their osteogenic potential, but the effect on bone formation in vivo is unknown. Here, we use agarose wells to generate uniformly sized mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) aggregates. When combined with calcium phosphate ceramic particles and a gel prepared from human platelet-rich plasma, we generated a tissue engineered construct which significantly improved in vivo bone forming capacity as compared to the conventional system of using single cells seeded directly on the ceramic surface...
February 15, 2017: European Cells & Materials
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