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European Cells & Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905661/artificial-cartilage-bio-matrix-formed-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-mg2-polyphosphate
#1
X Wang, M Ackermann, E Tolba, M Neufurth, F Wurm, Q Feng, S Wang, H C Schröder, W E Müller
Here we show that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polyanionic metabolic regulator consisting of multiple phosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is present in the synovial fluid. In a biomimetic approach, to enhance cartilage synthesis and regeneration, we prepared amorphous polyP microparticles with Mg2+ as counterions. The particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analyses. Similar particles were obtained after addition of Mg2+ ions to a solution containing hyaluronic acid, as a major component of the synovial fluid, and soluble Na-polyP...
November 29, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858401/intervertebral-disc-degeneration-ectopic-calcification-advanced-glycation-end-products-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#2
S Illien-Jünger, O M Torre, W F Kindschuh, X Chen, D M Laudier, J C Iatridis
Ectopic calcifications in intervertebral discs (IVDs) are known characteristics of IVD degeneration that are not commonly reported but may be implicated in structural failure and dysfunctional IVD cell metabolic responses. This study investigated the novel hypothesis that ectopic calcifications in the IVD are associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) via hypertrophy and osteogenic differentiation. Histological analyses of human IVDs from several degeneration stages revealed areas of ectopic calcification within the nucleus pulposus and at the cartilage endplate...
November 18, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858400/optimisation-of-bmp-2-dosage-for-the-osseointegration-of-porous-titanium-implants-in-an-ovine-model
#3
E B Hunziker, J Jovanovic, A Horner, M J Keel, K Lippuner, N Shintani
In clinical orthopaedics, total joint replacements and spinal fusions are routine undertakings. Many of the implicated patients suffer from osteoporosis, severe arthrosis or osteopaenia. In individuals thus afflicted, the bony bed lacks the mechanical stability that is a requisite for a firm anchorage of the implant and its functional competence. To promote the bony bondage of an implant it is necessary to induce neo-ossification by the introduction of an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)...
November 18, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763655/periodontal-ligament-cells-as-alternative-source-for-cell-based-therapy-of-tendon-injuries-in-vivo-study-of-full-size-achilles-tendon-defect-in-a-rat-model
#4
C-F Hsieh, P Alberton, E Loffredo-Verde, E Volkmer, M Pietschmann, P E Müller, M Schieker, D Docheva
Tendon's natural healing potential is extremely low and inefficient, with significant dysfunction and disability due to hypocellularity and hypovascularity of tendon tissues. The application of stem cells can aid in significantly enhanced repair of tendon rupture; therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the potential of using periodontal ligament cells (PDL), usually obtained from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, as a novel cell source for cell-based therapy for tendon injuries in a clinically relevant rat full-size Achilles tendon defect...
October 20, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771937/lumbar-intervertebral-disc-allograft-transplantation-healing-and-remodelling-of-the-bony-structure
#5
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759878/the-dorsal-skinfold-chamber-a-versatile-tool-for-preclinical-research-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#6
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853623/age-related-changes-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-identified-using-a-multi-omics-approach
#7
M J Peffers, J Collins, Y Fang, K Goljanek-Whysall, M Rushton, J Loughlin, C Proctor, P D Clegg
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of multipotent differentiation into connective tissues and as such are an attractive source for autologous cell-based treatments for many clinical diseases and injuries. Ageing is associated with various altered cellular phenotypes coupled with a variety of transcriptional, epigenetic and translational changes. Furthermore, the regeneration potential of MSCs is reduced with increasing age and is correlated with changes in cellular functions. This study used a systems biology approach to investigate the transcriptomic (RNASeq), epigenetic (miRNASeq and DNA methylation) and protein alterations in ageing MSCs in order to understand the age-related functional and biological variations, which may affect their applications to regenerative medicine...
February 8, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853622/3d-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-for-assessment-of-cartilage-repair-tissue-volumetric-characterisation-and-correlation-to-established-classification-systems
#8
M Schöne, N Männicke, J S Somerson, B Marquaß, R Henkelmann, J Mochida, T Aigner, K Raum, R M Schulz
Objective and sensitive assessment of cartilage repair outcomes lacks suitable methods. This study investigated the feasibility of 3D ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) to quantify cartilage repair outcomes volumetrically and their correlation with established classification systems. 32 sheep underwent bilateral treatment of a focal cartilage defect. One or two years post-operatively the repair outcomes were assessed and scored macroscopically (Outerbridge, ICRS-CRA), by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, MOCART), and histopathology (O'Driscoll, ICRS-I and ICRS-II)...
February 8, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26815643/the-response-of-tenocytes-to-commercial-scaffolds-used-for-rotator-cuff-repair
#9
R D Smith, A Carr, S G Dakin, S J Snelling, C Yapp, O Hakimi
Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients' cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds)...
January 27, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728500/chondrogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-novel-hyaluronate-collagen-tricalcium-phosphate-scaffolds-for-knee-repair
#10
F G Meng, Z Q Zhang, G X Huang, W S Chen, Z J Zhang, A S He, W M Liao
Scaffolds are expected to play a key role in the induction of chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage tissue regeneration. Here, we report the development of a novel tricalcium phosphate-collagen-hyaluronate (TCP-COL-HA) scaffold that can function as a stem cell carrier to induce chondrogenesis and promote cartilage repair, and the investigation of chondroinductive properties of scaffolds containing varying amounts of TCP, COL and HA. TCP-COL-HA scaffolds, as well as TCP-COL scaffolds at two different TCP/COL ratios (50:50 and 25:75), were evaluated for their ability to induce cartilage regeneration from rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) in vitro and in vivo...
January 5, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728499/biomechanical-signals-guiding-stem-cell-cartilage-engineering-from-molecular-adaption-to-tissue-functionality
#11
REVIEW
Y Zhang, S Chen, M Pei
In vivo cartilage is in a state of constant mechanical stimulation. It is therefore reasonable to deduce that mechanical forces play an important role in cartilage formation. Mechanical forces, such as compression, tension, and shear force, have been widely applied for cartilage engineering; however, relatively few review papers have summarized the influence of biomechanical signals on stem cell-based neo-cartilage formation and cartilage engineering in both molecular adaption and tissue functionality. In this review, we will discuss recent progress related to the influences of substrate elasticity on stem cell chondrogenic differentiation and elucidate the potential underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728498/characterisation-of-human-gingival-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells-in-monolayer-and-neurosphere-cultures
#12
B P Fournier, L S Loison-Robert, F C Ferré, G R Owen, H Larjava, L Häkkinen
Neural crest (NC)-derived stem cells (NCSC) have an exceptionally wide differentiation potential, but their use in regenerative therapy has been hampered by their scarcity in adult tissues and complex isolation protocols. Human oral mucosal gingiva may provide an attractive source of these cells as it contains NC-derived cells, the tissue is easily accessible and wound healing is fast and scarless with very little morbidity. To this end, we first investigated whether NC-derived cells are retained in adult gingiva by examining 8-months-old NC-reporter Wnt1-Cre/R26RYFP mice...
January 5, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728496/the-combined-mechanism-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-and-calcium-phosphate-induced-skeletal-tissue-formation-by-human-periosteum-derived-cells
#13
J Bolander, W Ji, L Geris, V Bloemen, Y C Chai, J Schrooten, F P Luyten
When combining osteogenic progenitor cells such as human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) with osteoconductive biomaterials like calcium phosphate (CaP)-scaffolds, in vivo bone formation can be achieved. This process is dependent on the early activation of Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signalling. However, the bone forming process is slow and routinely only a limited amount of bone and bone marrow is formed. Therefore, we hypothesised that a robust clinically relevant outcome could be achieved by adding more physiological levels of potent BMP-ligands to these cell- and CaP-based constructs...
January 5, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728495/systemic-blood-plasma-ccl5-and-cxcl6-potential-biomarkers-for-human-lumbar-disc-degeneration
#14
S Grad, C Bow, J Karppinen, K D Luk, K M Cheung, M Alini, D Samartzis
Lumbar disc degeneration severity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with low back pain. Pro-inflammatory chemokines CCL5 and CXCL6 are released by induced degenerative discs, and CCL5 has been associated with discogenic back pain. A case-control study was performed, based on the Hong Kong Disc Degeneration Population-Based Cohort of Southern Chinese, to investigate if systemic levels of CCL5 and CXCL6 were elevated in subjects with disc degeneration compared to non-degenerated individuals. Eighty subjects were selected, 40 with no disc degeneration (control group; DDD score 0) and 40 with moderate/severe disc degeneration (disc degeneration group; DDD score ≥5) as noted on MRI...
January 5, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646143/the-dorsal-skinfold-chamber-a-versatile-tool-for-preclinical-research-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#15
M W Laschke, M D Menger
The dorsal skinfold chamber is a rodent model for non-invasive microcirculatory analyses of striated muscle and skin tissue throughout an observation period of 2-3 weeks. In combination with intravital fluorescence microscopy, this model allows the quantitative assessment of dynamic processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling and microcirculation. Accordingly, the dorsal skinfold chamber is increasingly used for preclinical research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This includes studies on biocompatibility, vascularisation and incorporation of medical implants and artificial tissue constructs...
2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633707/human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-cultured-onto-cortico-cancellous-scaffold-drive-bone-regenerative-process
#16
F Diomede, N Zini, V Gatta, S Fulle, I Merciaro, M D'Aurora, R M La Rovere, T Traini, J Pizzicannella, P Ballerini, S Caputi, A Piattelli, O Trubiani
The purpose of this work was to test, in vitro and in vivo, a new tissue-engineered construct constituted by porcine cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block) (DB) and xeno-free ex vivo culture of human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs). hPDLSCs cultured in xeno-free media formulation preserved the stem cells' morphological features, the expression of stemness and pluripotency markers, and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that after one week of culture, both noninduced and osteogenic differentiation induced cells joined and grew on DB secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) that in osteogenic induced samples was hierarchically assembled in fibrils...
2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572543/soluble-and-pelletable-factors-in-porcine-canine-and-human-notochordal-cell-conditioned-medium-implications-for-ivd-regeneration
#17
F C Bach, S A de Vries, F M Riemers, J Boere, F W van Heel, M van Doeselaar, S S Goerdaya, P G Nikkels, K Benz, L B Creemers, A F Maarten Altelaar, B P Meij, K Ito, M A Tryfonidou
During intervertebral disc (IVD) maturation, notochordal cells (NCs) are replaced by chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs) in the nucleus pulposus, suggesting that NCs play a role in maintaining tissue health. Affirmatively, NC-conditioned medium (NCCM) exerts regenerative effects on CLC proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. The aim of this study was to identify NC-secreted substances that stimulate IVD regeneration. By mass spectrometry of porcine, canine and human NCCM, 149, 170 and 217 proteins were identified, respectively, with 66 proteins in common...
2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452963/the-crucial-role-of-neutrophil-granulocytes-in-bone-fracture-healing
#18
A Kovtun, S Bergdolt, R Wiegner, P Radermacher, M Huber-Lang, A Ignatius
Delayed bone fracture healing and the formation of non-unions represent an important clinical problem, particularly in polytrauma patients who suffer from posttraumatic systemic inflammation. However, the underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear. Neutrophil granulocytes are crucial effector cells in the systemic immune response and represent the most abundant immune cell population in the early fracture haematoma. Here we investigated the role of neutrophils in a mouse model of uncomplicated fracture healing and compromised fracture healing induced by an additional thoracic trauma...
2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452962/human-cartilaginous-endplate-degeneration-is-induced-by-calcium-and-the-extracellular-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-the-intervertebral-disc
#19
M P Grant, L M Epure, R Bokhari, P Roughley, J Antoniou, F Mwale
The cartilaginous endplates (CEPs) are thin layers of hyaline cartilage found adjacent to intervertebral discs (IVDs). In addition to providing structural support, CEPs regulate nutrient and metabolic exchange in the disc. In IVD pathogenesis, CEP undergoes degeneration and calcification, compromising nutrient availability and disc cell metabolism. The mechanism(s) underlying the biochemical changes of CEP in disc degeneration are currently unknown. Since calcification is often observed in later stages of IVD degeneration, we hypothesised that elevations in free calcium (Ca2+) impair CEP homeostasis...
2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434269/reduced-tissue-osmolarity-increases-trpv4-expression-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-intervertebral-disc-cells
#20
B A Walter, D Purmessur, A Moon, J Occhiogrosso, D M Laudier, A C Hecht, J C Iatridis
The mechanical behaviour and cellular metabolism of intervertebral discs (IVDs) and articular cartilage are strongly influenced by their proteoglycan content and associated osmotic properties. This osmotic environment is a biophysical signal that changes with disease and may contribute to the elevated matrix breakdown and altered biologic response to loading observed in IVD degeneration and osteoarthritis. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in osmo-sensation by the transient receptor potential vallinoid-4 (TRPV4) ion channel occur with disease and contribute to the inflammatory environment found during degeneration...
2016: European Cells & Materials
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