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European Cells & Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130237/in-situ-forming-oxidised-hyaluronic-acid-adipic-acid-dihydrazide-hydrogel-for-prevention-of-epidural-fibrosis-after-laminectomy
#1
M H Hu, K C Yang, Y H Sun, Y C Chen, S H Yang, F H Lin
Post-operative epidural fibrosis is a biological response after laminectomy that may lead to clinical symptoms, such as radicular pain. An ideal material for prevention of epidural fibrosis should be able to inhibit fibroblast adhesions and reduce formation of scar tissue. An injectable hydrogel would be the material of choice for this purpose, since it could fill an irregular surgical defect completely, gelate in situ and be delivered in a minimally-invasive manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the cytocompatibility and anti-adhesive effect of an oxidised hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (oxi-HA/ADH) hydrogel...
November 13, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092089/notch-wnt-cross-signalling-regulates-stemness-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-through-expression-of-neural-crest-and-core-pluripotency-factors
#2
V Uribe-Etxebarria, J Luzuriaga, P García-Gallastegui, A Agliano, F Unda, G Ibarretxe
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from adult teeth express neural crest (NC) markers together with core transcriptional factors associated with stem cell pluripotency, such as Oct4a, Sox2, c-Myc, Rex1, Stella/Dppa3, Ssea1/Fut4, Lin28 and Nanog. The possibility to boost the natural stemness features of DPSCs by mild methods, that do not involve gene and/or chromatin modification or gene transfection, is highly desirable for cell therapy. Canonical Wnt and Notch are two highly conserved developmental signalling pathways that are involved in NC emergence and stem cell self-renewal...
November 1, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076514/on-the-origin-and-impact-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-heterogeneity-new-insights-and-emerging-tools-for-single-cell-analysis
#3
C M McLeod, R L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display substantial cell-to-cell variation. This heterogeneity manifests among donors, among tissue sources, and within cell populations. Such pervasive variability complicates the use of MSCs in regenerative applications and may limit their therapeutic efficacy. Most conventional assays measure MSC properties in bulk and, as a consequence, mask this cell-to-cell variation. Recent studies have identified extensive variability amongst and within clonal MSC populations, in dimensions including functional differentiation capacity, molecular state (e...
October 27, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064533/in-vitro-effects-of-particulate-bone-substitute-materials-on-the-resorption-activity-of-human-osteoclasts
#4
G Russmueller, L Winkler, R Lieber, R Seemann, K Pirklbauer, C Perisanidis, B Kapeller, E Spassova, E Halwax, W P Poeschl, K Macfelda, D Moser
Much research has been done on bone cells, but only a few studies deal with biomaterial-induced effects on human osteoclasts, which may take on an important role in the successful regeneration of bone. In order to highlight such effects, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from venous blood, differentiated to osteoclasts and then cultured in, the presence of five particulate hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) biomaterials, on bovine bone slices and glass cover slips...
October 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064532/a-review-of-the-application-of-reinforced-hydrogels-and-silk-as-biomaterials-for-intervertebral-disc-repair
#5
D A Frauchiger, A Tekari, M Wöltje, G Fortunato, L M Benneker, B Gantenbein
The degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) within the spinal column represents a major pain source for many patients. Biological restoration or repair of the IVD using "compressive-force-resistant" and at the same time "cytocompatible" materials would be desirable over current purely mechanical solutions, such as spinal fusion or IVD implants. This review provides an overview of recent research on the repair of the inner (nucleus pulposus = NP) and the outer (annulus fibrous = AF) parts of the IVD tissue...
October 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039630/impairment-of-the-chondrogenic-phase-of-endochondral-ossification-in-vivo-by-inhibition-of-cyclooxygenase-2
#6
M P Janssen, M M Caron, B van Rietbergen, D A Surtel, L W van Rhijn, T J Welting, P J Emans
Many studies have reported on the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on osteogenesis. However, far less is known about the effects of COX-2 inhibition on chondrogenic differentiation. Previous studies conducted by our group show that COX-2 inhibition influences in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. Importantly, this might have consequences on endochondral ossification processes occurring in vivo, such as bone fracture healing, growth plate development and ectopic generation of cartilage. The goal of our study was to investigate, in vivo, the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on the cartilaginous phase of three different endochondral ossification scenarios...
October 17, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028070/gene-expression-in-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-comparison-of-2d-films-3d-electrospun-meshes-or-co-cultured-scaffolds-with-two-way-paracrine-effects
#7
S C Hess, W J Stark, D Mohn, N Cohrs, S Märsmann, M Calcagni, P Cinelli, J Buschmann
Finding the appropriate cues to trigger the desired differentiation is a challenge in tissue engineering when stem cells are involved. In this regard, three-dimensional environments are often compared to cells' two-dimensional culture behaviour (plastic culture dish). Here, we compared the gene expression pattern of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) seeded in a three-dimensional (3D) electrospun mesh and on a two-dimensional (2D) film - both of exactly the same material. Additionally, we conducted experiments with a scaffold floating above a film to investigate two-way paracrine effects (co-system)...
October 13, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994450/the-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-joint-diseases
#8
O Krupkova, J Zvick, K Wuertz-Kozak
Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are cation selective transmembrane receptors with diverse structures, activation mechanisms and physiological functions. TRP channels act as cellular sensors for a plethora of stimuli, including temperature, membrane voltage, oxidative stress, mechanical stimuli, pH and endogenous, as well as, exogenous ligands, thereby illustrating their versatility. As such, TRP channels regulate various functions in both excitable and non-excitable cells, mainly by mediating Ca2+ homeostasis...
October 10, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980278/do-we-need-retarded-delivery-of-bone-growth-factors-in-facial-bone-repair-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#9
N Moser, N Lohse, J Golstein, P Kauffmann, B Sven, M Epple, H Schliephake
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different dosages of retarded vs. rapid release of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) at different recipient sites. Porous composite poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA)/CaCO3 scaffolds were loaded with three different dosages of rhBMP2 (24 µg, 48 µg and 96 µg) and implanted, together with blank controls, both into non-healing defects of the mandibles and into the gluteal muscles of 24 adult male Wistar rats. After 26 weeks, bone formation and expression of bone specific markers [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and Runx2] were evaluated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry...
October 5, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937176/mesenchymal-stem-cell-mediated-endochondral-ossification-utilising-micropellets-and-brief-chondrogenic-priming
#10
C A Knuth, J Witte-Bouma, Y Ridwan, E B Wolvius, E Farrell
With limited autologous and donor bone graft availability, there is an increasing need for alternative graft substitutes. We have previously shown that chondrogenically priming mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pellets for 28 d in vitro will reproducibly result in endochondral bone formation after in vivo implantation. However, pellet priming time for clinical applications is quite extensive. A micropellet (μpellet)-fibrin construct was developed and coupled, with a shorter priming period, determined by an in vitro time course experiment...
September 22, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929469/chondrocyte-expansion-is-associated-with-loss-of-primary-cilia-and-disrupted-hedgehog-signalling
#11
C L Thompson, J C Plant, A K Wann, C L Bishop, P Novak, H M Mitchison, P L Beales, J P Chapple, M M Knight
Tissue engineering-based therapies targeting cartilage diseases, such as osteoarthritis, require in vitro expansion of articular chondrocytes. A major obstacle for these therapies is the dedifferentiation and loss of phenotype accompanying chondrocyte expansion. Recent studies suggest that manipulation of hedgehog signalling may be used to promote chondrocyte re-differentiation. Hedgehog signalling requires the primary cilium, a microtubule-based signalling compartment, the integrity of which is linked to the cytoskeleton...
September 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891043/treamed-locked-intramedullary-nailing-for-studying-femur-fracture-and-its-complications
#12
O Yoshino, J Brady, K Young, B Hardy, R Matthys, T Buxton, R Appleyard, J Tomka, D Dabirrahmani, P Woodford, M Fadia, R Steck, A Quail, R G Richards, Z J Balogh
Morbidity associated with femur fractures in polytrauma patients is known to be high. The many unsolved clinical questions include the immunological effect of the fracture and its fixation, timing of fracture fixation, management of fracture non-union, effect of infection and critical size of bone defects. The aim of this study was to establish a clinically-relevant and reproducible animal model with regards to histological, biomechanical and radiological changes during bone healing. A custom-designed intramedullary nail with interlocking system (RabbitNail, RISystem AG, Davos Platz, Switzerland) was used for fixation, following femur fracture...
September 11, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880360/the-effect-of-whole-body-vibration-on-fracture-healing-a-systematic-review
#13
J Wang, K S Leung, S K Chow, W H Cheung
This systematic review examines the efficacy and safety of whole body vibration (WBV) on fracture healing. A systematic literature search was conducted with relevant keywords in PubMed and Embase, independently, by two reviewers. Original animal and clinical studies about WBV effects on fracture healing with available full-text and written in English were included. Information was extracted from the included studies for review. In total, 19 articles about pre-clinical studies were selected. Various vibration regimes are reported; of those, the frequencies of 35 Hz and 50 Hz show better results than others...
September 7, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853767/a-large-animal-model-for-a-failed-two-stage-revision-of-intramedullary-nail-related-infection-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
T F Moriarty, T Schmid, V Post, E Samara, S Kates, E M Schwarz, S Zeiter, R G Richards
The treatment of chronic orthopaedic device-associated infection (ODRI) often requires multiple surgeries and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Despite this extensive treatment protocol, the procedure is associated with significant failure rates. Currently, no large animal model is available that recapitulates a failed revision. Therefore, our aim was to establish a large animal model for failed treatment of an ODRI in order to serve as a testbed for future interventional strategies. Adult Swiss Alpine sheep received an intramedullary nail in the tibia and a localised inoculum of either a methicillin-sensitive or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, MRSA respectively)...
August 30, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836259/cartilage-matrix-remodelling-differs-by-disease-state-and-joint-type
#15
M-F Hsueh, V B Kraus, P Önnerfjord
Dramatic alterations in mechanical properties have been documented for osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. However, the matrix composition underlying these changes has not been mapped and their aetiology is not entirely understood. We hypothesised that an understanding of the cartilage matrix heterogeneity could provide insights into the origin of these OA-related alterations. We generated serial transverse cryo sections for 7 different cartilage conditions: 2 joint sites (knee and hip), 2 disease states (healthy and OA) and 3 tissue depths (superficial, middle and deep)...
August 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810287/seeding-density-is-a-crucial-determinant-for-the-in-vivo-vascularisation-capacity-of-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#16
T Später, C Körbel, F S Frueh, R M Nickels, M D Menger, M W Laschke
Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) represent effective vascularisation units for the seeding of dermal substitutes. However, particularly in case of extensive skin defects, the required amounts of donor fat tissue for the harvesting of ad-MVF may not always be available. Therefore, we herein determined the lowest ad-MVF density needed to induce a sufficient vascularisation and incorporation of seeded implants. Collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices (Integra®; diameter: 4 mm) were seeded with 15,000 (HD), 10,000 (MD) and 5,000 (LD) ad-MVF and implanted into full-thickness skin defects within mouse dorsal skinfold chambers, to analyse their in vivo vascularisation and incorporation...
August 15, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731483/the-role-of-laminins-in-cartilaginous-tissues-from-development-to-regeneration
#17
Y Sun, T L Wang, W S Toh, M Pei
As a key molecule of the extracellular matrix, laminin provides a delicate microenvironment for cell functions. Recent findings suggest that laminins expressed by cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes, progenitor cells and stem cells) could promote chondrogenesis. However, few papers outline the effect of laminins on providing a favorable matrix microenvironment for cartilage regeneration. In this review, we delineated the expression of laminins in hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage and cartilage-like tissue (nucleus pulposus) throughout several developmental stages...
July 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714058/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-pdgf-bb-delivery-strategies-on-tendon-healing-a-review
#18
O Evrova, J Buschmann
To promote and support tendon healing, one viable strategy is the use or administration of growth factors at the wound/rupture site. Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), together with other growth factors, is secreted by platelets after injury. PDGF-BB promotes mitogenesis and angiogenesis, which could accelerate tendon healing. Therefore, in vitro studies with PDGF-BB have been performed to determine its effect on tenocytes and tenoblasts. Moreover, accurate and sophisticated drug delivery devices, aiming for a sustained release of PDGF-BB, have been developed, either by using heparin-binding and fibrin-based matrices or different electrospinning techniques...
July 17, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692113/analysing-the-bioactive-makeup-of-demineralised-dentine-matrix-on-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-enhanced-bone-repair
#19
S J Avery, L Sadaghiani, A J Sloan, R J Waddington
Dentine matrix has proposed roles for directing mineralised tissue repair in dentine and bone; however, the range of bioactive components in dentine and specific biological effects on bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in humans are less well understood. The aims of this study were to further elucidate the biological response of MSCs to demineralised dentine matrix (DDM) in enhancing wound repair responses and ascertain key contributing components. Dentine was obtained from human teeth and DDM proteins solubilised with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
July 10, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537650/tendon-healing-induced-by-chemically-modified-mrnas
#20
K Groth, T Berezhanskyy, M K Aneja, J Geiger, M Schweizer, L Maucksch, T Pasewald, T Brill, B Tigani, E Weber, C Rudolph, G Hasenpusch
Tendon disorders are frequent both in human and veterinary medicine with high re-injury rates and unsatisfactory therapeutic treatments. Application of naked, chemically-modified mRNA (cmRNA), encoding for therapeutic proteins, is an innovative approach to address tendon healing. In the current study, we demonstrated that injection of naked cmRNA, diluted in a glucose-containing solution, into tendons resulted in high protein expression in healthy and experimentally-injured tendons. Injection of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7)-encoding cmRNA resulted in a significantly higher expression of BMP-7 protein and reduced formation of collagen type III, compared to vehicle control...
May 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
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