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European Cells & Materials

D Henrich, C Seebach, R Verboket, A Schaible, I Marzi, H Bonig
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population...
March 6, 2018: European Cells & Materials
G J Ter Boo, T Schmid, I Zderic, D Nehrbass, K Camenisch, R G Richards, D W Grijpma, T F Moriarty, D Eglin
Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs) have emerged as a potential useful adjunctive antimicrobial measure for the prevention of infection in open fracture care. A biodegradable thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted hyaluronic acid (HApN) hydrogel loaded with gentamicin has recently been shown to prevent implant-related infection in a rabbit osteosynthesis model. The primary aim of this study was to determine the influence of this HApN hydrogel on bone healing at an early stage (4 weeks). A rabbit humeral osteotomy model with plating osteosynthesis was used to compare fracture healing in rabbits receiving the hydrogel as compared with control animals...
March 2, 2018: European Cells & Materials
I A Otto, R Levato, W R Webb, I M Khan, C C Breugem, J Malda
Paramount for the generation of auricular structures of clinically-relevant size is the acquisition of a large number of cells maintaining an elastic cartilage phenotype, which is the key in producing a tissue capable of withstanding forces subjected to the auricle. Current regenerative medicine strategies utilize chondrocytes from various locations or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the quality of neo-tissues resulting from these cell types is inadequate due to inefficient chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification, respectively...
February 27, 2018: European Cells & Materials
X Liu, D Krishnamoorthy, L Lin, P Xue, F Zhang, L Chi, R J Linhardt, J C Iatridis
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration results in the depletion of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which can lead to structural and mechanical loss of IVD function, ingrowth of nociceptive nerve fibres and eventually discogenic pain. Specific GAG types as well as their disaccharide patterns can be predictive of disease and degeneration in several tissues but have not been comprehensively studied within the IVD. A highly sensitive mass spectrometry based technique with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to provide characterisation of chondroitin sulphate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulphate (HS) and their disaccharide sulphation patterns across different anatomical regions of human IVDs...
February 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
P P Balraadjsing, E C de Jong, D W Grijpma, M W Tanck, S A Zaat
Biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) are frequent complications in the use of medical devices (biomaterials) correlated with considerable patient discomfort and high treatment costs. The presence of a biomaterial in the host causes derangement of local immune responses increasing susceptibility to infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in directing the nature of immune responses by activating and controlling CD4+ T helper (Th) cell responses. To assess the immunomodulatory effect of the combined presence of biomaterials and Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 19, 2018: European Cells & Materials
A Dakiw Piaceski, D Larouche, K Ghani, F Bisson, S Cortez Ghio, S Larochelle, M J Moulin, M Caruso, L Germain
The combination of gene therapy and tissue engineering is one of the most promising strategies for the treatment of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). RDEB is a rare genetic disease characterised by mutations in the COL7A1 gene, encoding type VII collagen (COLVII), which forms anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction of the skin. This disease causes severe blistering and only palliative treatments are offered. In this study, the base of a strategy combining gene therapy and a tissue-engineered skin substitute (TES), which would be suitable for the permanent closure of skin wounds, was set-up...
February 14, 2018: European Cells & Materials
O J Ali, E J Comerford, P D Clegg, E G Canty-Laird
BiTendons are constructed from collagenous fascicles separated by endotenon/interfascicular matrix (IFM). Tendons may be specialised for precision movement or to store energy during locomotion and for the latter the elasticity of the endotenon/IFM is particularly important. The equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is a dedicated energy-storing tendon with a similar function to the human Achilles tendon. Classical anatomical descriptions portray fascicles as longitudinally arranged distinct anatomical structures...
February 13, 2018: European Cells & Materials
R J Craddock, N W Hodson, M Ozols, T Shearer, J A Hoyland, M J Sherratt
Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in the articular cartilage (AC) and nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact (three globular domain) aggrecan is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months) bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99...
February 9, 2018: European Cells & Materials
M Ojansivu, L Hyväri, M Kellomäki, L Hupa, S Vanhatupa, S Miettinen
Bioactive glasses (BaGs) are widely utilised in bone tissue engineering (TE) but the molecular response of cells to BaGs is poorly understood. To elucidate the mechanisms of cell attachment to BaGs and BaG-induced early osteogenic differentiation, we cultured human adipose stem cells (hASCs) on discs of two silica-based BaGs S53P4 (23.0 Na2O - 20.0 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 53.0 SiO2 (wt-%)) and 1-06 (5.9 Na2O - 12.0 K2O - 5.3 MgO - 22.6 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 0.2 B2O3 - 50.0 SiO2) in the absence of osteogenic supplements...
January 30, 2018: European Cells & Materials
A Feldmann, P Wili, G Maquer, P Zysset
Surgical interventions close to vulnerable structures, such as nerves, require precise handling of surgical instruments and tools. These tools not only pose the risk of mechanical damage to soft tissues, but they also generate heat, which can lead to thermal necrosis of bone or soft tissues. Researchers and engineers are trying to improve those tools through experimentation and simulations. To simulate temperature distributions in anatomical structures, reliable material constants are needed. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity of cortical and cancellous bone...
January 28, 2018: European Cells & Materials
J Batt, M Milward, I Chapple, M Grant, H Roberts, O Addison
The interaction between TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and inflammatory cytokines, including CXCL8, a clinically relevant pro-inflammatory chemokine was investigated. TiO2 is present in tissues adjacent to failing implanted Ti (titanium) devices. TiO2 NPs were shown to bind to CXCL8 in vitro, causing perturbation of quantification of CXCL8 by ELISA, in both simple and complex protein panels, in a dose-dependent manner. Binding between TiO2 NPs and CXCL8 was demonstrated by protein gel electrophoresis. TiO2 NPs were also shown to inactivate the chemoattractant property of CXCL8 in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the binding between TiO2 NPs and CXCL8 is likely to be clinically relevant...
January 19, 2018: European Cells & Materials
B-J Kwon, G M Seon, M H Lee, M-A Koo, M S Kim, D Kim, J-J Han, D Kim, J Kim, J-C Park
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass, most commonly caused by an increase in bone resorption that is not matched by sufficient bone formation. The most common complications of postmenopausal osteoporosis are bone-related defects and fractures. Fracture healing is a multifactorial bone regeneration process, influenced by both biological and mechanical factors related to age, osteoporosis and stability of the osteosynthesis. During the treatment of bone defects in osteoporotic conditions, imbalanced bone remodeling is the leading cause for implant failure...
January 12, 2018: European Cells & Materials
A G Bajpayee, R E De la Vega, M Scheu, N H Varady, I A Yannatos, L A Brown, Y Krishnan, T J Fitzsimons, P Bhattacharya, E H Frank, A J Grodzinsky, R M Porter
Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) should reach their intra-tissue target sites at optimal doses for clinical efficacy. The dense, negatively charged matrix of cartilage poses a major hindrance to the transport of potential therapeutics. In this work, electrostatic interactions were utilised to overcome this challenge and enable higher uptake, full-thickness penetration and enhanced retention of dexamethasone (Dex) inside rabbit cartilage. This was accomplished by using the positively charged glycoprotein avidin as nanocarrier, conjugated to Dex by releasable linkers...
December 5, 2017: European Cells & Materials
M Sabaté Brescó, L O'Mahony, S Zeiter, K Kluge, M Ziegler, C Berset, D Nehrbass, R G Richards, T F Moriarty
Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a major complication in surgically fixed fractures. Instability of the fracture after fixation is considered a risk factor for infection; however, few experimental data are available confirming this belief. To study whether stable fractures led to higher infection clearance, mouse femoral osteotomies were fixed with either stable or unstable fixation and the surgical site was contaminated with either Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis)or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)clinical isolates...
November 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
M H Hu, K C Yang, Y H Sun, Y C Chen, S H Yang, F H Lin
Post-operative epidural fibrosis is a biological response after laminectomy that may lead to clinical symptoms, such as radicular pain. An ideal material for prevention of epidural fibrosis should be able to inhibit fibroblast adhesions and reduce formation of scar tissue. An injectable hydrogel would be the material of choice for this purpose, since it could fill an irregular surgical defect completely, gelate in situ and be delivered in a minimally-invasive manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the cytocompatibility and anti-adhesive effect of an oxidised hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (oxi-HA/ADH) hydrogel...
November 13, 2017: European Cells & Materials
V Uribe-Etxebarria, J Luzuriaga, P García-Gallastegui, A Agliano, F Unda, G Ibarretxe
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from adult teeth express neural crest (NC) markers together with core transcriptional factors associated with stem cell pluripotency, such as Oct4a, Sox2, c-Myc, Rex1, Stella/Dppa3, Ssea1/Fut4, Lin28 and Nanog. The possibility to boost the natural stemness features of DPSCs by mild methods, that do not involve gene and/or chromatin modification or gene transfection, is highly desirable for cell therapy. Canonical Wnt and Notch are two highly conserved developmental signalling pathways that are involved in NC emergence and stem cell self-renewal...
November 1, 2017: European Cells & Materials
C M McLeod, R L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display substantial cell-to-cell variation. This heterogeneity manifests among donors, among tissue sources, and within cell populations. Such pervasive variability complicates the use of MSCs in regenerative applications and may limit their therapeutic efficacy. Most conventional assays measure MSC properties in bulk and, as a consequence, mask this cell-to-cell variation. Recent studies have identified extensive variability amongst and within clonal MSC populations, in dimensions including functional differentiation capacity, molecular state (e...
October 27, 2017: European Cells & Materials
G Russmueller, L Winkler, R Lieber, R Seemann, K Pirklbauer, C Perisanidis, B Kapeller, E Spassova, E Halwax, W P Poeschl, K Macfelda, D Moser
Much research has been done on bone cells, but only a few studies deal with biomaterial-induced effects on human osteoclasts, which may take on an important role in the successful regeneration of bone. In order to highlight such effects, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from venous blood, differentiated to osteoclasts and then cultured in, the presence of five particulate hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) biomaterials, on bovine bone slices and glass cover slips...
October 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
D A Frauchiger, A Tekari, M Wöltje, G Fortunato, L M Benneker, B Gantenbein
The degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) within the spinal column represents a major pain source for many patients. Biological restoration or repair of the IVD using "compressive-force-resistant" and at the same time "cytocompatible" materials would be desirable over current purely mechanical solutions, such as spinal fusion or IVD implants. This review provides an overview of recent research on the repair of the inner (nucleus pulposus = NP) and the outer (annulus fibrous = AF) parts of the IVD tissue...
October 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
M P Janssen, M M Caron, B van Rietbergen, D A Surtel, L W van Rhijn, T J Welting, P J Emans
Many studies have reported on the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on osteogenesis. However, far less is known about the effects of COX-2 inhibition on chondrogenic differentiation. Previous studies conducted by our group show that COX-2 inhibition influences in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. Importantly, this might have consequences on endochondral ossification processes occurring in vivo, such as bone fracture healing, growth plate development and ectopic generation of cartilage. The goal of our study was to investigate, in vivo, the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on the cartilaginous phase of three different endochondral ossification scenarios...
October 17, 2017: European Cells & Materials
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