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European Cells & Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931664/calcium-and-vitamin-d-in-bone-fracture-healing-and-post-traumatic-bone-turnover
#1
V Fischer, M Haffner-Luntzer, M Amling, A Ignatius
Calcium and vitamin D are essential for maintaining bone health. Therefore, deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D are major risk factors for osteoporosis development. Because sufficient amounts of calcium are also required for fracture-callus mineralisation, compromised bone repair that is frequently observed in osteoporotic patients might be attributed to calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Consequently, calcium and vitamin D supplementation represents a potential strategy for treating compromised fracture healing in osteoporotic patients...
June 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926464/cultivation-of-auricular-chondrocytes-in-poly-ethylene-glycol-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-hydrogel-for-tracheal-cartilage-tissue-engineering-in-a-rabbit-model
#2
C S Chang, C Y Yang, H Y Hsiao, L Chen, I M Chu, M H Cheng, C H Tsao
Tissue engineering has the potential to overcome the limitations of tracheal reconstruction. To tissue-engineer a tracheal cartilage, auricular chondrocytes were encapsulated in a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG/PCL) hydrogel. Chondrogenic genes, including Sox9, Acan and Col2a1, were up-regulated in auricular chondrocytes after 2 weeks of in vitro cultivation in the PEG/PCL hydrogel. Co-cultivation of 70 % auricular chondrocytes and 30 % bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) accelerated the chondrogenic genes' expression in the PEG/PCL hydrogel...
June 21, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897097/improved-tendon-healing-using-bfgf-bmp-12-and-tgf%C3%AE-1-in-a-rat-model
#3
M Majewski, P Heisterbach, C Jaquiéry, L Dürselen, A Todorov, I Martin, C H Evans, S A Müller
Several growth factors (GFs) are expressed as tendons heal, but it remains unknown whether their combined application enhances the healing process. This matter was addressed by applying a combination of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenetic protein 12 (BMP-12) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) in a rat Achilles tendon transection model. GFs were applied in one of the three following ways: i) direct application of all three factors at the time of surgery; ii) sequential, tiered percutaneous injection of individual factors immediately after surgery, 48 h and 96 h later; iii) load of all three factors onto a collagen sponge implanted at the time of surgery...
June 13, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873804/engineering-of-a-complex-bone-tissue-model-with-endothelialised-channels-and-capillary-like-networks
#4
B J Klotz, K S Lim, Y X Chang, B G Soliman, I Pennings, F P W Melchels, T B F Woodfield, A J Rosenberg, J Malda, D Gawlitta
In engineering of tissue analogues, upscaling to clinically-relevant sized constructs remains a significant challenge. The successful integration of a vascular network throughout the engineered tissue is anticipated to overcome the lack of nutrient and oxygen supply to residing cells. This work aimed at developing a multiscale bone-tissue-specific vascularisation strategy. Engineering pre-vascularised bone leads to biological and fabrication dilemmas. To fabricate channels endowed with an endothelium and suitable for osteogenesis, rather stiff materials are preferable, while capillarisation requires soft matrices...
May 30, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845998/thermoresponsive-redox-polymerized-cellulosic-hydrogels-undergo-in-situ-gelation-and-restore-intervertebral-disc-biomechanics-post-discectomy
#5
D M Varma, H A Lin, R G Long, G T Gold, A C Hecht, J C Iatridis, S B Nicoll
Back and neck pain are commonly associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Structural augmentation of diseased nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue with biomaterials could restore degeneration-related IVD height loss and degraded biomechanical behaviors; however, effective NP replacement biomaterials are not commercially available. This study developed a novel, crosslinked, dual-polymer network (DPN) hydrogel comprised of methacrylated carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC), and used in vitro, in situ and in vivo testing to assess its efficacy as an injectable, in situ gelling, biocompatible material that matches native NP properties and restores IVD biomechanical behaviors...
May 30, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790567/regional-diversity-in-the-murine-cortical-vascular-network-is-revealed-by-synchrotron-x-ray-tomography-and-is-amplified-with-age
#6
J A Núñez, A Goring, B Javaheri, H Razi, D Gomez-Nicola, A A Pitsillides, P J Thurner, D Gomez-Nicola, P Schneider, C E Clarkin
Cortical bone is permeated by a system of pores, occupied by the blood supply and osteocytes. With ageing, bone mass reduction and disruption of the microstructure are associated with reduced vascular supply. Insight into the regulation of the blood supply to the bone could enhance the understanding of bone strength determinants and fracture healing. Using synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography, the distribution of vascular canals and osteocyte lacunae was assessed in murine cortical bone and the influence of age on these parameters was investigated...
May 23, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761823/erythropoietin-promotes-network-formation-of-transplanted-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#7
P Karschnia, C Scheuer, A Heß, T Später, M D Menger, M W Laschke
The seeding of tissue constructs with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) is an emerging pre-vascularisation strategy. Ad-MVF rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after in vivo implantation. Herein it was analysed whether this process was improved by erythropoietin (EPO). Ad-MVF were isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ as well as wild-type C57BL/6 mice and cultivated for 24 h in medium supplemented with EPO (20 IU/mL) or vehicle. Freshly isolated, non-cultivated ad-MVF served as controls...
May 9, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714398/impact-of-human-platelet-lysate-on-the-expansion-and-chondrogenic-capacity-of-cultured-human-chondrocytes-for-cartilage-cell-therapy
#8
J G Sykes, J H Kuiper, J B Richardson, S Roberts, K T Wright, N J Kuiper
High hopes have been pinned on regenerative medicine strategies in order to prevent the progression of cartilage damage to osteoarthritis, particularly by autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The loss of chondrocyte phenotype during in vitro monolayer expansion, a necessary step to obtain sufficient cell numbers, may be a key limitation in ACI. In this study, it was determined whether a shorter monolayer expansion approach could improve chondrogenic differentiation. The effects of two supplement types, foetal bovine serum (FBS) and Stemulate™ (a commercial source of human platelet lysate), on the expansion and re-differentiation potential of human chondrocytes, isolated from five individuals, were compared...
May 1, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697853/injectable-bmp-2-delivery-system-based-on-collagen-derived-microspheres-and-alginate-induced-bone-formation-in-a-time-and-dose-dependent-manner
#9
D Mumcuoglu, S Fahmy-Garcia, Y Ridwan, J Nicke, E Farrell, S G Kluijtmans, G J van Osch
The aim of the current study was to reduce the clinically used supra-physiological dose of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (usually 1.5 mg/mL), which carries the risk of adverse events, by using a more effective release system. A slow release system, based on an injectable hydrogel composed of BMP-2-loaded recombinant collagen-based microspheres and alginate, was previously developed. Time- and dose-dependent subcutaneous ectopic bone formation within this system and bone regeneration capacity in a calvarial defect model were investigated...
April 26, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683471/comprehensive-high-resolution-genomic-profiling-and-cytogenetics-of-human-chondrocyte-cultures-by-gtg-banding-locus-specific-fish-sky-and-snp-array
#10
M Wallenborn, O Petters, D Rudolf, H Hantmann, M Richter, P Ahnert, L Rohani, J J Smink, G C Bulwin, W Krupp, R M Schulz, H Holland
In the development of cell-based medicinal products, it is crucial to guarantee that the application of such an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) is safe for the patients. The consensus of the European regulatory authorities is: "In conclusion, on the basis of the state of art, conventional karyotyping can be considered a valuable and useful technique to analyse chromosomal stability during preclinical studies". 408 chondrocyte samples (84 monolayers and 324 spheroids) from six patients were analysed using trypsin-Giemsa staining, spectral karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, to evaluate the genetic stability of chondrocyte samples from non-clinical studies...
April 23, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652075/impact-of-tgf-%C3%AE-family-related-growth-factors-on-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-isolated-from-lipoaspirates-and-infrapatellar-fat-pads-of-osteoarthritic-patients
#11
E López-Ruiz, G Jiménez, W Kwiatkowski, E Montañez, F Arrebola, E Carrillo, S Choe, J A Marchal, M Perán
The success of cell-based approaches for the treatment of cartilage defects requires an optimal autologous cell source with chondrogenic differentiation ability that maintains its differentiated properties and stability following implantation. The objective of this study was to compare the chondrogenic capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from lipoaspirates (ASCs) and the infrapatellar fat pad (IFPSCs) of osteoarthritic patients and treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family-related growth factors...
April 13, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589649/bone-formation-by-heterodimers-through-non-viral-gene-delivery-of-bmp-2-6-and-bmp-2-7
#12
L D Loozen, A Vandersteen, A H Kragten, F C Öner, W J Dhert, M C Kruyt, J Alblas
Non-viral gene delivery is a safe technique to release sustained physiologic dosages of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Co-delivery of multiple BMPs can result in the formation of more potent BMP heterodimers. In this study, non-viral co-delivery of BMP-2/6 and BMP-2/7, as a mean to produce heterodimers, was assessed. Goat MSCs were non-virally transfected with plasmid DNA encoding BMP isoforms (pBMP) known to be relevant for osteogenesis: BMP-2, -6 or -7. As a result, BMP-2, -6 and -7 were produced and detectable for up to 14 d and their combined delivery (pBMP-2 with pBMP-6 or pBMP-7) was used to create BMP-2/6 and BM-2/7 heterodimers...
March 28, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565097/chlorhexidine-releasing-implant-coating-on-intramedullary-nail-reduces-infection-in-a-rat-model
#13
S M Shiels, M Bouchard, H Wang, J C Wenke
The use of internal intramedullary nails for long bone fracture fixation is a common practice among surgeons. Bacteria naturally attach to these devices, increasing the risk for wound infection, which can result in non- or malunion, additional surgical procedures and extended hospital stays. Intramedullary nail surface properties can be modified to reduce bacterial colonisation and potentially infectious complications. In the current study, a coating combining a non-fouling property with leaching chlorhexidine for orthopaedic implantation was tested...
March 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509226/the-osteo-inductive-activity-of-bone-marrow-derived-mononuclear-cells-resides-within-the-cd14-population-and-is-independent-of-the-cd34-population
#14
D Henrich, C Seebach, R Verboket, A Schaible, I Marzi, H Bonig
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population...
March 6, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498410/local-application-of-a-gentamicin-loaded-thermo-responsive-hydrogel-allows-for-fracture-healing-upon-clearance-of-a-high-staphylococcus-aureus-load-in-a-rabbit-model
#15
G J Ter Boo, T Schmid, I Zderic, D Nehrbass, K Camenisch, R G Richards, D W Grijpma, T F Moriarty, D Eglin
Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs) have emerged as a potential useful adjunctive antimicrobial measure for the prevention of infection in open fracture care. A biodegradable thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted hyaluronic acid (HApN) hydrogel loaded with gentamicin has recently been shown to prevent implant-related infection in a rabbit osteosynthesis model. The primary aim of this study was to determine the influence of this HApN hydrogel on bone healing at an early stage (4 weeks). A rabbit humeral osteotomy model with plating osteosynthesis was used to compare fracture healing in rabbits receiving the hydrogel as compared with control animals...
March 2, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485180/progenitor-cells-in-auricular-cartilage-demonstrate-cartilage-forming-capacity-in-3d-hydrogel-culture
#16
I A Otto, R Levato, W R Webb, I M Khan, C C Breugem, J Malda
Paramount for the generation of auricular structures of clinically-relevant size is the acquisition of a large number of cells maintaining an elastic cartilage phenotype, which is the key in producing a tissue capable of withstanding forces subjected to the auricle. Current regenerative medicine strategies utilize chondrocytes from various locations or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the quality of neo-tissues resulting from these cell types is inadequate due to inefficient chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification, respectively...
February 27, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469163/a-method-for-characterising-human-intervertebral-disc-glycosaminoglycan-disaccharides-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-with-multiple-reaction-monitoring
#17
X Liu, D Krishnamoorthy, L Lin, P Xue, F Zhang, L Chi, R J Linhardt, J C Iatridis
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration results in the depletion of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which can lead to structural and mechanical loss of IVD function, ingrowth of nociceptive nerve fibres and eventually discogenic pain. Specific GAG types as well as their disaccharide patterns can be predictive of disease and degeneration in several tissues but have not been comprehensively studied within the IVD. A highly sensitive mass spectrometry based technique with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to provide characterisation of chondroitin sulphate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulphate (HS) and their disaccharide sulphation patterns across different anatomical regions of human IVDs...
February 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457614/poly-trimethylene-carbonate-and-poly-d-l-lactic-acid-modify-human-dendritic-cell-responses-to-staphylococci-but-do-not-affect-th1-and-th2-cell-development
#18
P P Balraadjsing, E C de Jong, D W Grijpma, M W Tanck, S A Zaat
Biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) are frequent complications in the use of medical devices (biomaterials) correlated with considerable patient discomfort and high treatment costs. The presence of a biomaterial in the host causes derangement of local immune responses increasing susceptibility to infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in directing the nature of immune responses by activating and controlling CD4+ T helper (Th) cell responses. To assess the immunomodulatory effect of the combined presence of biomaterials and Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 19, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441510/translating-the-combination-of-gene-therapy-and-tissue-engineering-for-treating-recessive-dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa
#19
A Dakiw Piaceski, D Larouche, K Ghani, F Bisson, S Cortez Ghio, S Larochelle, V J Moulin, M Caruso, L Germain
The combination of gene therapy and tissue engineering is one of the most promising strategies for the treatment of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). RDEB is a rare genetic disease characterised by mutations in the COL7A1 gene, encoding type VII collagen (COLVII), which forms anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction of the skin. This disease causes severe blistering and only palliative treatments are offered. In this study, the base of a strategy combining gene therapy and a tissue-engineered skin substitute (TES), which would be suitable for the permanent closure of skin wounds, was set-up...
February 14, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437201/variations-during-ageing-in-the-three-dimensional-anatomical-arrangement-of-fascicles-within-the-equine-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon
#20
O J Ali, E J Comerford, P D Clegg, E G Canty-Laird
BiTendons are constructed from collagenous fascicles separated by endotenon/interfascicular matrix (IFM). Tendons may be specialised for precision movement or to store energy during locomotion and for the latter the elasticity of the endotenon/IFM is particularly important. The equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is a dedicated energy-storing tendon with a similar function to the human Achilles tendon. Classical anatomical descriptions portray fascicles as longitudinally arranged distinct anatomical structures...
February 13, 2018: European Cells & Materials
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