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European Cells & Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098926/relevance-of-osteoclast-specific-enzyme-activities-in-cell-based-in-vitro-resorption-assays
#1
A Bernhardt, K Koperski, M Schumacher, M Gelinsky
Cell-based in vitro resorption assays are an important tool to simulate the in vivo biodegradation of resorbable bone graft materials and to predict their clinical performance. The present study analyses the activity of osteoclast-specific enzymes as potential surrogate measures for classical pit assay, which is not applicable on irregular structured materials. Osteoclasts derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultivated on different surfaces: calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC), dentin discs, osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue culture polystyrene as control...
January 18, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076651/controlled-release-of-chlorhexidine-from-a-mesoporous-silica-containing-macroporous-titanium-dental-implant-prevents-microbial-biofilm-formation
#2
K De Cremer, A Braem, E Gerits, K De Brucker, K Vandamme, J A Martens, J Michiels, J Vleugels, B P Cammue, K Thevissen
Roughened surfaces are increasingly being used for dental implant applications as the enlarged contact area improves bone cell anchorage, thereby facilitating osseointegration. However, the additional surface area also entails a higher risk for the development of biofilm associated infections, an etiologic factor for many dental ailments, including peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, we designed a dental implant composed of a porous titanium-silica (Ti/SiO2) composite material and containing an internal reservoir that can be loaded with antimicrobial compounds...
January 11, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054333/bmp-2-coated-mineral-coated-microparticles-improve-bone-repair-in-atrophic-non-unions
#3
M Orth, N J Kruse, B J Braun, C Scheuer, J H Holstein, A Khalil, X Yu, W L Murphy, T Pohlemann, M W Laschke, M D Menger
Atrophic non-unions are a major clinical problem. Mineral coated microparticles (MCM) are electrolyte-coated hydroxyapatite particles that have been shown in vitro to bind growth factors electrostatically and enable a tuneable sustained release. Herein, we studied whether MCM can be used in vivo to apply Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) to improve bone repair of atrophic non-unions. For this purpose, atrophic non-unions were induced in femurs of CD-1 mice (n = 48). Animals either received BMP-2-coated MCM (MCM + BMP; n = 16), uncoated MCM (MCM; n = 16) or no MCM (NONE; n = 16)...
January 2, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905661/artificial-cartilage-bio-matrix-formed-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-mg2-polyphosphate
#4
X Wang, M Ackermann, E Tolba, M Neufurth, F Wurm, Q Feng, S Wang, H C Schröder, W E Müller
Here we show that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polyanionic metabolic regulator consisting of multiple phosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is present in the synovial fluid. In a biomimetic approach, to enhance cartilage synthesis and regeneration, we prepared amorphous polyP microparticles with Mg2+ as counterions. The particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analyses. Similar particles were obtained after addition of Mg2+ ions to a solution containing hyaluronic acid, as a major component of the synovial fluid, and soluble Na-polyP...
November 29, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858401/ages-induce-ectopic-endochondral-ossification-in-intervertebral-discs
#5
S Illien-Jünger, O M Torre, W F Kindschuh, X Chen, D M Laudier, J C Iatridis
Ectopic calcifications in intervertebral discs (IVDs) are known characteristics of IVD degeneration that are not commonly reported but may be implicated in structural failure and dysfunctional IVD cell metabolic responses. This study investigated the novel hypothesis that ectopic calcifications in the IVD are associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) via hypertrophy and osteogenic differentiation. Histological analyses of human IVDs from several degeneration stages revealed areas of ectopic calcification within the nucleus pulposus and at the cartilage endplate...
November 18, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858400/optimisation-of-bmp-2-dosage-for-the-osseointegration-of-porous-titanium-implants-in-an-ovine-model
#6
E B Hunziker, J Jovanovic, A Horner, M J Keel, K Lippuner, N Shintani
In clinical orthopaedics, total joint replacements and spinal fusions are routine undertakings. Many of the implicated patients suffer from osteoporosis, severe arthrosis or osteopaenia. In individuals thus afflicted, the bony bed lacks the mechanical stability that is a requisite for a firm anchorage of the implant and its functional competence. To promote the bony bondage of an implant it is necessary to induce neo-ossification by the introduction of an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)...
November 18, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763655/periodontal-ligament-cells-as-alternative-source-for-cell-based-therapy-of-tendon-injuries-in-vivo-study-of-full-size-achilles-tendon-defect-in-a-rat-model
#7
C-F Hsieh, P Alberton, E Loffredo-Verde, E Volkmer, M Pietschmann, P E Müller, M Schieker, D Docheva
Tendon's natural healing potential is extremely low and inefficient, with significant dysfunction and disability due to hypocellularity and hypovascularity of tendon tissues. The application of stem cells can aid in significantly enhanced repair of tendon rupture; therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the potential of using periodontal ligament cells (PDL), usually obtained from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, as a novel cell source for cell-based therapy for tendon injuries in a clinically relevant rat full-size Achilles tendon defect...
October 20, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771937/lumbar-intervertebral-disc-allograft-transplantation-healing-and-remodelling-of-the-bony-structure
#8
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759878/the-dorsal-skinfold-chamber-a-versatile-tool-for-preclinical-research-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#9
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071735/fast-plasma-sintering-delivers-functional-graded-materials-components-with-macroporous-structures-and-osseointegration-properties
#10
R F Godoy, M J Coathup, G W Blunn, A L Alves, P Robotti, A E Goodship
We explored the osseointegration potential of two macroporous titanium surfaces obtained using fast plasma sintering (FPS): Ti macroporous structures with 400-600 µmØ pores (TiMac400) and 850-1000 µmØ pores (TiMac850). They were compared against two surfaces currently in clinical use: Ti-Growth® and air plasma spray (Ti-Y367). Each surface was tested, once placed over a Ti-alloy and once onto a CoCr bulk substrate. Implants were placed in medial femoral condyles in 24 sheep. Samples were explanted at four and eight weeks after surgery...
April 13, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062725/pericyte-plasticity-comparative-investigation-of-the-angiogenic-and-multilineage-potential-of-pericytes-from-different-human-tissues
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M Herrmann, J J Bara, C M Sprecher, U Menzel, J M Jalowiec, R Osinga, A Scherberich, M Alini, S Verrier
Pericyte recruitment is essential for the stability of newly formed vessels. It was also suggested that pericytes represent common ancestor cells giving rise to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the adult. Here, we systematically investigated pericytes and MSCs from different human tissues in terms of their angiogenic and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro in order to assess the suitability of the different cell types for the regeneration of vascularised tissues. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS®) was used to enrich CD34-CD146+ pericytes from adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM)...
April 10, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062724/differences-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-secretomes-during-chondrogenic-induction
#12
O F Gardner, N Fahy, M Alini, M J Stoddart
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be induced towards chondrogenesis through the application of chondrogenic stimuli such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) or by multiaxial mechanical load. Previous work has showed that the chondrogenic effect of multiaxial load on MSCs is mediated by the endogenous production of TGF-β1 by stimulated cells. This work compared the effects of TGF-β1 stimulation and multiaxial mechanical load on the secretomes of stimulated cells. MSCs were seeded into fibrin-poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds and chondrogenically stimulated with either TGF-β1 or mechanical load...
April 10, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021372/hyperosmolarity-normalises-serum-induced-changes-to-chondrocyte-properties-in-a-model-of-cartilage-injury
#13
A Karim, A C Hall
Partial-thickness cartilage injuries do not heal effectively, potentially leading to degeneration as occurs in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). The role of chondrocytes could be crucial in determining the nature of the repair; however, their response to this injury is poorly understood. We have utilised an in vitro bovine osteochondral partial-thickness scalpel injury model and determined chondrocyte properties at and distant from the injury in the presence/absence of (a) serum-free DMEM (340 mOsm), (b) synovial fluid DMEM (SF-DMEM), (c) foetal calf serum DMEM (FCS-DMEM), (d) hyperosmolar serum-free DMEM (600 mOsm), or (e) hyperosmolar FCS-DMEM for up to two weeks...
March 29, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995192/improved-osteogenic-vector-for-non-viral-gene-therapy
#14
A R Hacobian, K Posa-Markaryan, S Sperger, M Stainer, D Hercher, G A Feichtinger, C M Schuh, H Redl
Therapeutic compensation of deficient bone regeneration is a challenging task and a topic of on-going search for novel treatment strategies. One promising approach for improvement involves non-viral gene delivery using the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) gene to provide transient, local and sustained expression of the growth factor. However, since efficiency of non-viral gene delivery is low, this study focused on the improvement of a BMP-2 gene expression system, aiming for compensation of poor transfection efficiency...
March 20, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898843/morphogenetically-active-scaffold-for-osteochondral-repair-polyphosphate-alginate-n-o-carboxymethyl-chitosan
#15
W E Müller, M Neufurth, S Wang, E Tolba, H C Schröder, X Wang
Here we describe a novel bioinspired hydrogel material that can be hardened with calcium ions to yield a scaffold material with viscoelastic properties matching those of cartilage. This material consists of a negatively charged biopolymer triplet, composed of morphogenetically active natural inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), along with the likewise biocompatible natural polymers N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC) and alginate. The porosity of the hardened scaffold material obtained after calcium exposure can be adjusted by varying the pre-processing conditions...
February 22, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895242/human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-responses-to-hydrostatic-pressure-and-shear-stress
#16
P Becquart, M Cruel, T Hoc, L Sudre, K Pernelle, R Bizios, D Logeart-Avramoglou, H Petite, M Bensidhoum
The effects of mechanical stimuli to which cells are exposed in vivo are, at best, incompletely understood; in this respect, gene-level information regarding cell functions which are pertinent to new tissue formation is of special interest and importance in applications such as tissue engineering and tissue regeneration. Motivated by this need, the present study investigated the early responses of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to intermittent shear stress (ISS) and to cyclic hydrostatic pressure (CHP) simulating some aspects of the biological milieu in which these cells exist in vivo...
February 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853623/age-related-changes-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-identified-using-a-multi-omics-approach
#17
M J Peffers, J Collins, Y Fang, K Goljanek-Whysall, M Rushton, J Loughlin, C Proctor, P D Clegg
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of multipotent differentiation into connective tissues and as such are an attractive source for autologous cell-based treatments for many clinical diseases and injuries. Ageing is associated with various altered cellular phenotypes coupled with a variety of transcriptional, epigenetic and translational changes. Furthermore, the regeneration potential of MSCs is reduced with increasing age and is correlated with changes in cellular functions. This study used a systems biology approach to investigate the transcriptomic (RNASeq), epigenetic (miRNASeq and DNA methylation) and protein alterations in ageing MSCs in order to understand the age-related functional and biological variations, which may affect their applications to regenerative medicine...
February 8, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853622/3d-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-for-assessment-of-cartilage-repair-tissue-volumetric-characterisation-and-correlation-to-established-classification-systems
#18
M Schöne, N Männicke, J S Somerson, B Marquaß, R Henkelmann, J Mochida, T Aigner, K Raum, R M Schulz
Objective and sensitive assessment of cartilage repair outcomes lacks suitable methods. This study investigated the feasibility of 3D ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) to quantify cartilage repair outcomes volumetrically and their correlation with established classification systems. 32 sheep underwent bilateral treatment of a focal cartilage defect. One or two years post-operatively the repair outcomes were assessed and scored macroscopically (Outerbridge, ICRS-CRA), by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, MOCART), and histopathology (O'Driscoll, ICRS-I and ICRS-II)...
February 8, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26815643/the-response-of-tenocytes-to-commercial-scaffolds-used-for-rotator-cuff-repair
#19
R D Smith, A Carr, S G Dakin, S J Snelling, C Yapp, O Hakimi
Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients' cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds)...
January 27, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26815642/transplantation-of-activated-nucleus-pulposus-cells-after-cryopreservation-efficacy-study-in-a-canine-disc-degeneration-model
#20
T Nukaga, D Sakai, M Tanaka, A Hiyama, T Nakai, J Mochida
Transplantation of activated nucleus pulposus (NP) cells obtained by coculturing NP cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells having cell-to-cell contact has been shown to be effective in animal models and, more recently, in human clinical trials. If the NP cells can be cryopreserved, then autologous cell transplantation could be offered to patients as and when required. In a previous study, we confirmed that activated NP cells can be obtained by coculturing with mesenchymal cells after cryopreservation...
January 27, 2016: European Cells & Materials
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