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Monash Bioethics Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757831/healthcare-and-complicity-in-australian-immigration-detention
#1
Ryan Essex
Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott...
October 18, 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659295/iranian-kidney-market-in-limbo-a-commentary-on-the-ambiguous-lessons-of-the-iranian-model-of-paid-living-kidney-donation
#2
Hojjat Soofi
Sigrid Fry-Revere's The Kidney Sellers: A Journey of Discovery in Iran, an allegedly first-hand examination of the Iranian paid kidney donation model, has been criticized by Koplin in an essay formerly published in the Monash Bioethics Review. Koplin especially challenges Fry-Revere's claim that financially compensating kidney vendors might facilitate altruistic kidney donation. The current situation in Iran, according to Koplin, suggests that the market model has undermined altruistic donation. On this point, this commentary tries to show that healthcare policymakers in Iran no longer see the Iranian paid kidney donation model as a sustainable and ethically justifiable status quo...
September 22, 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619650/crispr-as-a-driving-force-the-model-t-of-biotechnology
#3
Carlos Mariscal, Angel Petropanagos
The CRISPR system for gene editing can break, repair, and replace targeted sections of DNA. Although CRISPR gene editing has important therapeutic potential, it raises several ethical concerns. Some bioethicists worry CRISPR is a prelude to a dystopian future, while others maintain it should not be feared because it is analogous to past biotechnologies. In the scientific literature, CRISPR is often discussed as a revolutionary technology. In this paper we unpack the framing of CRISPR as a revolutionary technology and contrast it with framing it as a value-threatening biotechnology or business-as-usual...
September 12, 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558505/henk-ten-have-global-bioethics-an-introduction-new-york-routledge-2016-312-pp-53-95
#4
Danielle M Wenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423872/beneficence-as-a-principle-in-human-research
#5
Ian Pieper, Colin J H Thomson
Beneficence is one of the four principles that form the basis of the Australian National Statement. The aim of this paper is to explore the philosophical development of this principle and to clarify the role that beneficence plays in contemporary discussions about human research ethics. By examining the way that guidance documents, particularly the National Statement, treats beneficence we offer guidance to researchers and human research ethics committee members on the practical application of what can be a conceptually difficult principle...
July 16, 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530903/practical-bioethics
#6
EDITORIAL
Michael J Selgelid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468864/the-moral-unacceptability-of-abandoning-human-embryos
#7
Ryan Tonkens
The focus of this paper is on the ethics of the act of wilfully "abandoning" human embryos. I offer a critique of this unique behaviour, which draws on empirical data about who wilfully abandons their surplus embryos and why. I argue that wilful embryo abandonment is in all cases avoidable. Given this, I make three observations which speak to the moral unacceptability of embryo abandonment. The first has to do with the abandoner's unfair treatment of the clinic storing their abandoned embryos, and the second the abandoner's apparent lack of sympathy for the plight of other people like them, who require assistance (e...
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468863/mitochondrial-replacement-techniques-egg-donation-genealogy-and-eugenics
#8
César Palacios-González
Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study of genealogical ancestry...
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334378/consent-ain-t-anything-dissent-access-and-the-conditions-for-consent
#9
Ezio Di Nucci
I argue against various versions of the 'attitude' view of consent and of the 'action' view of consent: I show that neither an attitude nor an action is either necessary or sufficient for consent. I then put forward a different view of consent based on the idea that, given a legitimate epistemic context, absence of dissent is sufficient for consent: what is crucial is having access to dissent. In the latter part of the paper I illustrate my view of consent by applying it to the case of consenting to being an organ donor...
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188301/what-questions-can-a-placebo-answer
#10
Spencer Phillips Hey, Charles Weijer
The concept of clinical equipoise restricts the use of placebo controls in clinical trials when there already exists a proven effective treatment. Several critics of clinical equipoise have put forward alleged counter-examples to this restriction-describing instances of ethical placebo-controlled trials that apparently violate clinical equipoise. In this essay, we respond to these examples and show that clinical equipoise is not as restrictive of placebos as these authors assume. We argue that a subtler appreciation for clinical equipoise-in particular the distinction between de facto and de jure interpretations of the concept-allows the concept to explain when and why a placebo control may be necessary to answer a question of clinical importance...
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142775/the-right-to-die-beyond-academia
#11
Carole Ramsey
The world's first legal euthanasia death occurred in the Australian City of Darwin on Sunday 22 September 1996 when Bob Dent ended his life under the Northern Territory's short-lived Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. Dent's death intensified argument about euthanasia in Australia, transforming the debate from a textbook discussion in social ethics into a vigorous and divisive social dispute. The day before he ended his life, Dent dictated a letter, written down by his wife. This description of his experience with terminal illness is graphic-the letter, his last effort to bring the plight of those living with terminal illness to public consciousness...
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26670685/myles-jackson-the-genealogy-of-a-gene-mit-press-cambridge-ma-2015
#12
Daniel J Hicks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712607/robert-m-veatch-and-lainie-f-ross-transplantation-ethics-2nd-ed-georgetown-university-press-washington-dc-2015-451-pp-isbn-9781626161672-paperback
#13
Benjamin Hippen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891846/editorial-biobanking-eggs-and-embryos-for-research
#14
EDITORIAL
Dave Snow, Alana Cattapan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820664/why-governance-a-challenge-to-good-governance-of-biobanks
#15
COMMENT
Katharine Browne
In this commentary on Karla Stroud and Kieran O'Doherty's 'Ethically Sustainable Governance in the Biobanking of Eggs and Embryos for Research' (2015) I call into question the need for good governance to overcome the challenges facing biobanking of eggs and embryos. I argue that the principles of good governance for biobanking that Stroud and O'Doherty outline come up short in providing concrete normative guidance to resolve the challenges associated with a biobank for eggs and embryos.
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26809668/commentary-on-models-of-biobanks-and-implications-for-reproductive-health-innovation
#16
COMMENT
Einar Árnason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26758613/promising-waste-biobanking-embryo-research-and-infrastructures-of-ethical-efficiency
#17
J Benjamin Hurlbut
Biobanks are custodial institutions that enhance the utility and value of biological materials by collecting and curating them. Their custodial functions tend to include ethical oversight and governance. This paper explores how biobanks increase the value of biological materials by standardizing routines of governance in order to engender "ethical efficiency." Focusing in particular upon banking of human embryos for research, the article offers an historical account of how human embryos came to be "waste" available for use by researchers in the US...
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26758612/biobanking-human-embryonic-stem-cell-lines-policy-ethics-and-efficiency
#18
Søren Holm
Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy discussions relating to their establishment or maintenance. It is argued (1) that 'ethical arguments' are often more important in the establishment phase and 'efficiency arguments' more important in the maintenance phase, and (2) that arguments relating to the interests of embryo and gamete donors are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse...
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712610/from-waste-to-fool-s-gold-promissory-and-profit-values-of-cord-blood
#19
Jennie Haw
According to biomedical discourse, cord blood has been transformed from 'waste' to 'clinical gold' because of its potential for use in treatments. Private cord blood banks deploy clinical discourse to market their services to prospective parents, encouraging them to pay to bank cord blood as a form of 'biological insurance' to ensure their child's future health. Social scientists have examined new forms of (bio)value produced in biological materials emergent with contemporary biotechnologies. This paper contributes to this literature by examining the social and technical production of value in cord blood units collected for private banking...
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712609/ethically-sustainable-governance-in-the-biobanking-of-eggs-and-embryos-for-research
#20
Karla Stroud, Kieran C O'Doherty
Biobanking of human tissues is associated with a range of ethical, legal, and social (ELS) challenges. These include difficulties in operationalising informed consent protocols, protecting donors' privacy, managing the return of incidental findings, conceptualising ownership of tissues, and benefit sharing. Though largely unresolved, these challenges are well documented and debated in academic literature. One common response to the ELS challenges of biobanks is a call for strong and independent governance of biobanks...
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
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