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Arthropod Structure & Development

Xiao-Zhu Luo, Benjamin Wipfler, Ignacio Ribera, Hong-Bin Liang, Ming-Yi Tian, Si-Qin Ge, Rolf G Beutel
External and internal thoracic structures of two carabid species (Trechini) were examined and documented with different techniques. The study has a main focus on the eyeless cave-dwelling specialist Sinaphaenops wangorum, but detailed information is also provided for a species occurring in cave entrances. The phylogenetic background of the structural features of the thoracic skeletomuscular system was addressed. The thoracic morphology of the examined species was compared to conditions observed in previously studied carabids and non-related subterranean leiodids (Staphylinoidea) in order to identify cave adaptations...
September 14, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Katja Kienbaum, Juliane Vehof, Carola Becker, Gerhard Scholtz
The eubrachyuran Hymenosomatoidea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions ranging from marine to freshwater habitats. Even though the biology of this taxon has been studied to some extent, its phylogenetic relationships are not resolved. Based on different morphological characters, some authors suggested a close affinity of hymenosomatid crabs to heterotremes. However, many of these characters are ambiguous, and the few molecular studies did not provide convincing solutions either. To address this issue, we studied the reproductive system of the hymenosomatid freshwater species Limnopilos naiyanetri Chuang and Ng, 1991 using histology and scanning electron microscopy...
August 7, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Ailin Chen, Hong Chen, David A Legg, Yu Liu, Xian-Guang Hou
Material attributed to Liangwangshania biloba, a fuxianhuiid arthropod from the lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3) of southwest China, is redescribed, with many specimens illustrated for the first time. Newly recognized features include, potential optical neuropils, a stout posterolateral carapace spine, serrated tergal pleurae, two rows of mediolateral carinae, an abdomen composed of seven segments, the last possessing a tripartite lateral flap, and a triangular telson. The presence of tergal carinae, a prothorax composed of six segments, and a trunk composed of 43 segments tipped with a flap-like terminal segment, increase similarities with the previously described Shankouia zhenghei, thus prompting a reevaluation of the potential synonymy of these taxa...
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Erik S Schneider, Christoph J Kleineidam, Gerd Leitinger, Heinrich Römer
In many acoustic insects, mate finding and mate choice are primarily based on acoustic signals. In several species with high-intensity calling songs, such as the studied katydid Mecopoda sp., males exhibit an increase in their thoracic temperature during singing, which is linearly correlated with the amount of energy invested in song production. If this increased body temperature is used by females as an additional cue to assess the male's quality during mate choice, as has been recently hypothesized ("hot-male" hypothesis), thermosensory structures would be required to evaluate this cue...
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Carola Becker, Jaimie T A Dick, Eoghan Mánus Cunningham, Clemens Schmitt, Julia D Sigwart
A proposed method to determine chronological age of crustaceans uses putative annual bands in the gastric mill ossicles of the foregut. The interpretation of cuticle bands as growth rings is based on the idea that ossicles are retained through the moult and could accumulate a continuous record of age. However, recent studies presented conflicting findings on the dynamics of gastric mill ossicles during ecdysis. We herein study cuticle bands in ossicles in four species of commercially important decapod crustaceans (Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus, Cancer pagurus and Necora puber) in different phases of the moult cycle using dissections, light microscopy, micro-computed tomography and cryo-scanning electron microscopy...
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jens Goldammer, Volker Dürr
Like several other arthropod species, stick insects use their antennae for tactile exploration of the near-range environment and for spatial localisation of touched objects. More specifically, Carausius morosus continuously moves its antennae during locomotion and reliably responds to antennal contact events with directed movements of a front leg. Here we investigate the afferent projection patterns of antennal hair fields (aHF), proprioceptors known to encode antennal posture and movement, and to be involved in antennal movement control...
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Joseph M Cicero, Javier Alba-Tercedor, Wayne B Hunter, Liliana M Cano, S Saha, Lukas A Mueller, Susan J Brown
In Hemiptera, presumptive stylets for each consecutive postembryonic instar are manufactured prior to ecdysis to replace the ecdysial stylets discarded with the exuviae. With the discovery that the bacterium "Candidatus" Liberibacter solanacearum accesses the tissues involved in the stylet replacement process of the potato psyllid, a hypothesis was formed that the bacterium could adhere to the stylets of freshly emerged instars and hence gain access to the host plant when feeding is resumed. Although unproven, it was imperative that a model for stylet replacement be built...
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Bryan R Helm, Scott Payne, Joseph P Rinehart, George D Yocum, Julia H Bowsher, Kendra J Greenlee
Insect metamorphosis involves a complex change in form and function. In this study, we examined the development of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata, using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and volume analysis. We describe volumetric changes of brain, tracheae, flight muscles, gut, and fat bodies in prepupal, pupal, and adult M. rotundata. We observed that individual organ systems have distinct patterns of developmental progression, which vary in their timing and duration. This has important implications for commercial management of this agriculturally relevant pollinator...
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Kenny Jandausch, Rolf G Beutel, Hans Pohl, Stanislav N Gorb, Sebastian Büsse
The legs of the primary larva of Mantispa aphavexelte, parasite in egg sacks of spiders, were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The leg morphology is described in detail, including intrinsic muscles. Functional adaptations of the leg attachment devices are discussed, especially regarding the material composition. For example, a sole-like flexible ventral tarsal surface containing resilin is combined with sclerotized pseudo-claws. This likely enables the larvae to cope with surface structures on the spider's body, with substrates on the ground, and also with various structural elements in the spider's nest...
September 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Robert Dudley, Günther Pass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa
The gain of foldable wings is regarded as one of the key innovations enabling the present-day diversity of neopteran insects. Wing folding allows compact housing of the wings and shields the insect body from damage. Wing-fixing systems have evolved in some insects, probably to increase the durability of the shielding function by the wings. Bark lice (Psocodea) are known to possess a unique wing-to-wing repose coupling system, but a detailed morphological and evolutionary study of this system is lacking. In this study, we examined this repose coupling structure by SEM in 32 species including representatives of all three suborders of bark lice (Trogiomorpha, Troctomorpha and Psocomorpha)...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Courtney M Clark-Hachtel, Madison R Moe, Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Despite the immense importance of the wing in the evolution and successful radiation of the insect lineages, the origin of this critical structure remains a hotly-debated mystery. Two possible tissues have been identified as an evolutionary origin of wings; the lateral expansion of the dorsal body wall (tergal edge) and structures related to an ancestral proximal leg segment (pleural tissues). Through studying wing-related tissues in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we have previously presented evidence in support of a dual origin of insect wings, a third hypothesis proposing that wings evolved from a combination of both tergal and pleural tissues...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Takahiro Ohde, Yusuke Takehana, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Teruyuki Niimi
Despite previous developmental studies on basally branching wingless insects and crustaceans, the evolutionary origin of insect wings remains controversial. Knowledge regarding genetic regulation of tissues hypothesized to have given rise to wings would help to elucidate how ancestral development changed to allow the evolution of true wings. However, genetic tools available for basally branching wingless species are limited. The firebrat Thermobia domestica is an apterygote species, phylogenetically related to winged insects...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Günther Pass
Insect wings consist almost entirely of lifeless cuticle; yet their veins host a complex multimodal sensory apparatus and other tissues that require a continuous supply of water, nutrients and oxygen. This review provides a survey of the various living components in insect wings, as well as the specific contribution of the circulatory and tracheal systems to provide all essential substances. In most insects, hemolymph circulates through the veinal network in a loop flow caused by the contraction of accessory pulsatile organs in the thorax...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Sabrina Simon, Alexander Blanke, Karen Meusemann
The phylogenetic relationships of the winged insect lineages - mayflies (Ephemeroptera), damselflies and dragonflies (Odonata), and all other winged insects (Neoptera) - are still controversial with three hypotheses supported by different datasets: Palaeoptera, Metapterygota and Chiastomyaria. Here, we reanalyze available phylogenomic data with a focus on detecting confounding and alternative signal. In this context, we provide a framework to quantitatively evaluate and assess incongruent molecular phylogenetic signal inherent in phylogenomic datasets...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Fabian Bäumler, Stanislav N Gorb, Sebastian Büsse
Due to their unique flight mechanism including a direct flight musculature, Odonata show impressive flight skills. Several publications addressed the details of this flight apparatus like: sclerites, wings, musculature, and flight aerodynamics. However, 3D-analysis of the thorax musculature of adult dragonflies was not studied before and this paper allows for a detailed insight. We, therefore, focused on the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera using micro-computed tomography. Herewith, we present a comparative morphological approach to identify differences within Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, and Libellulidae...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Paavo Bergmann, Sandra Richter, Nina Glöckner, Oliver Betz
Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy were applied to cross sections and -breakage and whole-mount preparations of the anterior hindwing vein of the shield bug Graphosoma italicum. These analyses were complemented by investigations of the basal part of the forewing Corium and Clavus. The integration of structural, histological, and fluorescence data revealed a complex arrangement of both rigid and elastic structures in the wall of wing veins and provided insights into the constitution of transition zones between rigid and elastic regions...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, André Nel, Thomas Hörnschemeyer
The structure of insect wing articulation is considered as reliable source of high level characters for phylogenetic analyses. However, the correct identification of homologous structures among the main groups of Pterygota is a hotly debated issue. Therefore, the reconstruction of the wing bases in Paleozoic extinct relatives is of great interest, but at the same time it should be treated with extreme caution due to distortions caused by taphonomic effects. The present study is focused on the wing base in Dunbaria (Spilapteridae)...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yunxian Huang, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Osamu Shimmi
Wing venation among insects serves as an excellent model to address how diversified patterns are produced. Previous studies suggest that evolutionarily conserved Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signal plays a critical role in wing vein development in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster and the hymenopteran sawfly Athalia rosae. In sawfly, dpp is ubiquitously expressed in the wing during prepupal stages, but Dpp/BMP signal is localized in the future vein cells. Since localized BMP signaling involves BMP binding protein Crossveinless (Cv), redistribution of BMP ligands appears to be crucial for sawfly wing vein formation...
July 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
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