journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Arthropod Structure & Development

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347859/the-sensory-arrays-of-the-ant-temnothorax-rugatulus
#1
Fiorella Ramirez-Esquivel, Nicole E Leitner, Jochen Zeil, Ajay Narendra
Individual differences in response thresholds to task-related stimuli may be one mechanism driving task allocation among social insect workers. These differences may arise at various stages in the nervous system. We investigate variability in the peripheral nervous system as a simple mechanism that can introduce inter-individual differences in sensory information. In this study we describe size-dependent variation of the compound eyes and the antennae in the ant Temnothorax rugatulus. Head width in T. rugatulus varies between 0...
April 12, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373032/comparative-morphology-of-the-prothoracic-leg-in-heliconian-butterflies-tracing-size-allometry-podite-fusions-and-losses-in-ontogeny-and-phylogeny
#2
Gilson R P Moreira, Denis S Silva, Gislene L Gonçalves
Prothoracic legs of heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Heliconiini) are reduced in size compared to mesothoracic and metathoracic legs. They have no apparent function in males, but are used by females for drumming on hostplants, a behavior related to oviposition site selection. Here, taking into account all recognized lineages of heliconian butterflies, we described their tarsi using optical and scanning electron microscopy and searched for podite fusions and losses, and analyzed allometry at the static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels...
March 31, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365228/the-thoracic-morphology-of-the-wingless-dune-cricket-comicus-calcaris-orthoptera-schizodactylidae-novel-apomorphic-characters-for-the-group-and-adaptations-to-sand-desert-environments
#3
Fanny Leubner, Sven Bradler, Benjamin Wipfler
Schizodactylidae, splay-footed or dune crickets, represents a distinct lineage among the highly diverse orthopteran subgroup Ensifera (crickets, katydids and allies). Only two extant genera belong to the Schizodactylidae: the winged Eurasian genus Schizodactylus, whose ecology and morphology is well documented, and the wingless South African Comicus, for which hardly any studies providing morphological descriptions have been conducted since its taxonomic description in 1888. Based on the first in-depths study of the skeletomuscular system of the thorax of Comicus calcarisIrish 1986, we provide information on some unique characteristics of this character complex in Schizodactylidae...
March 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163192/sperm-ultrastructure-of-shrimp-from-family-penaeidae-crustacea-dendrobranchiata-in-a-phylogenetic-context
#4
Tavani Rocha Camargo, Natalia Rossi, Antonio L Castilho, Rogério C Costa, Fernando L Mantelatto, Fernando José Zara
We describe the sperm ultrastructure of six penaeid species, including at least one member of each tribe (Penaeini, Parapenaeini and Trachypenaeini). Fragments of the vas deferens of the Penaeidae Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, Farfantepenaeus paulensis, Litopenaeus schmitti, Parapenaeus americanus, Rimapenaeus constrictus and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were fixed and processed according to the routine for transmission electron microscopy. The morphological results were contextualized in an evolutionary perspective using molecular markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of this group...
March 27, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347860/ultrastructure-of-spermiogenesis-and-spermatozoa-in-marchalina-hellenica-gennadius-hemiptera-sternorrhyncha-marchalinidae
#5
R Dallai, Mercati D, S Gounari, F Paoli, P Lupetti
The spermiogenesis, the sperm structure and the sperm motility of Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) were examined. In the early spermiogenesis a centriolar apparatus was identified, but this structure is not involved in the production of the sperm flagellum. As in other Coccoidea, the flagellar axoneme originates by the activity of the thickened tip of the numerous microtubules surrounding the nuclear anterior region close to the periphery of the cell. This region pushes against a narrow cytoplasmic layer, giving rise to a papilla...
March 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344111/no-sight-no-smell-brain-anatomy-of-two-amphipod-crustaceans-with-different-lifestyles
#6
Till Ramm, Gerhard Scholtz
The brain anatomy of Niphargus puteanus and Orchestia cavimana, two amphipod species with different lifestyles, has been studied using a variety of recent techniques. The general aspects of the brain anatomy of both species correspond to those of other malacostracans. However, both species lack hemiellipsoid bodies. Furthermore, related to their lifestyle certain differences have been observed. The aquatic subterranean species Niphargus puteanus lacks eye structures, the optic nerve, and the two outer optic neuropils lamina and medulla...
March 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235577/introduction-the-evolution-of-segmentation
#7
EDITORIAL
Alessandro Minelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254451/using-insects-to-drive-mobile-robots%C3%A2-%C3%A2-hybrid-robots-bridge-the-gap-between-biological-and-artificial-systems
#8
REVIEW
Noriyasu Ando, Ryohei Kanzaki
The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them...
March 18, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043917/stylet-biogenesis-in-bactericera-cockerelli-hemiptera-triozidae
#9
Joseph M Cicero
The discovery of 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum', causal agent of certain solanaceous and apiaceous crop diseases, inside the functional (intrastadial) and pharate stylet anatomy of the potato psyllid prompted elucidation of the mechanism of stylet replacement as a novel exit portal in the transmission pathway. In Hemiptera, presumptive (formative) stylets, secreted during consecutive pharate instars, replace functional stylets lost with the exuviae. In potato psyllids, each functional stylet has a hollow core filled with a cytology that extends out of the core to form a hemispherical aggregate of cells, the 'end-cap', somewhat resembling a golf ball on a tee...
March 18, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302586/mantisbot-is-a-robotic-model-of-visually-guided-motion-in-the-praying-mantis
#10
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Andrew P Getsy, Joshua P Martin, Roy E Ritzmann, Roger D Quinn
Insects use highly distributed nervous systems to process exteroception from head sensors, compare that information with state-based goals, and direct posture or locomotion toward those goals. To study how descending commands from brain centers produce coordinated, goal-directed motion in distributed nervous systems, we have constructed a conductance-based neural system for our robot MantisBot, a 29 degree-of-freedom, 13.3:1 scale praying mantis robot. Using the literature on mantis prey tracking and insect locomotion, we designed a hierarchical, distributed neural controller that establishes the goal, coordinates different joints, and executes prey-tracking motion...
March 13, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302585/development-and-evolution-of-segmentation-assessed-by-geometric-morphometrics-the-centipede-strigamia-maritima-as-a-case-study
#11
Yoland Savriama, Sylvain Gerber, Matteo Baiocco, Vincent Debat, Giuseppe Fusco
Using the centipede model species Strigamia maritima as a subject of study, we illustrate the potential of geometric morphometrics for investigating the development and evolution of segmentation, with a specific focus on post-embryonic segmental patterning. We show how these techniques can contribute detailed descriptive data for comparative purposes, but also precious information on some features of the developmental system that are considered relevant for the evolvability of a segmented body architecture, such as developmental stability and canalization...
March 13, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720841/linking-gene-regulation-to-cell-behaviors-in-the-posterior-growth-zone-of-sequentially-segmenting-arthropods
#12
REVIEW
Terri A Williams, Lisa M Nagy
Virtually all arthropods all arthropods add their body segments sequentially, one by one in an anterior to posterior progression. That process requires not only segment specification but typically growth and elongation. Here we review the functions of some of the key genes that regulate segmentation: Wnt, caudal, Notch pathway, and pair-rule genes, and discuss what can be inferred about their evolution. We focus on how these regulatory factors are integrated with growth and elongation and discuss the importance and challenges of baseline measures of growth and elongation...
February 15, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725255/a-molecular-view-of-onychophoran-segmentation
#13
Ralf Janssen
This paper summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and assumed function of Drosophila and (other) arthropod segmentation gene orthologs in Onychophora, a closely related outgroup to Arthropoda. This includes orthologs of the so-called Drosophila segmentation gene cascade including the Hox genes, as well as other genetic factors and pathways involved in non-drosophilid arthropods. Open questions about and around the topic are addressed, such as the definition of segments in onychophorans, the unclear regulation of conserved expression patterns downstream of non-conserved factors, and the potential role of mesodermal patterning in onychophoran segmentation...
February 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189833/the-morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-salivary-glands-of-zoraptera-insecta
#14
R Dallai, D Mercati, Y Mashimo, R Machida, R G Beutel
The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base...
February 9, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161605/haltere-morphology-and-campaniform-sensilla-arrangement-across-diptera
#15
Sweta Agrawal, David Grimaldi, Jessica L Fox
One of the primary specializations of true flies (order Diptera) is the modification of the hind wings into club-shaped halteres. Halteres are complex mechanosensory structures that provide sensory feedback essential for stable flight control via an array of campaniform sensilla at the haltere base. The morphology of these sensilla has previously been described in a small number of dipteran species, but little is known about how they vary across fly taxa. Using a synoptic set of specimens representing 42 families from all of the major infraorders of Diptera, we used scanning electron microscopy to map the gross and fine structures of halteres, including sensillum shape and arrangement...
March 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108399/fine-structure-of-the-anterior-median-eyes-of-the-funnel-web-spider-agelena-labyrinthica-araneae-agelenidae
#16
Wolfgang-D Schröer
Only few electron microscopic studies exist on the structure of the main eyes (anterior median eyes, AME) of web spiders. The present paper provides details on the anatomy of the AME in the funnel-web spider Agelena labyrinthica. The retina consists of two separate regions with differently arranged photoreceptor cells. Its central part has sensory cells with rhabdomeres on 2, 3, or 4 sides, whereas those of the ventral retina have only two rhabdomeres on opposite sides. In addition, the rhabdomeres of the ventral retina are arranged in a specific way: Whereas in the most ventral part they form long tangential rows, those towards the center are detached and are arranged radially...
March 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065803/ontogenetic-trajectory-and-allometry-of-diplonychus-rusticus-fabricius-an-oriental-aquatic-bug-hemiptera-belostomatidae-from-the-western-ghats-of-india
#17
Dnyaneshwar Doke, Rashmi Morey, Neelesh Dahanukar, Sameer M Padhye, Shruti V Paripatyadar
Despite being one of the dominant groups in freshwater ecosystems, morphological and ontogenetic studies on aquatic Hemiptera have received little attention in the Oriental region. We present the ontogenetic trajectory and allometry of the widespread Oriental belostomatid species, Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius) for the first time. We have measured nine different morphological variables throughout the growth of the bug using both field captured and laboratory reared specimens. Our results suggest that the developmental instars can be distinguished by the size variables, as seen in the Principal Component Analysis...
March 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062354/comparative-study-of-the-morphology-of-the-female-seminal-receptacles-of-ilia-nucleus-and-persephona-mediterranea-decapoda-brachyura-leucosiidae
#18
Sarah Hayer, Stephanie Köhnk, Christoph D Schubart, Susann Boretius, Stanislav N Gorb, Dirk Brandis
Because of the poor knowledge of the morphology of the female reproductive organs of most brachyuran crabs, this study investigated two Atlantic representatives of the family Leucosiidae, Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Persephona mediterranea (Herbst, 1794), using histological methods and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While the vagina conforms to the concave type, the arrangement of the two chambers of the seminal receptacle differs strongly from that of other eubrachyuran sperm storage organs. Both chambers are oriented laterally within the crab's body...
March 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017815/ultrastructure-of-chemoreceptive-tarsal-sensilla-in-an-armored-harvestman-and-evidence-of-olfaction-across-laniatores-arachnida-opiliones
#19
Guilherme Gainett, Peter Michalik, Carsten H G Müller, Gonzalo Giribet, Giovanni Talarico, Rodrigo H Willemart
Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) are especially dependent on chemical cues and are often regarded as animals that rely mainly on contact chemoreception. Information on harvestman sensilla is scarce when compared to other arachnid orders, especially concerning internal morphology. Using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, we investigated tarsal sensilla on the distal tarsomeres (DT) of all leg pairs in Heteromitobates discolor (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Furthermore, we explored the typological diversity of sensilla present on the DT I and II in members of the suborder Laniatores, which include two thirds of the formally described opilionid fauna, using species from 17 families representing all main laniatorian lineages...
March 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012892/head-anatomy-of-adult-coniopteryx-pygmaea-effects-of-miniaturization-and-the-systematic-position-of-coniopterygidae-insecta-neuroptera
#20
Susanne Randolf, Dominique Zimmermann, Ulrike Aspöck
External and internal head structures of adult Coniopteryx pygmaea Enderlein, 1906, one of the smallest known lacewings, are described in detail for the first time. Possible effects of miniaturization and two hypotheses on the phylogenetic position of Coniopterygidae are evaluated and compared with data from literature. Several convergent modifications in C. pygmaea and other miniaturized insect species are outlined, e.g., a relative increase in the size of the brain, simplification of the tracheal system with respect to the number of tracheae, and reduction of the number of ommatidia and diameter of the facets...
March 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
journal
journal
37597
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"