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Arthropod Structure & Development

Katja Kienbaum, Juliane Vehof, Carola Becker, Gerhard Scholtz
The eubrachyuran Hymenosomatoidea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions ranging from marine to freshwater habitats. Even though the biology of this taxon has been studied to some extent, its phylogenetic relationships are not resolved. Based on different morphological characters, some authors suggested a close affinity of hymenosomatid crabs to heterotremes. However, many of these characters are ambiguous, and the few molecular studies did not provide convincing solutions either. To address this issue, we studied the reproductive system of the hymenosomatid freshwater species Limnopilos naiyanetri Chuang and Ng, 1991 using histology and scanning electron microscopy...
June 29, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Joseph M Cicero, Javier Alba-Tercedor, Wayne B Hunter, Liliana M Cano, S Saha, Lukas A Mueller, Susan J Brown
In Hemiptera, presumptive stylets for each consecutive postembryonic instar are manufactured prior to ecdysis to replace the ecdysial stylets discarded with the exuviae. With the discovery that the bacterium "Candidatus" Liberibacter solanacearum accesses the tissues involved in the stylet replacement process of the potato psyllid, a hypothesis was formed that the bacterium could adhere to the stylets of freshly emerged instars and hence gain access to the host plant when feeding is resumed. Although unproven, it was imperative that a model for stylet replacement be built...
June 26, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Robert Dudley, Günther Pass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa
The gain of foldable wings is regarded as one of the key innovations enabling the present-day diversity of neopteran insects. Wing folding allows compact housing of the wings and shields the insect body from damage. Wing-fixing systems have evolved in some insects, probably to increase the durability of the shielding function by the wings. Bark lice (Psocodea) are known to possess a unique wing-to-wing repose coupling system, but a detailed morphological and evolutionary study of this system is lacking. In this study, we examined this repose coupling structure by SEM in 32 species including representatives of all three suborders of bark lice (Trogiomorpha, Troctomorpha and Psocomorpha)...
June 19, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Roman Rakitov
Pharate 1st instar nymphs enclosed in the embryonic cuticle, referred to as pronymphs, were studied in a froghopper Aphrophora pectoralis Mats. (Aphrophoridae) and the leafhoppers Oncopsis flavicollis (L.), Populicerus populi (L.), Alebra wahlbergi (Boh.), Igutettix oculatus (Lindb.), and Scenergates viridis (Vilb.) (Cicadellidae). The species vary in the relative length of the pronymphal antennae and details of sculpturing of the cephalic region. No egg bursting structures were observed, except small denticles on the crown region of S...
June 19, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Courtney M Clark-Hachtel, Madison R Moe, Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Despite the immense importance of the wing in the evolution and successful radiation of the insect lineages, the origin of this critical structure remains a hotly-debated mystery. Two possible tissues have been identified as an evolutionary origin of wings; the lateral expansion of the dorsal body wall (tergal edge) and structures related to an ancestral proximal leg segment (pleural tissues). Through studying wing-related tissues in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we have previously presented evidence in support of a dual origin of insect wings, a third hypothesis proposing that wings evolved from a combination of both tergal and pleural tissues...
June 15, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Bryan R Helm, Scott Payne, Joseph P Rinehart, George D Yocum, Julia H Bowsher, Kendra J Greenlee
Insect metamorphosis involves a complex change in form and function. In this study, we examined development of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata, using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and volume analysis. We describe volumetric changes of brain, tracheae, flight muscles, gut, and fat bodies in prepupal, pupal, and adult M. rotundata. We observed that individual organ systems have distinct patterns of developmental progression, which vary in their timing and duration. This has important implications for commercial management of this agriculturally relevant pollinator...
June 14, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Takahiro Ohde, Yusuke Takehana, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Teruyuki Niimi
Despite previous developmental studies on basally branching wingless insects and crustaceans, the evolutionary origin of insect wings remains controversial. Knowledge regarding genetic regulation of tissues hypothesized to have given rise to wings would help to elucidate how ancestral development changed to allow the evolution of true wings. However, genetic tools available for basally branching wingless species are limited. The firebrat Thermobia domestica is an apterygote species, phylogenetically related to winged insects...
June 13, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Bernard W M Wone, Jaika Pathak, Goggy Davidowitz
Flight muscle breakdown has been reported for many orders of insects, but the basis of this breakdown in insects with lifelong dependence on flight is less clear. Lepidopterans show such muscle changes across their lifespans, yet how this change affects the ability of these insects to complete their life cycles is not well documented. We investigated the changes in muscle function and ultrastructure of unfed aging adult hawk moths (Manduca sexta). Flight duration was examined in young, middle-aged, and advanced-aged unfed moths...
June 13, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Kenny Jandausch, Rolf G Beutel, Hans Pohl, Stanislav N Gorb, Sebastian Büsse
The legs of the primary larva of Mantispa aphavexelte, parasite in egg sacks of spiders, were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The leg morphology is described in detail, including intrinsic muscles. Functional adaptations of the leg attachment devices are discussed, especially regarding the material composition. For example, a sole-like flexible ventral tarsal surface containing resilin is combined with sclerotized pseudo-claws. This likely enables the larvae to cope with surface structures on the spider's body, with substrates on the ground, and also with various structural elements in the spider's nest...
June 11, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Günther Pass
Insect wings consist almost entirely of lifeless cuticle; yet their veins host a complex multimodal sensory apparatus and other tissues that require a continuous supply of water, nutrients and oxygen. This review provides a survey of the various living components in insect wings, as well as the specific contribution of the circulatory and tracheal systems to provide all essential substances. In most insects, hemolymph circulates through the veinal network in a loop flow caused by the contraction of accessory pulsatile organs in the thorax...
May 30, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Sabrina Simon, Alexander Blanke, Karen Meusemann
The phylogenetic relationships of the winged insect lineages - mayflies (Ephemeroptera), damselflies and dragonflies (Odonata), and all other winged insects (Neoptera) - are still controversial with three hypotheses supported by different datasets: Palaeoptera, Metapterygota and Chiastomyaria. Here, we reanalyze available phylogenomic data with a focus on detecting confounding and alternative signal. In this context, we provide a framework to quantitatively evaluate and assess incongruent molecular phylogenetic signal inherent in phylogenomic datasets...
May 29, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, André Nel, Thomas Hörnschemeyer
The structure of insect wing articulation is considered as reliable source of high level characters for phylogenetic analyses. However, the correct identification of homologous structures among the main groups of Pterygota is a hotly debated issue. Therefore, the reconstruction of the wing bases in Paleozoic extinct relatives is of great interest, but at the same time it should be treated with extreme caution due to distortions caused by taphonomic effects. The present study is focused on the wing base in Dunbaria (Spilapteridae)...
May 3, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Fabian Bäumler, Stanislav N Gorb, Sebastian Büsse
Due to their unique flight mechanism including a direct flight musculature, Odonata show impressive flight skills. Several publications addressed the details of this flight apparatus like: sclerites, wings, musculature, and flight aerodynamics. However, 3D-analysis of the thorax musculature of adult dragonflies was not studied before and this paper allows for a detailed insight. We, therefore, focused on the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera using micro-computed tomography. Herewith, we present a comparative morphological approach to identify differences within Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, and Libellulidae...
May 2, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Paavo Bergmann, Sandra Richter, Nina Glöckner, Oliver Betz
Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy were applied to cross sections and -breakage and whole-mount preparations of the anterior hindwing vein of the shield bug Graphosoma italicum. These analyses were complemented by investigations of the basal part of the forewing Corium and Clavus. The integration of structural, histological, and fluorescence data revealed a complex arrangement of both rigid and elastic structures in the wall of wing veins and provided insights into the constitution of transition zones between rigid and elastic regions...
May 2, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yunxian Huang, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Osamu Shimmi
Wing venation among insects serves as an excellent model to address how diversified patterns are produced. Previous studies suggest that evolutionarily conserved Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signal plays a critical role in wing vein development in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster and the hymenopteran sawfly Athalia rosae. In sawfly, dpp is ubiquitously expressed in the wing during prepupal stages, but Dpp/BMP signal is localized in the future vein cells. Since localized BMP signaling involves BMP binding protein Crossveinless (Cv), redistribution of BMP ligands appears to be crucial for sawfly wing vein formation...
April 24, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Johan Billen, Fuminori Ito
Besides the common labial and metapleural glands, four novel exocrine glands are described in the thorax of both workers and queens of the ponerine ant Myopias hollandi. From anterior to posterior, these glands were designated as the propleural pit gland, the posterolateral pronotal gland, the anterolateral propodeal gland and the metasternal process gland. They all correspond with class-3 glands, that are made up of bicellular units that each comprise a secretory cell and a duct cell. In the propleural pit gland, the ducts are characterized by a gradually widening diameter, while in the three other glands the ducts show a portion which displays a balloon-like expansion, that on semithin sections stains very dark...
May 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Romano Dallai, José Lino-Neto, Glenda Dias, Pedro H A Nere, David Mercati, Pietro Lupetti
The sperm structure of several ladybird species belonging to different subfamilies of Coccinellidae was studied. Three main sperm types were clearly recognized, and were characterized by differences in acrosomal length, the presence of a dense coat around the acrosome, the length of the basal body, the amount of the centriole adjunct material, and the diameter of the mitochondrial derivatives. However, the whole group shares a pattern of the posterior sperm region uncommon for insects, in which the axoneme and other flagellar components are running parallel with the nucleus...
May 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Michał Kobiałka, Anna Michalik, Jacek Szwedo, Teresa Szklarzewicz
Symbiotic microorganisms associated with thirteen species of the subfamily Deltocephalinae were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Athysanus argentarius, Euscelis incisus, Doratura stylata, Arthaldeus pascuellus, Errastunus ocellaris, Jassargus flori, Jassargus pseudocellaris, Psammotettix alienus, Psammotettix confinis, Turrutus socialis and Verdanus abdominalis harbor two types of ancient bacteriome-associated microorganisms: bacteria Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and bacteria Nasuia (phylum Proteobacteria, class Betaproteobacteria)...
May 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Lourelle Alicia Martins Neethling, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage
The female reproductive system has been described for Dolops ranarum (Stuhlman, 1891) and various Argulus spp. but, there is no description of the reproductive system for Dipteropeltis spp. Calman, 1912 or Chonopeltis spp. Thiele, 1900. This paper describes the female reproductive system and egg laying behaviour of Chonopeltisaustralis Boxshall, 1976 using histology, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and observations. The histological study of six specimens showed that the organ structure is similar to that of Argulus spp...
May 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
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