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Arthropod Structure & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317353/the-sensory-equipment-of-a-spider-a-morphological-survey-of-different-sensilla-types-in-both-sexes-of-argiope-bruennichi-araneae-araneidae
#1
Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl
Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored...
January 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248673/drinking-with-a-very-long-proboscis-functional-morphology-of-orchid-bee-mouthparts-euglossini-apidae-hymenoptera
#2
Jellena V Düster, Maria H Gruber, Florian Karolyi, John D Plant, Harald W Krenn
Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) possess the longest proboscis among bees. In this study, we compared the feeding behavior and functional morphology of mouthparts in two similarly large-sized species of Euglossa that differ greatly in proboscis length. Feeding observations and experiments conducted under semi-natural conditions were combined with micro-morphological examination using LM, SEM and micro CT techniques. The morphometric comparison showed that only the components of the mouthparts that form the food tube differ in length, while the proximal components, which are responsible for proboscis movements, are similar in size...
December 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224983/comparison-of-sensory-structures-on-the-antenna-of-different-species-of-philopotamidae-insecta-trichoptera
#3
Stanislav I Melnitsky, Vladimir D Ivanov, Mikhail Yu Valuyskiy, Lydia V Zueva, Marianna I Zhukovskaya
Structure and distribution of sensilla were studied in sixteen species of the caddisfly family Philopotamidae. Their antennae bear numerous curved trichoid and pseudoplacoid sensilla and fewer coronal, styloconic and chaetoid sensilla on the flagellar segments. The most numerous pseudoplacoid sensilla have non-specific localization. The curved trichoid sensilla form clusters ventrally on each antennal segment. Sensilla belonging to coronal, styloconic and chaetoid types have specific positions. Long grooved trichoid sensilla are located nonspecifically in all the studied species...
December 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221680/paradorippe-granulata-a-crab-with-external-fertilization-and-a-novel-type-of-sperm-storage-organ-challenges-prevalent-ideas-on-the-evolution-of-reproduction-in-eubrachyura-crustacea-brachyura-dorippidae
#4
Juliane Vehof, Gerhard Scholtz, Carola Becker
Two fundamentally different sperm storage organs occur in Brachyura. The probably paraphyletic podotremes show intersegmental spermathecae, which are distant from oviducts and coxal gonopores. Hence, fertilization is external. In contrast to this, the seminal receptacles of Eubrachyura are directly connected with the ovaries. Thus, at least initial fertilization is internal. This pattern has been interpreted as an apomorphy of Eubrachyura. To test this hypothesis, we studied the morphology of the reproductive organs of Paradorippe granulata, a representative of the putatively early diverging eubrachyuran lineage Dorippoidea...
December 5, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221679/the-gnathobasic-spine-microstructure-of-recent-and-silurian-chelicerates-and-the-cambrian-artiopodan-sidneyia-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#5
Russell D C Bicknell, John R Paterson, Jean-Bernard Caron, Christian B Skovsted
Gnathobasic spines are located on the protopodal segments of the appendages of various euarthropod taxa, notably chelicerates. Although they are used to crush shells and masticate soft food items, the microstructure of these spines are relatively poorly known in both extant and extinct forms. Here we compare the gnathobasic spine microstructures of the Silurian eurypterid Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus from Estonia and the Cambrian artiopodan Sidneyiainexpectans from Canada with those of the Recent xiphosuran chelicerate Limulus polyphemus to infer potential variations in functional morphology through time...
December 5, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199047/egg-laying-behavior-and-morphological-and-chemical-characterization-of-egg-surface-and-egg-attachment-glue-of-the-digger-wasp-ampulex-compressa-hymenoptera-ampulicidae
#6
Werner Gnatzy, Walter Volknandt, Anja Dzwoneck
For providing their offspring females of the digger wasp species Ampulex compressa hunt cockroaches paralyze them and attach as a rule one egg to the coxa of one of the mid legs of their prey. We observed the egg-laying behavior and examined with light- and scanning microscopy (i) nearly mature eggs from ovaries of freshly dissected females and (ii) eggs immediately after their deposition on the coxae of their prey. The length of the white bean-shaped eggs varied between 2.2 and 3.0 mm, their diameter between 0...
November 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199046/-open-access-growth-histories-in-millipedes-diplopoda
#7
Henrik Enghoff, Laura Mark Jensen, Elena V Mikhaljova
A unique pattern of missing defence glands on certain body rings is described for two species of the millipede family Mongoliulidae, order Julida: Ussuriiulus pilifer Golovatch, 1980, and Koiulus interruptus Enghoff et al., 2017. Based on the patterns of missing glands observed in recently collected samples of the two species, numbers of podous and apodous body rings in successive stadia of the postembryonic development can be inferred for each individual millipede, which in turn allows the reconstruction of pathways of anamorphosis in these species...
November 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196211/corrigendum-to-timing-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-posterior-silk-gland-degeneration-in-bombyx-mori-arthropod-struct-dev-46-4-2017-518-528
#8
Aurora Montali, Davide Romanelli, Silvia Cappellozza, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Gianluca Tettamanti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191794/the-antennae-of-damselfly-larvae
#9
Silvana Piersanti, Manuela Rebora
The larval antennal sensilla of two Zygoptera species, Calopteryx haemorroidalis (Calopterygidae) and Ischnura elegans (Coenagrionidae) are investigated with SEM and TEM. These two species have different antennae (geniculate, setaceous) and live in different environments (lotic, lentic waters). Notwithstanding this, similarities in the kind and distribution of sensilla are outlined: in both species the majority of sensilla types is located on the apical portion of the antenna, namely a composed coeloconic sensillum (possible chemoreceptor), two other coeloconic sensilla (possible thermo-hygroreceptors) and an apical seta (direct contact mechanoreceptor)...
November 27, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169955/a-century-and-a-half-of-research-on-the-evolution-of-insect-flight
#10
David E Alexander
The gill and paranotal lobe theories of insect wing evolution were both proposed in the 1870s. For most of the 20th century, the paranotal lobe theory was more widely accepted, probably due to the fundamentally terrestrial tracheal respiratory system; in the 1970s, some researchers advocated for an elaborated gill ("pleural appendage") theory. Lacking transition fossils, neither theory could be definitively rejected. Winged insects are abundant in the fossil record from the mid-Carboniferous, but insect fossils are vanishingly rare earlier, and all earlier fossils are from primitively wingless insects...
November 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162495/the-morphology-of-mouthparts-wings-and-genitalia-of-paleozoic-insect-families-protohymenidae-and-scytohymenidae-reveals-new-details-and-supposed-function
#11
Martina Pecharová, Jakub Prokop
Megasecoptera is an extinct group of insects with specialized rostrum-like mouthparts, which is a synapomorphy shared with all members of the Late Paleozoic Palaeodictyopterida, and markedly slender wings that are unable to flex backwards. Here we describe the close up morphology of Protohymenidae and Scytohymenidae and uncover new aspects of the endoskeleton (tentorium) of the head, structure of the mouthparts with discernable proximal part of stylets controlled by muscles, surface of compound eyes that consist of a hexagonal pattern of large facets, structure and microstructures on the wings and reconstruct male and female external genitalia using ESEM and light stereomicroscopy...
November 18, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158020/head-shape-variation-in-cerambycid-saproxylic-beetles-as-a-function-of-host-plant-selection
#12
Sandra M Ospina-Garcés, José Alfredo Hernández-Cardenas, Víctor H Toledo-Hernández, Angélica M Corona-López, Alejandro Flores-Palacios
Saproxylic insects depend on deadwood for larval development, and a certain degree of specialization may be involved in their choice of host plants and/or wood in a particular stage of degradation. The plant species chosen for oviposition in turn act as an environmental pressure on the head morphology of larvae and it is expected than head shape plasticity vary directly with the number of woody plant species used for larvae development in each insect species. We analyzed head shape variation in saproxylic beetles with respect to host plant species, maximum time of larval emergence and season of the year when insects colonized branches...
November 17, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129752/larval-development-of-the-symbiotic-pea-crab-pinnaxodes-chilensis-h-milne-edwards-1837-decapoda-brachyura-pinnotheridae-reared-in-laboratory
#13
M E Gonzalez-Canales, E Marco-Herrero, M Andreu-Cazenave, J I González-Gordillo
The complete larval development of Pinnaxodes chilensis (including four zoeal stages and a megalopa stage) is described and illustrated in detail for the first time. The descriptions are based on laboratory-reared larvae obtained from ovigerous females found inside specimens of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus collected in the coast of Valparaíso, Chile. In order to allow their correct differentiation of specimens from plankton samples, the larval stages of P. chilensis are compared with those from the other Pinnotheridae species whose larval development is known for the Chilean continental waters (Calyptraeotheres politus)...
November 9, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126983/yeast-like-microorganisms-in-the-scale-insect-kermes-quercus-insecta-hemiptera-coccomorpha-kermesidae-newly-acquired-symbionts
#14
Elżbieta Podsiadło, Katarzyna Michalik, Anna Michalik, Teresa Szklarzewicz
Scale insects, like other plant sap-consumers, are host to symbiotic microorganisms which provide them with the substances missing from their diet. In contrast to most scale insects, Kermes quercus (Linnaeus) was regarded as asymbiotic. Our histological and ultrastructural observations show that in the body of the feeding stages of K. quercus collected in two locations (Warsaw and Cracow), numerous yeast-like microorganisms occur. These microorganisms were localized in the cytoplasm of fat body cells. The yeast-like microorganisms were observed neither in other organs of host insect nor in the eggs...
November 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109050/egg-structure-and-outline-of-embryonic-development-of-the-basal-mantodean-metallyticus-splendidus-westwood-1835-insecta-mantodea-metallyticidae
#15
Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Yuta Mashimo, Shota Shimizu, Chow-Yang Lee, Yasunori Murakami, Ryuichiro Machida
The egg structure and outline of the embryonic development of Metallyticus splendidus of one of the basal Mantodea representatives, Metallyticidae, were described in the present study. The results obtained were compared with those from the previous studies, to reconstruct and discuss the groundplan of Mantodea and Dictyoptera. In M. splendidus, the egg is spheroidal, it has a convex ventral side at the center in which numerous micropyles are grouped, and it possesses a conspicuous hatching line in its anterior half...
November 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092794/evidence-of-a-procentriole-during-spermiogenesis-in-the-coccinellid-insect-adalia-decempunctata-l-an-ultrastructural-study
#16
Romano Dallai, David Mercati, José Lino-Neto, Glenda Dias, Pietro Lupetti
We studied spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis in Adaliadecempunctata (L), a beetle of the Coccinellidae family. The spermatocyte exhibits two centrioles which elongate to form a pair of primary cilia. A novel structure, appearing in cross sections as a dense droplet, is observed near the long centriole during spermiogenesis, and is soon accompanied by a procentriole (PCL). PCL structure consists of singlet microtubules, a central tubule and an incomplete cartwheel. The PCL persists until the end of spermiogenesis, when it vanishes together with the dense droplet...
October 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081354/the-eversible-tentacle-organs-of-polyommatus-caterpillars-lepidoptera-lycaenidae-morphology-fine-structure-sensory-supply-and-functional-aspects
#17
W Gnatzy, M Jatho, T Kleinteich, S N Gorb, R Hustert
In their late (3(th) and 4th) larval stages, caterpillars of the myrmecophilous lycaenid (Lepidoptera) species Polyommatus coridon and P.icarus respectively, possess on their 8th abdominal segment two eversible so called tentacle organs (TOs). Previous histological and behavioural results have proposed that the TOs may release a volatile substance that elicits "excited runs" in attendant ants. In our study we investigated for the first time the temporal in- and eversion pattern of TOs. Using nerve tracing, Micro-CT, light- and electron microscopy techniques we studied (i) the histology of the 8th abdominal segment, (ii) the fine structure of the cuticular and cellular apparatus of the TOs, (iii) the attachment sites of the retractor muscle of each TO and (iv) the fine structure of the long slender tentacle hairs which are exposed to the outside, when the TOs are everted and fold back into the TO-sac during inversion...
October 25, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042213/morpho-functional-variety-of-the-coxal-glands-in-cheyletoid-mites-prostigmata-ii-cheyletidae
#18
S A Filimonova
Trombidiform mites are characterized by the presence of several paired glands in the anterior body portion united by a common conducting duct (podocephalic canal). Apart from the acinous (salivary) glands the podocephalic system includes a pair of tubular coxal glands (CGs) responsible for osmoregulation. The aim of the present study was to figure out how functional changes of acinous glands reflect on the corresponding CG. For this purpose, the anatomy and fine structure of the CG were analyzed in two mite species, Bakericheyla chanayi and Ornithocheyletia sp...
October 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061448/scorpions-pectines-idiosyncratic-chemo-and-mechanosensory-organs
#19
REVIEW
Harald Wolf
Scorpions possess specialised chemosensory appendages, the pectines. These comb-shaped limbs are located ventrally behind the walking legs. Like the antennae of mandibulate arthropods, they also serve mechanosensory function. However, more than 90% of the sometimes well above 100,000 sensory neurons projecting from a pectine to the central nervous system are chemosensory. There are two primary projection neuropils. The posterior one, immediately adjacent to the pectine nerve entrance, has an intriguing substructure reminiscent of the olfactory glomeruli observed in the primary chemosensory neuropils of many arthropods and indeed of most bilaterian animals...
October 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864300/the-pregenital-abdomen-of-enicocephalomorpha-and-morphological-evidence-for-different-modes-of-communication-at-the-dawn-of-heteropteran-evolution
#20
Leonidas-Romanos Davranoglou, Petr Baňař, Christian M Schlepütz, Beth Mortimer, Graham K Taylor
The internal and external anatomy of the posterior metathoracic region, pregenital abdomen, and associated nervous system of the heteropteran infraorder Enicocephalomorpha are thoroughly described, using an array of state-of-the art techniques. Based on morphology, it is hypothesised which modes of communication these insects use. This study is based primarily on an undescribed species of Cocles Bergroth, 1905 (Enicocephalidae) and another undescribed species of Lomagostus Villiers, 1958 (Aenictopecheidae), but additional representatives of the infraorder are also examined...
September 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
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