journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Arthropod Structure & Development

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763650/reanalyzing-the-palaeoptera-problem-the-origin-of-insect-flight-remains-obscure
#1
Sabrina Simon, Alexander Blanke, Karen Meusemann
The phylogenetic relationships of the winged insect lineages - mayflies (Ephemeroptera), damselflies and dragonflies (Odonata), and all other winged insects (Neoptera) - are still controversial, with three hypotheses supported by different datasets: Palaeoptera, Metapterygota and Chiastomyaria. Here, we reanalyze available phylogenomic data with a focus on detecting confounding and alternative signal. In this context, we provide a framework to quantitatively evaluate and assess incongruent molecular phylogenetic signal inherent in phylogenomic datasets...
May 12, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698688/novel-thoracic-glands-in-the-ant-myopias-hollandi
#2
Johan Billen, Fuminori Ito
Besides the common labial and metapleural glands, four novel exocrine glands are described in the thorax of both workers and queens of the ponerine ant Myopias hollandi. From anterior to posterior, these glands were designated as the propleural pit gland, the posterolateral pronotal gland, the anterolateral propodeal gland and the metasternal process gland. They all correspond with class-3 glands, that are made up of bicellular units that each comprise a secretory cell and a duct cell. In the propleural pit gland, the ducts are characterized by a gradually widening diameter, while in the three other glands the ducts show a portion which displays a balloon-like expansion, that on semithin sections stains very dark...
April 23, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684556/comparative-morphology-of-the-thorax-musculature-of-adult-anisoptera-insecta-odonata-functional-aspects-of-the-flight-apparatus
#3
Fabian Bäumler, Stanislav N Gorb, Sebastian Büsse
Due to their unique flight mechanism including a direct flight musculature, Odonata show impressive flight skills. Several publications addressed the details of this flight apparatus like: sclerites, wings, musculature, and flight aerodynamics. However, 3D-analysis of the thorax musculature of adult dragonflies was not studied before and this paper allows for a detailed insight. We therefore, focused on the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera using micro-computed tomography. Herewith, we present a comparative morphological approach to identify differences within Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, and Libellulidae...
April 20, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684555/morphology-of-hindwing-veins-in-the-shield-bug-graphosoma-italicum-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#4
Paavo Bergmann, Sandra Richter, Nina Glöckner, Oliver Betz
Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy were applied to cross sections and -breakage and whole-mount preparations of the anterior hindwing vein of the shield bug Graphosoma italicum. These analyses were complemented by investigations of the basal part of the forewing Corium and Clavus. The integration of structural, histological, and fluorescence data revealed a complex arrangement of both rigid and elastic structures in the wall of wing veins and provided insights into the constitution of transition zones between rigid and elastic regions...
April 20, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421155/constant-morphological-patterns-in-the-hemolymph-vascular-system-of-crayfish-crustacea-decapoda
#5
Stephan Scholz, Stefan Richter, Christian S Wirkner
We present a study of the hemolymph vascular system of the marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, the only crayfish species known to be parthenogenetic. To identify potential evolutionary patterns, we compared data from a total of 48 specimens of P. fallax with 22 specimens of Orconectes limosus. Visualizations (2D and 3D) were carried out using a combination of classical and modern morphological techniques. Our data were compared to the existing literature. Like all Decapoda, both P. fallax and O...
April 16, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635037/fine-structure-of-the-ladybird-spermatozoa-insecta-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#6
Romano Dallai, José Lino-Neto, Glenda Dias, Pedro H A Nere, David Mercati, Pietro Lupetti
The sperm structure of several ladybird species belonging to different subfamilies of Coccinellidae was studied. Three main sperm types were clearly recognized, and were characterized by differences in acrosomal length, the presence of a dense coat around the acrosome, the length of the basal body, the amount of the centriole adjunct material, and the diameter of the mitochondrial derivatives. However, the whole group shares a pattern of the posterior sperm region uncommon for insects, in which the axoneme and other flagellar components are running parallel with the nucleus...
April 7, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635036/the-wing-base-of-the-palaeodictyopteran-genus-dunbaria-tillyard-where-are-we-now
#7
Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, André Nel, Thomas Hörnschemeyer
The structure of insect wing articulation is considered as reliable source of high level characters for phylogenetic analyses. However, the correct identification of homologous structures among the main groups of Pterygota is a hotly debated issue. Therefore, the reconstruction of the wing bases in Paleozoic extinct relatives is of great interest, but at the same time it should be treated with extreme caution due to distortions caused by taphonomic effects. The present study is focused on the wing base in Dunbaria (Spilapteridae)...
April 7, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621609/diversity-of-symbiotic-microbiota-in-deltocephalinae-leafhoppers-insecta-hemiptera-cicadellidae
#8
Michał Kobiałka, Anna Michalik, Jacek Szwedo, Teresa Szklarzewicz
Symbiotic microorganisms associated with thirteen species of the subfamily Deltocephalinae were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Athysanus argentarius, Euscelis incisus, Doratura stylata, Arthaldeus pascuellus, Errastunus ocellaris, Jassargus flori, Jassargus pseudocellaris, Psammotettix alienus, Psammotettix confinis, Turrutus socialis and Verdanus abdominalis harbor two types of ancient bacteriome-associated microorganisms: bacteria Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and bacteria Nasuia (phylum Proteobacteria, class Betaproteobacteria)...
April 2, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608975/chonopeltis-australis-crustacea-branchiura-the-female-reproductive-system
#9
Lourelle Alicia Martins Neethling, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage
The female reproductive system has been described for Dolops ranarum (Stuhlman, 1891) and various Argulus spp. but, there is no description of the reproductive system for Dipteropeltis spp. Calman, 1912 or Chonopeltis spp. Thiele, 1900. This paper describes the female reproductive system and egg laying behaviour of C.australis Boxshall, 1976 using histology, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and observations. The histological study of six specimens showed that the organ structure is similar to that of Argulus spp...
March 30, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596913/wing-vein-development-in-the-sawfly-athalia-rosae-is-regulated-by-spatial-transcription-of-dpp-bmp-signaling-components
#10
Yunxian Huang, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Osamu Shimmi
Wing venation among insects serves as an excellent model to address how diversified patterns are produced. Previous studies suggest that evolutionarily conserved Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signal plays a critical role in wing vein development in the Dipteran Drosophila melanogaster and the Hymenopteran sawfly Athalia rosae. In sawfly, dpp is ubiquitously expressed in the wing during prepupal stages, but Dpp/BMP signal is localized in the future vein cells. Since localized BMP signaling involves BMP binding protein Crossveinless (Cv), redistribution of BMP ligands appears to be crucial for sawfly wing vein formation...
March 26, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518525/morphological-and-electrophysiological-differences-in-tarsal-chemosensilla-between-the-wild-silkmoth-bombyx-mandarina-and-the-domesticated-species-bombyx-mori
#11
Hiroki Takai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Takashi Kiuchi, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
Gustatory and olfactory senses of phytophagous insects play important roles in the recognition of host plants. In the domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild species Bombyx mandarina, the morphologies and responses of adult olfactory organs (antennae) have been intensely investigated. However, little is known about these features of adult gustatory organs and the influence of domestication on the gustatory sense. Here we revealed that both species have two types of sensilla (thick [T] and slim [S] types) on the fifth tarsomeres of the adult legs...
March 19, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524544/postembryonic-development-of-pycnogonids-a-deeper-look-inside
#12
Nina Alexeeva, Yuta Tamberg, Natalia Shunatova
Sea spiders form a small, enigmatic group of recent chelicerates, with an unusual bodyplan, oligosegmented larvae and a postembryonic development that is punctuated by many moults. To date, only a few papers examined the anatomical and ultrastructural modifications of the larvae and various instars. Here we traced both internal and external events of the whole postembryonic development in Nymphon brevirostre HODGE 1863 using histology, SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy. During postembryonic development, larvae of this species undergo massive reorganization: spinning apparatus and chelar glands disappear; larval legs redifferentiate; three new segments and abdomen are formed with their corresponding internal organs and appendages; circulatory and reproductive systems develop anew and the digestive and the nervous systems change dramatically...
March 7, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452203/morphology-of-the-elytral-base-sclerites
#13
Miwa Sugimoto, Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa
The elytral base sclerites (= sclerites located at the articular region between the forewing and thorax in Coleoptera) of selected taxa were examined and homologized. Although the elytral base sclerites are highly modified compared to the wing base sclerites of the other neopterans, they can be homologized by using the conservative wing flapping and folding lines as landmarks. A reduction of the first axillary sclerite was identified as a general trend of the elytral base sclerites, although the sclerite usually has a very important function to mediate flight power from the notum to the wing...
February 21, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496627/jumping-mechanisms-and-performance-in-beetles-ii-weevils-coleoptera-curculionidae-rhamphini
#14
Konstantin Nadein, Oliver Betz
We describe the kinematics and performance of the natural jump in the weevil Orchestes fagi (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its jumping apparatus with underlying anatomy and functional morphology. In weevils, jumping is performed by the hind legs and involves the extension of the hind tibia. The principal structural elements of the jumping apparatus are (1) the femoro-tibial joint, (2) the metafemoral extensor tendon, (3) the extensor ligament, (4) the flexor ligament, (5) the tibial flexor sclerite and (6) the extensor and flexor muscles...
March 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477377/a-first-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-pill-millipedes-of-the-order-glomerida-with-a-special-assessment-of-mandible-characters-myriapoda-diplopoda-pentazonia
#15
Jan Philip Oeyen, Thomas Wesener
The pill millipedes of the order Glomerida are a moderately diverse group with a classical Holarctic distribution pattern. Their classification is based on a typological system utilizing mainly a single character complex, the male telopods. In order to infer the apomorphies of the Glomerida, to elucidate its position in the Pentazonia, and to test the monophyly of its families and subfamilies, we conduct the first phylogenetic analysis of the order. To provide additional characters, we comparatively analyze the mandible using scanning electron microscopy...
March 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438795/independent-suboesophageal-neuronal-innervation-of-the-defense-gland-and-longitudinal-muscles-in-the-stick-insect-peruphasma-schultei-prothorax
#16
Konrad Stolz, Johannes Strauß, Joscha Arne Alt, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
This study investigates the neuroanatomy of the defense gland and a related muscle in the stick insect Peruphasma schultei with axonal tracing and histological sections. The gland is innervated by three neurons through the Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), the ipsilateral neuron (ILN), the contralateral neuron (CLN) and the prothoracic intersegmental neuron (PIN). The ILN has a large soma which is typical for motoneurons that cause fast contraction of large muscles and its dendrites are located in motor-sensory and sensory neuropile areas of the SOG...
March 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425772/ultrastructure-and-function-of-the-seminal-vesicle-of-bittacidae-insecta-mecoptera
#17
Qi-Hui Lyu, Bei-Bei Zhang, Bao-Zhen Hua
The fine structure of the seminal vesicle and reproductive accessory glands was investigated in Bittacidae of Mecoptera using light and transmission electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of Bittacidae mainly consists of a pair of testes, a pair of vasa deferentia, and an ejaculatory sac. The vas deferens is greatly expanded for its middle and medio-posterior parts to form a well-developed seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicle is composed of layers of developed muscles and a mono-layered epithelium surrounding the small central lumen...
March 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421154/development-of-calcium-bodies-in-hylonsicus-riparius-crustacea-isopoda
#18
Miloš Vittori, Mohammed Khurshed, Daisy I Picavet, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Jasna Štrus
Calcium bodies are internal epithelial sacs found in terrestrial isopods of the family Trichoniscidae that contain a mineralized extracellular matrix that is deposited and resorbed in relation to the molt cycle. Calcium bodies in several trichoniscids are filled with bacteria, the function of which is currently unknown. The woodlouse Hyloniscus riparius differs from other trichoniscids in that it possesses two different pairs of calcium bodies, the posterior pair being filled with bacteria and the anterior pair being devoid of bacteria...
March 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317353/the-sensory-equipment-of-a-spider-a-morphological-survey-of-different-types-of-sensillum-in-both-sexes-of-argiope-bruennichi-araneae-araneidae
#19
Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl
Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored...
March 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339328/micro-morphological-adaptations-of-the-wing-nodus-to-flight-behaviour-in-four-dragonfly-species-from-the-family-libellulidae-odonata-anisoptera
#20
H Rajabi, K Stamm, E Appel, S N Gorb
Adult dragonflies can be divided into two major groups, perchers and fliers, exhibiting notably different flight behaviour. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the link between the wing macro-morphology and flight style in these two groups. In this study, we present the first systematic investigation of the micro-morphological differences of wings of percher and flier dragonflies in four closely related species from the family Libellulidae. Our results suggest that the shape and material composition of wing microstructural components and, in particular, the nodus are adapted to facilitate the specific wing functioning in fliers and perchers...
January 19, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
journal
journal
37597
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"