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Arthropod Structure & Development

Robert Sturm
The study presents new results with regard to the morphometric and ultrastructural development of the accessory glands in females of the three cricket species Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus assimilis, and Acheta domesticus. Furthermore, possible age-dependence of secretory productivity of single organs was analyzed by application of the ligature technique introduced in a previous contribution. Within the first 12 days of the adult phase, the accessory glands of all investigated cricket species exhibit a significant increase in length and width which assumes values between 50 and 100%...
October 17, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jonas O Wolff, Michael Seiter, Stanislav N Gorb
The cuticle of arthropods is usually composed of layers of a chitin-protein-microcomposite, a proteinacous epicuticle and a thin lipid coating. However, in some instances a thick cement layer (cerotegument) covers the cuticle and may produce elaborate microstructures. This has previously been described for millipedes and mites. Here we report the previously unknown presence of a superhydrophobic cerotegument in whip-spiders (Ambypygi) and reveal its variation in ultrastructure and water-repellence between species...
October 14, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Laura Vannini, Judith H Willis
Previous work with EM immunolocalization examined the intracuticular placement of several antibodies directed against cuticular proteins (CPs) in various structures of Anopheles gambiae. Those structures had long stretches of fairly uniform cuticle. We have now used 19 antibodies directed against members of five CP families on two adult structures with considerable complexity, Johnston's organ and the corneal lens of the compound eye. We also localized chitin with colloidal-gold labeled wheat germ agglutinin...
October 12, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Manuela Rebora, José Manuel Tierno de Figueroa, Silvana Piersanti
Plecoptera, one of the most primitive groups of Neoptera, are important aquatic insects usually employed as bioindicators of high water quality. Notwithstanding the well-developed antennae of the adult, its sensory abilities are so far not well known. The present paper describes at ultrastructural level under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the antennal sensilla of the adult of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes (Plecoptera, Perlidae). Adult males and females show a filiform antenna constituted of a scape, a pedicel and a flagellum composed of very numerous segments with no clear sexual dimorphism in the number and distribution of the antennal sensilla...
October 11, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Alberto Jorge, Carlo Polidori, Javier Garcia-Guinea, José Luis Nieves-Aldrey
The inclusion of Zn in insect mandibles affects their hardness and is functional to their use during feeding or reproducing. However, little is known on the chemical/structural base of Zn enrichment. Here, we found that cathodoluminescence (CL) technique revealed two different types of CL spectra in the mandibles of Hymenoptera, depending on the Zn enrichment level assessed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Individuals having negligible traces to low % of Zn in their mandible teeth (≤3 wt%) presented a wide band of luminescence in the visible range which resembled those observed in the CC structures of graphite...
October 11, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Frank W Smith, Bob Goldstein
The origin and diversification of segmented metazoan body plans has fascinated biologists for over a century. The superphylum Panarthropoda includes three phyla of segmented animals-Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada. This superphylum includes representatives with relatively simple and representatives with relatively complex segmented body plans. At one extreme of this continuum, euarthropods exhibit an incredible diversity of serially homologous segments. Furthermore, distinct tagmosis patterns are exhibited by different classes of euarthropods...
October 7, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Ralf Janssen
This paper summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and assumed function of Drosophila and (other) arthropod segmentation gene orthologs in Onychophora, a closely related outgroup to Arthropoda. This includes orthologs of the so-called Drosophila segmentation gene cascade including the Hox genes, as well as other genetic factors and pathways involved in non-drosophilid arthropods. Open questions about and around the topic are addressed, such as the definition of segments in onychophorans, the unclear regulation of conserved expression patterns downstream of non-conserved factors, and the potential role of mesodermal patterning in onychophoran segmentation...
October 7, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jacques M Pasteels, Olivier Deparis, Sébastien R Mouchet, Donald M Windsor, Johan Billen
Charidotella ambita offers a unique opportunity for unambiguously locating its gold reflector by comparing the structure of reflecting and non-reflecting cuticle of the elytron and pronotum. Using light microscopy and TEM, the reflector was located underneath the macrofiber endocuticle just above the epidermis. The reflector is a multilayer comprising up to 50 bilayers alternating high and low density layers parallel to the surface of the cuticle. It is chirped, i.e., showing a progressive decrease in layer thickness from approximately 150 nm to 100 nm across its depth...
October 7, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
K Kamińska, A Włodarczyk, L Sonakowska, A Ostróżka, A Marchewka, M Rost-Roszkowska
The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae...
October 7, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Benjamin Fabian, Katharina Schneeberg, Rolf Georg Beutel
Genetically modified organisms are crucial for our understanding of gene regulatory networks, physiological processes and ontogeny. With modern molecular genetic techniques allowing the rapid generation of different Drosophila melanogaster mutants, efficient in-depth morphological investigations become an important issue. Anatomical studies can elucidate the role of certain genes in developmental processes and point out which parts of gene regulatory networks are involved in evolutionary changes of morphological structures...
October 6, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Maria Kupper, Christian Stigloher, Heike Feldhaar, Roy Gross
The bacterial endosymbiont Blochmannia floridanus of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus contributes to its hosts' ontogeny via nutritional upgrading during metamorphosis. This primary endosymbiosis is essential for both partners and vertical transmission of the endosymbionts is guaranteed by bacterial infestation of oocytes. Here we present a detailed analysis of the presence and localisation of B. floridanus in the ants' ovaries obtained by FISH and TEM analyses. The most apical part of the germarium harbouring germ-line stem cells (GSCs) is not infected by the bacteria...
October 6, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Terri A Williams, Lisa M Nagy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Friedrich-Wilhelm Schürmann
In the insect brain, mushroom bodies represent a prominent central neuropil for multisensory integration and, crucially, for learning and memory. For this reason, special attention has been focused on its small chemical synapses. Early studies on synaptic types and their distribution, using conventional electron microscopy, and recent publications have resolved basic features of synaptic circuits. More recent studies, using experimental methods for resolving neurons, such as immunocytochemistry, genetic labelling, high resolution confocal microscopy and more advanced electron microscopy, have revealed many new details about the fine structure and molecular contents of identifiable neurons of mushroom bodies and has led to more refined modelling of functional organisation...
October 5, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Laura Vannini, Judith H Willis
The largest Arthropod cuticular protein family, CPR, has the Rebers and Riddiford (R&R) Consensus that in an extended form confers chitin-binding properties. Two forms of the Consensus, RR-1 and RR-2, have been recognized and initial data suggested that the RR-1 and RR-2 proteins were present in different regions within the cuticle itself. Thus, RR-2 proteins would contribute to exocuticle that becomes sclerotized, while RR-1s would be found in endocuticle that remains soft. An alternative, and more common, suggestion is that RR-1 proteins are used for soft, flexible cuticles such as intersegmental membranes, while RR-2s are associated with hard cuticle such as sclerites and head capsules...
October 4, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Emanuele Ranieri, Sara Ruschioni, Paola Riolo, Nunzio Isidoro, Roberto Romani
The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Aphrophoridae), is a polyphagous species that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterium associated with "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome" in Southern Italy. In this study, the morphology and the ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of P. spumarius were investigated. The antennae consist of three segments: a basal scape, a pedicel and a flagellum composed of a basal enlargement (ampulla) and a long segment (filament). The pedicel bears a single campaniform sensillum while the ampulla houses twelve coeloconic sensilla and three large basiconic sensilla...
October 3, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yuta Mashimo, Makiko Fukui, Ryuichiro Machida
The egg structure of Paterdecolyus yanbarensis was examined using light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The egg surface shows a distinct honeycomb pattern formed by exochorionic ridges. Several micropyles are clustered on the ventral side of the egg. The egg membrane is composed of an exochorion penetrated with numerous aeropyles, an endochorion, and an extremely thin vitelline membrane. The endochorion is thickened at the posterior egg pole, probably associated with water absorption...
September 29, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Roger D Farley
Light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the development of book lungs in embryos of the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. There is a bilateral cluster of temporary lamellae that form just posterior to the second opisthosomal (O2) limb buds. These lamellae are replaced by advanced embryo (AE) book lungs that continue into postembryonic stages. Results herein agree with earlier suggestions that the O2 limb buds become the AE book lungs. Each O2 limb bud merges with the ventral surface of the O2 segment where the limb bud/book lung is internalized by covering with epidermis...
September 28, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Alexey A Polilov, Alexey S Shmakov
A new set of data on the internal and external structure of the adult and larva of the thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché, 1833) is presented. The structure of the internal systems of this thrips was revealed using modern methods of 3D computer modelling. The changes in shape and relative size are discussed as an outcome of miniaturization in comparison to the supposed ancestor of this species. The layout of the internal systems of thrips is compared to those of other insects similar in size: beetles of the families Ptiliidae and Corylophidae and wasps of the families Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae...
September 28, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Izabela Jędrzejowska, Kamil Szymusiak, Marta Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Arnold Garbiec
Scorpions are viviparous matrotrophic arthropods. Both, fertilization and embryonic development occur in the female gonad called ovariuterus. Two distinct reproductive patterns are recognized among scorpions: apoikogenic and katoikogenic. In the ovariuterus of apoikogenic scorpions growing oocytes protrude from the ovarian wall and continue previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth on the gonad surface being accompanied by the follicular cells that cover the oocyte surface, and, in most families, the stalk cells that join the oocyte with the ovariuterus wall...
September 27, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Maria Förster, Rolf G Beutel, Katharina Schneeberg
Larval cephalic features of Corethrella appendiculata Grabham, 1906 are described and documented in detail. Observed characters are compared to conditions found in Chaoboridae, Culicidae, and other culicomorph families. The function of antennae, mouthparts and associated muscles is interpreted based on the morphological results with respect to the prey catching mechanism. This mechanism is compared to what occurs in other predaceous larvae of Culicomorpha. The cephalic larval morphology is discussed concerning homology and possible phylogenetic implications...
September 24, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
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