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Arthropod Structure & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818663/a-lightweight-inexpensive-robotic-system-for-insect-vision
#1
Chelsea Sabo, Robert Chisholm, Adam Petterson, Alex Cope
Designing hardware for miniaturized robotics which mimics the capabilities of flying insects is of interest, because they share similar constraints (i.e. small size, low weight, and low energy consumption). Research in this area aims to enable robots with similarly efficient flight and cognitive abilities. Visual processing is important to flying insects' impressive flight capabilities, but currently, embodiment of insect-like visual systems is limited by the hardware systems available. Suitable hardware is either prohibitively expensive, difficult to reproduce, cannot accurately simulate insect vision characteristics, and/or is too heavy for small robotic platforms...
August 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751148/vision-for-navigation-what-can-we-learn-from-ants
#2
Paul Graham, Andrew Philippides
The visual systems of all animals are used to provide information that can guide behaviour. In some cases insects demonstrate particularly impressive visually-guided behaviour and then we might reasonably ask how the low-resolution vision and limited neural resources of insects are tuned to particular behavioural strategies. Such questions are of interest to both biologists and to engineers seeking to emulate insect-level performance with lightweight hardware. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation...
July 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669670/structural-adaptations-and-mechanism-of-reflex-bleeding-in-the-larvae-of-the-myrmecophilous-ladybird-diomus-thoracicus
#3
Olivier Roux, Amélie Vantaux, Frédéric Petitclerc, Jérôme Orivel, Alain Dejean, Johan Billen
Reflex bleeding is an effective defensive mechanism against predators. When attacked, some insects emit hemolymph, which coagulates, quickly entangling their aggressor. Bleeding occurs at weak intersegmental membranes or through dedicated organs, which can be associated or not with glandular cells. Here, we describe the behavior and morphological structures involved in reflex bleeding in the larvae of the ladybird, Diomus thoracicus, which are intranidal parasites of the ant Wasmannia auropunctata. The larvae are tolerated by the ants thanks to odor mimicry, but some rare aggressive ant behaviors were observed that trigger reflex bleeding both at a pair of thoracic tubercles and a pair of posterodorsal abdominal humps...
July 10, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652106/show-me-your-tenent-setae-and-i-tell-you-who-you-are-telling-the-story-of-a-neglected-character-complex-with-phylogenetic-signals-using-leiodidae-coleoptera-as-a-case-study
#4
Pedro Gnaspini, Caio Antunes-Carvalho, Alfred F Newton, Richard A B Leschen
The tarsal setae in 97 species of Leiodidae and eight outgroups were examined using SEM imaging and dissections. Modified adhesive setae present in males are referred to as "male tenent setae" (MTS). In most cases, dilated tarsomeres were associated with MTS, which were always present on the protarsi and sometimes the mesotarsi. MTS are reported for the first time on the mesotarsi of Leptodirini and on the metatarsi in two genera of Sogdini. Contrary to reports in the literature, the reduction in the number of the MTS bearing mesotarsomeres is considered a derived condition...
July 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642163/perianal-structures-in-myrmecophilous-subterranean-aphids-insecta-hemiptera-aphididae-comparative-morphology-of-trophobiotic-organ-with-its-first-description-in-lachninae
#5
Mariusz Kanturski, Jagna Karcz, Natalia Kaszyca, Łukasz Depa
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light stereoscopic microscopy (LSM) were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the so called "trophobiotic organ" on the end of abdomen of apterous viviparous females of six aphid species (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae), representatives of the myrmecophilous, subterranean aphids from the subfamilies Anoeciinae (Anoecia furcata), Eriosomatinae (Forda formicaria, Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi), and Lachninae (Protrama flavescens, Trama troglodytes)...
July 6, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684306/jumping-and-the-aerial-behavior-of-aquatic-mayfly-larvae-myobaetis-ellenae-baetidae
#6
Stephen P Yanoviak, Robert Dudley
Mayfly larvae generally are aquatic, but some madicolous taxa (i.e., living in thin water films) crawl over rocks within streams and waterfalls. When startled, these larvae can break the water film, jump, and enter an aerial phase of locomotion. Because mayfly larvae have been suggested as potential exemplars for the origin of insect wings as tracheal gills, and furthermore represent the most basal extant lineage of pterygotes, we analyzed jumping behavior and free-fall trajectories for one such species of mayfly (Myobaetis ellenae, Baetidae) in Costa Rica...
July 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552666/effects-of-force-detecting-sense-organs-on-muscle-synergies-are-correlated-with-their-response-properties
#7
Sasha N Zill, David Neff, Sumaiya Chaudhry, Annelie Exter, Josef Schmitz, Ansgar Büschges
Sense organs that monitor forces in legs can contribute to activation of muscles as synergist groups. Previous studies in cockroaches and stick insects showed that campaniform sensilla, receptors that encode forces via exoskeletal strains, enhance muscle synergies in substrate grip. However synergist activation was mediated by different groups of receptors in cockroaches (trochanteral sensilla) and stick insects (femoral sensilla). The factors underlying the differential effects are unclear as the responses of femoral campaniform sensilla have not previously been characterized...
July 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552665/functional-morphology-of-comminuting-feeding-structures-of-trichodactylus-borellianus-brachyura-decapoda-trichodactylidae-an%C3%A2-omnivorous-freshwater-crab
#8
Débora de Azevedo Carvalho, Maria Florencia Viozzi, Pablo Agustín Collins, Verónica Williner
Crustaceans exhibit great diversity of feeding structures with morphological traits that are useful to infer the general trophic habits of species. In this study, we analyzed the functional morphology of comminuting feeding structures (mandibles, chelipeds, gastric mill) of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus directly related with the food fragmentation. The heterochely and mechanical advantage (MA) of the chelae were also studied. In both analyses, we considered the relationship between morphology and the natural diet...
June 28, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655645/optic-flow-based-collision-free-strategies-from-insects-to-robots
#9
Julien Serres, Franck Ruffier
Flying insects are able to fly smartly in an unpredictable environment. It has been found that flying insects have smart neurons inside their tiny brains that are sensitive to visual motion also called optic flow. Consequently, flying insects rely mainly on visual motion during their flight maneuvers such as: takeoff or landing, terrain following, tunnel crossing, lateral and frontal obstacle avoidance, and adjusting flight speed in a cluttered environment. Optic flow can be defined as the vector field of the apparent motion of objects, surfaces, and edges in a visual scene generated by the relative motion between an observer (an eye or a camera) and the scene...
June 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549564/timing-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-posterior-silk-gland-degeneration-in-bombyx-mori
#10
Aurora Montali, Davide Romanelli, Silvia Cappellozza, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Gianluca Tettamanti
Over the years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been manipulated by means of chemical and genetic approaches to improve silk production both quantitatively and qualitatively. The silk is produced by the silk gland, which degenerates quickly once the larva has finished spinning the cocoon. Thus, interfering with this degeneration process could help develop new technologies aimed at ameliorating silk yield. To this end, in this work we studied the cell death processes that lead to the demise of the posterior silk gland of B...
June 15, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549565/transient-leg-deformations-during-eclosion-out-of-a-tight-confinement-a-comparative-study-on-seven-species-of-flies-moths-ants-and-bees
#11
Leonid Frantsevich, Iryna Kozeretska, Yuriy Dubrovsky, Tetyana Markina, Iryna Shumakova, Stanislav Stukalyuk
Legs in dipteran pupae are tightly packed in a zigzag configuration. Changes in the shape or configuration of long podomeres during eclosion have been overlooked because they occur rapidly (in a few minutes) and the legs are hidden inside a tight opaque confinement: the puparium in the Cyclorrhapha, the obtect pupa in mosquitoes. We fixed insects at different times during eclosion and obtained a temporal description of changes in leg shape. At the start of eclosion in Calliphora vicina and Drosophila melanogaster, femora are buckled in between the joints...
June 2, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435074/ultrastructure-of-male-accessory-glands-in-the-scorpionfly-sinopanorpa-tincta-nav%C3%A3-s-1931-mecoptera-panorpidae
#12
Qi-Hui Lyu, Bao-Zhen Hua
The ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands was investigated in the scorpionfly Sinopanorpa tincta (Navás, 1931) (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) using light and transmission electron microscopy. The male accessory glands comprise one pair of mesodermal glands (mesadenia) and six pairs of ectodermal glands (ectadenia). The former opens into the vasa deferentia and the latter into the ejaculatory sac. The mesadenia consist of a mono-layered elongated columnar epithelium, the cells of which are highly microvillated and extrude secretory granules by means of merocrine mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450162/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-the-ovary-in-the-south-american-veturius-sinuatus-eschscholtz-coleoptera-passalidae
#13
Karen Salazar, Stéphane Boucher, José Eduardo Serrão
The morphoanatomy of the ovary in Veturius sinuatus (Eschscholtz) was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Data from the female gonad of this species provide more extended and precise knowledge regarding the organization of the ovary in Passalidae. Ovaries are composed of a pair of long telotrophic meroistic ovarioles, with some differences compared to the bauplan of this ovary type in Polyphaga (Coleoptera). The terminal filament has an enlarged proximal region with irregularly shaped cells in apparent degeneration process embedded in a membranous system...
May 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438518/testicular-spermatogenesis-and-sperm-morphology-in-martarega-bentoi-heteroptera-notonectidae
#14
Ademária M Novais, Glenda Dias, José Lino-Neto
The testicular, spermatogenesis and sperm morphology of the backswimmer Martarega bentoi was described using light and transmission electron microscopy. In this species, a pair of testes, two deferent ducts, two different pairs of accessory glands, and an ejaculatory duct form the male reproductive system. Each testis consists of two testicular follicles, which are arranged side by side in snail shape. The follicles are filled with cysts at different stages of spermatogenesis, but in the same cyst the germ cells (up to 64) are in the same stage...
May 18, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302585/development-and-evolution-of-segmentation-assessed-by-geometric-morphometrics-the-centipede-strigamia-maritima-as-a-case-study
#15
Yoland Savriama, Sylvain Gerber, Matteo Baiocco, Vincent Debat, Giuseppe Fusco
Using the centipede model species Strigamia maritima as a subject of study, we illustrate the potential of geometric morphometrics for investigating the development and evolution of segmentation, with a specific focus on post-embryonic segmental patterning. We show how these techniques can contribute detailed descriptive data for comparative purposes, but also precious information on some features of the developmental system that are considered relevant for the evolvability of a segmented body architecture, such as developmental stability and canalization...
May 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235577/introduction-the-evolution-of-segmentation
#16
EDITORIAL
Alessandro Minelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989966/origin-and-evolution-of-the-panarthropod-head-a-palaeobiological-and-developmental-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Javier Ortega-Hernández, Ralf Janssen, Graham E Budd
The panarthropod head represents a complex body region that has evolved through the integration and functional specialization of the anterior appendage-bearing segments. Advances in the developmental biology of diverse extant organisms have led to a substantial clarity regarding the relationships of segmental homology between Onychophora (velvet worms), Tardigrada (water bears), and Euarthropoda (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, crustaceans, hexapods). The improved understanding of the segmental organization in panarthropods offers a novel perspective for interpreting the ubiquitous Cambrian fossil record of these successful animals...
May 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888167/delta-notch-signalling-in-segmentation
#18
REVIEW
Bo-Kai Liao, Andrew C Oates
Modular body organization is found widely across multicellular organisms, and some of them form repetitive modular structures via the process of segmentation. It's vastly interesting to understand how these regularly repeated structures are robustly generated from the underlying noise in biomolecular interactions. Recent studies from arthropods reveal similarities in segmentation mechanisms with vertebrates, and raise the possibility that the three phylogenetic clades, annelids, arthropods and chordates, might share homology in this process from a bilaterian ancestor...
May 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725256/segmentation-in-tardigrada-and-diversification-of-segmental-patterns-in-panarthropoda
#19
REVIEW
Frank W Smith, Bob Goldstein
The origin and diversification of segmented metazoan body plans has fascinated biologists for over a century. The superphylum Panarthropoda includes three phyla of segmented animals-Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada. This superphylum includes representatives with relatively simple and representatives with relatively complex segmented body plans. At one extreme of this continuum, euarthropods exhibit an incredible diversity of serially homologous segments. Furthermore, distinct tagmosis patterns are exhibited by different classes of euarthropods...
May 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725255/a-molecular-view-of-onychophoran-segmentation
#20
Ralf Janssen
This paper summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and assumed function of Drosophila and (other) arthropod segmentation gene orthologs in Onychophora, a closely related outgroup to Arthropoda. This includes orthologs of the so-called Drosophila segmentation gene cascade including the Hox genes, as well as other genetic factors and pathways involved in non-drosophilid arthropods. Open questions about and around the topic are addressed, such as the definition of segments in onychophorans, the unclear regulation of conserved expression patterns downstream of non-conserved factors, and the potential role of mesodermal patterning in onychophoran segmentation...
May 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
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