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Arthropod Structure & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818663/a-lightweight-inexpensive-robotic-system-for-insect-vision
#1
Chelsea Sabo, Robert Chisholm, Adam Petterson, Alex Cope
Designing hardware for miniaturized robotics which mimics the capabilities of flying insects is of interest, because they share similar constraints (i.e. small size, low weight, and low energy consumption). Research in this area aims to enable robots with similarly efficient flight and cognitive abilities. Visual processing is important to flying insects' impressive flight capabilities, but currently, embodiment of insect-like visual systems is limited by the hardware systems available. Suitable hardware is either prohibitively expensive, difficult to reproduce, cannot accurately simulate insect vision characteristics, and/or is too heavy for small robotic platforms...
August 31, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822882/from-insects-to-robots
#2
EDITORIAL
Barbara Webb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864302/the-allometry-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-the-postembryonic-development-of-eratigena-atrica-spider
#3
Teresa Napiórkowska, Jarosław Kobak
During ontogenesis, the size of a spider body, tissues and organs increase dramatically. The aim of the study was to estimate changes in the central nervous system of postembryonic stages of Eratigena atrica and compare them with the literature data on species differing in behavioural traits. Allometric analysis involved evaluation of histological slides embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The reduced major axis regression (RMA) was applied to find allometric relationships between the volumes of the particular parts of the body...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864301/the-scolopidial-accessory-organs-and-nebenorgans-in-orthopteroid-insects-comparative-neuroanatomy-mechanosensory-function-and-evolutionary-origin
#4
REVIEW
Johannes Strauß
Scolopidial sensilla in insects often form large sensory organs involved in proprioception or exteroception. Here the knowledge on Nebenorgans and accessory organs, two organs with scolopidial sensory cells, is summarised. These organs are present in some insects which are model organisms for the physiology of mechanosensory systems (cockroaches and tettigoniids). Recent comparative studies documented the accessory organ in several taxa of Orthoptera (bushcrickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets) and the Nebenorgan in related insects (Mantophasmatodea)...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864300/the-pregenital-abdomen-of-enicocephalomorpha-and-morphological-evidence-for-different-modes-of-communication-at-the-dawn-of-heteropteran-evolution
#5
Leonidas-Romanos Davranoglou, Petr Banař, Christian M Schlepütz, Beth Mortimer, Graham K Taylor
The internal and external anatomy of the posterior metathoracic region, pregenital abdomen, and associated nervous system of the heteropteran infraorder Enicocephalomorpha are thoroughly described, using an array of state-of-the art techniques. Based on morphology, it is hypothesised which modes of communication these insects use. This study is based primarily on an undescribed species of Cocles Bergroth, 1905 (Enicocephalidae) and another undescribed species of Lomagostus Villiers, 1958 (Aenictopecheidae), but additional representatives of the infraorder are also examined...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830832/asymmetric-larval-head-and-mandibles-of-hydrophilus-acuminatus-insecta-coleoptera-hydrophilidae-fine-structure-and-embryonic-development
#6
Shun'ichi Sato, Toshio Inoda, Shuhei Niitsu, Souichirou Kubota, Yuji Goto, Yukimasa Kobayashi
The larvae of a water scavenger beetle, Hydrophilus acuminatus, have strongly asymmetric mandibles; the right one is long and slender, whereas the left one is short and stout. The fine structure and embryonic development of the head capsule and mandibles of this species were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy, and asymmetries in shape were detected in these structures applying an elliptic Fourier analysis. The larval mandibles are asymmetric in the following aspects: whole length, the number, structure and arrangement of retinacula (inner teeth), and size and shape of both the molar and incisor regions...
August 19, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751148/vision-for-navigation-what-can-we-learn-from-ants
#7
Paul Graham, Andrew Philippides
The visual systems of all animals are used to provide information that can guide behaviour. In some cases insects demonstrate particularly impressive visually-guided behaviour and then we might reasonably ask how the low-resolution vision and limited neural resources of insects are tuned to particular behavioural strategies. Such questions are of interest to both biologists and to engineers seeking to emulate insect-level performance with lightweight hardware. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation...
August 2, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655645/optic-flow-based-collision-free-strategies-from-insects-to-robots
#8
REVIEW
Julien R Serres, Franck Ruffier
Flying insects are able to fly smartly in an unpredictable environment. It has been found that flying insects have smart neurons inside their tiny brains that are sensitive to visual motion also called optic flow. Consequently, flying insects rely mainly on visual motion during their flight maneuvers such as: takeoff or landing, terrain following, tunnel crossing, lateral and frontal obstacle avoidance, and adjusting flight speed in a cluttered environment. Optic flow can be defined as the vector field of the apparent motion of objects, surfaces, and edges in a visual scene generated by the relative motion between an observer (an eye or a camera) and the scene...
July 11, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669670/structural-adaptations-and-mechanism-of-reflex-bleeding-in-the-larvae-of-the-myrmecophilous-ladybird-diomus-thoracicus
#9
Olivier Roux, Amélie Vantaux, Frédéric Petitclerc, Jérôme Orivel, Alain Dejean, Johan Billen
Reflex bleeding is an effective defensive mechanism against predators. When attacked, some insects emit hemolymph, which coagulates, quickly entangling their aggressor. Bleeding occurs at weak intersegmental membranes or through dedicated organs, which can be associated or not with glandular cells. Here, we describe the behavior and morphological structures involved in reflex bleeding in the larvae of the ladybird, Diomus thoracicus, which are intranidal parasites of the ant Wasmannia auropunctata. The larvae are tolerated by the ants thanks to odor mimicry, but some rare aggressive ant behaviors were observed that trigger reflex bleeding both at a pair of thoracic tubercles and a pair of posterodorsal abdominal humps...
July 10, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652106/show-me-your-tenent-setae-and-i-tell-you-who-you-are-telling-the-story-of-a-neglected-character-complex-with-phylogenetic-signals-using-leiodidae-coleoptera-as-a-case-study
#10
Pedro Gnaspini, Caio Antunes-Carvalho, Alfred F Newton, Richard A B Leschen
The tarsal setae in 97 species of Leiodidae and eight outgroups were examined using SEM imaging and dissections. Modified adhesive setae present in males are referred to as "male tenent setae" (MTS). In most cases, dilated tarsomeres were associated with MTS, which were always present on the protarsi and sometimes the mesotarsi. MTS are reported for the first time on the mesotarsi of Leptodirini and on the metatarsi in two genera of Sogdini. Contrary to reports in the literature, the reduction in the number of the MTS bearing mesotarsomeres is considered a derived condition...
July 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642163/perianal-structures-in-myrmecophilous-subterranean-aphids-insecta-hemiptera-aphididae-comparative-morphology-of-trophobiotic-organ-with-its-first-description-in-lachninae
#11
Mariusz Kanturski, Jagna Karcz, Natalia Kaszyca, Łukasz Depa
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light stereoscopic microscopy (LSM) were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the so called "trophobiotic organ" on the end of abdomen of apterous viviparous females of six aphid species (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae), representatives of the myrmecophilous, subterranean aphids from the subfamilies Anoeciinae (Anoecia furcata), Eriosomatinae (Forda formicaria, Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi), and Lachninae (Protrama flavescens, Trama troglodytes)...
July 6, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684306/jumping-and-the-aerial-behavior-of-aquatic-mayfly-larvae-myobaetis-ellenae-baetidae
#12
Stephen P Yanoviak, Robert Dudley
Mayfly larvae generally are aquatic, but some madicolous taxa (i.e., living in thin water films) crawl over rocks within streams and waterfalls. When startled, these larvae can break the water film, jump, and enter an aerial phase of locomotion. Because mayfly larvae have been suggested as potential exemplars for the origin of insect wings as tracheal gills, and furthermore represent the most basal extant lineage of pterygotes, we analyzed jumping behavior and free-fall trajectories for one such species of mayfly (Myobaetis ellenae, Baetidae) in Costa Rica...
July 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552666/effects-of-force-detecting-sense-organs-on-muscle-synergies-are-correlated-with-their-response-properties
#13
Sasha N Zill, David Neff, Sumaiya Chaudhry, Annelie Exter, Josef Schmitz, Ansgar Büschges
Sense organs that monitor forces in legs can contribute to activation of muscles as synergist groups. Previous studies in cockroaches and stick insects showed that campaniform sensilla, receptors that encode forces via exoskeletal strains, enhance muscle synergies in substrate grip. However synergist activation was mediated by different groups of receptors in cockroaches (trochanteral sensilla) and stick insects (femoral sensilla). The factors underlying the differential effects are unclear as the responses of femoral campaniform sensilla have not previously been characterized...
July 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552665/functional-morphology-of-comminuting-feeding-structures-of-trichodactylus-borellianus-brachyura-decapoda-trichodactylidae-an%C3%A2-omnivorous-freshwater-crab
#14
Débora de Azevedo Carvalho, Maria Florencia Viozzi, Pablo Agustín Collins, Verónica Williner
Crustaceans exhibit great diversity of feeding structures with morphological traits that are useful to infer the general trophic habits of species. In this study, we analyzed the functional morphology of comminuting feeding structures (mandibles, chelipeds, gastric mill) of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus directly related with the food fragmentation. The heterochely and mechanical advantage (MA) of the chelae were also studied. In both analyses, we considered the relationship between morphology and the natural diet...
June 28, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302586/mantisbot-is-a-robotic-model-of-visually-guided-motion-in-the-praying-mantis
#15
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Andrew P Getsy, Joshua P Martin, Roy E Ritzmann, Roger D Quinn
Insects use highly distributed nervous systems to process exteroception from head sensors, compare that information with state-based goals, and direct posture or locomotion toward those goals. To study how descending commands from brain centers produce coordinated, goal-directed motion in distributed nervous systems, we have constructed a conductance-based neural system for our robot MantisBot, a 29 degree-of-freedom, 13.3:1 scale praying mantis robot. Using the literature on mantis prey tracking and insect locomotion, we designed a hierarchical, distributed neural controller that establishes the goal, coordinates different joints, and executes prey-tracking motion...
September 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254451/using-insects-to-drive-mobile-robots%C3%A2-%C3%A2-hybrid-robots-bridge-the-gap-between-biological-and-artificial-systems
#16
REVIEW
Noriyasu Ando, Ryohei Kanzaki
The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them...
September 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549564/timing-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-posterior-silk-gland-degeneration-in-bombyx-mori
#17
Aurora Montali, Davide Romanelli, Silvia Cappellozza, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Gianluca Tettamanti
Over the years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been manipulated by means of chemical and genetic approaches to improve silk production both quantitatively and qualitatively. The silk is produced by the silk gland, which degenerates quickly once the larva has finished spinning the cocoon. Thus, interfering with this degeneration process could help develop new technologies aimed at ameliorating silk yield. To this end, in this work we studied the cell death processes that lead to the demise of the posterior silk gland of B...
June 15, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549565/transient-leg-deformations-during-eclosion-out-of-a-tight-confinement-a-comparative-study-on-seven-species-of-flies-moths-ants-and-bees
#18
Leonid Frantsevich, Iryna Kozeretska, Yuriy Dubrovsky, Tetyana Markina, Iryna Shumakova, Stanislav Stukalyuk
Legs in dipteran pupae are tightly packed in a zigzag configuration. Changes in the shape or configuration of long podomeres during eclosion have been overlooked because they occur rapidly (in a few minutes) and the legs are hidden inside a tight opaque confinement: the puparium in the Cyclorrhapha, the obtect pupa in mosquitoes. We fixed insects at different times during eclosion and obtained a temporal description of changes in leg shape. At the start of eclosion in Calliphora vicina and Drosophila melanogaster, femora are buckled in between the joints...
June 2, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435074/ultrastructure-of-male-accessory-glands-in-the-scorpionfly-sinopanorpa-tincta-nav%C3%A3-s-1931-mecoptera-panorpidae
#19
Qi-Hui Lyu, Bao-Zhen Hua
The ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands was investigated in the scorpionfly Sinopanorpa tincta (Navás, 1931) (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) using light and transmission electron microscopy. The male accessory glands comprise one pair of mesodermal glands (mesadenia) and six pairs of ectodermal glands (ectadenia). The former opens into the vasa deferentia and the latter into the ejaculatory sac. The mesadenia consist of a mono-layered elongated columnar epithelium, the cells of which are highly microvillated and extrude secretory granules by means of merocrine mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450162/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-the-ovary-in-the-south-american-veturius-sinuatus-eschscholtz-coleoptera-passalidae
#20
Karen Salazar, Stéphane Boucher, José Eduardo Serrão
The morphoanatomy of the ovary in Veturius sinuatus (Eschscholtz) was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Data from the female gonad of this species provide more extended and precise knowledge regarding the organization of the ovary in Passalidae. Ovaries are composed of a pair of long telotrophic meroistic ovarioles, with some differences compared to the bauplan of this ovary type in Polyphaga (Coleoptera). The terminal filament has an enlarged proximal region with irregularly shaped cells in apparent degeneration process embedded in a membranous system...
May 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
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