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Arthropod Structure & Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129752/larval-development-of-the-symbiotic-pea-crab-pinnaxodes-chilensis-h-milne-edwards-1837-decapoda-brachyura-pinnotheridae-reared-in-laboratory
#1
M E Gonzalez-Canales, E Marco-Herrero, M Andreu-Cazenave, J I González-Gordillo
The complete larval development of Pinnaxodes chilensis (including four zoeal stages and a megalopa stage) is described and illustrated in detail for the first time. The descriptions are based on laboratory-reared larvae obtained from ovigerous females found inside specimens of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus collected in the coast of Valparaíso, Chile. In order to allow their correct differentiation of specimens from plankton samples, the larval stages of P. chilensis are compared with those from the other Pinnotheridae species whose larval development is known for the Chilean continental waters (Calyptraeotheres politus)...
November 9, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126983/yeast-like-microorganisms-in-the-scale-insect-kermes-quercus-insecta-hemiptera-coccomorpha-kermesidae-newly-acquired-symbionts
#2
Elżbieta Podsiadło, Katarzyna Michalik, Anna Michalik, Teresa Szklarzewicz
Scale insects, like other plant sap-consumers, are host to symbiotic microorganisms which provide them with the substances missing from their diet. In contrast to most scale insects, Kermes quercus (Linnaeus) was regarded as asymbiotic. Our histological and ultrastructural observations show that in the body of the feeding stages of K. quercus collected in two locations (Warsaw and Cracow), numerous yeast-like microorganisms occur. These microorganisms were localized in the cytoplasm of fat body cells. The yeast-like microorganisms were observed neither in other organs of host insect nor in the eggs...
November 7, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109050/egg-structure-and-outline-of-embryonic-development-of-the-basal-mantodean-metallyticus-splendidus-westwood-1835-insecta-mantodea-metallyticidae
#3
Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Yuta Mashimo, Shota Shimizu, Chow-Yang Lee, Yasunori Murakami, Ryuichiro Machida
The egg structure and outline of the embryonic development of Metallyticus splendidus of one of the basal Mantodea representatives, Metallyticidae, were described in the present study. The results obtained were compared with those from the previous studies, to reconstruct and discuss the groundplan of Mantodea and Dictyoptera. In M. splendidus, the egg is spheroidal, it has a convex ventral side at the center in which numerous micropyles are grouped, and it possesses a conspicuous hatching line in its anterior half...
November 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092794/evidence-of-a-procentriole-during-spermiogenesis-in-the-coccinellid-insect-adalia-decempunctata-l-an-ultrastructural-study
#4
Romano Dallai, David Mercati, José Lino-Neto, Glenda Dias, Pietro Lupetti
We studied spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis in Adaliadecempunctata (L), a beetle of the Coccinellidae family. The spermatocyte exhibits two centrioles which elongate to form a pair of primary cilia. A novel structure, appearing in cross sections as a dense droplet, is observed near the long centriole during spermiogenesis, and is soon accompanied by a procentriole (PCL). PCL structure consists of singlet microtubules, a central tubule and an incomplete cartwheel. The PCL persists until the end of spermiogenesis, when it vanishes together with the dense droplet...
October 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081354/the-eversible-tentacle-organs-of-polyommatus-caterpillars-lepidoptera-lycaenidae-morphology-fine-structure-sensory-supply-and-functional-aspects
#5
W Gnatzy, M Jatho, T Kleinteich, S N Gorb, R Hustert
In their late (3(th) and 4th) larval stages, caterpillars of the myrmecophilous lycaenid (Lepidoptera) species Polyommatus coridon and P.icarus respectively, possess on their 8th abdominal segment two eversible so called tentacle organs (TOs). Previous histological and behavioural results have proposed that the TOs may release a volatile substance that elicits "excited runs" in attendant ants. In our study we investigated for the first time the temporal in- and eversion pattern of TOs. Using nerve tracing, Micro-CT, light- and electron microscopy techniques we studied (i) the histology of the 8th abdominal segment, (ii) the fine structure of the cuticular and cellular apparatus of the TOs, (iii) the attachment sites of the retractor muscle of each TO and (iv) the fine structure of the long slender tentacle hairs which are exposed to the outside, when the TOs are everted and fold back into the TO-sac during inversion...
October 25, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042213/morpho-functional-variety-of-the-coxal-glands-in-cheyletoid-mites-prostigmata-ii-cheyletidae
#6
S A Filimonova
Trombidiform mites are characterized by the presence of several paired glands in the anterior body portion united by a common conducting duct (podocephalic canal). Apart from the acinous (salivary) glands the podocephalic system includes a pair of tubular coxal glands (CGs) responsible for osmoregulation. The aim of the present study was to figure out how functional changes of acinous glands reflect on the corresponding CG. For this purpose, the anatomy and fine structure of the CG were analyzed in two mite species, Bakericheyla chanayi and Ornithocheyletia sp...
October 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061448/scorpions-pectines-idiosyncratic-chemo-and-mechanosensory-organs
#7
REVIEW
Harald Wolf
Scorpions possess specialised chemosensory appendages, the pectines. These comb-shaped limbs are located ventrally behind the walking legs. Like the antennae of mandibulate arthropods, they also serve mechanosensory function. However, more than 90% of the sometimes well above 100,000 sensory neurons projecting from a pectine to the central nervous system are chemosensory. There are two primary projection neuropils. The posterior one, immediately adjacent to the pectine nerve entrance, has an intriguing substructure reminiscent of the olfactory glomeruli observed in the primary chemosensory neuropils of many arthropods and indeed of most bilaterian animals...
October 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864300/the-pregenital-abdomen-of-enicocephalomorpha-and-morphological-evidence-for-different-modes-of-communication-at-the-dawn-of-heteropteran-evolution
#8
Leonidas-Romanos Davranoglou, Petr Baňař, Christian M Schlepütz, Beth Mortimer, Graham K Taylor
The internal and external anatomy of the posterior metathoracic region, pregenital abdomen, and associated nervous system of the heteropteran infraorder Enicocephalomorpha are thoroughly described, using an array of state-of-the art techniques. Based on morphology, it is hypothesised which modes of communication these insects use. This study is based primarily on an undescribed species of Cocles Bergroth, 1905 (Enicocephalidae) and another undescribed species of Lomagostus Villiers, 1958 (Aenictopecheidae), but additional representatives of the infraorder are also examined...
September 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822882/from-insects-to-robots
#9
EDITORIAL
Barbara Webb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864302/the-allometry-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-the-postembryonic-development-of-eratigena-atrica-spider
#10
Teresa Napiórkowska, Jarosław Kobak
During ontogenesis, the size of a spider body, tissues and organs increase dramatically. The aim of the study was to estimate changes in the central nervous system of postembryonic stages of Eratigena atrica and compare them with the literature data on species differing in behavioural traits. Allometric analysis involved evaluation of histological slides embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The reduced major axis regression (RMA) was applied to find allometric relationships between the volumes of the particular parts of the body...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864301/the-scolopidial-accessory-organs-and-nebenorgans-in-orthopteroid-insects-comparative-neuroanatomy-mechanosensory-function-and-evolutionary-origin
#11
REVIEW
Johannes Strauß
Scolopidial sensilla in insects often form large sensory organs involved in proprioception or exteroception. Here the knowledge on Nebenorgans and accessory organs, two organs with scolopidial sensory cells, is summarised. These organs are present in some insects which are model organisms for the physiology of mechanosensory systems (cockroaches and tettigoniids). Recent comparative studies documented the accessory organ in several taxa of Orthoptera (bushcrickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets) and the Nebenorgan in related insects (Mantophasmatodea)...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818663/a-lightweight-inexpensive-robotic-system-for-insect-vision
#12
Chelsea Sabo, Robert Chisholm, Adam Petterson, Alex Cope
Designing hardware for miniaturized robotics which mimics the capabilities of flying insects is of interest, because they share similar constraints (i.e. small size, low weight, and low energy consumption). Research in this area aims to enable robots with similarly efficient flight and cognitive abilities. Visual processing is important to flying insects' impressive flight capabilities, but currently, embodiment of insect-like visual systems is limited by the hardware systems available. Suitable hardware is either prohibitively expensive, difficult to reproduce, cannot accurately simulate insect vision characteristics, and/or is too heavy for small robotic platforms...
September 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751148/vision-for-navigation-what-can-we-learn-from-ants
#13
Paul Graham, Andrew Philippides
The visual systems of all animals are used to provide information that can guide behaviour. In some cases insects demonstrate particularly impressive visually-guided behaviour and then we might reasonably ask how the low-resolution vision and limited neural resources of insects are tuned to particular behavioural strategies. Such questions are of interest to both biologists and to engineers seeking to emulate insect-level performance with lightweight hardware. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation...
September 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655645/optic-flow-based-collision-free-strategies-from-insects-to-robots
#14
REVIEW
Julien R Serres, Franck Ruffier
Flying insects are able to fly smartly in an unpredictable environment. It has been found that flying insects have smart neurons inside their tiny brains that are sensitive to visual motion also called optic flow. Consequently, flying insects rely mainly on visual motion during their flight maneuvers such as: takeoff or landing, terrain following, tunnel crossing, lateral and frontal obstacle avoidance, and adjusting flight speed in a cluttered environment. Optic flow can be defined as the vector field of the apparent motion of objects, surfaces, and edges in a visual scene generated by the relative motion between an observer (an eye or a camera) and the scene...
September 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302586/mantisbot-is-a-robotic-model-of-visually-guided-motion-in-the-praying-mantis
#15
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Andrew P Getsy, Joshua P Martin, Roy E Ritzmann, Roger D Quinn
Insects use highly distributed nervous systems to process exteroception from head sensors, compare that information with state-based goals, and direct posture or locomotion toward those goals. To study how descending commands from brain centers produce coordinated, goal-directed motion in distributed nervous systems, we have constructed a conductance-based neural system for our robot MantisBot, a 29 degree-of-freedom, 13.3:1 scale praying mantis robot. Using the literature on mantis prey tracking and insect locomotion, we designed a hierarchical, distributed neural controller that establishes the goal, coordinates different joints, and executes prey-tracking motion...
September 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254451/using-insects-to-drive-mobile-robots%C3%A2-%C3%A2-hybrid-robots-bridge-the-gap-between-biological-and-artificial-systems
#16
REVIEW
Noriyasu Ando, Ryohei Kanzaki
The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them...
September 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830832/asymmetric-larval-head-and-mandibles-of-hydrophilus-acuminatus-insecta-coleoptera-hydrophilidae-fine-structure-and-embryonic-development
#17
Shun'ichi Sato, Toshio Inoda, Shuhei Niitsu, Souichirou Kubota, Yuji Goto, Yukimasa Kobayashi
The larvae of a water scavenger beetle, Hydrophilus acuminatus, have strongly asymmetric mandibles; the right one is long and slender, whereas the left one is short and stout. The fine structure and embryonic development of the head capsule and mandibles of this species were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy, and asymmetries in shape were detected in these structures applying an elliptic Fourier analysis. The larval mandibles are asymmetric in the following aspects: whole length, the number, structure and arrangement of retinacula (inner teeth), and size and shape of both the molar and incisor regions...
August 19, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684306/jumping-and-the-aerial-behavior-of-aquatic-mayfly-larvae-myobaetis-ellenae-baetidae
#18
Stephen P Yanoviak, Robert Dudley
Mayfly larvae generally are aquatic, but some madicolous taxa (i.e., living in thin water films) crawl over rocks within streams and waterfalls. When startled, these larvae can break the water film, jump, and enter an aerial phase of locomotion. Because mayfly larvae have been suggested as potential exemplars for the origin of insect wings as tracheal gills, and furthermore represent the most basal extant lineage of pterygotes, we analyzed jumping behavior and free-fall trajectories for one such species of mayfly (Myobaetis ellenae, Baetidae) in Costa Rica...
July 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669670/structural-adaptations-and-mechanism-of-reflex-bleeding-in-the-larvae-of-the-myrmecophilous-ladybird-diomus-thoracicus
#19
Olivier Roux, Amélie Vantaux, Frédéric Petitclerc, Jérôme Orivel, Alain Dejean, Johan Billen
Reflex bleeding is an effective defensive mechanism against predators. When attacked, some insects emit hemolymph, which coagulates, quickly entangling their aggressor. Bleeding occurs at weak intersegmental membranes or through dedicated organs, which can be associated or not with glandular cells. Here, we describe the behavior and morphological structures involved in reflex bleeding in the larvae of the ladybird, Diomus thoracicus, which are intranidal parasites of the ant Wasmannia auropunctata. The larvae are tolerated by the ants thanks to odor mimicry, but some rare aggressive ant behaviors were observed that trigger reflex bleeding both at a pair of thoracic tubercles and a pair of posterodorsal abdominal humps...
July 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652106/show-me-your-tenent-setae-and-i-tell-you-who-you-are-telling-the-story-of-a-neglected-character-complex-with-phylogenetic-signals-using-leiodidae-coleoptera-as-a-case-study
#20
Pedro Gnaspini, Caio Antunes-Carvalho, Alfred F Newton, Richard A B Leschen
The tarsal setae in 97 species of Leiodidae and eight outgroups were examined using SEM imaging and dissections. Modified adhesive setae present in males are referred to as "male tenent setae" (MTS). In most cases, dilated tarsomeres were associated with MTS, which were always present on the protarsi and sometimes the mesotarsi. MTS are reported for the first time on the mesotarsi of Leptodirini and on the metatarsi in two genera of Sogdini. Contrary to reports in the literature, the reduction in the number of the MTS bearing mesotarsomeres is considered a derived condition...
July 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
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