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Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS

Qing-Guang Wang, Xiao Xue, Yang Yang, Peng-Yu Gong, Teng Jiang, Ying-Dong Zhang
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of central angiotensin IV (Ang IV) infusion on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-related neuropathological changes including amyloid-β (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) and the inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats with CCH received central infusion of Ang IV, its receptor AT4 R antagonist divalinal-Ang IV or artificial cerebrospinal fluid for six weeks. During this procedure, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored, and the levels of Aβ42 , p-tau and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain were detected...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Michael A Weber, Peter Sever, Attila Juhasz, Andrew Roberts, Charlie Cao
INTRODUCTION: We measured the effects of azilsartan medoxomil co-administered with chlorthalidone 25 mg in stage 2 hypertension. METHODS: Azilsartan medoxomil 40 or 80 mg plus chlorthalidone were compared with placebo plus chlorthalidone once daily in a randomized, double-blind, 6-week trial. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in 24-hour mean systolic blood pressure by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. RESULTS: Patients ( N=551; mean age 59 years; 51...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Fang-Da Li, Zhi-Gang Ji, Chang-Wei Liu, Jiang Shao, Yi Xie, Yue-Hong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: In this article, we aim to prove the safety and effectiveness of orthotopic renal autotransplantation using ex vivo repair for the treatment of complex renovascular hypertension (RVH). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients (three women, two men) with young-onset RVH from January 2009 to August 2014. Orthotopic renal autotransplantation using ex vivo repair was performed and perioperative data were collected for statistical analysis...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Yukari Takasago, Kazuyuki Hirooka, Yuki Nakano, Mamoru Kobayashi, Aoi Ono
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between the plasma concentration of aldosterone and changes in the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after systemic administration of aldosterone. METHODS: An osmotic minipump that was subcutaneously implanted into the midscapular region of rats administered 40, 80 or 160 μg/kg/day aldosterone or vehicle. Enzyme immunoassay kits were used to measure the plasma aldosterone concentrations two weeks after the systemic administration of aldosterone or vehicle...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Preenie deS Senanayake, Vera L Bonilha, John W Peterson, Yoshiro Yamada, Sadashiva S Karnik, Firouz Daneshgari, K Bridget Brosnihan, Joe G Hollyfield
HYPOTHESIS: Hyperglycemia decreases angiotensin-(1-7), the endogenous counter-regulator of angiotensin II in the retina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distribution and levels of retinal angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) were evaluated by confocal imaging and quantitative immunohistochemistry during the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. RESULTS: In the nondiabetic eye, Ang II was localized to the endfeet of Müller cells, extending into the cellular processes of the inner plexiform layer and inner nuclear layer; Ang-(1-7) showed a wider distribution, extending from the foot plates of the Müller cells to the photoreceptor layer...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Fabiana P Costa-Fraga, Gleisy K Goncalves, Fernando P Souza-Neto, Adelina M Reis, Luciano As Capettini, Robson As Santos, Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Rafaela F da Silva
The vasodilatory effect of angiotensin-(1-7) seems to vary between sexes, and estradiol (E2) can modulate the magnitude of the Ang-(1-7) vasodilatory response in female rats. However, there are few studies addressing the influence of sex on the age-related vasodilatory effect of Ang-(1-7). Here, we evaluated the vasodilatory response to Ang-(1-7) on vascular ageing. Ang-(1-7) dose-response curves were determined in mice aortic rings from males (old and young) and females (E2 treated/non-treated old and young) mounted in an isolated organ chamber...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Wei-Wei Chang, Wei Liang, Xin-Ming Yao, Liu Zhang, Li-Jun Zhu, Chen Yan, Yue-Long Jin, Ying-Shui Yao
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression profile of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: A total of 126 Chinese subjects were enrolled in this study, including 42 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), 42 patients with DN and 42 healthy controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze levels of TRAIL mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Ya Suo, Zhiwei Zhang, Huaying Fu, Yue Zhang, Meng Yuan, Yuanyuan Wang, Christos A Goudis, Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Guangping Li
AIMS: We examined whether the use of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) inhibitor plays a role in protecting against left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) in patients with hypertension complicated by atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Two observational studies were conducted on patients with diagnoses of hypertension and AF, who were categorized into RAS inhibitor user or nonuser groups. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, echocardiographic parameters and hemostatic markers were examined and the occurrence of LAAT during follow-up were recorded...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Mark Cooke, Richard Cruttenden, Adrian Mellor, Andrew Lumb, Stewart Pattman, Anne Burnett, Chris Boot, Louise Burnip, Christopher Boos, John O'Hara, David Woods
INTRODUCTION: Aldosterone decreases at high altitude (HA) but the effect of hypoxia on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a key step in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is unclear. METHODS: We investigated the effects of exercise and acute normobaric hypoxia (NH, ~11.0% FiO2 ) on nine participants and six controls undertaking the same exercise at sea level (SL). NH exposure lasted 5 hours with 90 minutes of submaximal treadmill walking. Blood samples for aldosterone, ACE and cortisol were taken throughout exposure and at rest during a trek to HA (5140 m) in eight separate participants...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Roberta Fernanda da Silva, Riccardo Lacchini, Lucas Cezar Pinheiro, Thiago José Dionísio, AndréMourão Jacomini, José Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Sandra Lia Amaral, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Anderson Saranz Zago
OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are associated with increases in blood pressure (BP). Physical exercise has been considered the main strategy to prevent this increase. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between estimated training status (TS), BP and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in elderly people classified as low or high risk to develop hypertension according to genetic profile. METHODS: A total of 155 elderly participants performed the following assessments: general functional fitness index (GFFI), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), blood collection for ACE activity and analyses of the RAS polymorphisms...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Jing Dai, Rui Liu, Jinjie Zhao, Aijie Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) on the endothelial function of the aorta in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging rats. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into a D-gal group, a D-gal + SO2 group and a control group, then injected with D-gal, D-gal + SO2 donor or equivalent volumes of saline, respectively, for 8 consecutive weeks. After 8 weeks, the mean arterial pressure was significantly increased in the D-gal group, but was lowered by SO2 . SO2 significantly ameliorated the endothelial dysfunction induced by D-gal treatment...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Guodong Xu, Guohui Fan, Yingtong Sun, Lili Yu, Sinan Wu, Wenquan Niu
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies on the angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as with pulmonary function and circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme changes. METHODS: A literature search, quality assessment and data extraction were completed independently and in duplicate. RESULTS: A total of 16 articles were meta-analysed, including 12 articles (2113 patients and 8786 controls) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and eight articles (11,664 subjects) for pulmonary and circulating phenotypes...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Cléber Rene Alves, Tiago Fernandes, José Ribeiro Lemos, Flávio de Castro Magalhães, Ivani Credidio Trombetta, Guilherme Barreto Alves, Glória de Fátima Alves da Mota, Rodrigo Gonçalves Dias, Alexandre Costa Pereira, José Eduardo Krieger, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Edilamar Menezes Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have linked angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (II, ID and DD) to physical performance. Moreover, ACE has two catalytic domains: NH2 (N) and COOH (C) with distinct functions, and their activity has been found to be modulated by ACE polymorphism. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the interaction between aerobic exercise training (AET) and ACE I/D polymorphism on ACE N- and C-domain activities and vascular reactivity in humans...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Chloe Kok Sum Wong, Alec Falkenham, Tanya Myers, Jean-Francois Légaré
INTRODUCTION: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are often described as the initial pro-fibrotic mediators upregulated early in fibrosis models dependent on angiotensin II (Ang-II). In the present study, we explore the mechanistic link between TGF-β and CTGF expression by using a novel TGF-β trap. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were subjected to TGF-β with or without TGF-β trap or 1D11 antibody, CTGF or CTGF plus TGF-β for six or 24 hours, and then used for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or immunocytochemistry...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Sarah Zaheer, Kiara Taquechel, Jenifer M Brown, Gail K Adler, Jonathan S Williams, Anand Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that vitamin D therapy may decrease cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by lowering renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity. However, randomized human intervention studies to evaluate the effect of vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists on RAS activity are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of direct VDR activation with calcitriol on circulating RAS activity and vascular hemodynamics in T2DM...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Yong-Chao Qiao, Min Wang, Yan-Hong Pan, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Fang Tian, Yin-Ling Chen, Hai-Lu Zhao
AIMS: This study aims to investigate the association between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We consecutively included 1491 patients for the assessment of ACE I/D and AGT M/T gene polymorphisms in 345 DR cases and 1146 patients without retinopathy (DNR). Albuminuria was defined by urine albumin creatinine ratio and albumin excretion rate. RESULTS: Compared with the NDR patients, the DR cases displayed a higher proportion of diabetic nephropathy (32...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Xuewen Wang, Guangping Li
INTRODUCTION: Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in atrial electrical remodeling (AER). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of irbesartan on cardiac sodium current (INa ) in a canine model of atrial fibrillation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen dogs were randomized into sham, pacing or pacing+irbesartan groups ( n = 6 in each group). The dogs in the pacing and irbesartan group were paced at 500 bpm for two weeks...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Hedia Zitouni, Marwa Ben Ali Gannoum, Nozha Raguema, Wided Maleh, Ines Zouari, Raja El Faleh, Jean Guibourdenche, Wassim Y Almawi, Touhami Mahjoub
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-associated hypertensive disorder and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. While its pathogenesis remains ill defined, several candidate genes for PE have been identified, but results remain inconclusive. We investigated the association of the angiotensinogen ( AGT) gene variants M235T and T174M with PE, and we analyzed the contribution of both variants to the severity of PE. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 550 Tunisian pregnant women: 272 with PE, of whom 147 presented with mild, and 125 with severe PE, along with 278 unrelated age- and ethnically matched control women...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Ying-Shui Yao, Wei-Wei Chang, Yue-Long Jin
OBJECTIVE: The results of studies on the association between tumor necrosis factor-a -308G/A (TNF-a -308G/A) polymorphism, and susceptibility to essential hypertension are controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, we conducted a meta-analysis of all similar articles. METHODS: The summary effect odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to estimate publication bias, and heterogeneity was assessed by the chi-square-based Q-test and I2 test...
October 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Guoping Zhang, Xueyan Li, Keyong Zhang, Jingbo Zhao, Changchun Qiu
INTRODUCTION: The renin gene has been suggested as a good candidate in the study of genetic mechanism of essential hypertension. However, studies on the contribution of renin gene polymorphisms to essential hypertension, have not had consistent outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore the association of renin gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the Han population of northern China. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among 3090 Han farmers (1533 essential hypertension patients and 1557 normotensives)...
October 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
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