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Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS

István Kiss, Zoltán Kiss, Lóránt Kerkovits, András Paksy, Csaba Ambrus
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between smoking and mortality in patients on hemodialysis is controversial. Earlier studies showed that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene might have an effect on mortality. The aim of this study was to test the impact of smoking on survival and whether this association was influenced by ACE gene I/D polymorphism in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter cohort study we analyzed 709 prevalent patients on maintenance hemodialysis...
January 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Irám P Rodríguez-Sánchez, Stephania Suárez-Caro, Fernando Rivas-Solís, Iván Delgado-Enciso, María M Sánchez-Chaparro, Mayra A Gómez-Govea, Laura E Martínez-de-Villarreal, Laura L Valdez-Velazquez
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is a multifactorial disease with different etiologies, including genetic factors. Genetic variability is represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of proteins involved in the contractile activity. We determine the association between SNP 12109G> A in REN associated with preterm birth and premature rupture of membrane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study of cases ( N=112, 22-36 weeks of gestation; mean: 31, 95% confidence interval 30...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Katalin Úri, Miklós Fagyas, Attila Kertész, Attila Borbély, Csaba Jenei, Orsolya Bene, Zoltán Csanádi, Walter J Paulus, István Édes, Zoltán Papp, Attila Tóth, Erzsébet Lizanecz
It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2) elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) n=47). ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Mihoko Yamazaki, Yoshiyasu Fukusumi, Mutsumi Kayaba, Yukina Kitazawa, Sayuri Takamura, Ichiei Narita, Hiroshi Kawachi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors reduce glomerular injury and proteinuria, indicating that angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in glomerular diseases. Although the local RAS is reported to play an essential role in maintaining local tissue functions, the role of the local RAS in regulating glomerular function is not well evaluated. In this study, we analyzed the glomerular expression of RAS components in nephrotic models and the effect of Ang II receptor blockers (ARB) on the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT)...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Ying Le, Zongji Zheng, Junyu Xue, Mengling Cheng, Meiping Guan, Yaoming Xue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the renoprotecive effects of exendin-4 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and explore the putative mechanisms. METHODS: Male Balbc mice underwent sham operation or UUO surgery, and then received intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or exendin-4, respectively. After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and the left kidneys were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Ke-Ke Yang, Yi Sui, Hui-Rong Zhou, Jian Shen, Ning Tan, Yan-Mei Huang, Sha-Sha Li, Yan-Hong Pan, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Hai-Lu Zhao
INTRODUCTION: The renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the ultrasensitive energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been implicated in normal and aberrant states of the kidney, but interaction between the RAS and AMPK remains unknown. METHODS: Ninety-six rats were stratified into four groups: sham, uninephrectomised, uninephrectomised rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Sha-Sha Huang, Qiu-Bing Zhang, Qing-Yan Yuan, Si-Li He, Yuan-Ming Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. METHODS: CD4(+) T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Jay S Mishra, Gary D Hankins, Sathish Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Blood pressure is lower in females than males. Angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) induces vasodilation. This study determined whether sex differences in vascular AT2R expression occur and if androgens exert control on AT2R expression in the vasculature. METHODS: AT2Rs in the aorta of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined following alteration in androgen levels by gonadectomy or hormone supplementation. RESULTS: AT2R mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in the aortas of males than females...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
J M van Rooyen, M Poglitsch, H W Huisman, Cmc Mels, R Kruger, L Malan, S Botha, L Lammertyn, L Gafane, A E Schutte
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to make use of a quantitative and qualitative approach comparing the systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) of hypertensive black and white African men by using RAS equilibrium analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This sub-study involved 23 black (n = 15) and white (n = 8) hypertensive men aged 39.5-41 years, living in the North West Province of South Africa. The RAS-Fingerprinting was determined with LC-MS/MS quantification of angiotensin peptides...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Zhou Ou, Teng Jiang, Qing Gao, You-Yong Tian, Jun-Shan Zhou, Liang Wu, Jian-Quan Shi, Ying-Dong Zhang
INTRODUCTION: We recently demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) was involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) via induction of apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons, but the mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Here, we asked whether mitochondrial-dependent mechanisms contributed to the Ang II-induced dopaminergic neuronal apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CATH.a cells were incubated with Ang II in combination with mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists, and apoptosis rate, caspase-3 activity, cytochrome c levels, and mPTP opening were assessed...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Claudio Borghi, Stefano Omboni, Salvatore Novo, Dragos Vinereanu, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Ettore Ambrosioni
INTRODUCTION: This was a propensity score analysis of the prospective, randomized, double-blind Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-term Evaluation (SMILE) 4 study in which one-year treatment with zofenopril 60 mg plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 100 mg gave superior results compared to ramipril 10 mg plus ASA in terms of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 716 patients of the intention-to-treat population were divided into homogeneous propensity quintiles (Q) using a logistic regression model (QI: best risk profile; QV: worst risk profile)...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Bosede B Afolabi, Olajumoke O Oladipo, Alani S Akanmu, Olalekan O Abudu, Olusoga A Sofola, Fiona Broughton Pipkin
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (haemoglobin SS (HbSS)) mainly affects those of West African origin and is associated with hypervolaemia. Plasma volume rises by up to 50% in normal pregnancy but was previously found to be paradoxically contracted in late sickle cell pregnancy. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is activated very early in human pregnancy to support the plasma volume expansion. We hypothesised that activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system would be blunted in pregnant women with sickle cell disease...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Nazish Iqbal Khan, Shafaq Noori, Tabassum Mahboob
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lycopene on renal tissue antioxidant enzymes and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression and serum activity in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia. METHODS: Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats (200-250 g weight), 5-6 months of age, were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Group I received normal diet; group II received 24 g high fat diet/100 g of daily diet; group III received 24 g high fat diet/100 g daily diet and 200 ml of lycopene extract (twice a week) for 8 weeks; and group IV received 200 ml oral lycopene extract twice a week for 8 weeks...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Shiao-Ying Chang, Chao-Sheng Lo, Xin-Ping Zhao, Min-Chun Liao, Isabelle Chenier, Richard Bouley, Julie R Ingelfinger, John Sd Chan, Shao-Ling Zhang
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine the regulation of aquaporin 1 expression in an angiotensinogen transgenic mouse model, focusing on underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male transgenic mice overexpressing rat angiotensinogen in their renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) and rat immortalised RPTCs stably transfected with rat angiotensinogen cDNA were used. RESULTS: Angiotensinogen-transgenic mice developed hypertension and nephropathy, changes that were either partially or completely attenuated by treatment with losartan or dual renin-angiotensin system blockade (losartan and perindopril), respectively, while hydralazine prevented hypertension but not nephropathy...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
David M Kepecs, Darren A Yuen, Yanling Zhang, Kerri Thai, Kim A Connelly, Richard E Gilbert
HYPOTHESIS/INTRODUCTION: Renal fibrovascular injury often persists in chronic kidney disease patients treated with renin-angiotensin system blockers. Intriguingly, early outgrowth cell-derived factor infusion also inhibits chronic renal injury. We sought to determine whether early outgrowth cell-derived factor administration provides further renoprotection when added to renin-angiotensin system blockade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conditioned medium was generated by incubating rat early outgrowth cells with serum-free endothelial basal medium-2 to collect their secreted factors...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Yuying Wang, Wen Peng, Xiaoxue Zhang, Huibo Qiao, Li Wang, Zhigang Xu, Chenguang Wu
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the associations between the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD); and the efficacy of valsartan in reducing the urine protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 128 T2DM patients in this study, including 54 cases with DKD (DKD+) and 74 controls (DKD-). The ACE polymorphism was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the genotype distribution and allele frequency were analyzed...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Benjamin Goldstein, Robert C Speth, Malav Trivedi
HYPOTHESIS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms and altered gene expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. INTRODUCTION: Drugs that interact with the RAS have been shown to affect the course of neurodegenerative disease, suggesting that abnormalities in the RAS may contribute to neurodegenerative disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies and gene expression data for 14 RAS-related proteins was carried out for five neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, narcolepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Xiyue Li, Richa Goswami, Shumin Yang, Qifu Li
OBJECTIVE: The accuracy of aldosterone/direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) as a screening test in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) varies widely across the studies. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of ADRR. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library published between April 1971-February 2016. Studies focusing on the accuracy of ADRR for PA screening were included. Two authors independently extracted information regarding patient characteristics, antihypertensives status, true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Yan P Wang, Xu Chen, Zhi K Zhang, Hong Y Cui, Peng Wang, Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to characterize changes in apoptosis and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in fetal growth restriction (FGR). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fetuses were collected from patients who visited our hospital to either terminate or abort their pregnancy. Kidneys of fetuses which suffered with FGR, (n=11) at gestational age of 33.4±0.5 weeks and those from non-FGR (n=12) at gestational age of 34.3±0.9 weeks were collected. TUNEL, Bax and Bcl-2 staining were examined...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Quaisar Ali, Isha Dhande, Preethi Samuel, Tahir Hussain
INTRODUCTION: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components exert diverse physiological functions and have been sub-grouped into deleterious angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and protective ACE2/angiotensin (1-7) (Ang-(1-7))/Mas receptor (MasR) axes. We have reported that chronic activation of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) alters RAS components and provides protection against obesity-related kidney injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized AT2R knockout (AT2KO) mice in this study and evaluated the renal expression of various RAS components and examined the renal injury after placing these mice on high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
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