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Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050778/the-expressions-and-roles-of-different-forms-of-il-22-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#1
Yuanyuan Liu, Qinfang Ou, Qianqian Liu, Yan Gao, Jing Wu, Bingyan Zhang, Xinhua Weng, Lingyun Shao, Wenhong Zhang
Despite evidence suggesting an anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis effector function of CD4+ T cells that produce and retain IL-22 in macaques, the general role of IL-22 in tuberculosis infection is still poorly characterized. To explore the immune mechanism in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in humans, here we evaluated different forms of IL-22 in populations with different tuberculosis infection statuses. We enrolled 156 subjects including 49 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 27 patients with tuberculous pleurisy (TPE), 38 individuals with latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) and 42 healthy controls (HC)...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050777/multiplex-analysis-of-plasma-cytokines-chemokines-showing-different-immune-responses-in-active-tb-patients-latent-tb-infection-and-healthy-participants
#2
Xiangyang Yao, Yongliang Liu, Yang Liu, Wei Liu, Zhizhong Ye, Chao Zheng, Shengxiang Ge
Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been widely used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. However, IGRAs cannot discriminate between active TB patients and latent TB infection (LTBI), and the sensitivity of IGRAs for MTB infection is suboptimal. Here, we analyzed cytokines/chemokines in MTB antigen-stimulated and -unstimulated plasma samples to identify host biomarkers that are associated with active TB and MTB infection. Active TB patients, subjects with LTBI and healthy participants were recruited...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050776/blood-antimicrobial-activity-varies-against-different-mycobacterium-spp
#3
Octavio Miguel Rivero-Lezcano, Sara Blanco-Conde, Ramiro López-Medrano, Eduardo López-Fidalgo, Manuela Caño-Herrero, Teresa Nebreda-Mayoral
In vitro analysis of mycobacterial pathogenicity or host susceptibility has traditionally relied on the infection of macrophages, the target cell of mycobacteria, despite difficulties reproducing their antimycobacterial activity. We have employed alternative models, namely whole blood and leukocytes in plasma, from QuantiFERON negative individuals, and performed infections with the pathogenic M. tuberculosis, the less pathogenic M. avium, M. kansasii and M. chelonae and the occasionally pathogenic M. gordonae and M...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050775/differential-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-infection
#4
Jianan He, Qingye Ou, Chunxiao Liu, Lei Shi, Chunzhong Zhao, Yunqing Xu, Siu Kai Kong, Jacky Fong Chuen Loo, Boan Li, Dayong Gu
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major worldwide health problem and has caused millions of deaths in the past few years. Current diagnostic methods, such as sputum smear microscopy and sputum culture, are time-consuming and cannot prevent the rapid spreading of TB during the diagnostic period. In this connection, detecting biomarkers specific to TB at molecular level in plasma of patients will provide a rapid means for diagnosis. In this study, we first evaluated the differential expression of the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the plasma from patients with TB (TB positive), community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthy individuals (CG) using lncRNA microarray scanning...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050774/whole-genome-sequencing-of-clinical-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-mumbai-india-a-potential-tool-for-determining-drug-resistance-and-strain-lineage
#5
Anirvan Chatterjee, Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Dhananjaya Saranath, Camilla Rodrigues, Nerges Mistry
Amplification of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and its transmission are significant barriers in controlling tuberculosis (TB) globally. Diagnostic inaccuracies and delays impede appropriate drug administration, which exacerbates primary and secondary drug resistance. Increasing affordability of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and exhaustive cataloguing of drug resistance mutations is poised to revolutionise TB diagnostics and facilitate personalized drug therapy. However, application of WGS for diagnostics in high endemic areas is yet to be demonstrated...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050773/detection-of-mycobacterial-infection-in-non-human-primates-using-the-xpert-mtb-rif-molecular-assay
#6
Duanne Alves da Silva, Amanda M Rêgo, Nicole V Ferreira, Manoela A S de Andrade, Aline R Campelo, Paulo César S Caldas, Márcia Aparecida S Pereira, Paulo Redner, Lucindo C de Pina, Felipe C Resende, Thalita A Pissinatti, Claudia A A Lopes, Tatiana Kugelmeier, Javier A S Perea, Igo V de Souza, Fábio A da Silva, Carla F Campos, Fátima C O Fandinho Montes, L Caetano M Antunes
Tuberculosis is a major public health concern, and diagnostic strategies applied to animal populations are scarce. As part of ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis dissemination at our animal facility, two non-human primates (NHP, Saimiri sciureus) presenting cutaneous lesions were examined for mycobacterial infection. Both animals tested positive for acid-fast bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a molecular assay (IS6110 PCR). Animals were euthanized and several samples were tested for M. tuberculosis using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050772/ctl-immunogenicity-of-rv3615c-antigen-and-diagnostic-performances-of-an-esat-6-cfp-10-rv3615c-antigen-cocktail-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Shuguang Tan, Nan Lin, Mingxiang Huang, Qing Wang, Yunhong Tan, Bingxi Li, Ning Zhang, Tianling Guo, Yingbin Cui, Xinchao Chen, Dongping Wang, Jue Wang, Haixia Xiao, William J Liu, Jinghua Yan, Catherine W-H Zhang, Cui Hua Liu, Kanglin Wan, George F Gao
T cell immune responses have played pivotal roles in host immune protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. MTB specific antigen, Rv3615c (EspC), was identified to be as immunodominant as the well-known ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and has brought promising expectations to more sensitive T-cell based diagnosis and vaccine development. However, limited knowledge about the immunogenicity and diagnostic values of this antigen has restricted its application in clinical practice. Herein, the Rv3615c antigen was identified as a robust CTL immunoantigen with broadly cross-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele recognized peptides which may contribute to the broad recognition of Rv3615c antigen among the population...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050771/host-blood-rna-signatures-predict-the-outcome-of-tuberculosis-treatment
#8
Ethan G Thompson, Ying Du, Stephanus T Malherbe, Smitha Shankar, Jackie Braun, Joe Valvo, Katharina Ronacher, Gerard Tromp, David L Tabb, David Alland, Shubhada Shenai, Laura E Via, James Warwick, Alan Aderem, Thomas J Scriba, Jill Winter, Gerhard Walzl, Daniel E Zak
Biomarkers for tuberculosis treatment outcome will assist in guiding individualized treatment and evaluation of new therapies. To identify candidate biomarkers, RNA sequencing of whole blood from a well-characterized TB treatment cohort was performed. Application of a validated transcriptional correlate of risk for TB revealed symmetry in host gene expression during progression from latent TB infection to active TB disease and resolution of disease during treatment, including return to control levels after drug therapy...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050770/genomic-plasticity-between-human-and-mycobacterial-dna-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Lawal Danjuma, Mok Pooi Ling, Rukman Awang Hamat, Akon Higuchi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Marlina, Giovanni Benelli, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Mariappan Rajan, Suresh Kumar Subbiah
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a remarkable ability of long-term persistence despite vigorous host immunity and prolonged therapy. The bacteria persist in secure niches such as the mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow and reactivate the disease, leading to therapeutic failure. Many bacterial cells can remain latent within a diseased tissue so that their genetic material can be incorporated into the genetic material of the host tissue. This incorporated genetic material reproduces in a manner similar to that of cellular DNA...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050769/prevalence-of-beijing-and-haarlem-genotypes-among-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-iran-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Samira Tarashi, Abolfazl Fateh, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri
Antimicrobial drug resistance creates major problems in the control of tuberculosis (TB). Beijing and Haarlem genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the prevalent genotypes responsible for multidrug resistant (MDR) TB worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review using meta-analysis to indicate the prevalence of Beijing and Haarlem genotypes among MDR-TB cases in Iran. Data sources of current study were 311 original articles (2006-2016) that were searched in several databases including Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane library, and Iranian databases...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050768/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-efflux-pumps-genes-in-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-pakistan
#11
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Asho Ali, Ambreen Zaver, Ying Zhang, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Wanliang Shi, Taane G Clark, Ruth McNerney, Jody Phelan, Shoaib Rao, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
It is challenging to understand mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) due to the large variability in resistance associated genes. Efflux pump genes contribute to drug resistance and thus add to this complexity. Efflux pump gene protein superfamilies have been characterized by genome analysis of drug resistant strains and through in vitro transcriptional studies. However, there is limited information regarding efflux pump genes in extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) isolates...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050767/cish-controls-bacterial-burden-early-after-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-mice
#12
Berit Carow, Yu Gao, Graciela Terán, Xuexian O Yang, Chen Dong, Akihiko Yoshimura, Martin E Rottenberg
CISH gene has been associated with increased susceptibility to human tuberculosis. We found that cish(-/-) mice had higher M. tuberculosis load in spleens and lungs up to 2.5 weeks after infection but not later compared to controls. Cish mRNA levels were increased in lungs at early and late time points after M. tuberculosis infection. In relation, the titers of inos and tnf mRNA in lungs were reduced early after infection of cish(-/-) mice. The transfer of cish(-/-) and control T cells conferred rag1(-/-) mice similar protection to infection with M...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050766/mixed-infections-in-tuberculosis-the-missing-part-in-a-puzzle
#13
REVIEW
Samira Tarashi, Abolfazl Fateh, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri
The mixed strains infection phenomenon is a major problem posing serious challenges in control of tuberculosis (TB). In patients with mixed infection, several different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be isolated simultaneously. Although different genotyping methods and various molecular approaches can be employed for detection of mixed infection in clinical samples, the MIRU-VNTR technique is more sensitive with higher discriminative power than many widely used techniques. Furthermore, the recent introduction of whole genome sequencing (WGS) promises to reveal more details about mixed infection with high resolution...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050765/alveolar-macrophages-from-tuberculosis-patients-display-an-altered-inflammatory-gene-expression-profile
#14
Lelia Lavalett, Hector Rodriguez, Hector Ortega, Wolfgang Sadee, Larry S Schlesinger, Luis F Barrera
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are major targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, critical during the progression of active tuberculosis (TB). The complex immunopathology of TB generates diverse microenvironments in the lung, which shape immune responses by AMs. In the current study, we perform whole genome microarray transcriptional profiling on RNA isolated from AMs from TB patients (AMsTB) compared to AMs from control subjects (AMsCT) using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Our hypothesis was that systemic effects on the local lung microenvironment during TB affect the transcriptional response of AMsTB...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050764/pharmacokinetic-studies-of-a-three-component-complex-that-repurposes-the-front-line-antibiotic-isoniazid-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Thomas J Manning, Kyle Wilkerson, Taylor Holder, Andrew Carson Bartley, Chelsea Jackson, Sydney Plummer, Dennis Phillips, Logan Krajewski, Greg Wylie
The frontline tuberculosis (Tb) antibiotic isoniazid has been repurposed using a three component complex aimed at increasing the delivery efficiency and adding new avenues to its mechanism of action. This study focuses on pharmacokinetic studies of the isoniazid-sucrose-copper (II)-PEG-3350 complex. The assays include the Plasma Protein Binding Assay (85.8%), Caco-2 Permeability Assay (B→APapp, 0.13 × 10(-6) cm/s), Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Assay (i.e. CYP2B6, IC50 = 7.26 μM), In vitro microsomal Stability Assay (t1/2 NADPH-Dependent > 240 min), and HepG2 Cytotoxicity (no toxicity)...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050763/variants-of-katg-inha-and-nat-genes-are-not-associated-with-mutations-in-efflux-pump-genes-mmpl3-and-mmpl7-in-isoniazid-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-india
#16
A Nusrath Unissa, V N Azger Dusthackeer, Micheal Prem Kumar, P Nagarajan, S Sukumar, V Indira Kumari, A Ramya Lakshmi, L E Hanna
To understand the impact of efflux pump genes such as mmpL3 and mmpL7 on isoniazid (INH) resistance and to correlate with presence or absence of mutations in essential genes of INH resistance (katG, inhA, and nat) in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). One hundred (75 resistant and 25 sensitive) clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from India were selected for the study. The presence of mutations in specific regions of katG, inhA, and nat, efflux pump genes (mmpL3 and mmpL7) associated with INH resistance were analyzed using multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods, respectively...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050762/whole-genome-sequencing-for-the-management-of-drug-resistant-tb-in-low-income-high-tb-burden-settings-challenges-and-implications
#17
REVIEW
Sharana Mahomed, Kogieleum Naidoo, Navisha Dookie, Nesri Padayatchi
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is emerging as a major global health challenge, fuelled by a limited formulary and reduced ability to timeously diagnose resistance. Furthermore, poorly managed drug-resistant tuberculosis is complicated by poor treatment outcomes and high rates of morbidity and mortality. A rapid diagnosis together with individualized management are essential in order to limit disease and curtail transmission. Recently, the feasibility of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) technology for the routine diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in a high income, low tuberculosis burden setting, was demonstrated...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050761/mechanisms-of-resistance-against-nitd-916-a-direct-inhibitor-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-inha
#18
Matthew B McNeil, Devon Dennison, Catherine Shelton, Lindsay Flint, Aaron Korkegian, Tanya Parish
Isoniazid inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA and is a key component of drug regimens that treat tuberculosis. However, the high rate of resistance against isoniazid is a contributing factor to the emergence of multi-drug resistance strains of M. tuberculosis. The 4-hydroxy-2-pyridine NITD-916 is a direct inhibitor of M. tuberculosis InhA that has comparable efficacy to isoniazid in mouse models of TB infection but a lower frequency of resistance. To characterize resistance mechanisms against NITD-916 we isolated resistant mutants in H37Rv (Euro-American lineage) and HN878 (East-Asian lineage) strains of M...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050760/mmps5-mmpl5-as-an-efflux-pump-in-mycobacterium-species
#19
REVIEW
Julien Briffotaux, Wei Huang, Xinwei Wang, Brigitte Gicquel
Tuberculosis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, amplified by the expansion of antibiotic resistance. Increasing active efflux of the antibiotic is one of the several strategies used by bacteria to resist to antibiotics. After showing the importance of the RND superfamily of efflux pumps in drug resistance, this review focuses on the protein MmpL5, a transmembrane transporter of Mycobacterium. These exporters should be involved in the variety of roles in bacterial cells, including expelling various drugs...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050759/modeling-tuberculosis-pathogenesis-through-ex-vivo-lung-tissue-infection
#20
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Gerardo Lozano-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Carmen Molina-Torres, Javier Vargas Villarreal, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Jorge Castro-Garza
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Several in vitro and in vivo experimental models have been used to study TB pathogenesis and induction of immune response during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Precision cut lung tissue slices (PCLTS) is an experimental model, in which all the usual cell types of the organ are found, the tissue architecture and the interactions amongst the different cells are maintained. PCLTS in good physiological conditions, monitored by MTT assay and histology, were infected with either virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv or the TB vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
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