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Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454656/selection-and-identification-of-specific-glycoproteins-and-glycan-biomarkers-of-macrophages-involved-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#1
Xiao-Lei Tang, Chun-Hui Yuan, Quanquan Ding, Yidan Zhou, Qin Pan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Macrophages are the primary host target cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). However, little is known about the changes of membrane glycopatterns of macrophages in response to M. tb infection. Using lectin microarrays we compared the differential expression of glycopatterns of macrophages upon stimulation with the heat-inactivated virulent M.tb H37Rv or attenuate M.tb H37Ra. We found that widespread alteration of macrophage membrane glycopatterns were induced by the heat-inactivated virulent M. tb H37Rv, as shown by the significantly changed binding abilities of 11 lectins (sugar binding proteins) among 40 lectins tested...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454655/toll-like-receptor-tlr-diversity-influences-mycobacterial-growth-in-african-buffalo
#2
Nikki le Roex, Anna Jolles, Brianna Beechler, Paul van Helden, Eileen Hoal
Understanding the role of wildlife in the maintenance or spread of emerging infectious diseases is a growing priority across the world. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). BTB is widespread within game reserves in southern Africa, and within these ecosystems the primary wildlife host of this disease is the African buffalo. We used a modified bacterial killing assay for mycobacteria to investigate the effect of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genetic diversity and demographic parameters on the ability of African buffalo to restrict mycobacterial growth...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454654/the-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-rv3371-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-required-for-growth-arrest-and-involved-in-stress-induced-cell-wall-alterations
#3
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Gyan Chandra, Pragati Kushwaha, Garima Pant, Kavita Singh, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is important to mycobacteria both as cell envelope component and energy reservoir. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome encodes at least 15 putative TAG synthase (tgs)s. We report that one of these genes, Rv3371, specific to pathogenic mycobacteria, when expressed in M. smegmatis leads to modifications in colony morphotype, bacterial architecture, cell surface properties and elevated TAG levels. Rv3371 was found to largely localize in the cell membrane. The Rv3371 promoter is minimally active during exponential growth in vitro, however, is up-regulated under stationary phase, hypoxia, nutrient starvation, nitrosative stress, low iron, in IFN-γ activated macrophages and infected mice...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454653/strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmitting-infection-in-brazilian-households-and-those-associated-with-community-transmission-of-tuberculosis
#4
Solange Alves Vinhas, Edward C Jones-López, Rodrigo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Mary Gaeddert, Renata Lyrio Peres, Patricia Marques-Rodrigues, Paola Poloni Lobo de Aguiar, Laura Forsberg White, David Alland, Padmini Salgame, David Hom, Jerrold J Ellner, Reynaldo Dietze, Lauren F Collins, Elena Shashkina, Barry Kreiswirth, Moisés Palaci
Molecular epidemiologic studies have shown that the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission varies geographically. We sought to determine which strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) were infecting household contacts (HHC), and which were causing clusters of tuberculosis (TB) disease in Vitoria-ES, Brazil. A total of 741 households contacts (445 TST +) and 139 index cases were characterized according to the proportion of contacts in each household that had a tuberculin skin test positive: low (LT) (≤40% TST+), high (HT) (≥70% TST+) and (40-70% TST+) intermediate (IT) transmission...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454652/selection-characterization-and-application-of-dna-aptamers-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-secreted-protein-mpt64
#5
Marzhan Sypabekova, Aliya Bekmurzayeva, Ronghui Wang, Yanbin Li, Claude Nogues, Damira Kanayeva
Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), an etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is important for global control of this disease. Aptamers have emerged as a potential rival for antibodies in therapeutics, diagnostics and biosensing due to their inherent characteristics. The aim of the current study was to select and characterize single-stranded DNA aptamers against MPT64 protein, one of the predominant secreted proteins of Mtb pathogen. Aptamers specific to MPT64 protein were selected in vitro using systematic evolution of ligands through exponential enrichment (SELEX) method...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454651/clinical-evaluation-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-assay-for-direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-from-respiratory-and-non-respiratory-samples
#6
Vladimira Hinić, Kinga Feuz, Selda Turan, Andrea Berini, Reno Frei, Karin Pfeifer, Daniel Goldenberger
Rapid and reliable diagnosis is crucial for correct management of tuberculosis. The Abbott RealTime MTB Assay represents a novel qualitative real-time PCR assay for direct detection of M. tuberculosis-complex (MTB) DNA from respiratory samples. The test targets two highly conserved sequences, the multi-copy insertion element IS6110 and the protein antigen B (PAB) gene of MTB, allowing even the detection of IS6610-deficient strains. We evaluated this commercial diagnostic test by analyzing 200 respiratory and, for the first time, 87 non-respiratory clinical specimens from our tertiary care institution and compared its results to our IS6110-based in-house real-time PCR for MTB as well as MTB culture...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454650/significant-under-expression-of-the-dosr-regulon-in-m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-complex-lineage-6-in-sputum
#7
Boatema Ofori-Anyinam, Gregory Dolganov, Tran Van, J Lucian Davis, Nicholas D Walter, Benjamin J Garcia, Marty Voskuil, Kristina Fissette, Maren Diels, Michèle Driesen, Conor J Meehan, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Mireia Coscolla, Sebastien Gagneux, Martin Antonio, Gary Schoolnik, Florian Gehre, Bouke C de Jong
Mycobacterium africanum lineage (L) 6 is an important pathogen in West Africa, causing up to 40% of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The biology underlying the clinical differences between M. africanum and M. tuberculosis sensu stricto remains poorly understood. We performed ex vivo expression of 2179 genes of the most geographically dispersed cause of human TB, M. tuberculosis L4 and the geographically restricted, M. africanum L6 directly from sputa of 11 HIV-negative TB patients from The Gambia who had not started treatment...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454649/variable-bcg-efficacy-in-rhesus-populations-pulmonary-bcg-provides-protection-where-standard-intra-dermal-vaccination-fails
#8
Frank A W Verreck, Elma Z Tchilian, Richard A W Vervenne, Claudia C Sombroek, Ivanela Kondova, Okke A Eissen, Vinod Sommandas, Nicole M van der Werff, Ernst Verschoor, Gerco Braskamp, Jaco Bakker, Jan A M Langermans, Peter J Heidt, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Klaas W van Kralingen, Alan W Thomas, Peter C L Beverley, Clemens H M Kocken
M.bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) notoriously displays variable protective efficacy in different human populations. In non-human primate studies using rhesus macaques, despite efforts to standardise the model, we have also observed variable efficacy of BCG upon subsequent experimental M. tuberculosis challenge. In the present head-to-head study, we establish that the protective efficacy of standard parenteral BCG immunisation varies among different rhesus cohorts. This provides different dynamic ranges for evaluation of investigational vaccines, opportunities for identifying possible correlates of protective immunity and for determining why parenteral BCG immunisation sometimes fails...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454648/the-siglec14-null-allele-is-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-bcg-induced-clinical-and-immunologic-outcomes
#9
Andrew D Graustein, David J Horne, Jerry J Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Heather C Mefford, Glenna J Peterson, Richard D Wells, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, Willem A Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Duc Bang, Sarah J Dunstan, Guy E Thwaites, Ajit Varki, Takashi Angata, Thomas R Hawn
Humans exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have variable susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) and its outcomes. Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are members of the sialic-acid binding lectin family that regulate immune responses to pathogens through inhibitory (Siglec-5) and activating (Siglec-14) domains. The SIGLEC14 coding sequence is deleted in a high proportion of individuals, placing a SIGLEC5-like gene under the expression of the SIGLEC14 promoter (the SIGLEC14 null allele) and causing expression of a Siglec-5 like protein in monocytes and macrophages...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454647/genotyping-and-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistance-in-mycobacterium-bovis-strains-isolated-from-the-lymph-nodes-of-slaughtered-cattle
#10
Marília Masello Junqueira Franco, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro, Fernando Rogério Pavan, Marcelo Miyata, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Antonio Francisco de Souza Filho, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso, Aryadne Larissa de Almeida, Ricardo Ichiro Sakate, Antonio Carlos Paes
In developing nations, 10-20% of the human cases of tuberculosis are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, this percentage may be underestimated because most laboratories in developing countries do not routinely perform mycobacterial cultures, and only a few have the systems in place to identify M. bovis. There are few studies investigating genotypic diversity and drug resistance in M. bovis from animal and/or human infections. The genotypic diversity of M. bovis strains obtained from bovine lymph nodes were investigated by spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing (MIRU-VNTR)...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454646/activity-of-rifampicin-and-linezolid-combination-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Flaviane Granero Maltempe, Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi-Ferracioli, Renata Claro Ribeiro do Amaral, Fernanda de Oliveira Demitto, Vera Lúcia Dias Siqueira, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Mário Hiroyuki Hirata, Fernando Rogério Pavan, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Linezolid (LZD) is not commonly used for treating tuberculosis (TB), but in some patients with drug-resistant TB it is being used. However, the in vitro LZD activity, in combination with rifampicin (RIF) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been fully elucidated. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of RIF/LZD combination against M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of the RIF/LZD combination was firstly determined in M...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454645/revisiting-the-hunter-gaston-discriminatory-index-note-of-caution-and-courses-of-change
#12
Igor Mokrousov
Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI) is a widely used estimator of discriminatory power of genotyping methods and diversity of molecular markers in bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In my opinion, the index is somewhat misleading: a closer look at common practice and particular studies reveals that values in the range of 0.6-0.9 are modest but uncritically perceived as high. I propose and discuss three courses of change: (i) to continue using HGDI but be aware of the true meaning behind its value and increase a threshold of acceptable resolution to the more adequate values of 0...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454644/genetic-diversity-of-immune-related-antigens-in-region-of-difference-2-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#13
Yi Jiang, Haican Liu, Xuezhi Wang, Shiqi Xiao, Machao Li, Guilian Li, Lili Zhao, Xiuqin Zhao, Xiangfeng Dou, Kanglin Wan
Region of Difference 2 (RD2) was lost during the ongoing propagation of BCG between 1927 and 1931, a time that coincides with reports of the ongoing attenuation of the vaccine. Some data demonstrate that RD2 plays a role in mycobacterial virulence, and that its deletion from Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to a decrease in bacterial growth in both a macrophage and a murine model. Human T-cell epitopes of M. tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved and thus it was deduced that M. tuberculosis lacks antigenic variation and immune evasion...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237039/recurrent-tuberculosis-in-an-urban-area-in-china-relapse-or-exogenous-reinfection
#14
Xin Shen, Chongguang Yang, Jie Wu, Senlin Lin, Xu Gao, Zheyuan Wu, Jiyun Tian, Mingyu Gan, Tao Luo, Lili Wang, Chenlei Yu, Jian Mei, Qichao Pan, Kathryn DeRiemer, ZhengAn Yuan, Qian Gao
Recurrent tuberculosis is an important indicator of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control and can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on all bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis cases that were successfully treated between 2000 and 2012 in Shanghai, an urban area with a high number but a low prevalence rate of tuberculosis cases and a low prevalence of HIV infection. Genotyping the Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical isolates was used to distinguish between relapse and reinfection...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237038/local-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-the-lung-tissue-of-tb-infected-mice-diminishes-the-level-of-pathology
#15
Galena Shepelkova, Vladimir Evstifeev, Tatiana Kondratieva, Irina Bocharova, Mikhail Averbakh, Alexander Apt
Mice of the genetically TB-susceptible strain I/St were infected with ∼100 CFU of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, and after week 3 post-infection treated by inhalations of the NBD peptide selectively blocking NF-κB activation pathway. This therapy resulted in a pronounced attenuation of lung pathology and down-regulation of the expression of several genes encoding major inflammatory molecules, but did not diminish the level of mycobacterial multiplication in the lungs.
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237037/the-effect-size-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-and-adverse-treatment-outcomes
#16
Lucia Monserrat Perez-Navarro, Blanca I Restrepo, Francisco Javier Fuentes-Dominguez, Ravindranath Duggirala, Jaime Morales-Romero, Juan Carlos López-Alvarenga, Iñaki Comas, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes and multi drug resistance (MDR). METHODS: A cohort with 507 individuals with diagnosed TB included 183 with coexistence of T2DM and TB (TB-T2DM). Participants were identified at the time of TB diagnosis and followed during the course of TB treatment. Then we computed relative risks and adjustments by Cox proportional hazards for outcome variables (drug resistance, death, relapse, treatment failure), and the size of their effect as Cohen's-d...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237036/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv1474c-is-a-tetr-like-transcriptional-repressor-that-regulates-aconitase-an-essential-enzyme-and-rna-binding-protein-in-an-iron-responsive-manner
#17
Kannan Balakrishnan, Krishnaveni Mohareer, Sharmistha Banerjee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), tuberculosis (TB) causing bacteria, employs several mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis which is critical for its survival and pathogenesis. M.tb aconitase (Acn), a [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing essential protein, apart from participating in energy cycle, also binds to predicted iron-responsive RNA elements. In this study, we identified Rv1474c as a regulator of its operonic partner acn and carried out its biochemical and functional characterization. The binding motif for Rv1474c in the upstream region of acn (Rv1475c)-Rv1474c operon was verified by gel-shift assays...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237035/msmeg_5684-down-regulation-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis-affects-its-permeability-survival-under-stress-and-persistence
#18
Deepa Keshari, Kumar Sachin Singh, Rishabh Sharma, Shailendra Yadav, Sudheer Kumar Singh
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome sequence and annotation details have been available for a long time; however physiological relevance of many ORFs remains poorly described. Mtb is a pathogenic strain; hence, surrogate strains such as Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msmeg) have also been studied to gain an understanding of mycobacterial physiology and metabolism. The Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 ORF MSMEG_5684 is annotated as a part of serine biosynthetic pathway, however, its physiological significance remains to be established experimentally...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237034/machine-learning-and-docking-models-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-topoisomerase-i
#19
Sean Ekins, Adwait Anand Godbole, György Kéri, Lászlo Orfi, János Pato, Rajeshwari Subray Bhat, Rinkee Verma, Erin K Bradley, Valakunja Nagaraja
There is a shortage of compounds that are directed towards new targets apart from those targeted by the FDA approved drugs used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Topoisomerase I (Mttopo I) is an essential mycobacterial enzyme and a promising target in this regard. However, it suffers from a shortage of known inhibitors. We have previously used computational approaches such as homology modeling and docking to propose 38 FDA approved drugs for testing and identified several active molecules. To follow on from this, we now describe the in vitro testing of a library of 639 compounds...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237033/social-determinants-of-therapy-failure-and-multi-drug-resistance-among-people-with-tuberculosis-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Di Gennaro, Damiano Pizzol, Bonifacio Cebola, Brendon Stubbs, Laura Monno, Annalisa Saracino, Claudio Luchini, Marco Solmi, Giulia Segafredo, Giovanni Putoto, Nicola Veronese
BACKGROUND: Social determinants influence health and the development of tuberculosis (TB). However, a paucity of data is available considering the relationship of social determinants influencing therapy failure and multi drug resistance (MDR). We conducted a review investigating the relationship of common social determinants on therapy failure and MDR in people with TB. METHODS: PubMed and SCOPUS were searched without language restrictions until February 02, 2016 for studies reporting the association between socioeconomic factors (income, education and alcohol abuse) and therapy failure or MDR-TB...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
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