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Urban Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26321770/determinants-of-urban-sprawl-in-european-cities
#1
Walid Oueslati, Seraphim Alvanides, Guy Garrod
This paper provides empirical evidence that helps to answer several key questions relating to the extent of urban sprawl in Europe. Building on the monocentric city model, this study uses existing data sources to derive a set of panel data for 282 European cities at three time points (1990, 2000 and 2006). Two indices of urban sprawl are calculated that, respectively, reflect changes in artificial area and the levels of urban fragmentation for each city. These are supplemented by a set of data on various economic and geographical variables that might explain the variation of the two indices...
July 2015: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26300566/biographical-narratives-of-encounter-the-significance-of-mobility-and-emplacement-in-shaping-attitudes-towards-difference
#2
Gill Valentine, Joanna Sadgrove
This paper is located within work in urban studies about the significance of contact with difference as a means for reducing prejudice and achieving social change. Recent approaches, influenced by theories of affect, have emphasised non-conscious everyday negotiations of difference in the city. In this paper it is argued that such approaches lose sight of the significance of the subject: of the reflective judgements of 'others' made by individuals; of our ability to make decisions around the control of our feelings and identifications; and of the significance of personal pasts and collective histories in shaping the ways we perceive and react to encounters...
July 2014: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24223441/place-of-origin-and-labor-market-outcomes-among-migrant-workers-in-urban-china
#3
Chunni Zhang, Yu Xie
The localistic enclave is a special kind of enclave in urban China, which is characterized by high concentration of rural migrants from the same place of origin. Prior research has documented that rural migrants work in these localistic enclaves, but the significance of participation in them for labor market outcomes among migrant workers has yet to be determined. In this article, we argue that localistic economic enclaves may improve the labor force outcomes of rural-to-urban migrants. We report results from a study of the social determinants and consequences of working in localistic enclaves, based on data from a 2010 survey of migrant workers in the Pearl River and the Yangzi River Deltas...
October 2, 2013: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24163485/jane-jacobs-and-the-need-for-aged-buildings-neighborhood-historical-development-pace-and-community-social-relations
#4
Katherine King
Jacobs argued that grand planning schemes intending to redevelop large swaths of a city according to a central theoretical framework fail because planners do not understand that healthy cities are organic, spontaneous, messy, complex systems that result from evolutionary processes. She argued that a gradual pace of redevelopment would facilitate maintenance of existing interpersonal ties. This paper operationalizes the concept of pace of development within a cross-sectional framework as the "age diversity of housing...
September 2013: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22826889/analysing-the-relationship-between-urban-livelihoods-and-water-infrastructure-in-three-settlements-in-cusco-peru
#5
Catherine Crawford, Sarah Bell
This paper explores the role played by water infrastructure in urban livelihoods. It is based on a study of three settlements in Cusco, Peru, and shows that different modes of organising infrastructure co-exist within the same city, despite national policy prescriptions for urban water provision. Further, unequal access of households to these services exists within the same settlements and amplifies household vulnerability which, in turn, feeds back to undermine local, autonomous governance of water. This paper draws on the work of van Vliet et al...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22512043/representation-labour-markets-and-immigrant-and-minority-ethnic-workers%C3%A2-networking-new-forms-of-representation-and-politics-in-the-multi-ethnic-city
#6
Nelarine Cornelius, Miguel Martínez Lucio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22512042/spatial-variations-in-us-poverty-beyond-metropolitan-and-non-metropolitan
#7
Man Wang, Rachel Garshick Kleit, Jane Cover, Christopher S Fowler
Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22500349/cftc-cfdt-attitudes-towards-immigration-in-the-parisian-region-making-immigrant-workers-condition-a-cause
#8
Laure Blévis, Eric Pezet
This paper, which is based on the detailed analysis of the post-war archives of the French Christian union Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens (CFTC), which became the Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (CFDT) in 1964, highlights the difficulties, both from a practical and ideological point of view, for a militant organisation to embrace the cause of immigrant workers and to give them a voice. The CFDT had to ‘construct’ immigrant workers as a group they could represent, which means as a group that relates to French workers, despite possible xenophobia...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22500346/metropolitan-fragmentation-and-neo-localism-in-the-periphery-revisiting-the-case-of-curitiba
#9
Jeroen Klink, Rosana Denaldi
In this paper, the Curitiba-centred narrative on the success of its urban planning experience will be qualified in light of the complexities of its metropolitan development trajectory. It will be claimed that the institutional vacuum that surrounds Brazilian metropolitan areas in general, and Greater Curitiba in particular, has been intensified by the emergence of a competitive and decentralised state spatial regime, which has consolidated a fragmented and neo-localist system of governance. Preliminary empirical evidence will be provided on the challenges that are being faced within the new regime in articulating socio-spatial, economic and environmental strategies in the direction of a more sustainable metropolitan future...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22500345/urban-policy-engagement-with-social-sustainability-in-metro-vancouver
#10
Meg Holden
This article presents an analysis of social sustainability in comparative theoretical context and as a challenge to the post-political interpretation of sustainability in policy practice at the urban and regional scales. Metro Vancouver provides a case study for improving our understanding of the meaning of social sustainability as a framework for social policy in that it is among the handful of cities around the world currently working to define and enact social sustainability in governance terms. Results of this participant research provide evidence that some cities are politically engaging alternative development pathways using the concept of social sustainability...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22500344/perception-of-insecurity-in-french-poor-neighbourhoods-racial-proxy-or-pure-discrimination-hypotheses
#11
Jean-Louis Pan Ké Shon
Many poor neighbourhoods, home to both socially disadvantaged populations and to foreigners, are characterised by a strong perception of insecurity. The purpose of this article is determine the origin of this perception. To do so, two possible causes are dissociated: racial prejudice and racial proxy (the ethnic minorities are perceived in terms of the negative social characteristics that are often associated with them). More specifically, it is shown that the ‘ethnic’ variable captures the effects of an overconcentration of poverty, approximated here by the concentration of unemployment, but that these two variables act separately...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22500343/labour-mobility-and-housing-the-impact-of-housing-tenure-and-housing-affordability-on-labour-migration-in-the-czech-republic
#12
Martin Lux, Petr Sunega
This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22375294/environmentally-influenced-urbanisation-footprints-bound-for-town
#13
Lezlie Morinière
Over the past 30 years, urbanisation has been a prominent phenomenon and various drivers have been proposed to explain it. Very few have suggested that the degradation of the rural environment was one of them. This paper explores the human–environment interface by focusing on the portrayal of these concepts within scholarly literature. A systematic literature review was conducted and 147 articles were examined to determine the direction of the link between the environment and human mobility, and if urbanisation was featured...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22375293/no-place-new-places-death-and-its-rituals-in-urban-asia
#14
Lily Kong
In many land-scarce Asian cities, planning agencies have sought to reduce space for the dead to release land for the living, encouraging conversion from burial to cremation over several decades. This has caused secular principles privileging efficient land use to conflict with symbolic values invested in burial spaces. Over time, not only has cremation become more accepted, even columbaria have become overcrowded, and new forms of burials (sea and woodland burials) have emerged. As burial methods change, so too do commemorative rituals, including new on-line and mobile phone rituals...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22375291/different-effects-of-ethnic-diversity-on-social-capital-density-of-foundations-and-leisure-associations-in-amsterdam-neighbourhoods
#15
Floris Vermeulen, Jean Tillie, Robert van de Walle
This article examines the effect of ethnic diversity on social capital in Amsterdam neighbourhoods by looking at the effects of the ethnic diversity of a neighbourhood on the social networks that underpin civil society. A distinction is made between homogeneous, more individually oriented social networks, on the one hand, and horizontal heterogeneous networks on the other. The density of foundations—i.e. the number of foundations in a neighbourhood—is used as the indicator for the first type of networks and the density of leisure associations for the latter type...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22375290/estimating-preferences-for-local-public-services-using-migration-data
#16
Matz Dahlberg, Matias Eklöf, Peter Fredriksson, Jordi Jofre-Monseny
Using Swedish micro data, the paper examines the impact of local public services on community choice. The choice of community is modelled as a choice between a discrete set of alternatives. It is found that, given taxes, high spending on child care attracts migrants. Less conclusive results are obtained with respect to the role of spending on education and elderly care. High local taxes deter migrants. Relaxing the independence of the irrelevant alternatives assumption, by estimating a mixed logit model, has a significant impact on the results...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22319813/neighbourhood-disorder-and-social-cohesiveness-among-immigrants-in-a-new-destination-dominicans-in-reading-pa
#17
R S Oropesa
Dominican immigrants are increasingly turning away from traditional metropolitan gateways to settle in relatively small and medium-sized cities in the Northeast US. This study examines their views about neighbourhood social disorder and cohesiveness in Reading, Pennsylvania. The results indicate that residents are divided about the pervasiveness of disorder-related problems in their neighbourhoods. Moreover, views about social disorder have implications for social cohesiveness, but neither of these dimensions of urban life can be understood apart from immigrant incorporation...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22319812/making-scents-of-transition-smellscapes-and-the-everyday-in-old-and-new-urban-poland
#18
Martyna Śliwa, Kathleen Riach
In this article, the growing body of literature on transition within central and eastern Europe is developed by exploring how discussing the senses may illuminate the experience of change to post-socialism for urban dwellers. After situating the study within the rich ethnographic heritage on urban transition, the key tenets of ‘geographies of smell’ are outlined as a means of inquiry which emphasises the lived, sensually embodied experience of transition. The empirical study is focused upon the interrogation of the meanings created by, and attached to, olfactory experience in contemporary Poland, discussing three motifs that highlight the symbolic and transformative role of smell in relation to transition...
2012: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22165157/composition-concentration-and-deprivation-exploring-their-association-with-social-cohesion-among-different-ethnic-groups-in-the-uk
#19
Laia Bécares, Mai Stafford, James Laurence, James Nazroo
Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK...
2011: Urban Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22165156/violence-drug-markets-and-racial-composition-challenging-stereotypes-through-spatial-analysis
#20
Cynthia Lum
Places in which there is a strong spatial connection between violence and drug activity can often evoke particular stereotypes. They are believed to be places marked by high levels of social disorganisation, unemployment, disorder and racial heterogeneity. Yet scholars have argued that the spatial relationship between drug market activity and violence is more complicated and that other factors may explain this geographical connection. In the first article of this two-part series, different types of spatial analysis were employed to describe crime concentrations of drugs and violence...
2011: Urban Studies
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