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Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services

Geoffrey Maina, Judy Mill, Jean Chaw-Kant, Vera Caine
Best practices in HIV care have the potential to improve patient outcomes and inform practice. We conducted a systematic review of best practices in HIV care that were published from 2003 to 2013. Practices that demonstrated success in achieving desired results based on their objectives were included in the review. Two themes emerged from the eight articles reviewed: (a) the importance of linking newly diagnosed people living with HIV to care and (b) the role of integrated and comprehensive service provision in improving patient outcomes...
March 22, 2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Charles P Brandt, David P Sheppard, Michael J Zvolensky, Erin E Morgan, J Hampton Atkinson, Steven Paul Woods
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Aimee N C Campbell, Audrey J Brooks, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Mary A Hatch-Maillette, Donald A Calsyn, Susan Tross
HIV transmission often occurs through heterosexual high-risk sex. Even in the era of HIV combination prevention, promoting condom use, and understanding condom barriers, remain priorities, especially among substance-dependent individuals. Men and women (N=729) in outpatient drug treatment participated in a five-session gender-specific risk reduction group or one-session HIV Education group. Condom barriers (Motivation, Partner-related, Access/Availability, Sexual experience) were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Abigail Harrison, Susie Hoffman, Joanne E Mantell, Jennifer A Smit, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Theresa M Exner, Zena A Stein
: This pilot study evaluated a 15 session classroom intervention for HIV and pregnancy prevention among grade 8-10 boys and girls (ages 14-17) in rural South Africa, guided by gender-empowerment theory and implemented by teachers, nurses, and youth peer educators. Pre- and post-intervention surveys included 933 male and female students in two intervention and two comparison schools. MAIN OUTCOME: condom use at last sex; secondary outcomes: partner communication; gender beliefs and values; perceived peer behaviors; self-efficacy for safer sex...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Kimberly A Tyler, Ray Handema, Rachel M Schmitz, Francis Phiri, Charles Wood, Kristen Olson
The sub-Saharan African region has been disproportionately affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Zambia has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates within this region. Moreover, new incidences of HIV infection are increasing most rapidly among those 15 to 24 years of age. Though young people are at high risk for HIV infection, street youth are even more vulnerable given their exposure to high risk behaviors. The current study examines multiple levels of social influence on HIV infection among 250 street youth in Zambia...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Cherrie B Boyer, Bendu C Walker, Kate S Chutuape, Jessica Roy, J Dennis Fortenberry
Routine population-wide HIV screening, early linkage and long-term retention in healthcare for HIV-infected individuals are key nodes of the HIV continuum of care and are essential elements of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Despite this, up to 80% of youth are unaware of their HIV infection status and only 29% are linked to HIV healthcare; less than half are engaged in long-term HIV healthcare, and far fewer maintain viral suppression. To fill this gap and to address the national call to action to establish a seamless system for immediate linkage to continuous and coordinated quality healthcare after diagnosis, this paper describes the processes and mechanisms by which the SMILE Program worked within the infrastructure of the ATN-affiliated Connect to Protect(®) (C2P) community coalitions to address structural barriers that hindered youth in their communities from being tested for HIV infection or linked and engaged in healthcare after an HIV positive diagnosis...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Olga Gromadzka, E Karina Santamaria, Jessica M Benavides, Curtis Dolezal, Katherine S Elkington, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Mary McKay, Elaine J Abrams, Andrew Wiznia, Mahrukh Bamji, Claude Ann Mellins
This study describes sexual health knowledge in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally-exposed uninfected (PHIV-) ethnic-minority youth, ages 9-16 years, residing in NYC (n=316). Data on youth sexual health knowledge (e.g., pregnancy, STDs, birth control) and caregiver-adolescent communication about sexual health were examined. Participants in both groups answered only 35% of the sexual health knowledge questions correctly (mean=6.6/19). Higher scores were found among youth who reported more communication about sex with caregivers (vs...
July 1, 2015: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Jessica M Sales, Erica Smearman, Jennifer L Brown, Gene H Brody, Robert A Philibert, Eve Rose, Ralph J DiClemente
Adolescent African-American females are disproportionately impacted by HIV, thus there is a clear need to understand factors associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors among this vulnerable population. We sought to explore the association between a dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), a genetic marker associated with natural variations in rewarding behaviors, and self-reported alcohol-use and sexual risk-behaviors, while controlling for other known correlates of risk-taking such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, and peer norms among a group of high-risk African American female adolescents to evaluate whether this biological factor enhances our understanding of patterns of risk in this vulnerable group...
2015: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Jennifer L Brown, Peter A Vanable, Jessie D Naughton, Michael P Carey
To inform future psychosocial interventions for HIV-infected women, five focus groups were conducted with 29 HIV-infected women (72% African-American). Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded by two raters. HIV-specific stressors included difficulties with serostatus disclosure, HIV medication adherence, and HIV-related discrimination. Stressors not directly linked to HIV were described as more concerning and included mental health or substance use problems, relationship challenges, caretaking for children or grandchildren, and financial difficulties...
2015: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Allison Kabel, Nidhi Khosla, Michelle Teti
INTRODUCTION: Companion animals play important roles in the lives of people managing the many symptoms associated with a chronic illness such as HIV. This study explored meaningful examples of pets, particularly dogs, and their place in support networks among women living with AIDS/HIV. METHOD: Data were collected via focus group, as part of a larger Photovoice project. Qualitative analysis discovered three key related themes. RESULTS: Emerging themes included pet as spiritual custodian, pet as unconditional source of support, and pet providing a sense of purpose...
2015: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Leslie D Leve, Mark J Van Ryzin, Patricia Chamberlain
Girls in the juvenile justice system are at increased risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. Sexual risk behavior was examined in 166 females with juvenile justice involvement who were followed from adolescence to young adulthood. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increased the incidence of unsafe sex during young adulthood, which was subsequently associated with contraction of a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Further, girls' comfort in talking with their partners about safer sex practices during adolescence moderated the association between childhood sexual abuse and unsafe sex, such that girls who had been sexually abused and were uncomfortable talking to their partners about safer sex during adolescence had an 8...
2015: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Mark D C Guimarães, Katherine S Elkington, Ana Luiza F M Gomes, Carolina Veloso, Karen McKinnon
HIV infection among young populations is increasing worldwide. Adolescents in mental health treatment have demonstrated higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers. This first risk behavior study of youth in psychiatric treatment in Brazil reports findings from a cross-sectional national sample of emerging adult psychiatric patients (18-25 years old). The prevalence of lifetime unprotected sex was 65.9%. Multiple logistic regression indicated that being married/in union; sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs; physical violence; earlier sexual debut; and depressive/substance use disorders were associated with unsafe sex...
October 2, 2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Erin E Bonar, Lauren K Whiteside, Maureen A Walton, Marc A Zimmerman, Brenda M Booth, Frederic C Blow, Rebecca Cunningham
Adolescents and young adults who use substances are at particularly high risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The Emergency Department (ED) is a critical location for HIV prevention for at-risk youth. To inform future interventions in the ED, this study identifies correlates of HIV risk behaviors among substance using youth seeking ED care. Among 600 14-24-year-olds with past 6-month drug use, bivariate correlates of HIV risk included: older age, female gender, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, marijuana use, other drug use, and dating, peer, and community violence...
June 1, 2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Wendy Hadley, David H Barker, Celia M Lescano, Angela J Stewart, Katelyn Affleck, Geri Donenberg, Ralph DiClemente, Larry K Brown
AIMS: To assess the associations of sexual risk behavior with psychiatric impairment and individual, peer, and partner attitudes among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. METHODS: Adolescents (N=893, 56% female, 67% African American) completed assessments of psychiatric impairment, rejection sensitivity, peer norms, HIV knowledge, perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy and condom use intentions. Two structural equation models were used to test the study hypotheses; one for sexually active youth and one for non-active youth...
April 2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Sonjia Kenya, Natasha Chida, Gabriel Cardenas, Margaret Pereyra, Carlos Del Rio, Allan Rodriguez, Lisa Metsch
Interviews were conducted among HIV-positive inpatients in Miami, Florida and Atlanta, Georgia to examine whether having a case manager was associated with improved outcomes. We explored whether current use of a case manager was associated with unprotected sex, HIV care, use of antiretroviral medications, and referral to case management at time of diagnosis. Outcomes among patients who received case management were compared to those without a case manager. Participants with a current case manager were significantly more likely to take HIV medications, have obtained HIV care within the past six months, and have been referred to case management when first diagnosed...
2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Lance M Pollack, William J Woods, Johnny Blair, Diane Binson
This study sought to determine whether the presence of HIV testing inside a gay bathhouse reduced sexual risk behavior among patrons. A two-stage, time probability, cluster sample design recruited men exiting a northern California bathhouse in the last 5 weeks of 2001 (N=440), when no HIV testing was offered inside the bathhouse, and again in the last 5 weeks of 2002 (N=412) when HIV testing was offered 5 days a week. Separate logistic regression analyses compared a 2002 HIV testing exposure subgroup to both a 2001 non-exposure subgroup and a 2002 non-exposure subgroup for differences in sexual risk behavior during the bathhouse visit...
2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Wendy F Auslander, Ronald G Thompson, Donald R Gerke
Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15-18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors...
January 1, 2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Barbara L Dancy, Diana L Jere, Sitingawawo I Kachingwe, Chrissie P N Kaponda, James L Norr, Kathleen F Norr
Malawian adolescents are at risk for HIV infection. Using a quasi-experimental two group research design, we determined the efficacy of Mzake ndi Mzake Kuunikira Achinyamata (MMKA) in enhancing 13-19 year old Malawian males' and females' HIV knowledge, attitude about HIV, self-efficacy for condom use and for safer sex, and HIV risk reduction behaviors. The regression analyses revealed that compared to their cohorts in the control community, the adolescents in the MMKA community had significantly better scores on the outcome variables...
2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Laura L Edwards, Janet S Reis
AIM: This study investigated how parents living with HIV communicated about HIV prevention with their 10-18 year old children. METHODS: Interviews with 76 mothers and fathers were analyzed for (1) their experiences discussing HIV prevention with adolescents, and (2) advice on how to best broach HIV-related topics. RESULTS: Interactive conversations, where both parents and adolescents participated, were regarded as effective. Parents emphasized that adolescents should have a "voice" (be able to voice their concerns) and a "choice" (have a variety of effective prevention strategies to choose from) during HIV-related talks...
January 1, 2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
B Biswas, E Spitznagel, A C Collier, B B Gelman, J C McArthur, S Morgello, J A McCutchan, D B Clifford
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed HIV related illness from terminal to chronic by suppressing viral load which results in immunologic and clinical improvement. Success with ART is dependent on optimal adherence, commonly categorized as >95%. As medication type, class and frequency of use continue to evolve, we assessed adherence levels related to viral suppression. Using a cross-sectional analysis with secondary data (n = 381) from an ongoing multi-site study on impact of ART on the Central Nervous System (CNS), we compared self-reported adherence rates with biological outcomes of HIV-RNA copies/ml, and CD4 cell/mm3...
January 1, 2014: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
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